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  • 201.
    Beihao, Liu
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Tingting, Chen
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Elderly people’s adjustment of transition to nursing homes: A descriptive literature review2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 202.
    Bell, Hege Therese
    et al.
    Fakultet for sykepleie og helsevitenskap, Nord universitet, Bodø, Norge.
    Granås, Anne Gerd
    Universitetet i Oslo, Oslo, Norge.
    Omli, Ragnhild
    Institutt for sykepleievitenskap, Norges teknisk-naturvitenskapelige universitet, Trondheim, Norge.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    Fakultet for sykepleie og helsevitenskap, Nord universitet, Bodø, Norge.
    Steinsbekk, Aslak
    UiT: Universitetet i Tromsø – Norges arktiske universitet.
    Nurses' and pharmacists' learning experiences from participating in inter professional medication reviews in primary health care: a qualitative study.2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Objective: Traditionally, drug prescription and follow up have been the sole responsibility of physicians. However, interprofessional medication reviews (IMRs) have been developed to prevent drug discrepancies and patient harm. What participating nurses and pharmacists learn from each other during IMR is poorly studied. The aim of this study was to investigate nurses’ and pharmacists’ perceived learning experience after participating in IMRs in primary health care for up to two years. Setting and Method: A qualitative study with semi-structured focus group interviews and telephone interviews with nurses and pharmacists with experience from IMRs in nursing homes and home based services. The data was analysed thematically by using systematic text condensation. Main outcome measures: A qualitative method is useful when looking at objects from the perspective of how they are experienced. Results: Sixteen nurses and four pharmacists were interviewed. The nurses’ perception of the pharmacist changed from being a controller of drug management routines towards being a source of pharmacotherapy knowledge and a discussant partner of appropriate drug therapy in the elderly. The pharmacists became more aware of the nurses’ crucial role of providing clinical information about the patient to enable individual advice. Increasingly the nurses learned to link the patient’s symptoms of effect and side effect to the drugs prescribed. With time both professions jointly spoke of an increased awareness of the benefit of working as a team and the perception of contributing to better and more individual care. Conclusion: IMRs in primary health care meet some challenges especially concerning how to ensure participation of all three professions and how to get thorough information about the patient. Possible solutions might be to use shared communication tools like Internet based communication programs and to introduce the patient as a participant at the IMRs.

  • 203.
    Bell, Hege-Therese
    et al.
    Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Nord University, Namsos, Norway; Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Granas, A-G
    School of Pharmacy, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    Centre for Care research Mid-Norway, Steinkjer, Norway; Department of Nursing, Mid University, Østersund, Sweden.
    Omli, Ragnhild
    Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Nord University, Namsos, Norway; Centre for Care research Mid- Norway, Steinkjer, Norway.
    Steinsbekk, A.
    Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Nurses’ and pharmacists’ learning experiences from participating in interprofessional medication reviews for elderly in primary health care - a qualitative study2017In: BMC Family Practice, ISSN 1471-2296, E-ISSN 1471-2296, Vol. 18, article id 30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Traditionally, drug prescription and follow up have been the sole responsibility of physicians. However, interprofessional medication reviews (IMRs) have been developed to prevent drug discrepancies and patient harmespecially for elderly patients with polypharmacy and multimorbidity. What participating nurses and pharmacists learn from each other during IMR is poorly studied. The aim of this study was to investigate nurses’ and pharmacists’ perceived learning experience after participating in IMRs in primary health care for up to two years.

    Methods: A qualitative study with semi-structured focus group interviews and telephone interviews with nurses and pharmacists with experience from IMRs in nursing homes and home based services. The data was analysed thematically by using systematic text condensation.

    Results: Thirteen nurses and four pharmacists were interviewed. They described some challenges concerning how to ensure participation of all three professions and how to get thorough information about the patient. As expected, both professions talked of an increased awareness with time of the benefit of working as a team and the perception of contributing to better and more individual care. The nurses’ perception of the pharmacist changed from being a controller of drug management routines towards being a source of pharmacotherapy knowledge and a discussant partner of appropriate drug therapy in the elderly. The pharmacists became more aware of the nurses’ crucial role of providing clinical information about the patient to enable individual advice. Increasingly the nurses learned to link the patient’s symptoms of effect and side effect to the drugs prescribed.

    Conclusions: Although experiencing challenges in conducting IMRs, the nurses and pharmacists had learning experiences they said improved both their own practice and the quality of drug management. There are some challenges concerning how to ensure participation of all three professions and how to get thorough information about the patient.

  • 204.
    Bengtson, Hannah
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Det var kul att se klassen samarbeta: En kvalitativ fokusgruppstudie om högstadieelevers upplevelser av ett hälsoprojekt2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate high school students' experiences of a health project. A high school class in Uppsala participated in a health project during the spring of 2015. 19 of 22 students agreed to participate in this study and the qualitative method used for data collection was focus group interviews. Students were asked to discuss their experiences, thoughts and feelings about the health project and whether they have experienced their own influence on the content of the project. Using content analysis nine themes were found that formed four categories. Knowledge, cooperation and cohesion, conception of identity, influence and participation.

    The results showed that the majority of students do not feel they have markedly increased health knowledge. In contrast, the main results of the project seemed to consist of improved cooperation and shared stance in the class. The students expressed their need for further work of cooperation, in the form of collaborative exercises. One important thing that came up during the interviews was whether the class understood their identity and status of the school. Students' perception as to why their class was selected for the project was based on the class's bad reputation in the school and among teachers.

  • 205.
    Bengtson, Sandra
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Iwermo, Mattias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Närståendes upplevelser av vården av barn och ungdomar med autismspektrumtillstånd: En deskriptiv litteraturstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Att beskriva de upplevelser av vården som närstående till barn och ungdomar med autismspektrumtillstånd har haft.Metod: Litteraturstudie med beskrivande design. Data samlades in från databaserna PubMed, Cinahl och PsycINFO. Resultatet baserades på 14 artiklar.Resultat: Närståendes generella upplevelse av vården var till en stor del negativ.Diagnosprocessen upplevdes ta för lång tid samt vara för svår. Närstående upplevde också att tillgängligheten av information inte var tillräcklig och att vårdpersonalen inte besatt tillräckligt med kunskap. De upplevde även att det var svårt att få tillgång till hjälp och stöd samt att många kände ett utanförskap utan tillräcklig förståelse för deras livssituation och sorg.Närstående fick en mer positiv upplevelse av vården när diagnosen sattes tidigt och när de upplevde en personlig kontakt med vårdförmedlaren. Vårdpersonal som upplevdes som insatt och kompetent bidrog också till en positiv upplevelseSlutsats: Resultatet av denna litteraturstudie påvisar att det finns brister inom hälso- och sjukvården speciellt bland vårdpersonal som saknar specialistutbildning som till exempel allmänsjuksköterskan. Dessa brister visade sig vara okunskap kring AST och hur detta påverkar närstående samt informationsförmedling till närstående.Svårigheten att få en diagnos då vårdpersonal upplevdes att inte ta närståendes farhågor på allvar var även en brist.En grundläggande utbildning kring AST för allmänsjuksköterskor och läkare skulle sannolikt öka kvaliteten på omvårdnaden för denna grupp.

  • 206.
    Bengtsson, Inger
    et al.
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg.
    Lissner, Lauren
    The Sahlgrenska School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Public Health Epidemiology Unit (EPI), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ljung, Thomas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Medical science.
    Rosengren, Annika
    Department of Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Thelle, Dag
    Institute of Basic Medical Science, Department of Biostatistics, Oslo, Norway.
    Währborg, Peter
    Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg.
    The cortisol awakening response and the metabolic syndrome in a population-based sample of middle-aged men and women.2010In: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, ISSN 0026-0495, E-ISSN 1532-8600, Vol. 59, no 7, p. 1012-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was to explore the relationship between the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) as defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria. The final study sample consisted of 91 women (14 with MetS) and 84 men (15 with MetS), aged 45 to 70 years, from a general population sample. The only exclusion criteria were no consent, pregnancy, or insufficient cortisol testing. On the day of measurement (weekday), salivary cortisol was sampled at awakening and 15 minutes after awakening. Relative CAR (CAR%) and the MetS were the main variables studied. Results showed that, in women with the MetS, cortisol at awakening was significantly lower (mean, 8.92 vs 12.33 nmol/L; P = .05) and the CAR was significantly higher (91.4% vs 36.5%, P < .001) than in women without the syndrome. Significant difference in the relative CAR was also present between men and women with MetS (38.5% and 91.4%, respectively; P = .02). No difference was seen in the awakening response comparing men with and without the MetS. In a regression model, the response to awakening was dependent on the MetS in women (F1,89 = 13.19, P < .001); but the model was not significant in men. Furthermore, the awakening response was associated with more depressive symptoms in women (F1,80 = 8.12, P = .01) and with weekday/weekend cortisol sampling in men (F1,82 = 4.63, P = .03). The association between the relative CAR and the MetS remained significant but somewhat attenuated after adjusting for depressive symptoms (P = .01). Results indicate a sex difference in the CAR% in the presence of the MetS independent of depressive symptoms, a known correlate of the MetS.

