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  • 201.
    Demont, Amir Valentin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sörhuus, Marit
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors inställning till eutanasi: En litteraturstudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The aim of this literature review was to describe nurse’s attitudes towards euthanasia.

    The method used was a descriptive design. Of the 220 hits, 14 was chosen by CINAHL and PubMed (MedLine) and then analyzed. Both qualitative and quantitative aspects were included.

    The results showed that euthanasia is a complex issue where many ethical and moral aspects come in to play. The nurses felt that euthanasia was ethically acceptable for safeguarding patient autonomy, but also when patients’ suffered from incurable disease and severe pain therefore requested euthanasia. Arguments against euthanasia where directed towards the nurse’s role as lifesaver and preserver of life, the risk of misuse and religious beliefs. The study showed that younger nurses and those with lower formal education where more prone to the use of euthanasia than elderly nurses and those with higher education. Attitudes toward euthanasia differed depending on what type of ward the nurses worked in, for example at intensive care units, palliative care or pediatrics. Those who work in pediatric wards or with palliative care are those who more often oppose the use of euthanasia. Nurses who described themselves as religious often argued against the use of euthanasia and its legislation. In countries where euthanasia is legal there is an ongoing debate about nurses’ role in euthanasia and in its decision processing.

    The conclusion is that questions regarding euthanasia are important to investigate, not only by exploring the public’s attitudes but also by exploring the reflections of professionals. The debates will continue regarding euthanasia.

     Keywords: Euthanasia, nurses’ attitudes, palliative care, end of life decisions

  • 202.
    Ding, Mingxia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Zhu, Huifang
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Nursing students’ self-regulated learning ability: A descriptive literature review2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 203.
    Diraoui, Fatima
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Sääf, Lotten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Sjuksköterskans erfarenheter av att vårda patienter i livets slutskede: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Every year between 90 000 and 100 000 people dies in Sweden, the majority of these were cared in palliative care. The palliative care primarily focus on relief of symptoms and improvement of patient's quality of life.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe nurse’s experiences of caring for patients in the final stages of life and to describe the data collection method that was used in the included articles.

    Method: A descriptive literature study. The study was based on 14 qualitative articles found through searches in the databases PubMed and Cinahl.

    Main Results: Nurses experiences of showing respect for both patients and their relatives contributed to a better relation and trust. Nurses experienced that the palliative caring could be mentally burdened, but through support from colleagues the burden could be reduced. The demands from relatives could create a feeling of stress. Nurses on surgical and oncological ward experienced a lack of knowledge when it came to palliative care and communication. According to the nurses, communication between nurses and doctors didn't work well and were a source of stress. Data collection method in the included articles were interviews and focusgroup interviews.

    Conclusions: Nurses described a lack of knowledge within the palliative care and difficulties communicating with patients and their relatives. Education within palliative care and communication could contribute to nurses feeling more confident and allow them to grow in their role and improve the collaboration with doctors.

  • 204.
    Dolk, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Jonsson, Lisa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Sjuksköterskors attityd till inducerad abort: En litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Sweden women has the right to abortion until pregnancy week 18, as long

    as there’s no risk for her life. Abortion after pregnancy week 18 require a permit from The

    National Board of Health and Welfare (Socialstyrelsen). The law regarding abortion varies a

    lot around the world. Approximately 45 million abortions are performed annually around the

    world. It’s estimated that half of them are performed illegally.

    Aim: To describe nurse's attitude towards induced abortion and to describe the survey group

    in the included articles.

    Method: A literature review with a descriptive design. The articles were searched in the

    database PubMed and Cinahl and resulted in 14 articles that was included in the study.

    Main results: It occurred both negative and positive attitude among nurses towards induced

    abortion. Negative attitude were shown through the nurses conception of life, religious belief

    as well as repeated abortions. In some cases this was shown through discrimination of the

    patients. Positive attitude was shown through the nurses conviction of women's right to

    abortion. An equal and non-judgemental care was emphasized. The nurses had different

    methods to cope with the situation and perform an adequate job with regard for the patient's

    best.

    Conclusion: Nurses attitudes may affect women’s experience of health care in a positive or

    negative direction. Knowledge of the occurring attitudes among staff involved in induced

    abortion give nurses an opportunity to reflect on their own attitude.

  • 205.
    Dragon, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Nilsson, Ulrika
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Sjuksköterskors kunskap om smärta och smärtbehandling: En enkätstudie2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge regarding pain and pain treatment is an essential part within nursing that a nurse is responsible for. Earlier studies have shown that lack of that kind of knowledge often results in inadequate treatment for pain. The purpose with the study was to describe nurses’ knowledge regarding pain and pain treatment at a medical unit in a hospital in central Sweden, and to see if there was a distinction in knowledge related to professional experience. Data was collected through a questionnaire with questions referring to pain (6 questions) and pain treatment (6 questions). The questionnaire was given to 108 nurses at a medical unit in a hospital in central Sweden. Fifty-two responded the inquiry; whence 50 were woman and two were men. The main result indicated that the majority of the nurses had propitious knowledge regarding pain and pain treatment, since the mean-score of the questions regarding knowledge were 8,1 (67,6 %) out of 12. Forty-nine nurses reported non-pharmacologic methods to alleviate pain such as TENS, acupuncture and massage. There was no significant distinction in knowledge between nurses whom had been working 1-12 years (25 nurses), and those who had been working 13-39 (26 nurses) years. The majority of the nurses experienced they did not have enough knowledge about pain and pain treatment to be able to give adequate pain relief.

  • 206.
    Dragon, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Persson, Margareta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Upplevelser i vardagen hos personer med demenssjukdom och som bor i ordinärt boende.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Several people are living with dementia disease and the numbers are expected to rise as the population ages. The aim of the study was that by people with dementia disease and their narratives describe the experiences of living in ordinary housing and deal with daily life. The study has been carried out through unstructured interviews with nine people with dementia disease who are over 65 years old and living in ordinary housing. Data were processed by qualitative manifest content analysis. The results are presented in six categories dealing with limitations in daily life, altered self, feeling of dissatisfaction, the feeling of contentedness, social relationships and strategies.The older persons experienced limitations and were dependence on others because of their dementiadisease. Bitterness to have suffered illness was the main source of the feeling of dissatisfaction. Contentedness was perceived by feeling safe and be able to perform for them meaningful tasks. Social relations were important, but sometimes influenced by the feeling of not being good enough. Everyday living in ordinary housing meant different pursuits and handled by using different strategies and a certain acceptance. The conclusion of the study shows that people with dementia disease perceive their life situation and everyday living satisfying and manageable in ordinary housing with appropriate support and assistance.

  • 207.
    Ed, Kristina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Faller, Stina
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Vårdpersonalens skattning av strukturell empowerment och arbetstillfredsställelse samt reliabilitetstestning av instrumentet CWEQ.   2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tidigare studier har visat att bristen på strukturell empowerment på vårdavdelning ofta leder till försämrad personalhälsa, sämre arbetsmiljö och mindre samarbete med kollegor samt högre grad av utmattningssymtom. Syftet med studien var att beskriva vårdpersonalens upplevelse av strukturell empowerment vid en akut kirurg- och ortopedavdelning, samt att undersöka om det finns några skillnader mellan sjuksköterskors och undersköterskors skattning av strukturell empowerment. Ytterligare ett syfte var att beskriva vårdpersonalens upplevelse av arbetstillfredsställelse samt att reliabilitetstesta ett instrument som mäter strukturell empowerment. Data gällande strukturell empowerment samlades in med instrumentet Condition of Work Effectiveness Questionnaire (CWEQ och CWEQ II) och data gällande arbetstillfredsställelse samlades in med en studiespecifik fråga. Femtioen enkäter delades ut, 43 personer svarade vid första mätningen och 39 personer vid andra mätningen. Huvudresultatet visade att personalens upplevelse av strukturell empowerment var medelmåttig. Sjuksköterskor skattade strukturell empowerment statistiskt signifikant högre jämfört med undersköterskor. Åttioen procent (n 35 av 43) av personalen upplevde arbetstillfredsställelse som bra eller mycket bra. Instrumentets reliabilitet, test-retest var r 0,40-0,86 och Cronbach Alpha 0,57-0,91. Slutsatserna är att personalen upplevde medelmåttig strukturell empowerment och att psykometriska data, test-retest och Cronbach Alpha, för den Svenska versionen av CWEQ och CWEQ II är i stort acceptabla.

  • 208.
    Edeborg, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Westh, Helen
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Sjuksköterskans omvårdnad av för tidigt födda barn: Så kan föräldrarna involveras i vården av sitt barn2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this literature review was primarily to describe how the nurse can involve the parents in the care for their premature baby, and secondly to describe the aim, design, method, population and quality of the reviewed studies. Searches have been made in different databases in order to find articles where the search words ”neonatal care”, ”neonatalvård”, ”premature infants” and ”nurse” were included. The literature review was based on 12 scientific articles. The results of the study were divided into six categories; The nursing staff’s relation to the parents, Support group, “Home-early program”, Decision-making, A work in progress and A safe and efficient method. It is the nurse’s task to create a trusting relationship to the parents. The parents’ relationship to the child is a determining factor in its development. Some of the studies described how support groups can be used to help families with premature children. The studies showed that parents want to be involved in making decisions about their baby, but they also find it frightening. There are a lot of ways for the nurse to involve parents in the care for their premature baby. It is very important that the parents get sufficient information, which will enable them to be active when decisions are made about their baby.

  • 209.
    Edholm, Johannes
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Fa, Denise
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av tvångsvårdsåtgärder på patienter med psykisk ohälsa – en litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to describe nurses' experiences of performing compulsory measures of patients with mental illness and review the selected articles sample method. 

                                                                                                                             Method: The present literature study has a descriptive design that includes articles of both qualitative and quantitative approach; the literature review includes a total of twelve articles.

      Result: The results showed that nurses' experiences of performing compulsory treatment measures include a wide range of emotions that involve, among other things, a conflict of emotions in conjunction with the exclusion of the patient's autonomy. Results showed differing experiences of nurses existing idea of ​​compulsory measures favored the patient in question or not. The majority of nurses felt that the execution of coercive measures was used too casually as well as to undermine the therapeutic alliance with the patient. Nurses’ common view was that there was need for the opportunity to vent action procedure.  

    Conclusion: The results showed that the majority of nurses felt that compulsory measures implied negative experiences. A recurring verdict associated with compulsory measures was a contradiction of emotions in nurses due to the ethical dilemma that arose. Common experiences were identified, that compulsory measures was used too lightly. Alternative measures should have more room to be implemented in clinical practice. It should also develop a forum for ventilation for the nurses that are in contact with the coercion, an opportunity for discussion and improvement of the procedure.

  • 210.
    Edin, Caroline
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Mälby, Sara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Faktorer på akutmottagningen som är av betydelse för patientens tillfredställelse av vården: - en litteraturstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To describe the factors of patient satisfaction in the emergency department. Method: A literature review with descriptive design. The data was based on 13 articles searched in the PubMed database.Result: In total, seven factors of patient satisfaction of care were identified in the emergency department. The factors were the patient's background, health professional response, information, communication, the triage process, waiting time and the environment. The result showed that the main factor that had an impact on patient satisfaction in the emergency department was waiting time, the uncertainty surrounding this and the impact of the triageprocess. Conclusion: The factors shown to be important in itself, and more importantly, in combination with each other. If patients were dissatisfied with one factor it often affected the satisfaction of the other factors during the visit to the emergency department. The waiting time suggest being the most significant factor for patient satisfaction and the triage system affected how long the patients actually waited in the emergency department. Research exists on what factors that are significant for patients in the emergency department. Yet patients continued to be unsatisfied and unaware in the emergency department. Further research is needed about the relationship between the factors that are important for patient satisfaction in the emergency department and specific the triage system's impact on waiting times and patient satisfaction. Also research on the triage system as a functioning system, as association showed to waiting times.

  • 211.
    Edkvist, Ingela
    Dalarnas forskningsråd.
    Omsorgsarbetets otydliga tillhörighet2004In: Att vara i omsorgens mitt / [ed] Renita Sörensdotter & Inga Michaeli, Hedemora: Gidlunds förlag , 2004, p. 19-28Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Omsorg är ett diffust och svårfångat begrepp som berör många människor.Inom den kommunala omsorgen arbetar människor med att utföra omsorg på olikanivåer. Politiker, tjänstemän, undersköterskor och vårdbiträden ger omsorgutifrån olika förutsättningar och med olika kunskaper. Omsorg är även enteoretisk kunskap som lärs ut på vård- och omsorgsutbildningar på gymnasier ochhögskolor. Eftersom omsorg är så mångfacetterat och svårt att ringa in behövsen ständigt pågående diskussion om vad omsorg är och hur den ska utföras. Dennadiskussion behöver föras utifrån olika perspektiv på många olika nivåer isamhället.Att vara i omsorgens mitt belyser omsorg utifrån olika perspektiv medtyngdpunkt på hur omsorg formuleras och utformas i det senmoderna samhället.Omsorgens plats i marknadsekonomin, dess koppling till moral, omsorgens kopplingtill kvinnlighet, omsorg i konsten samt gerotranscendens som en väg till godomsorg lyfts fram i de fem essäerna. Berättelse, bild och dikt belyser omsorgpå olika sätt och inom olika sammanhang. Den röda tråden i antologin består avatt omsorgens olika innebörder och villkor diskuteras. Boken innehåller fem essäer.