  • 207.
    Bengtsson, Sebastian
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Fa, Joakim
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av stress inom akutsjukvård2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund:

    Akutsjukvård är en varierande arbetsplats där högt patientflöde, tidsbrist och påfrestande situationer är vanligt förekommande, sjuksköterskor vårdar människor som lider av en kritisk skada eller sjukdom där utgången kan bli fatal. Sjuksköterskan måste ha full kontroll och överblick för alla patienter för att snabbt uppmärksamma om en patients tillstånd försämras. Den ofta stressfulla situationen ställer höga krav på sjuksköterskan både fysiskt och psykiskt. Sjuksköterskor försöker vara tidseffektiva genom att fokusera på den medicinska vården vilket kan leda till att patientens behov av att bli bekräftad och att bli lyssnad till brister i de akuta situationerna.

    Syfte:

    Att beskriva sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av stress inom akutsjukvård.

    Metod:

    Litteraturstudie med beskrivande design där tio artiklar användes. En artikel var av kvantitativ ansats och en använde mixed method, de resterande artiklarna var av kvalitativ ansats.

    Huvudresultat:

    Sjuksköterskorna beskrev hur brister i organisationen medförde högre arbetsbelastning och ledde till att stress upplevdes som oundvikligt inom akutsjukvård. Sjuksköterskorna beskrev arbetsmiljön som oförutsägbar och påfrestande och medförde fysiska såväl som psykiska konsekvenser. Detta till följd av en brist på strategiska verktyg och resurser för att hantera den upplevda stressen. Sjuksköterskorna upplevde att på grund av tidsbrist kände de sig otillräckliga i sitt holistiska arbetssätt och att de under bättre omständigheter hade kunnat ge en bättre omvårdnad till patienterna. Det totala antalet deltagare i studierna var 333 sjuksköterskor och majoriteten var kvinnor i åldrarna 20-62 år.

    Slutsatser:

    Genom förbättrade arbetsförhållanden och kunskap om copingstrategier kan vården och hälsan hos sjuksköterskorna förbättras vilket gynnar omvårdnaden och patienten.

  • 208.
    Berg, Lotta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Attityder till och kunskap om trycksår och trycksårsprevention: En enkätstudie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Trycksår är ett omfattande och kostsamt problem för samhället, leder till smärta och lidande hos patienterna. Trots mycket vetenskaplig fakta om ämnet fortsätter prevalensen av trycksår att vara alltför hög. Många studier påvisar att det finns brister i både kunskap och attityder till trycksår och trycksårsprevention bland omvårdnadspersonal. Syfte: Att beskriva och jämföra vilka attityder till och vilken kunskap om trycksår och trycksårsprevention det fanns hos omvårdnadspersonal inom två olika verksamhetsområden ortopedi och kirurgi. Metod: Deskriptiv och komparativ enkätstudie med kvantitativ ansats. Enkäter delades ut till 82 sjuksköterskor och undersköterskor inom två olika omvårdnadsenheter, ortopedi och kirurgi. Det var 41 personer som deltog i studien. Resultat: Samtliga var positivt inställda till trycksårsprevention. Inga statistiskt signifikanta skillnader fanns mellan grupperna inom attityddelen. Inom kunskapsdelen fanns en statistiskt signifikant skillnad mellan grupperna i temat Riskbedömning/instrument, där omvårdnadspersonalen inom kirurgi besatt en större kunskap. Inom resterande teman fanns inga statistiskt signifikanta skillnader mellan grupperna. Slutsats: I denna studie var attityderna till att arbeta med trycksårsprevention positiva, det fanns dock kunskapsbrist bland omvårdnadspersonalen inom vissa områden av trycksår och trycksårsprevention. Inom temat Förebyggande åtgärder fanns mest bristande kunskap, därför behövs utbildning där tyngdpunkten bör ligga på de bristande områdena inom trycksår och trycksårsprevention.

     

  • 209.
    Bergabo-Lundqvist, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lindkvist, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans erfarenheter av att arbeta med triage på en akutmottagning: litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Triage is a tool used to carry out assessments and priorities of patients in emergency rooms. The assessment of the patients is divided into different levels according to their health needs. The purpose of the assessments is to ensure that those who have the greatest need of assistance are taken care of first. A registered nurse performs this assessment.

    Aim: To describe the nurse´s experience working with triage in a emergency department and to describe the data collection method used in the articles included in the result.

    Method: A literature study with descriptive design, were ten scientific articles were included. A search for scientific material was carried out ant retrieved from the University of Gävle databases Cinahl and PubMed and through a manual search of the two databases.

    Results: It emerged that nurses describes causes like lack of education, a lack of experience and factors that affect the work environment has been shown to be important for their experience in working with triage. Selected items data collections methods consisted of interview studies, surveys, observational studies and a web-based survey.

    Conclusion: The results reveled three main factors affecting nurse´s experience of triage: Clinical experience, work environment and education. The factors, each individually is important for nurse’s occupation, not just in emergency care, but also in other areas in healthcare. Despite the great variety influx of patients in emergency rooms the nurse’s professional satisfaction is but if more emphasis was placed on creating a more enjoyable working environment, providing training and reviewing clinical significance of professional experience at the triage then work satisfaction migh be even higher.

  • 210.
    Bergdahl, Emma
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Hinder och möjligheter för företagssköterskor vid införandet av goda matvanor hos företag2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

     

    Emma Bergdahl

    Obstacles and opportunities among occupational health nurses when implementing healthy eating habits.

    C thesis in Public Health. Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies. University of Gävle. Autumn 2012

     

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate which obstacles and opportunities nurses within occupational health find when trying to implement healthy eating habits among the employees in their respective company. Another objective was to see if the nurses worked according to the Guidelines, issued by the National Board of Health and Welfare.

    Method: The study was a quantitative study and conducted among nurses in central Sweden. A web survey was distributed to nurses who chose to participate. The response rate was 66 percent. The results were compiled in Excel since the characters and results are displayed in the form of figures, text and quotes.

    Results: The results showed that the most common obstacles found by nurses when trying to implement healthy eating habits among workers, were lack of motivation, lack of time and finances of companies. The opportunities were motivation, cooperation with other actors and adequate knowledge in the field. Healthy eating habits received low priority among the nurses.

    Conclusion: Motivation will always be necessary in order to change lifestyle or habits. Therefore, a high priority must be to work more with how to motivate those individuals who may not be so inclined to make a change.

  • 211.
    Berge, Karin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Personalansvarigas uppfattningar om och förväntningar av hälsofrämjande åtgärder för personalen2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Problemformulering: Forskning visar att hälsofrämjande åtgärder både kan förbättra medarbetares hälsa och utveckla verksamheten. Då man aktivt arbetar med att utveckla hälsofrämjande åtgärder är det väsentligt med en ständig utvärdering. Det finns mycket beskrivet i forskningen kring hälsofrämjande åtgärder på arbetsplatsen dock finns det inte mycket kring personalansvarigas uppfattningar och förväntningar av dessa åtgärder. Syfte: Undersöka vad personalansvariga har för uppfattningar om och förväntningar av hälsofrämjande åtgärder för personalen. Metod: Studien valdes att göras med en kvalitativ ansats och med grundad teori som forskningsdesign. Datainsamlingen har gjorts med hjälp av tio kvalitativa semistrukturerade intervjuer. Resultat och slutsats: Personalansvariga beskriver en förväntan av att hälsofrämjande åtgärder ska ge deras medarbetare ökat välbefinnande på arbetet. De anser att friskvård ger friskare medarbetare vilket leder till mindre sjukfrånvaro. Den fysiska miljön beskrivs som en viktig hälsofrämjande faktor på arbetsplatsen. Personalansvariga menar att medarbetarnas behov av att bli sedda och uppmärksammade tillfredställs då hälsofrämjande åtgärder erbjuds. Personalansvariga visar inget större intresse av att se vad de hälsofrämjande åtgärder som erbjuds, ger medarbetaren och organisationen. De utför inte heller några personalekonomiska beräkningar eller använder några kalkyler innan de genomför hälsofrämjande satsningar. Personalansvariga talar om egna brister i utbildning inom ämnet men det finns en tydlig möjlighetsbaserad tankekultur snarare än problembaserad tankekultur hos flertalet av personalansvariga.

  • 212.
    Bergelin, Johanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Sjölander, Cim
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Våld i nära relation: Vilka kunskaper sjuksköterskan behöver för att identifiera och bemöta den utsatta kvinnan- En litteraturstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med litteraturstudien var att beskriva vilka kunskaper sjuksköterskan behöver för att kunna identifiera och bemöta kvinnor som utsatts för våld i nära relation. Metod: Studien genomfördes som en beskrivande litteraturstudie och baserades på sexton vetenskapliga artiklar som söktes på databaserna Cinahl och PubMed. Huvudresultat: Synliga symtom på fysiska skador är oftast inte orsaken till varför våldsutsatta kvinnor söker vård. Det har visat sig att de är mer benägna att söka för somatiska problem som buksmärta, ryggsmärta och sexuellt överförbara sjukdomar. Även psykisk ohälsa är vanligt förekommande. För att upptäcka att kvinnan är våldsutsatt är det viktigt att sjuksköterskan ställer frågor om våld i nära relation. I mötet med kvinnan är det betydelsefullt att som sjuksköterska inge förtroende, ge stöd och främja kvinnans säkerhet. För att sjuksköterskan ska kunna hantera situationen och bemöta kvinnan professionellt behövs utbildning samt riktlinjer inom vården. Slutsats: Sjuksköterskor behöver mer kunskaper för att kunna se tecken och symtom som tyder på att kvinnan utsatts för våld. För att sjuksköterskan ska kunna hantera mötet på ett professionellt sätt och veta hur frågor om våld i nära relation ska ställas har ett flertal studier påvisat att specifik utbildning behövs.