  • 212.
    Edäng, Zarah
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Åström, Emma
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors attityder och erfarenheter till att vårda personer med missbruksproblematik inom slutenvården: En litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Narkotikamissbruk medför hälsoproblem och sjuksköterskan möter människor med missbruksproblematik inom alla vårdinrättningar. Bristande kunskap, fördomar och negativa attityder är något som förekommer mot dessa människor ute i samhället och kan påverka sjuksköterskans professionella förhållningssätt i vården av personer med missbruksproblematik. Rätten till en god omvårdnad skall inte tas bort på grund av ett missbruk.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att beskriva sjuksköterskors attityder och erfarenheter till att vårda personer med missbruksproblematik inom slutenvården samt att beskriva de inkluderade artiklarnas datainsamlingsmetod.

    Metod: En beskrivande litteraturstudie där databaserna Cinahl och PsycINFO användes för att hitta vetenskapliga artiklar. 14 kvantitativa och kvalitativa artiklar inkluderades i studien och granskades och sammanställdes av författarna.

    Resultat: Resultatet i studien visade att sjuksköterskan i vården av personer med missbruksproblematik kan ha negativa attityder till denna patientgrupp. De negativa attityderna kan orsakas av samhällets stigmatisering mot missbruk, det oförutsägbara beteendet samt hotfulla situationer som kan uppstå i arbetssituationen. Attityderna sågs vara bättre hos de sjuksköterskor som hade längre erfarenhet och mer kunskap inom missbruksproblematik. Vid granskning av metodologiska aspekten framkom att alla de inkluderade artiklarna hade beskrivit datainsamlingsmetoden, dock med varierande noggrannhet. Majoriteten av de granskade artiklarna använde frågeformulär som datainsamlingsmetod.

    Slutsats: Vården av personer med missbruksproblematik skall ske på samma villkor som till andra patientgrupper. För att förbättra attityder och fördomar mot dessa personer krävs utbildning och kunskap.

  • 213.
    Egerfors, Johanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Jansson, Matilda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Personers upplevelser efter en organtransplantation - en litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Approximately 700 organ transplantations are undertaken in Sweden every year. Organs can be donated from both living and deceased donors. The number of possible donors has increased but is not enough to accommodate the need. Waiting for an organ means living with great uncertainty. It also changes relationships with family and friends. People waiting for an organ are hopeful for the future and are anticipating normalcy after the transplantation. Living donors do not regret their decision to donate. Nurses caring for people waiting for an organ establish close relations to the patient, their work can be mentally demanding but also rewarding. 

    Aim: To describe people´s experiences after an organ transplantation. 

    Method: Descriptive literature review based on 10 qualitative articles. 

    Result: Time after an organ transplantation is experienced as isolating and restrictive. There are experiences of anxiety of organ rejection and worry about the future and people adapt in different ways. People feel a lack of understanding from others and find it hard to meet expectations. There is a need for support and relations alter. Feelings of gratitude and guilt are of significance. 

    Conclusion: Time after an organ transplantation is isolating and there are feelings of anxiety, gratitude and guilt. People adapt by making lifestyle changes and experiences a new living. Meeting others expectations is difficult and relationships alter. People experiences lack of understanding and need for support. Helping people find meaning in their experiences and guiding them to use their abilities and resources is an important aspect of nursing. 

  • 214.
    Ehn, Marie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Englund, Kristina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Svårigheter och möjligheter med egenvårdshantering vid Diabetes typ 2 - Ur ett patientperspektiv: En litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Type 2 diabetes has increased significantly worldwide and is most common with older people but affects people at younger and younger ages as well. Self-care constitutes a large part of the treatment of type 2 diabetes and is an important factor in maintaining a good quality of life. Lack of self-care can result in fatal complications.

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the difficulties and possibilities of patients with type 2 diabetes and how they feel about managing their self-care. A further aim was to show how the data have been collected in the articles used in the literature study.

    Method: A descriptive literature study is based on eleven scientific articles published between the years 2010-2015. All the articles were found in databases Cinahl, Pubmed and Scopus. Articles of qualitative approach were examined along the purpose and research questions.

    Results: The patients had insufficient knowledge about self-care which could be due to the information from the nurse was incomplete or insufficient. The patients thought lifestyle changes was important, but still there was a big negative approach towards changing habits.

    Conclusion: Information and knowledge are essential to conducting effective self-care when type 2 diabetes is such a challenging disease for both the patient and the nurse. When the patients saw lifestyle changes difficult to accomplish on their own the nurse was an important resource to achieve treatment goals.

  • 215.
    Eidborn, Johanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kindevåg, Åsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Vård i hemmet av ALMA-teamet: Närståendes perspektiv2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund:

    Den geriatriska patienten bor i allt större utsträckning i det egna hemmet, trots multisjuklighet, vilket ställer stora krav på sjukvården. Modellen Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment  innebär helhetsbedömning av den geriatriske patientens behov och multiprofessionellt teamarbete. ALMA-teamet i västra Region Östergötland är ett sådant team som vårdar äldre patienter med komplexa vårdbehov i hemmet.  Syftet med studien var att utifrån närståendes erfarenhet och upplevelse beskriva den vård som deras anhöriga fått av ALMA-teamet i ordinärt boende.  Metoden som användes var semistrukturerade intervjuer som analyserades med hjälp av kvalitativ innehållsanalys, och totalt intervjuades tolv närstående.

    Resultat:

    De närståendes erfarenheter var att ALMA-teamets hembesök gjorde vården mer lättillgänglig för patienterna, samt besparade dem besvärliga resor och långa väntetider i sjukvården. Det kunde vara tryggt att få vara hemma och ha tillgång till avancerad vård i samarbete med kommunal hemsjukvård. Gemensamma besök av ALMA-teamet och Hemsjukvården kunde både upplevas som en trygghet med samlad kompetens eller att det blev rörigt, framförallt med närvarande studenter. Det fanns hos de närstående en önskan om att ALMA-teamet skulle finnas kvar och utökas, både regionalt och nationellt. Slutsatsen är att det upplevdes positivt att vårdas i det egna hemmet och slippa resor och väntetid i sjukvården.  

  • 216.
    Eivergård, Kristina
    et al.
    Mid-Sweden University, Department of Nursing Sciences, SE- Östersund, Sweden.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    Mid-Sweden University, Department of Nursing Sciences, SE- Östersund, Sweden.
    Hellzén, Per Ove
    Mid-Sweden University, Department of Nursing Sciences, SE- Östersund, Sweden.
    The Talk About the Psychiatric Patient2016In: Issues in Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 0161-2840, E-ISSN 1096-4673, Vol. 37, no 10, p. 756-764Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Essential to psychiatric nursing practice and care, verbal handovers and ward rounds are reporting systems for communication that shapes psychiatric staff's ability to recognize, understand, and construct patients, as well as patients’ ability to construct themselves. Given the centrality of such language in psychiatric practice, the aim of this study was to describe how psychiatric staff talk about patients in psychiatric wards, what their talk encompasses, and what consequences it might pose for patient care. Empirical data were collected from audio recordings of staff discussions of patients during nine verbal handovers and three ward rounds in six different general psychiatric wards in mid and southern Sweden. Findings showed that to describe patients’ mood, characteristics, and behavior, nurses used culturally common words and concepts related to three themes—good patients, bad patients, and to stay or be discharged—and six subthemes—looking well, looking poorly, desirable patients, undesirable patients, continuing work, and being discharged. However, since assessments of and decisions about patients’ conditions and care used everyday language and did not involve patients’ participation, opportunities for patients to participate in their own care were rare.

  • 217.
    Ejdersten, Zandra
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Självskadande kvinnors upplevelse av bemötande i vården2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to describe how women with deliberate self-harm behaviour experience they have been treated when conducting health care. The study has a qualitative and descriptive approach and data was collected with snowball sampling. Data was analysed with content analysis and ended up in three theme “Feeling of violation of integrity and autonomy”, “health care staff don´t have the courage to step in and take responsibility” and “ Personal confirmation and validation of feelings”. The results showed that many women with deliberate self-harm behavior feel that they have been badly treated when they conducting health care. Furthermore, the women in this study have experienced that their integrity and autonomy have been violated. In their opinion it was difficult to get adequate treatment. The women also felt that the health care staff had difficulties taking responsibility. On the occasions the women with deliberate self-harm felt that they have been treated satisfactorily, they experienced personal confirmation and a validation of feelings. In other words they felt respectfully treated and in their opinion the health care staff took time to listen. The women in this study consider adequate treatment of proffesionell personell of importance. The conclusion is that many of the women who cut themselves, get unsatisfactorily treated when they conduct health care and that the health care staff need knowledge concerning how to treat women with deliberate self-harm. In addition this study showed that more research is needed regarding how women with deliberate self-harm experience they are treated when conducting health care.

  • 218.
    Ek, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Holmqvist, Sandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Anestesisjuksköterskans personcentrerade omvårdnadsåtgärder för att lindra oro hos patienter som genomgår regional anestesi2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Anestesisjuksköterskan är den som står i närmast kontakt till patienten under operationen och som främst ska skydda och tillgodose dennes individuella behov. Det är vanligt att patienter som genomgår kirurgi i regional anestesi upplever oro inför och under ingreppet. Både utifrån det aktuella sjukdomstillståndet men även på grund av rädsla för vad som ska ske inne på operationssalen. Syfte: Beskriva hur anestesisjuksköterskan identifierar och lindrar oro ur ett personcentrerat omvårdnadsperspektiv hos patienter som genomgår regional anestesi. Metod: En kvalitativ intervjustudie med kvalitativ innehållsanalys. I studien intervjuades 11 anestesisjuksköterskor som arbetade med planerad och akut operationsverksamhet med varierande ålder och yrkeserfarenhet. Huvudresultat: Anestesisjuksköterskornas erfarenheter visade att tydlig och individanpassad information var viktigt för att kunna arbeta personcentrerat. För att kunna ge individanpassad information var det viktigt att få tid och enskildhet tillsammans med patienten innan operationen. Oro hos patienten identifierades genom att observera fysiska tecken samt att kommunicera med patienten under operationen. Strategier för att lindra oro var närvaro, ögonkontakt, fysisk beröring samt att erbjuda musik och lugnande läkemedel. Slutsats: Studien belyste anestesisjuksköterskors erfarenhet av att arbeta personcentrerat för att identifiera och lindra oro hos patienter under regional anestesi. Det framkom att de ofta saknade tid och enskildhet med patienten som var viktigt för att kunna arbeta personcentrerat. För att identifiera och skatta oro användes inga andra hjälpmedel än anestesisjuksköterskans egen bedömning, det ställdes därmed höga krav på den egna förmågan att läsa av och bemöta patienterna på ett individanpassat sätt.

  • 219.
    Ekendahl, Jonna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Leijon, Emma
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors hantering av arbetsrelaterad stress2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 220.
    Ekholm, Arvid
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Yacob Ghebremicael, Seble
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Patientens erfarenheter av egenvård i samband med hjärtsvikt: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Heart failure is a common disease in the Swedish population and also a

    common cause of hospitalization. The self-care is an important part of the treatment.

    Lack of self-care can be a contributing factor to the worsening of heart failure, which

    both can lead to unnecessary suffering for the patient and lead to large costs for health

    care

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to describe patients' experiences of self-care

    associated with heart failure and describe the articles included data collection method.

    Method: Descriptive literature. Eleven scientific articles were included. Articles were

    searched using PubMed. Articles with qualitative and quantitative approach included.

    The results were analyzed by processing the articles two tables and mark with paint and

    compiled

    Result: The results of the study show that patients with heart failure often suffer from

    some form of mental illness. Patients with heart failure often have good knowledge of

    self-care. However participates depression or other forms of mental illness to reduced

    adherence to self-care because of reduced initiative.

    Conclusion: Disease heart failure is multidimensional and affects the psyche negatively

    leading to reduced ability in performing self-care. Family support, patient education and

    quick response from health care have been shown to have positive effects on self-care.

    Also contributing a strong family and good economics to better self-care.

  • 221.
    Eklund, Emelie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Norbäck, Veronica
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Patientens upplevelser under pågående behandling av ätstörningar: En litteraturstudie2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this descriptive literature study was to describe the patients’ experience of the need for social support and the choice of coping strategies during treatment for eating disorders. Further, the authors wanted to describe the relationship with the parents and also to highlight the caring relationship between nurse and patient. Results that came to light, concerning the patients’ experience, were that patients with eating disorders, in a majority of studies, indicated a deficient social network. The authors´ studies point out a need for social support in the convalescence and a need for assistance when it comes to changing coping strategies in stressful situations or events. Furthermore, the authors also intend to seek strategies for successfully changing the dysfunctional eating behaviour. The family should be seen as a resource in the treatment without challenging the patients’ autonomy. Further, the family plays an important role to encourage new patterns of behaviour and to provide support and help during the patients’ treatment. Building a lasting relationship between patient and nurse is a significant part of the nursing care and thus an important step in the recovery process. The nurses´ caring work with this patient group can consist of help for patients to identify strategies for seeking social support in addition to facilitating the communication between the patient and its family. In order to provide these patients the possibility of good nursing care, it requires that nurses have basic knowledge about eating disorders, which the nurses should be prepared for during their education.