  • 213.
    Berger, Frida
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nilsson, Kim
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Betydande aspekter för sjuksköterska och patient i det preventiva arbetet mot venösa bensår: En litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background; 3 % of the world’s population suffers from venous leg ulcers. Women and elderly are most affected. Compression therapy and physical activity is the most common self-care treatment for patients with venous leg ulcers and the nurse has a great responsibility to motivate patients to self-care. Aim; The aim of this study was to describe difficulties venous leg ulcer patients’ may experience performing self-care, to describe the nurses essential factors to motivate patients to adhere to self-care and to examine the quality of sampling methods in the studies included. Methods; A descriptive design was used and this study included four qualitative studies, three quantitative studies and three studies with both qualitative and quantitative design and was published between 2004-2014. The scientific articles were found in the database PubMed and the content of the articles was examined of their resemblance. Quality, similarities and differences were examined in the methodological aspect selection method. Results; Seven themes were identified and three of them described patients difficulties to adhere to self-care. Knowledge and belief in the treatment and themselves was found to be essential and the next two themes described patients’ difficulties to adhere to compression therapy and physical activity. The residual themes described the nurses’ essential factors to motivate patients to adhere to self-care, knowledge and information, the patients’ attitude towards self-care, organizational problems and the relationship between the nurse and patient. Regarding the review of the articles selection method, a varying quality was found. Conclusions; There are many factors influencing venous leg ulcer patients’ adherence to self-care. The nurses’ and the patients’ knowledge and attitude towards self-care activities is an important part of a functional self-care needed to reduce the prevalence of venous leg ulcers.

  • 214.
    Berggren, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Öberg, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Eutanasi: vad anser sjuksköterskor?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Eutanasi är idag en förbjuden handling i de flesta länder. Frågan debatteras ofta och är ett omtvistat ämne. En utmaning för många sjuksköterskor är att bemöta patienter som efterfrågar eutanasi. Att besitta kunskap inom detta område kan följaktligen bidra till att sjuksköterskor lättare kan förhålla sig till de moraliska problem som kan uppstå i samband med arbetet både före och efter en patients bortgång. Syfte: Att beskriva vad sjuksköterskor anser om eutanasi, samt beskriva metodologiska aspekter i de artiklar som ligger till grund för resultatet. Metod: En beskrivande litteraturstudie har genomförts där elva artiklar, funna i databaserna PubMed och Cinahl, har granskats. Artiklarna, som var av både kvalitativ och kvantitativ ansats, analyserades och resultatet presenterades i tre subkategorier. Resultat: Eutanasi uppfattades som en sista utväg, och att en god palliativ vård skall vara det primära alternativet. Olika faktorer har har betydelse för sjuksköterskornas åsikter angående eutanasi, bland annat utbildningsnivå, religion och moraliska inställningar. Genomgående ansåg sjuksköterskor att legalisering av eutanasi kan medverka till ett öppnare klimat, där frågor vid livets slut kan få en större plats. Slutsats: Sjuksköterskornas känslor inför eutanasi var ambivalenta, dock ansåg de överlag att patienter som uttrycker en önskan om att få avlida ofta gick att behandla på andra sätt. Exempelvis genom bra smärtlindring.

  • 215.
    Berggren, Jenny Jacqueline
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Sjöberg, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Effekten av yoga vid bröstcancer: En litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Sweden, breast cancer is the most common form of cancer in women. Being affected by breast cancer often causes great mental and physical stress and the problems persist in many cases after treatment is completed. Currently, there are only limited rehabilitation options for those affected. Previous research has shown that physical activity produces positive effects in people suffering from breast cancer. Yoga is a form of exercise that combines physical activity with meditative techniques and can be adapted to the conditions of the participant regardless of state of health. An increased knowledge of the effects of yoga can give nurses an understanding of how yoga can be used in rehabilitation to help those affected by breast cancer during the recovery process.  

    Aim: The aim of this literary review was to describe the effects of yoga in breast cancer, where the methodological aspect highlights the physical and psychological effects yoga has on people affected by breast cancer.

    Method: A descriptive literary review where twelve randomised controlled studies have been reviewed and complied to answer the purpose.

    Main result: The results showed more improvements in psychological symptoms than in physical symptoms. The result showed that yoga has a direct effect on fatigue and quality of life with a lasting effect after completion of treatment compared to control groups. The results for menopausal symptoms also showed a clear decrease after the yoga intervention. In contrast, sleep quality results showed improvement only if yoga was practiced at least twice a week.

    Conclusion: Although the outcome of the literature study produced a mixed result, the main result reflects the yoga's positive effects on the mental symptoms of people suffering from breast cancer. Increased knowledge of the effects of yoga can give nurses a better understanding of how yoga can be used in rehabilitation with the aim of providing an improved quality of life for the specific patient group.

  • 216.
    Berggren, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Ledarskap bland huvuddomare i SHL: En kvalitativ studie om ledarskapsstilar, hur ledarskap kommuniceras och förmedlas samt efterfrågat ledarskap2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine leadership styles among head officials in the SHL and how they communicate leadership to ice hockey players in the SHL. The aim of this study was also to examine what type of leadership head officials in the SHL believe is requested from ice hockey players in the SHL. The selection of the study consisted of ten head officials in the SHL from the ice hockey season of 2016/2017, and the data collection was acquired trough semi-structured interviews with the participants. The collected data was subsequently analysed trough a thematic method.

    The results showed that there is no monolithic leadership style amongst the interviewed head officials in the SHL during the 2016/2017 ice hockey season. To find a leadership style that acts according to yourself is a vital part to be able to lead an individual or individuals. The ten interviewed head officials of the SHL described that body-language is a vital part of their leadership. They also described their way of working with positive feedback in communications with ice hockey players in the SHL as a way to encourage or transform actions of ice hockey players. The results of the study also indicates that the ten interviewed head officials in the SHL believe that a distinct and communicative leadership is the preferred option amongst ice hockey players in the SHL.

  • 217.
    Berggren, Sonja
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Isroth, Jelena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kvinnornas upplevelse av att leva med typ 2-diabetes2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many women with type 2 diabetes fail in their efforts with self care management. The consequence are medical complications. The purpose of this paper is to look at a number of research articles describing women’s experiences relating to their diabetes diagnosis. These experiences affect the woman's ability to self care but also guides the nurse in her profession on how to best support the woman. Orem's self care deficit theory is tied to the diabetic woman and her self care but also to the role of the nurse. There is also an analysis of the sampling methods used in each of the articles.

    This study was done as a descriptive litterature study based on ten qualitative research articles.

    The result from the analysis of the articles shows that the experiences of the diabetic women can be sorted into five categories.

    1.     Self-care and lifestyle change

    2.     Coping with ones own feelings and emotions

    3.     Motivation and engagement

    4.     The surrounding support 

    5.     The interaction with the caregiver/medical expertise.

    The conclusion that can be made from this study is that women with type 2 diabetes have a lot of emotional experiences relating to the diagnosis that affects their self care management. The analysis of the sampling methods used in each of the articles show that it is critical for the result how the sampling was done and care should be exercised before drawing any conclusions from the results.

  • 218.
    Bergh, Amanda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Sievers, Alexandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Patienters erfarenheter av tvångsvård inom den psykiatriska slutenvården: En beskrivande litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background:Within the psychiatric inpatient care in Sweden, about one in five patients are cared for against their will, according to the Act on Psychiatric Forcible Care (LPT). Suffering from mental illness and being subjected to obsessive-compulsive care is a life-changing event for patients. It is desirable to improve coercive care and reduce the incidence of coercive measures. To be able to do that, and to be able to provide the best possible care as a nurse, a deeper understanding of patients experience of coercion is required.

    Aim: To describe patients experiences of coercion in psychiatric inpatient care.

    Method: A descriptive literature review based on 13 scientific articles with a qualitative approach.

    Main results: The results were presented in five categories and showed that many patients have similar experiences of compulsive care. Coercion was often described as the right measure to protect the patient or others, but many patients felt that it was performed incorrectly. Negative experiences mentioned were lack of information and communication, not being able to participate in their own care or being treated as a diagnosis by the staff. However, responsive, empathetic and helpful staff, adequate information on illness and treatment, the sense of participation and autonomy as well as a pleasant external environment and flexible rules were described as positive experiences and favorable to the recovery process.

    Conclusion: Patients often described both good and bad experiences of compulsive care. In order to provide the best possible care, and to minimize the risk of coercive measures, it is important for the nurse to know and understand patients' experiences of compulsive care. Then the patients suffering can be reduced and their recovery can be promoted.