  • 222.
    Eklund, Karin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kartläggning av avvikelserapporter inom ett Primärvårdsområde i Mellansverige2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 223.
    Eklund, Karolin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Distriktssköterskornas erfarenheter och reflektioner av telefonrådgivning inom primärvården: en intervjustudie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Communication is an essential tool for nurses, especially when working with the telephone advice nursing (from here on mentioned as telenursing) that has been developed in recent decades. The aim of the present study was to describe the primary healthcare nurse´s experiences and reflections of telenursing in primary healthcare. Method: The present study was of qualitative approach with a descriptive design. Nine primary healthcare nurses was interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. Qualitative content analysis was used as data analysis. Results: Primary healthcare nurses experienced telenursing as challenging because there were many different patients of different ages and with different health needs who contacted the telenursing. The informants described working with telenursing as stimulating because they easily were able to help many patients. Primary healthcare nurses also experienced the work stressful. The most difficult thing with telenursing described the primary healthcare nurses as the lack of visualization when assessing the need of care. Other difficulties the primary healthcare nurses described were difficulties in dealing with dissatisfied patients and to ask the right questions. The informants described they were not only the patient's wishes to meet. The primary healthcare center made demands of the primary healthcare nurses when it was lack of doctors’ appointments and because the nurses distributed the work on the healthcare center by the telenursing. The informants described the telenursing important because that is the only way for the patient to get an appointment at the healthcare center. Conclusion: The primary healthcare nurses described working with telenursing in primary healthcare as challenging and difficult with limited opportunities to ensure everyone is satisfied. The primary healthcare nurses working with telenursing in primary healthcare experienced similar difficulties as nurses at the call-centers did. The most difficult thing the primary healthcare nurses experienced with telenursing was that they did not met the patient physically. Primary healthcare nurses also experienced telenursing as important and stimulating.

  • 224.
    Eklund, Maja
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Söderberg, Sandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors fördelning av arbetstid på en onkologisk vårdavdelning: en observationsstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka hur sjuksköterskors arbetstid fördelas mellan olika arbetsuppgifter på en onkologisk vårdavdelning. Studien genomfördes genom icke deltagande strukturerade observationer efter ett fastställt kategoriseringsschema på en onkologisk vårdavdelning på ett sjukhus i Mellansverige. Fjorton arbetsskift observerades, varav sju dagskift och sju kvällsskift. Huvudresultatet visade att sjuksköterskorna spenderade 33,5% av arbetstiden med direkt patientvård, 44,0% med indirekt patientvård samt 22,5% med andra göromål under samtliga observerade skift. Under dagskift spenderade sjuksköterskorna 33,0% av arbetstiden med direkt patientvård, 41,5% med indirekt patientvård samt 25,5% med andra göromål. Under kvällsskift spenderade sjuksköterskorna 34,0% av arbetstiden med direkt patientvård, 46,5% med indirekt patientvård samt 19,5% med andra göromål. Resultatet visade att ca en tredjedel av arbetstiden spenderades med direkt patientvård. Resultatet indikerade också på att en förbättringspotential fanns, mycket av den indirekta patientvården skulle kunna utföras i närmare anslutning till patienten om en annan arbetsmodell anammades. Då sjuksköterskorna har tid över skulle mindre tid kunna läggas på andra göromål och därmed också öka tiden till direkt eller indirekt patientvård.

  • 225.
    Eklund, Sofie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjöström, Madeleine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Riskfaktorer som kan bidra till psykisk ohälsa hos barn2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Mental ill health in children has increased steadily over the past 20 years. Good mental health is a prerequisite for children to develop optimally. Globally, about 10-20% of the world's children suffer from mental ill health. There is limited research on what factors can contribute to this increase.

    Purpose: To identify and describe risk factors that can contribute to mental ill health in children.

    Method: A descriptive literature study of 13 scientific articles, 12 articles with quantitative approach and 1 article with qualitative approach.

    Main results: The result shows that children who experience mental ill health are affected by various risk factors. Identified risk factors were the structure of the family, the health of the parents, and the parents' education and socio-economic status. Exposure was another significant risk factor. The result shows that these factors have a negative impact on the child's mental health

    Conclusion: Children living in an unfavorable home environment with family conflicts or parents with mental ill health are at risk of developing mental illness themselves. Exposure like bullying and various types of abuse leads to a weak self-image and a significant risk of mental ill health.

  • 226.
    Eklöv, Lisa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Larsson, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Sjuksköterskans upplevelse av att arbeta i u-land- en intervjustudie2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att beskriva sjuksköterskors upplevelser av att ha arbetat i u-land genom organisationen Läkare utan gränser. Studien genomfördes som en intervjustudie baserad på semistrukturerade frågor. Fyra sjuksköterskor som under de senaste två åren arbetat i u-land deltog i studien. Resultatet visade att viljan att rädda liv i kombination med spänning och äventyr motiverade sjuksköterskorna att arbeta. Innan uppdragen fick sjuksköterskorna gå en förberedande kurs genom Läkare utan gränser. De tyckte att det var bra att ha yrkeserfarenhet innan uppdragen. Arbetsuppgifterna handlade mycket om att utbilda och handleda lokalbefolkningen samt att organisera arbetet och det stämde inte alltid överrens med sjuksköterskornas förväntningar. Alla upplevde någon form av stress och frustration. Gemensamt var stressupplevelsen av att ha ett stort ansvar. Rädsla för smitta vara inget som förekom bland sjuksköterskorna då de använde sig av basala skyddande medel. Mötet med den nya kulturen och befolkningen upplevdes som både positivt och negativt. I studien framkom positiva upplevelser av att göra någonting för folket ute i världen. Negativa aspekter i volontärarbetet var bristen på resurser, det stora ansvaret och känslan av att inte räcka till. Sjuksköterskorna som deltog i studien rekommenderade intresserade sjuksköterskor att arbeta i u-land. Det är viktigt att som person vara flexibel, ödmjuk och ha människokärlek och man växte som människa.