     

  • 219.
    Bergkvist, Linnea
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Leljewahl, Jenny
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Attityder till psykisk ohälsa hos vårdpersonal som arbetar inom psykiatrisk verksamhet2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate and describe attitudes towards mental illness among mental health workers and to investigate differences in attitudes within the background factors of gender, age and educational level. This study is a part of the project ‘Psykisk ohälsa’. A descriptive and comparative design with quantitative approach was used. Data were collected from 216 returned surveys. The questionnaire ‘New CAMI-S’ with 29 items were used. Data were analyzed with SPSS to describe the frequency and chi 2-test was used to measuring the differences. The results showed that the mental health workers in general had a positive attitude towards mental illness. Most negative attitudes were seen in the item about most persons who were once patients in a mental hospital can be trusted as babysitters. Three significant differences were seen between ages. The older group had more positive attitudes towards mental illness. One significant item was found between gender, men had more negative attitudes. No significance was found between education levels. The conclusions showed that most of the staff had positive attitudes, however, negative attitudes were found in some areas. Further research and education in this topic could lead into more positive attitudes in the future.

  • 220.
    Berglind, Daniel
    et al.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Gisela
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Willmer, Mikaela
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Persson, Margareta
    Department of Nursing, Umeå Universiy, Umeå, Sweden.
    Wells, Michael
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    An eHealth program versus a standard care supervised health program and associated health outcomes in individuals with mobility disability: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.2018In: Trials, ISSN 1745-6215, E-ISSN 1745-6215, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Young adults with mobility disability (MD) are less likely to engage in regular physical activity (PA) compared with their able-bodied peers and inactive adults with a MD are more likely to report one or more chronic diseases compared to those who are physically active. Despite the vast amount of research published in the field of PA interventions over the past decades, little attention has been focused on interventions aiming to increase PA among individuals with MD. Thus, we propose to compare the effects of an eHealth program compared to a usual care supervised health program on levels of PA and other health behaviors.

    METHODS: The current intervention will use a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design with two treatment groups (an eHealth program and a usual care supervised health program) in young adults with newly acquired MD. In total, 110 young adults (aged 18-40 years) with a MD, acquired within the past 3 years, will be recruited to participate in a 12-week intervention. The primary study outcome is accelerometer-measured time spent in moderate to vigorous PA. Secondary outcomes includes health-related quality of life, depression, stress, fitness, body composition, diet, musculoskeletal pain, motivation to exercise and work ability.

    DISCUSSION: There is a lack of RCTs investigating effective ways to increase levels of PA in young adults with MD. Increased levels of PA among this physically inactive population have the potential to substantially improve health-related outcomes, possibly more so than in the general population. The trial will put strong emphasis on optimizing exercise adherence and investigating feasibility in the two treatment programs. The Ethical Review Board (EPN) at Karolinska Institutet has approved the study (2017/1206-31/1).

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN), reference number ISRCTN22387524 . Prospectively registered February 4, 2018.

  • 221.
    Berglund, Desirée
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Dufva, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Funktionella magtarmsymtom och nervösa besvär. Förekomst, samband och könsskillnader.: En kvantitativ studie2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte var att undersöka i vilken utsträckning magtarmsymtom förekommer hos könen med funktionella magtarm sjukdomar (FGID). Syftet var även att undersöka om det fanns någon könsskillnad hos deltagarna som upplevde sig vara oroliga/spända samt ha nervösa besvär, och om samband kunde hittas mellan olika magtarmsymtom och dessa två grupper. Detta var en kvantitativ studie där en korrelativ och komparativ design användes. Datan kom ifrån en uppföljningsstudie från 2008 med 136 deltagare i en kommun i Mellansverige. Respondenterna var diagnostiserade med FGID och fick fylla i ett databaserat frågeformulär. Huvudresultatet visade att ingen signifikant skillnad fanns i förekomsten av nervösa besvär eller orolig/spänd mellan män och kvinnor med FGID. Ett signifikant samband hittades mellan orolig/spänd och diarré vilket var oberoende av kön. Hos männen som angav sig oroliga/spända fanns ett signifikant samband med buksmärta och hos kvinnorna med gaser och diarré. I gruppen med nervösa besvär sågs ett signifikant samband med förstoppning och gaser vilket var oberoende av kön. Hos männen i denna grupp hittades ett signifikant samband med buksmärta och hos kvinnorna fanns signifikanta samband med gaser, diarré och halsbränna. Förekomsten av symtom hos patienter med och utan nervösa besvär skiljde sig inte signifikant, men det fanns en tendens att patienter utan nervösa besvär generellt låg något lägre i symtomfrekvens.

  • 222.
    Berglund, Emma
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Eklund, Josefin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Personer med Multipel Skleros upplevelser av att leva med sjukdomen, samt deras upplevelser av stöd och bemötande från vårdgivare: En intervjustudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to describe what it's like to live with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and experiences of social support and being received and met by health personnel. The method was a qualitative interview study of descriptive design and was analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Three women and two men (26-75 years) with MS from two municipalitiesin central Sweden participated in the study. The main results showed that the participants felt the disease limited everyday life. The majority described feelings of injustice being affectedby the illness, but they now have a new perspective on life. Participants described lack of information and communication from health personnel. All felt there is a long wait to get appointments in specialist care and says it depends on too few staff. Participants felt that being received and met by health personnel have been good, some describes that lack of time and staff may influence the response from health personnel negatively. The conclusion was that the participants daily life was limited by the disease in various extent and could lead to strong feelings. Several felt they learned to live with the disease because of a positive attitude and persistence. Participants felt it was important to get information, rehabilitation, and that health personnel listened. However, the participants experienced long wait to get access to specialist care, and that the main support they got from there was through telephone contact.

  • 223. Berglund, Eva
    et al.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Reliability and content validity of a new instrument for assessment of communicative skills and language abilities in young Swedish children2000In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 176-185Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 224.
    Berglund, Karin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Primärvårdssköterskors reflektioner av kamratlärande i primärvården: En intervjustudie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Primary care is estimated to be the definite basis in health care. At the same time, large pension departures await among existing healthcare personnel, which means reduced resources to mentor students. One step in meeting this is that the primary care in a region in central Sweden decided that peer learning should be implemented at all healthcare centers for nurse- and districtnurse students.Purpose: The purpose was to describe district nurses' reflections on peer learning in primary care.

    Method: The study had a qualitative approach with descriptive design. Data collection was done through semi-structured interviews based on an interview guide developed by the author. The analysis was done with qualitative content analysis.

    Headresults: In the result, the theme emerged: A positive and developmental challenge that describes the primary care nurses' shared reflections of peer learning in primary care based on the three categories that emerged. In the Prerequisites for introducing peer lerarning category, primary care nurses reflected on the prerequisites for practicing peer learning. The category is about the supervisors' competence, the attitude towards peer learning of both co-workers and students, as well as descriptions of when resources have decreased. The nurses' reflections of the learning environment for the students are described in the category The learning environment of peer learning. It describes the supervisor's role in peer learning, about how students become a natural part of other professionals 'everyday lives, and reflections on students' development with peer learning. The Working Methods used in peer learning category describes the primary care nurses' experiences of preparation, the actual execution of peer learning and challenges, and how they envisioned their future peer learning.

    Conclusion: The results of this study showed that primary care nurses experienced peer learning in primary care as a positive developmental challenge, which can facilitate continued implementation of peer learning in primary care under the right conditions.

  • 225.
    Berglund, Lisa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Östlund, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    BVC-sjuksköterskans och skolsköterskans erfarenheter och reflektioner i sitt arbete med övervikt hos barn2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Overweight is a health problem throughout the western world. Child health care (CHC) nurses and school nurses meet many children and their families and have the opportunity to work with prevention. The purpose of this study was to investigate the CHC - and school nurse´s experiences and reflections in the work on obesity in children. The aim was also to investigate the structural conditions CHC- and school nurse feel the need for this work. Method: The study had a qualitative approach with descriptive design. The data has been collected through semi structured interviews with eight child health care nurses and eight school nurses. The main result: In their daily work with overweight the CHC- and school nurses work with prevention against obesity by providing information about good habits. Obesity is identified though regular health checks. If overweight is identified the nurse tries along with the parents to find possible causes and actives against overweight. CHC- tries in her work with overweight children to strengthen and guide parents in their parenting role. The school nurse believes that obesity is about the lifestyle in the whole family and it’s the parents´ responsibility. Obesity is a sensitive topic as it has with self-esteem to do. The work with overweight children is about working together towards the same goal. Conclusion: Obesity is a sensitive topic. It is important with an active parental role in the work with obesity children. CHC- and school nurses have the opportunity to work preventively against children obesity. The school nurses would like to have more time to work with overweight in children and to reduce the complications that overweight and obesity can result.

  • 226.
    Berglund, Sara
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Blomqvist, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Effekten av fysisk aktivitet hos barn med autismspektrumtillstånd: En litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund:  Barn med autismspektrumtillstånd (AST) avstår ofta fysisk aktivitet av anledningen att de har svårt med det sociala samspel som skapas i en grupp med människor. De kan även ha begränsad rörelseförmåga, vilket gör att den motoriska utvecklingen blir försenad eller aldrig utvecklas. Den fysiska aktiviteten bidrar till ökad motorisk utveckling i specifika idrotter som involverar fin och grovmotoriska färdigheter. Studiens syfte är att undersöka i vilken grad fysisk aktivitet påverkar fingrovmotoriska färdigheter och därmed ökar möjligheten för det sociala samspelet hos ett barn med autismspektrumtillstånd. Frågeställningarna lyder: Hur kan det sociala samspelet påverkas hos ett barn med autism genom fysisk aktivitet? Hur kan fysisk aktivitet påverka fin och grovmotorik hos ett barn med AST?