  • 227.
    Ekman, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Segerqvist, Carolina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenhet av arbetsrelaterad stress2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund:

    Det är vanligt att sjuksköterskor har erfarenhet av arbetsrelaterad stress i sitt dagliga arbete, om stressen blir långvarig kan det leda till komplikationer som sömnstörningar och minnessvårigheter. Arbetsgivaren är skyldig att uppmärksamma och motverka arbetsrelaterad stress. Syfte: Syftet med föreliggande litteraturstudie var att beskriva sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av arbetsrelaterad stress samt att beskriva undersökningsgrupperna i utvalda artiklar. Metod: Beskrivande litteraturstudie där åtta artiklar med kvalitativ ansats och två artiklar med mixad metod granskades. Huvudresultat: Resultatet visade att flera sjuksköterskor erfor att brist på personal och begränsat med tid var två betydande anledningarna till arbetsrelaterad stress. Även kommunikationen mellan kollegor och arbetsmiljön var anledningar som påverkade den arbetsrelaterade stressen. Personal och tidsbrist ansågs kunna bero på att sjuksköterskorna utförde flera arbetsuppgifter samtidigt. Flera av deltagarna i utvalda studier hade även erfarenheter av att de utförde arbetsuppgifter som inte ingick i deras roll och ansvarsområde som sjuksköterska. För att förebygga uppkomsten av stress framhölls förkortad arbetstid, vilket på ett positivt sätt påverkade erfarenheterna av arbetsrelaterad stress. Bra relationer till kollegor och att hitta egna copingstrategier för att hantera stressen på arbetet och privat framhölls också som positivt för att minska den arbetsrelaterade stressen. Den metodologiska granskningen visade att det var flest kvinnor i åldern 22 – 61 år som deltog i granskade studier. Slutsats: Personal och tidsbrist har stor påverkan på erfarenheterna av arbetsrelaterad stress. Litteraturstudien visar att förkortad arbetstid är en potentiell lösning på problemet och belyser arbetsgivarens ansvar att aktivt arbeta mot och förebygga uppkomsten av arbetsrelaterad stress.

  • 228.
    Ekman, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Stensson, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Den psykologiska och sociala arbetsmiljön bland distriktssköterskor och sjuksköterskor i primärvård respektive hemsjukvård2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     Background: There is a different in management and organization in primary health care and in municipal home health nursing. This different may effect activities and tasks at work, which in turn can affect the psychological and social work environment of district nurses / nurses. The purpose of this study was to compare any differences in the psychological and social work environment of district nurses/nurses in primary health care and home health nursing. Method: A quantitative, comparative cross-sectional study was conducted and the data was collected with the survey QPSNordic 34+. The survey was administred to 159 participants in primary care and to 148 participants in home health nursing. The survey was answered by (n = 39) district nurses /nurses in primary health care and (n = 39) district nurses/nurses in home health nursing. The result showed significant differences in four out of eleven categories in the psychological and social work environment between the district nurses/nurses in primary care and the district nurses/nurses in home care. Differences were found in "work requirements", "control at work", "work skills" and "stress". In all of these four categories, district nurses/nurses in primary health care estimated their psychological and social work environment lower than the estimation from district nurses/nurses in home health nursing. The conclusion of this study was that district nurses/nurses in primary health care estimate their psychological and social work environment lower in comparison to the district nurses/nurses in home care nursing.

  • 229.
    Ekström, Johanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Karttunen, Marie
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Skolsköterskors roll i arbetet med överviktiga barn i låg- och mellanstadiet2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the existing study was to describe how school nurses experience the complex of problems about obesity among primary school and middle school children, also to examine which strategies school nurses use to prevent/help these children. Amongst other aims, this study examines how school nurses experience cooperation with parents, teachers and other school nurses within this area. The method used was to interview seven school nurses in primary school and middle school from two school regions in the middle of Sweden. The interviews were recorded on tape and transcribed in verbatim. Sense bearing units were picked out and the material was categorized, which resulted in three main categories with ten subcategorise. The results showed that the seven interviewed school nurses considered that there is a problem with obesity in school children. The school nurses didn’t have any specific strategies to prevent obesity and the guidelines from the school health board were indistinctive, but four of the school nurses were working on preventive strategies on their own hand. All of the school nurses more or less had a strategy for helping obese school children, by meens of talking about nutrition and fysical exercise in health sessions. Four of the school nurses had created their own material. The material was then used to help the children with another way of thinking and change in lifestyle. All seven school nurses considered that a working cooperation with parents, teachers and other school nurses facilitated the work with the obese children.

  • 230.
    Ekström Larsson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Backström, Jessica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans erfarenheter avpreventionsarbete med obesa barn och deras familjer: En beskrivande litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The increase in childhood obesity in recent years leads to the question of how a nurse can work on preventions adapted to obese children and their families. This applies to both primary, secondary and tertiary work Aim: The purpose of this literature study is to describe the nurse's prevention work with obese children and their families. The article's data collection method is also described. Method: A descriptive literature study. Databases used were Cinahl and PubMed. The articles that were 12 to the number published between 2007-2017 and resulted in the result. Main result: Nurses felt that prevention work is important as obesity is a major health problem in the world. In many cases, the lack of time was felt, as the work could develop even more. Often motivational conversations were used to strengthen the positive and provide a basis for respect and mood about the child's autonomy. Measuring instruments that were common were BMI. The importance of parental involvement is emphasized in most articles, as the results then improve with the weight loss of children. Instead, parents need support and guidance from nurses to be a good support for the children. Conclusion: Nurses need more support in developing prevention efforts to reduce childhood obesity. This may otherwise be a problem later in life and lead to adulthood in adulthood.

  • 231.
    El Madani, Nadia
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Sjuksköterskors arbetsmiljö inom slutenvård och äldreomsorg: En litteraturstudie2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstract

    The aim of this study was to illuminate and collect existing research from the beginning of the 21 st century about nurses work environment in institutional and elderly care in Sweden.

    A literature review was made by analyzing eleven scientific articles. The result showed mainly information about nurses work load. The information dealt with high work demands, too much responsibility, shortage of staff, time press and stress. Furthermore nurses reported a lack of co-operation between staff and management. An important part in nurses’ work was appreciation from colleagues, management, patients and relatives. Nurses even wanted to participate more in decisions about their work situation and demanded higher salaries. Wishes were expressed about more education, possibilities in their professional careers, supervision and personal development. Downsizing of staff and limited resources were believed to lead to decreased quality of care. Only in one study something about physical work environment was mentioned, i.e. worry about chemical or other work environmental problems. In conclusion nurses experienced shortcomings in their work environment and demanded improvements. These shortcomings supposed to lead to decreased quality of care.

    Keywords: nurse, nursing profession, work environment.

  • 232.
    Elemyr, Linda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Ahlberg, Bertil
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Sjuksköterskans erfarenheter i vården av patienter med suicidalt beteende.2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund

    Suicidalt beteende även kallad suicidalitet är ett stort globalt hälsoproblem.Begreppet innefattar suicidtankar, suicidförsök och suicid. Var 40:e sekundavlider en människa på grund av suicidalitet någonstans på jorden.

    Syfte

    Syftet var att beskriva sjuksköterskans erfarenheter i vården av patienter med suicidalt beteende samt beskriva undersökningsgruppen i de inkluderade artiklarna.

    Metod

    Föreliggande litteraturstudies resultat inkluderar 12 vetenskapliga artiklar, med både kvantitativ och kvalitativ ansats. Studien har en beskrivande design. Databaser som användes var PubMed, CINAHL och PsycINFO.

    Huvudresultat

    Sjuksköterskorna erfar att omvårdnad av patienter med suicidalt beteende är en komplex situation. Erfarenheterna är att suicidalt beteende väcker känslor som chock besvikelse, frustration, skuld och stress hos sjuksköterskorna. Egna värderingar har en dömande inverkan på patienten. En osäkerhet i omvårdnaden av dessa patienter finns. Fysiska behov prioriteras därför före psykiska. Detta kan kopplas till brist på utbildning, stöd och resurser.

    Slutsatser

    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter är betydelsefulla för att ge den suicidala patienten bästamöjliga omvårdnad. Sjuksköterskor bör ha en icke dömande inställning och ett holistiskt förhållningssätt. Föreliggande studie vill bidra till en samlad bild av sjuksköterskors erfarenheter i omvårdnaden av denna patientgrupp. Detta för att belysa det stöd och utbildning som sjuksköterskan behöver för att möta patienten professionellt. Men även för att belysa vikten av förståelse och betydelsen av rätt omvårdnad.

  • 233.
    Elg, Denise
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Fältström, Agnes
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av arbetsrelaterad stress2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 234.
    Eliasson, Malin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nilsson, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ammande mödrars erfarenheter av stöd i samband med amning: En beskrivande litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: Mothers are breastfeeding at all times more or less. Attitudes from family and current culture can make mother ambivalent to breastfeeding their child. Problems may arise which may result in the mother refraining from breastfeeding. There are many benefits of breastfeeding both for the child and for the mother. The nurse can promote breastfeeding and contribute until mothers get more support to breastfeeding their children.                 

    Aim: To describe breastfeeding mothers experiences of breastfeeding support and to describe the selected articles study-group.                                      

    Method: A descriptive literature review based on ten scientific articles. The articles were retrieved from databases Med Line/PubMed and Cinahl through the University of Gävle. 

    Results: The outcome of the literature study describes mothers' experiences of breastfeeding support in different situations, both positive and negative. The different themes that emerged was, Mixed pre-delivery reactions, Demand for expert support and social support, and Get a good deal of attention, Insecurity and frustration, as well as Appreciation and dissatisfaction with practical tips. Mothers experienced preparations for breastfeeding as useful, but breastfeeding was not always presented in a realistic and honest way. Both prim parous and multiparous desired professional support. If the healthcare staff was responding to the needs of the single mother, evaluated supportive and non-judging as positive breastfeeding support. Contradictory messages created confusion and uncertainty. Practical support was especially appreciated initially. Hard-hearted healthcare professionals in the practical support made mothers feel dissatisfied.The mother´s in the literature study was of different ages, both prim parous and multiparous, who had born vaginally or with caesarean sections. Three continents were represented as Europe, Oceania and North America.                                                                                                                    

    Conclusion: The importance of professionally good breastfeeding support is a prerequisite for more mothers to feel safer when breastfeeding. A good preparation, practical support and that the information presented in a realistic, honest, consistent way and is based on the mother as an individual way make more mother´s breastfeed their children. This can lead to more mothers and children taking advantage of the benefits that breastfeeding involves.    

    Keywords: Breastfeeding, problems, support, health care- professionals, qualitative,nursing.

  • 235.
    Elin, Carlsson
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    Sofia, Frank
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    Kvinnor med endometrios erfarenheter av möten med vården: En beskrivande litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Endometrios är en vanlig sjukdom som drabbar 1 av 10 menstruerande kvinnor. Smärta i nedre buken är ett vanligt symtom som ofta leder till minskad livskvalitet och minskat välbefinnande hos de drabbade kvinnorna. Trots detta finns relativt lite kunskap inom området och forskning kring drabbade kvinnors erfarenheter av möten med vården. Syfte: Att beskriva vilka erfarenheter kvinnor med endometrios har av möten med vården. Metod: En beskrivande litteraturstudie baserad på 11 vetenskapliga artiklar varav tio med en kvalitativ ansats och en med en kvantitativ ansats. Artiklarna hämtades i databaserna MedLine via PubMed och CINAHL. Huvudresultat: Kvinnor med endometrios beskrev erfarenheter av att de inte blev tagna på allvar och att deras symtom normaliserades i möten med vården. Det framkom att kvinnor hade erfarenheter av att vårdpersonal hanterade fertilitetsfrågor på ett okänsligt sätt. Kvinnor med endometrios beskrev erfarenheter av både positiv och negativ kommunikation i möten med vården beroende på vårdpersonalens kommunikationsförmåga. Erfarenheter av kunskapsbrist hos vårdpersonal och vag eller komplicerad information ledde till oro hos kvinnor och gjorde att de tappade förtroende för vården och sökte information på egen hand. Slutsats: De erfarenheter som kvinnor med endometrios har av möten med vården är av avgörande betydelse för hur deras livskvalitet ser ut, hur de mår psykiskt, deras självkänsla och hur de klarar av att hantera sjukdomen. Kunskapsbrist och normativa föreställningar om kvinnor från vårdpersonalens sida leder till negativa erfarenheter av vårdmötet för de drabbade kvinnorna. Det är därför viktigt att öka kunskapen förståelsen om endometrios hos vårdpersonal

  • 236.
    Elofsson, Bianca
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Gonzalez, Evelyn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Närståendes erfarenheter och behov av stöd inom palliativ vård i hemmet: En litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It is becoming increasingly common in health care that relatives have a significant role in palliative care at home. Some patients receiving care in a palliative phase choose to pass away at home, which implies that relatives need to take on a great responsibility for the patient's care. Aim: To describe the experiences and needs of relatives that provide support from the nurse in palliative care at home. Additionally the aim was to examine the method of data collection of all articles included in the thesis. Methodology: The applied methodology is a literature study of descriptive character based on fourteen scientific articles, searched and found on the Cinahl and PubMed databases, as well as through manual research. Result: Relatives provide care around the clock, resulting in limitations in their own daily activities and ignoring their own needs. The nurse’s support was portrayed both as deficient and satisfactory. Support to the relative in terms of relief facilitated the role for the relative as nurturers and reduced feelings of tiredness, demand, loneliness, and isolation. Decent availability and a good relationship with the nurse could reduce feelings of insecurity and fear with the relative. For the nurse to give the right information and communication to the relative could facilitate for the relative, and reduce feelings of confusion and frustration as well as the burden of the care. To get good bereavement support in the form of phone calls, letters and home visits could strengthen the entire family. Conclusions: Relatives need for various forms of support from nurses during and after the palliative care. Emotional support, bereavement support, accessibility, good relationship with nurses, information, and communication are essential for maintaining well-being of the caregiving relative.