    Metoden som författarna valt är en systematisk litteraturstudie. De valda artiklarna är i från databaserna Discovery och Taylor & Francis. Hjälpmedel med sökord och övriga begränsningar användes för att hitta relevanta och aktuella vetenskapliga artiklar till denna studie. Artiklarna analyserades, värderades utifrån GRADE-modellen och därefter diskuterades evidensen av författarna. Resultatet påvisar att fysisk aktivitet ökar det sociala samspelet samt de finmotoriska och grovmotoriska färdigheterna förbättras hos barn med AST.  Slutsatsen är att fin och grovmotoriska färdigheter ökar kontinuerligt i samband med fysisk aktivitet. Graden av fysisk aktivitet ökar i specifika motoriska färdigheter beroende på form av aktivitet samt hur frekvent aktiviteten utförs.

    Deltagandet i fysisk aktivitet ledde till att den sociala förmågan förbättrades samt att det yttrade sig positivt på barnens välmående både fysiskt och psykiskt.

  • 227.
    Berglund, Tina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Krav-, kontroll- och stöd i arbetslivet: En intervjustudie om chefsstödets roll för mellan- och första linjens chefer inom kommunal verksamhet2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur chefsstödets roll påverkar upplevda krav och kontroll i arbetet, samt om chefsstöd har en stressreducerande effekt hos mellan- och första linjens chefer inom kommunal verksamhet. Metoden som användes var en kvalitativ metod med semistrukturerade intervjuer där fem stycken mellan- och första linjens chefer valdes ut för studien. Resultatet visade på att chefsstödet roll gällande krav och kontroll inte har så stor inverkan på de intervjuade mellan- och första linjens chefer men att chefstödet roll gällande stressreduktion var väldigt viktig. I resultatet framkom dock en uppfattning om att ifall chefsstödet inte funnits så hade kraven ökat och kontrollen minskat som ett resultat. Slutsatserna som dragits är att såväl mellan- som första linjens chefer anser att chefsstödet har en betydande roll för dem i den valda kommunen.

  • 228.
    Berglöv, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Holmberg, Tilda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kostrelaterade egenvårdsmetoder och dess effekter för patienter med Irritable Bowel Syndrome & Funktionell Dyspepsi: En litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and Functional Dyspepsia (FD) are two syndromes that many people suffers from and that has no curing treatment. Since the syndromes only has a symptomatic treatment many people that suffers from it uses self-care methodes that often includes diet. Support and guidance in patiens self-care are a main task for nurses in general and especially for these patients since no curing treatment is available. Aim: The aim of the present study was to describe dietary self-care practices for patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome and/or Functional Dyspepsia where the perceived and/or observed effects was described. The aim was also to describe the selected studies data collection methods. Method: A literature review with descriptive design. Data has been collected from the databases PubMed and CINAHL. Main Results: Thirteen studies were included. From these, it has been found that patients suffering from IBS and/or FD may use a variety of dietary self-care methods. Effects of these have been shown to prevent and/or alleviate physical symptoms from the gastrointestinal tract and therefore provide better quality of life. The data collection methods described have been found to vary between questionnaires and rating scales, diaries, physical markers and group interviews. Conclusion: Patients with IBS and/or FD can make use of many diet related self-care methods to prevent and/or relieve their symptoms from the gastrointestinal tract. Many different data collection methods can be used to identify diet related self-care practices and its effect on the symptoms of IBS and/or FD.

  • 229.
    Berglöv, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Eriksson, Alexandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Homosexuella personers upplevelser av bemötanden i hälso- och sjukvården2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Homosexual individuals are, according to National Institute of Public Health, in a greater need of care than heterosexuals. The historical overview of homosexuals show several difficulties they’re subjected to within healthcare, however a positive development is shown. Healthcare professionals have different encounters that are influenced by individual factors.

    Aim: The aim of the study was to describe how homosexual individuals experience encounters given by health care professionals, and to describe the included articles study sample.

    Method: The present study was a descriptive literature riview based on 12 scientific articles with a qualitative approach. The material was gathered through searches of the MEDLINE database.

    Main Results: The result showed a repetitive pattern that homosexual individuals experienced a poor encounter from healthcare professionals, which was considered to be affected by lack of compassion, heteronormative assumptions, and not to be seen for who they are. In contrast, good treatment was experienced when good communication, acceptance and kind words and deeds were present. All of the studies reported the number of participants and the majority of the articles presented inclusion criterias and age. Half of the studies were conducted in the Nordic countries and 95.4% of the participants were women.

    Conclusions: With the descriptions made by homosexual individuals, the experiences was revealed regarding the encounters from healthcare professionals. These experiences showed unsatisfactory and unprofessional encounters, further influenced by heteronormative assumptions. These experiences also showed openness and generosity which had been received. Through knowledge of the encounters that homosexual individuals experiences, nurses can in their professional work towards the improvement of homosexual peoples’s health and wellbeing.

  • 230.
    Bergman, Mathias
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Rosén, Åsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Kvinnors upplevelse av att ha drabbats av Hjärtinfarkt eller Takotsubo: En beskrivande litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: When someone suffers a serious illness that can be life-threatening, there is usually a change in life. The experience of a myocardial infarction or takotsubo can be both frightening and foreign not only to the affected, but also to their loved ones. Myocardial infarction is a disease that affects many people and is one of the most common conditions of our time. Takotsubo is a recent diagnosis that can be misinterpreted as a myocardial infarction. It is valuable to have an understanding and knowledge of the illness and life of the people affected by illnesses, including those of their relatives and health care professionals. Aim: The purpose was to describe women's experiences of having suffered from myocardial infarction and takotsubo. Method: A descriptive literature study based on eight scientific articles with a qualitative approach and one study with a mixed approach. A total of nine articles. The articles were searched via CINAHL and PubMed through Medline. Results: The most common experiences among the women were denial of the symptoms and they did not see themselves in the risk group of suffering from heart disease. Fear of being considered hypochondriacs and poor experience of care led to a delay in seeking care. The women experienced differences in care skills, between different healthcare institutions. The women felt gratitude for surviving and realized the need for lifestyle changes. Most of the women experienced anxiety about being affected by a heart attack again. Conclusion: The women were not expected to suffer a myocardial infarction or takotsubo. The women as well as health care workers did not perceive the symptoms as a myocardial infarction or takotsubo, which led to delayed care. The women also experience uneven quality of care. The women experience a great change in life and that their fears and anxieties will always be present. Keywords: Myocardial infarction, Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, Experiences, Women.

  • 231.
    Bergman, Sanne
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ess, Madelen
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av den vårdande relationen till patienter med anorexia nervosa och/eller bulimia nervosa: En litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 232.
    Bergqvist, Marika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Andersson, Carola
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Individanpassad omvårdnad för det för tidigt födda barnet: En litteraturstudie2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe the meaning of individual care according to Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment programs (NIDCAP) to the early born child. The care around the early born child has shown a big importance. NIDCAP incorporates many care aspects that give structure for an individual tailored care. A fast care planning within three days and night after the birth according to NIDCAP has a positive effect for the cognitive development. The early child has showed that the surroundings environment has an important role for their development. To support the early born child´s development thus the brain can mature in its rate to achieve self-check and to handle it sensory rise to respect the early born child on the basis of their maturity's degree is the goal of NIDCAP model. Through reducing sounds and light levels on the incubator room has it been seen that the early born child can few a better control on its new life. It is important that the nurse makes the parents believe on them self and to actively attend the care, that they dare to be alone with the child. Focus on individual care according to NIDCAP model is to support the parents to understand the early born child's neurodevelopment. If the nurse creates a good relationship with the parents, creates a better condition to developing parent role.

  • 233.
    Bergroth, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Eriksson, Maja
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Påverkan på familjen när ett barn har typ 1 diabetes: En litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that primarily affects children. It is one of Sweden's most commonly occurring diseases. Which means that approximately 700 children between the ages of 0–15 years are affected annually. The cause of type 1 diabetes is still unknown to this date.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the family's impact of having a child (0–18 years) with type 1 diabetes as well as describing the groups in the articles.Method: A literature study with a descriptive design. The search for articles that were used were conducted in Cinahl where the authors found 11 articles; nine with a qualitative approach and two with a quantitative approach. Both authors reviewed the articles objectively.Main result: The results showed that the parents were adversely affected by the child's disease. The parents had a great concern of the child's misery. It was mainly the mothers who suffered, while the father was not aware at the same level. The mothers suffered from physical, mental, emotional, social and cognitive negative feelings. The siblings of the affected child felt outside and forgotten by the parents.Conclusion: All family members are affected by a family member having diabetes type 1. Both positive and negative feelings can occur within the family. The most common feelings that the parents experienced when the child is given type 1 diabetes is stress and anxiety. While the siblings of the children felt forgotten and lonely.

  • 234.
    Bergsman, Ann-Christin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Karlsson, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    En empirisk tvärsnittsstudie om snabbmatskonsumtion och medieanvändande hos ungdomar i nionde klass – en kvantitativ studie2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background; The purpose was to investigate BMI, fast-food consumption, soft drink intake, media use among adolescent in ninth grade and if there was a correlation between fast-food consumption and media use. Method; The present study was a part of the project "Food and Health 2007".  Through a quantitative method 359 adolescents in ninth grade (182 boys, 177 girls) in ten random selected schools in a county in central Sweden answered questions through surveys. Result; The boys' BMI was on average 21 and for girls 20.4 and the majority of the youths were of normal weight. Just over a third of young people ate fast food and french fries more than two to three times a month. About a third of young people drank soda once a week and a fifth reported that they drank soft drinks two to three times per week. The majority of young people watched TV between one to three hours per day and a majority declared they never used video games. More than half spend two to three hours or more per day at the computer. A correlation was found between fast food consumption and media usage. Conclusion; Youth of this study had a normal BMI and a relatively good diet, but a higher soft drink consumption. The group of overweight/obese drank soft drinks more than those who were underweight but both groups consumed fast food less often. Computer use was relatively high among young people but they almost never played video games. A positive significant correlation was found between fast food consumption and media usage.

  • 235.
    Bergstedt,, Lovisa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Woggart, Amanda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Familjers upplevelser av att leva med ett cancersjukt barn.: En litteraturstudie.2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: I Sverige insjuknar ungefär ett barn i cancer varje dag. Många av barnen med cancer kunde uppleva att deras föräldrar inte berättade allt om sjukdomen för att inte göra dem ledsna. Många familjer kände att livet förändrades när barnet fick en långvarig sjukdom, det kunde vara att de kände chock, rädsla eller oro. I mötet med barn och deras familjer är det viktigt att som sjuksköterska vara lyhörd. Syfte: Att beskriva familjers upplevelser av att leva med ett cancersjukt barn, samt att studera artiklarnas undersökningsgrupp. Metod: En litteraturstudie med beskrivande design som grundade sig på elva vetenskapliga artiklar med kvalitativ ansats. Huvudresultat: Resultatet presenterades med huvudrubrikerna “Föräldrars upplevelser” och “Syskons upplevelser”. Föräldrarna upplevde ofta maktlöshet men ansåg att det var viktigt att hopp fanns. Relationen mellan föräldrarna försämrades när barnet fick cancer och även syskonet blev påverkat på det sätt att syskonet hamnade i skymundan. Stöd från andra var viktigt och ett bra stöd kunde föräldrarna få från andra föräldrar i samma situation och från vårdpersonal. Undersökningsgrupperna i studierna var oftast väl beskrivna då bland annat kön, ålder och diagnos redovisades i många av artiklarna. Den vanligaste diagnosen i studierna var leukemi. Slutsats:Vikten av stöd från vårdpersonal som gav information och vägledning ansågs som viktigt. Som sjuksköterska anser författarna att det är viktigt att veta hur och när information ska ges och hantera situationer som kan uppstå, samt att lära sig hur relationen till familjerna ska hanteras. 

  • 236.
    Bergsten, Eva L
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Flygplanslastning –  ett samarbetsprojekt som leder till arbetsmiljöförbättringar2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 237.
    Bergsten, Eva L
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala Universitet.
    Working conditions and musculoskeletal disorders in flight baggage handling2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Baggage handling is considered to be a heavy manual handling job including biomechanical exposures suspected of increasing the risk for musculoskeletal disorders. Aims: To document low back pain (LBP), shoulder pain (SP), and physical and psychosocial factors in baggage handlers, and to evaluate the implementation of an ergonomic intervention aiming to increase the use of loading assist devices. Methods: A questionnaire was utilized to characterize pain and psychosocial work conditions in 525 baggage handlers. The postures of 55 baggage handlers during 114 shifts were measured using inclinometry, half shift video-recordings were made for subsequent task analysis, and the number of aircraft handled was registered. Associations for psychosocial and biomechanical exposures with pain were assessed using regression analyses. An ergonomic intervention was implemented and evaluated using questionnaires and repeated interviews. Feasibility, intermediate outcomes, barriers and facilitators were assessed. Results: The prevalence rates of reported LBP and SP were 70% and 60%, respectively. Pain interfering with work (LBP - 30% and SP - 18%) and high pain intensity (LBP - 34% and SP - 28%) were associated with poor psychosocial working conditions. Extreme postures with arms elevated >60° occurred for 6.4% of the total time, and in trunk flexion >60° for 2.1% total time. In contrast, 71% of the total time was spent in a neutral trunk posture. The 90th percentile trunk forward flexion was 34.1°.  Daily shoulder pain increased in approximately one-third of all shifts and was positively associated with extreme work posture and the number of aircraft handled; this association was modified by influence and support. The intervention was delivered as planned, and dose received and satisfaction were rated as high. Motivated trainees facilitated implementation while lack of manager support, opportunities to observe and practice behaviors, follow-up activities, staff reduction, and job insecurity were barriers. Conclusion: The high prevalence rates of LBP and SP in baggage handlers were associated with psychosocial exposures, and daily shoulder pain was associated with higher biomechanical exposure. Barriers to implementation can be minimized by recruiting motivated trainees, securing strong organizational support, and carrying out follow-up activities.

  • 238.
    Bergsten, Eva L
    et al.
    Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Anundi, Helena
    Rehfisch, Pia
    Palm, Peter
    Hälsoeffekter och förebyggande arbete vid vibrationsexponering i saneringsföretag2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den övergripande målsättningen med projektet var att få en ökad kunskap om hur saneringsföretag i Uppsala, Gävleborgs och Dalarnas län arbetar för att förebygga negativa hälsoeffekter av exponering av hand- arm vibrationer. Syftet med studien var att undersöka kunskapsläget angående risker med arbete med vibrerande verktyg, samarbetet med företagshälsovården och genomförande av medicinska kontroller hos saneringsföretag i regionen. Strukturerade telefonintervjuer med 15 saneringsföretag genomfördes. Ett samarbete med ett större saneringsföretag inleddes och medicinska undersökningar genomfördes på deras anställda av ergonom ute på arbetsplatsen. Aktiviteterna i projektet inspirerade företaget att själva initiera riskbedömningar och vibrationsmätningar som en start på ett eget förbättringsarbete. Intervjuerna visade att kunskapsläget i företagen angående regelverk och arbete med vibrerande verktyg var dåligt och trots att de flesta hade företagshälsovård så uttalades ett missnöje gentemot företagshälsovården angående stöd och information i dessa frågor. Bristfällig kunskap och svårigheter att tolka regelverket kan ligga bakom att det brister vad gäller riskbedömningar och lagstadgade medicinska kontroller i saneringsföretagen. Besvärsfrekvenserna i nacke och övre extremiteter hos sanerarna i det undersökta företaget var höga och det fanns också personer med tidiga tecken på kärl- och nervskador. Resultatet av det här projektet är ett litet komplement till den kunskap som redan finns på området men visar att det finns all anledning att lägga resurser på ett förebyggande arbete för den här yrkesgruppen som tidigare inte studerats i någon större utsträckning. Det finns ett outtalat behov av informations- och utbildningsinsatser på området som till stor del beror på okunskap hos företagen men kanske också hos företagshälsovården eftersom deras insatser ser ut att ha varit begränsade. En viktig följd av projektet var att det undersökta företaget på eget initiativ men med stöd av projektet initierade en arbetsgrupp och ett förebyggande arbete för att minska exponeringen för vibrationer. Detta arbete inkluderade riktlinjer för riskbedömningar och vibrationsmätningar av verktyg samt utbildning av ledning och personal. Projektets upplägg och innehåll lämpar sig således väl för att följas av företagshälsovård i deras arbete med att stötta sina kundföretag

  • 239.
    Bergsten, Eva L.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Haapakangas, Annu
    Faculty of Health and Well-being, Turku University of Applied Sciences, Turku, Finland.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Effects of relocation to activity-based workplaces on perceived productivity: importance of change-oriented leadership2019In: Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 240.
    Bergsten, Eva L.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kwak, Lydia
    Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research for worker health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Vingård, Eva
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Daily shoulder pain among flight baggage handlers and its association with work tasks and upper arm postures on the same day2017In: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 61, no 9, p. 1145-1153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This study of flight baggage handlers aimed at examining the extent to which shoulder pain developed during single work shifts, and whether a possible development was associated with biomechanical exposures and psychosocial factors during the same shift.

    Methods: Data were collected during, in total, 82 work shifts in 44 workers. Right and left shoulder pain intensity was rated just before and just after the shift (VAS scale 0-100 mm). Objective data on time in extreme and time in neutral upper arm postures were obtained for the full shift using accelerometers, and the baggage handlers registered the number of aircrafts handled in a diary. During half of the shift, workers were recorded on video for subsequent task analysis of baggage handling. Influence at work and support from colleagues were measured by use of Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ). Associations between exposures and the increase in pain intensity during the shift (daily pain) were analysed for the right and left shoulder separately using Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE).

    Results: Daily pain was observed in approximately one third of all shifts.  It was significantly associated with the number of aircrafts handled for both the right and left shoulder. In multivariate models including both biomechanical exposures and the psychosocial factors influence at work and support from colleagues, aircrafts handled was still significantly associated with daily pain in both shoulders, and so was influence and support, however in opposite directions.

    Conclusions: Daily pain was, in general, associated with biomechanical exposures during the same shift and with general influence and support in the job. In an effort to reduce pain among flight baggage handlers, it may therefore be justified to consider a reduction of biomechanical exposures during handling of aircrafts, combined with due attention to psychosocial factors at work.

  • 241.
    Bergsten, Eva L.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kwak, Lydia
    Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research for worker health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Vingård, Eva
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Daily shoulder pain and its associations with biomechanical and psychosocial factors among Swedish flight baggage handlers2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 242.
    Bergsten, Eva L
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Palm, Peter
    Anundi, Helena
    Rehfisch, Pia
    Vibrationsexponering i saneringsföretag - Var är FHV?2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 243.
    Bergsten, Eva L.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Wijk, Katarina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Implementing Activity-based Workplaces (ABW) and the importance of participating in process activities2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 244.
    Bergsten, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    "Piloten" - Flygplanslastarprojektet2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    SAMMANFATTNING

    Detta pilotprojekt har utförts under våren 2010 på Arlandas terminal 4 av en ergonom (Eva Bergsten) vid Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för Belastningsskadeforskning (CBF), på uppdrag av Transports yrkes- och arbetsmiljönämnd (TYA). Projektet var en förstudie till det större huvudprojektet "Skadefria flygplanslastare" som TYA under våren sökte och sedermera beviljades pengar för att genomföra.

    Huvudprojektets övergripande syfte är att kartlägga och beskriva flygplanslastarnas arbetsförhållanden utifrån ett ergonomiskt helhetsperspektiv med hänsyn tagen till fysiska, psykosociala, tekniska, organisatoriska och kognitiva faktorer vid ramp och sorteringsarbete.

    Syftet med pilotprojektet var att inför huvudprojektet

    • göra en litteratursammanställning på området: vad har man redan beforskat när det gäller flygplanslastning i Sverige och internationellt?
    • ta fram och testa frågeformulär och observationsmetoder för den större datainsamlingen i huvudprojektet
    • ta reda på vilka företagsdata som kan och bör samlas in i huvudprojektet

    En genomgång av publicerade artiklar och så kallad grå litteratur (ej vetskapligt granskade artiklar och rapporter) gjordes för att se vilken kunskap som redan finns på området, och för att identifiera kunskapsluckor inför den skarpa planeringen av huvudprojektet. En styrgrupp, en projektledare och en projektgrupp samt fyra mindre arbetsgrupper var redan tillsatta av TYA och Transportfacken med namngivna personer vilket underlättade uppdraget.

    Utifrån telefonkontakter, möten och intervjuer med nyckelpersoner i handlingbolag, på Transport, AFA, försäkringskassan och arbetsmiljöverket kunde väsentlig information inhämtas som fick ligga till grund för att sammanställa ett frågeformulär angående flygplanslastarnas fysiska och psykosociala arbetsförhållanden, baserat på vetenskapliga grunder. Frågeformuläret testades på ett 20-tal personer, lastare, skyddsombud, huvudskyddsombud och ombudsmän på Transport och reviderades därefter. Mycket och värdefull information om vilka relevanta företagsdata som finns tillgängliga och hos vilken aktör, och vilka som inte kan påräknas i huvudstudien, har också kunnat kartläggas.

    En genomgång av vetenskapliga observationsmetoder gjordes och en valdes ut för att testas vid lastning av en narrow body aircraft som metodmässigt bedömdes vara ett svårt arbetsmoment att observera och studera.

    Pilotprojektet har resulterat i basen till ett frågeformulär som dock fortfarande kan revideras om det vid samtal med de fyra arbetsgrupperna uppkommer relevanta tillägg. Observation av lastning och lossning av narrow body aircraft samt dokumentation med videokamera visade sig vara möjligt, och metoden som testades (REBA) kan användas för att komplettera de i huvudprojektet planerade heldagsmätningarna med teknisk utrustning av arbetsställningar.

    Litteraturgenomgången av 17 artiklar/rapporter som lokaliserats i en omfattande sökning visade att de största belastningsergonomiska riskerna i arbetet verkar uppstå i samband med att lasta och lossa en narrow body aircraft och det på grund av de trånga lastutrymmena som tvingar lastarna till ogynnsamma arbetsställningar. Det finns också några få studier som styrker att vissa hjälpmedel och arbetsmetoder skulle kunna minska antalet dåliga arbetsställningar, muskulär belastning, kompressionskrafter i ryggen och fysiologisk ansträngning, och att bagagets vikt har betydelse för belastningen. Däremot kan man inte i litteraturen finna några studier av hur olika organisatoriska lösningar påverkar lastarnas arbetsställningar och den belastning de i övrigt utsätts för. Enskilda arbetsmoment har studerats men ingen har tittat på hur belastningsmönstret ser ut för lastarna under ett helt arbetsskift.

    Besvärsfrekvensen bland flygplanslastare är, enligt den funna litteraturen hög vad gäller rygg, nacke, axlar och knän. Någon större kartläggning av detta eller hur sjukfrånvaron ser ut har inte gjorts i Sverige. Inte heller har man i Sverige eller något annat land tittat på psykosociala faktorer och dess betydelse för flygplanslastares arbetsförhållanden.

    Resultaten av det här pilotprojektet ligger till grund för de "kunskapsluckor" som vi rekommenderar (i Kapitel 4) att huvudstudien arbetar vidare med, i överensstämmelse med dess övergripande målsättning och den projektplan som tagits fram av projektgruppen.

  • 245.
    Bergsten, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Alphonse, Erik
    The Vocational Training and Working Environment Council, TYA.
    Pettersson, Reidar
    The Vocational Training and Working Environment Council, TYA.
    Skadefria cargo- och flygplanslastare - slutrapport2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Arbetsmiljöprojektet Skadefria cargo- och flygplanslastare har utförts på uppdrag av Svenska Transportarbetareförbundet och Svenska Flygbranschen med syfte att kartlägga flygplanslastarnas arbetsförhållanden och att komma med förslag på förbättringsåtgärder för att minska belastningsrelaterade skador och sjukdomar i branschen.

    Projektledningsgruppen har bestått av fem personer: Eva Bergsten, ergonom, anställd av projektet; Erik Alphonse, projektledare, TYA; Reidar Pettersson, arbetsmiljökonsult, Arbetsmiljölotsen; Svend Erik Mathiassen, professor, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning vid Högskolan i Gävle; och Dan Holmberg, regionalt skyddsombud, Transportarbetareförbundet.

    Projektet som omfattade 14 bolag (11 handling, 3 cargo) på sex flygplatser (Arlanda, Malmö, Göteborg, Växjö, Skavsta och Arvidsjaur) startades våren 2010 och avslutades våren 2012, efter en inledande pilotstudie våren 2010 som finansierades av TYA. Inom projektet har 1 039 enkäter distribuerats med frågor om psykosociala arbetsförhållanden, upplevd arbetsbelastning, trötthet och besvär. Svarsfrekvensen var 72 procent. Heldagsmätningar av arbetsställningar för rygg och armar har genomförts på 5-6 lastare per flygplats samtidigt som lastarna filmats och fyllt i dagböcker. Fokusgrupper har intervjuats och data om till exempel sjukskrivningar och olyckstillbud har samlats in från företagen.

    Parallellt med den vetenskapliga delen har projektet haft en praktisk del med fyra arbetsgrupper bestående av representanter från både arbetsgivar- och arbetstagarsidan. Grupperna har träffats två gånger per termin och jobbat inom områdena: I) fysisk belastning och arbetsskadestatistik, II) arbetsorganisation, schemaläggning och psykosocial arbetsmiljö, III) hjälpmedel och metoder samt IV) utbildning och utveckling.

    Våra resultat visar att besvärsfrekvenserna i muskler och leder är relativt höga. Det finns arbetsmoment i lastaryrket som är ogynnsamma och som ökar risken för besvär, framför allt i axlar/skuldra, rygg och handleder/händer. De arbetsuppgifter som en lastare har skiljer sig inte så mycket åt mellan de olika flygplatserna, men det finns betydande skillnader i hur ofta och hur länge uppgifterna förekommer. Vid vissa flygplatser är således flyglastararbetet mera varierat än vid andra, vilket förmodligen har en betydelse för risken att utveckla besvär.

    Överlag fanns det hjälpmedel för de mest belastande arbetsmomenten, men också brister i hur dessa används.

    Inom den psykosociala arbetsmiljön visade projektet på ett behov av att förbättra ledarskapet och lastarnas inflytande i planering och genomförande av det egna arbetet. Bättre feedback i form av stöd och uppmuntran från ledare efterfrågades också.

    Arbetsgrupperna, som löpande delgavs resultaten från den vetenskapliga kartläggningen, utvecklade i enlighet med projektets målsättning ett antal åtgärdsförslag, med stöd i kartläggningen. Förslagen, som presenteras i denna rapport, är av generell natur. Flera av förslagen omfattar ett flertal möjliga delåtgärder och initiativ, som naturligtvis måste anpassas för och prioriteras av det enskilda bolaget utifrån dess egna förutsättningar. Mot bakgrund av våra projektresultat vill vi dock generellt rekommendera samtliga bolag att lägga en viss prioritet på de psykosociala arbetsförhållandena i sitt förbättringsarbete. Det fanns även uppenbara möjligheter att förbättra den fysiska belastningsprofilen, särskilt genom att bredda arbetsinnehållet på vissa flygplatser, och genom en mera effektiv användning av tekniska hjälpmedel. Samtidigt är det viktigt att framhålla att lastaryrket även har många goda sidor i form av ett rörligt och spännande arbete med ett bra socialt klimat.

    Vår bedömning är att de förslag till förändringar i arbetsmiljö och arbetsvillkor som föreslås i denna rapport skulle leda till en bättre arbetsmiljö men sannolikt också kunna påverka effektiviteten i arbetet i positiv riktning.

    Projektet Skadefria cargo- och flygplanlastare är föremål för en avhandling vilket betyder att vidare analyser av insamlade data kommer att ske. Resultaten kommer framöver att publiceras i vetenskapliga tidsskrifter.

  • 246.
    Bergsten, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kwak, Lydia
    Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Evaluation of an ergonomic intervention in Swedish flight baggage handlers2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Flight baggage handling is a worldwide occupation where baggage and cargo is sorted, loaded and unloaded on and off aircrafts. With the ultimate purpose of reducing and preventing musculoskeletal disorders among flight baggage handlers in Sweden, the Vocational Training and Working Environment Council (TYA) - a council formed by employers and unions in the Swedish transportation sector – initiated and implemented a project (2010-2012). This project revealed that ergonomics equipment was not used adequately, and this was considered a major factor of concern. Therefore, a training program was initiated 2014 in one handling company, aiming to improve ergonomics, behavior and attitudes. We evaluated the implementation process with regard to process items, intermediate outcomes, barriers and facilitators; for the purpose of gaining knowledge that could facilitate successful implementation in other handling companies. Methods: A mixed methods design was applied, based on qualitative and quantitative data. We evaluated six process items, recruitment, context, reach, dose delivered, dose received and satisfaction; intermediate outcomes of the intervention; skills, confidence and behaviour in the workforce; barriers and facilitators for successful implementation. Data was retrieved using company data, course evaluations, web questionnaires, and telephone interviews with company ‘observers’ and key persons. Preliminary results: The implementation process was judged to be feasible with regard to some of the process items. According to the informants, work place behaviour related to use of equipment had, however, not changed after the training period. Reported barriers were, 1) insufficient time and leader support for practicing new procedures during and after the training, 2) simultaneous reorganization of teams and work tasks, 3) lack of follow-up of the training, which would have supported good performance according to the informants. Conclusion: The implementation process was hampered by barriers, some of which could be addressed in future ergonomics training programs in other baggage handling companies.

  • 247.
    Bergsten, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kwak, Lydia
    Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Implementation of an ergonomics intervention in a Swedish flight baggage handling company: a process evaluation2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 3, article id e0191760Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To conduct a process evaluation of the implementation of an ergonomics training program aimed at increasing the use of loading assist devices in flight baggage handling.

    Methods: Feasibility (recruitment, reach, context, dose delivered, dose received, satisfaction); intermediate outcomes (skills, confidence and behaviors); and barriers and facilitators of the training intervention were assessed by qualitative and quantitative methods.

    Results: Implementation proved feasible regarding dose delivered, dose received and satisfaction. Confidence among participants in the training program in using and talking about devices, observed use of devices among colleagues, and internal feedback on work behavior increased significantly (p<0.01). Main facilitators were self-efficacy, motivation, and perceived utility of training among the trainees. Barriers included lack of peer support, opportunities to observe and practice behaviors, and follow-up activities; as well as staff reduction and job insecurity.

    Conclusions: In identifying important barriers and facilitators for a successful outcome, our study can help supporting the effectiveness of future interventions. Our results show that barriers caused by organizational changes may likely be alleviated by recruiting motivated trainees and securing strong organizational support for the implementation.   

      

  • 248.
    Bergsten, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Vingård, Eva
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Psychosocial work factors and musculoskeletal pain: a cross-sectional study among Swedish flight baggage handlers2015In: BioMed Research International, ISSN 2314-6133, E-ISSN 2314-6141, Vol. 2015, article id 798042Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. Flight baggage handlers sort and load luggage to airplanes. This study aimed at investigating associations between psychosocial exposures and low back and shoulder musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among Swedish flight baggage handlers.

    Methods. A questionnaire addressing MSDs (Standardized Nordic Questionnaire) and psychosocial factors (Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire, COPSOQ) was answered by 525 baggage handlers in six Swedish airports.

    Results. Low back (LBP) and shoulder pain (SP) was reported by 70% and 60%, respectively. Pain was reported to interfere with work (PIW) by 30% (low back) and 18% (shoulders), and intense pain (PINT) occurred in 34% and 28% of the population. Quality of leadership was the most dissatisfying psychosocial factor, while the most positive was social community at work. Low ratings in the combined domain Work organization and job content were significantly associated with PIW in both low back and shoulders (Adjusted Hazard Ratios 3.65 (95% CI 1.67-7.99) and 2.68 (1.09-6.61)) while lower ratings in the domain Interpersonal relations and leadership were associated with PIW LBP (HR 2.18 (1.06-4.49)) and PINT LBP and SP (HRs 1.95 (1.05-3.65) and 2.11 (1.08-4.12)).

    Conclusion. Severity of pain among flight baggage handlers was associated with psychosocial factors at work, suggesting that they may be a relevant target for intervention in this occupation.

  • 249.
    Bergsten, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. b Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Vingård, Eva
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Psychosocial work factors and musculoskeletal pain among Swedish flight baggage handlers2015In: Proceedings of the 19th Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, Melbourne, 9-14 August 2015 / [ed] Gitte Lindgaard & Dave Moore, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flight baggage handlers are employed by handling companies engaged in sorting, loading and unloading luggage, cargo and mail, so called ramp service work. After check-in, luggage are transported through a sorting area and further out to the ramp. This transportation involves manual handling by baggage handlers at several stages, using conveyor belts, carts and trucks for transport. In addition to these tasks, baggage handlers are also engaged in communicating with air traffic controllers directing air traffic on the ground, towing aircrafts to gates and serving them with auxiliary power units, brakes and light. Baggage handling services are similar in all larger airports, and so baggage handlers perform similar tasks all over the world. In Sweden the handlers’ union claimed a high prevalence of low back and shoulder pain and a dissatisfying psychosocial work environment, but systematically collected empirical data were not available, and the literature was surprisingly sparse, considering that the occupation is global. Thus, a comprehensive project initiated by the Vocational Training and Working Environment Council, TYA, in Sweden - a council formed by employers’ and employees’ organizations in the transportation sector -was conducted at 14 handling companies in six Swedish airports between 2010 and 2012. The project aimed to document the physical and psychosocial work environment and to contribute to the development of ergonomic interventions within this occupation, which could, eventually, lead to better health among the employees. The present study was part of this project, in aiming at documenting psychosocial exposures and musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in the flight baggage handler population, and at determining possible associations between exposures and disorders.

  • 250.
    Bergsten, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Vingård, Eva
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Alphonse, Erik
    The Vocational Training and Working Environment Council.
    Pettersson, Reidar
    The Vocational Training and Working Environment Council.
    Holmberg, Dan
    The Swedish Transport Workers Union.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Physical and psychosocial work conditions among baggage handlers in six Swedish airports2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Flight baggage handlers are mainly engaged in sorting luggage or cargo, loading and unloading it to and from the airplanes. The Vocational Training and Working Environment Council, TYA - formed by employer’s and employee’s organizations in the transportation sector - initiated a scientific study in 2009 to investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and their suspected determinants in six Swedish airports involving a total of about 1000 handlers in 14 cargo- and handling companies. Encouraged by an initial literature review, the present field study was designed to contain qualitative, questionnaire-based, and observational surveys of working conditions, as well as extensive direct measurements of postures using full-shift inclinometry. This paper reports the design and results of the questionnaire part of the study.

    Method

    All baggage handlers working at least half-time (n=1044) were encouraged to fill in an extensive questionnaire handed out at the workplace by a research team member. In general the researcher collected the questionnaires at the same occasion. The questionnaire addressed general health, work capacity and physical exposures in relevant handling tasks. It also included a modified version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ), the Nordic Council of Minister’s Questionnaire (NMQ) on disorders, and the SOFI-questionnaire measuring perceived fatigue.

    Results

    The response rate was 73%. The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in the back, shoulders and wrists during the last 12 months was 70%, 60% and 45%. Positive effects of devices used for reducing perceived physical load were confirmed. The handlers expressed a low confidence in the leadership, and insufficient feedback, information and influence at work. Fatigue particularly occurred in the dimensions lack of energy and physical discomfort.

    Discussion

    The observed prevalence of low back pain (70%) is high, and in parity with results among nurses in Sweden (64%; Josephson et al. 1997) and China (56%; Smith et al. 2004). Further examination of questionnaires, interviews and direct posture measurements will identify determinants to consider for intervention to reduce the prevalence of disorders among the baggage handlers.

    Josephson M, et al. Occup Environ Med 1997;54:681-685.

    Smith DR, et al. Occup Med 2004;54:579-582

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