  • 237.
    Elsrud, Alexandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Distriktssköterskors erfarenheter och upplevelser av att arbeta med tobaksavvänjning i grupp2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tobaksbruk är förknippat med ohälsa, stor risk finns att drabbas av följdsjukdomar. Syftet var att beskriva distriktssköterskors erfarenheter och upplevelser av att arbeta med tobaksavväjning i grupp. En studie med kvalitativ ansats och deskriptiv design har gjorts. Åtta distriktssköterskor som arbetar med tobaksavväjning i grupp har intervjuats. Materialet har analyserats med hjälp av kvalitativ innehållsanalys. I resultatets första kategori ”Viktigt med tydliga arbetsrutiner vid tobaksavvänjning i grupp” beskrevs exempelvis arbetsrutiner såsom att hemuppgifter gavs mellan grupptillfällena, tobaksstoppdatum planerades och uppföljningar gjordes. Dock beskrevs svårigheter att rekrytera deltagare till tobaksavvänjningsgrupperna, vilket innebar att personerna hänvisades till individuell tobaksavväjning. Det rapporterades vara psykiskt påfrestande att leda grupper om deltagare hade psykisk ohälsa och komplexa sociala problem. Andra kategorin ”Möjligheter och svårigheter vid gruppbehandling” beskrev att motiverande samtal användes och deltagarnas motivation ansågs avgörande för tobaksstoppet. Tobaksavväjningen uppgavs fungera när distriktssköterskan inte ”föreläste” utan uppmuntrade alla till att bli hörda, så att erfarenheter delades och stöd gavs åt varandra. Distriktssköterskorna upplevde arbetet stimulerande men även frustrerande, möjligheter till stöd av tobakssamordnare eller kollegor fanns, dock saknades stöd av läkare. Önskvärt enligt distriktssköterskorna vore att vara två som genomförde gruppträffarna tillsammans, ha tillräckligt med administrativ tid samt ha tid för fortbildning. Slutsatsen är att distriktssköterskorna arbetade efter tydliga arbetsrutiner. De upplevde både möjligheter och svårigheter med att genomföra gruppbehandling. Dock behövs mer fokus läggas på att rekrytera personer till grupperna så att grupper inte behöver ställas in, samt att ökad möjlighet till vidareutveckling av tobaksavvänjnings arbete i grupp bör ges till distriktssköterskorna. 

  • 238.
    Elverstig, Ebba
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Söder, Evelina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nyutexaminerade sjuksköterskors upplevelser och hantering av arbetsrelaterad stress under det första året i yrket: En intervjustudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The nursing profession involves a high workload and can thus lead to a perceived work related stress. Newly graduated nurses are particularly susceptible to this type of stress because of their lack of experience in their professional capacity. To develop strategies for managing stress is therefore important for the nurse’s wellbeing. Aim: The aim of the present study was to describe how recently graduated nurses experience and cope with work related stress during the first year in the profession. Method: The study had a qualitative approach with descriptive design. In this study eight nurses participated who graduated in January, alternatively, in June 2014, and were employed at four different somatic wards situated in central Sweden. Data were collected using semistructured interviews and were analyzed with manifest qualitative content analysis. Main Findings: The results showed that work related stress was caused by a combination of the recently graduated nurse’s internal demands, feelings and ambient external influences. How nurses handled work related stress was individual and varied depending on the situation. To find the support and enlist the help of colleagues, to reduce their own requirements and to develop an approach that suits the individual was found to be effective strategies for stress management. Conclusion: The conclusion was that the recently graduated nurses experienced several types of stress during the first year in the profession. The ability to evolve, learn to be kind to yourself and that the colleagues were available to provide assistance and support were prerequisites for managing the stress.

  • 239.
    Elving, Sara
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Hallstensson, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Personers upplevelser av omvårdnad efter ett suicidförsök2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: About 7000 people in Sweden try to take their lives every year. This number is expected to rise. The primary risk factors for suicide are past suicide attempts and mental illness. The stigmatized approach in society makes people feel ashamed of suicidal thoughts. Many people that completed a suicide had an earlier healthcare contact. Suicide can by that fact be prevented. Nursing's attitude should be based on a non-judicial approach and make it clear that both time and interest are present. Nursing should be based on a holistic perspective where the individual's unique needs are put in focus. The nurse should be helpful with support both mentally, physically, existentially and socially. Experiences of people who survived a suicide attempt will be a guiding tool for the nurse in the design of nursing care for this patient group.

    Aim: To describe people's experiences of nursing after a suicide attempt.

    Methods: A descriptive literature review containing ten studies with a qualitative approach was used.

    Main results: Continuity and accessibility in the healthcare and also involvement of family and friends were aspects that emerged as positive for the nursing experience. Commitment and good communication from the healthcare professionals was also considered significant for a positive experience. Lack of continuity and accessibility in the healthcare as well as experiences of losing control emerged as negative aspects of nursing experience. What also appeared to be negative for the experience was when the healthcare professionals showed a lack of knowledge or communication or had a stigmatized approach of suicide.

    Conclusion: In the caring of people after a suicide attempt, the nurse is the main tool herself. More education and time would be a good tool for nurses in helping people who survived a suicide attempt in their recovery process.

  • 240.
    Emilsson, Carl-Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ziyara, Fatma
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Upplevelser av att vara anhörig till en person med cancersjukdom: en litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In 2014, 60 524 patients with malignant tumours were registered in the Swedish Cancer Registry. The distribution of malignant tumours was 52 percent for men and 48 percent for women. Relatives play an important role in the life of a person with cancer, and these families are facing major changes in everyday life. Nurses have an important role to give support to these affected families.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe family members’ experiences of being a relative of a person with cancer and to describe research groups in the included studies.

    Method: A literature review with descriptive design based on 13 qualitative scientific studies. The material was analysed and divided into subject headings.

    Main Results: The results displayed that relatives of people with cancer are living in a family with major changes of their roles and in everyday life. Relatives could experience anxiety and concerns about life situation and helplessness. It was important for family members to keep the family together for their own sake and for the person with cancer. The experience of healthcare professionals varied among these family members.

    Conclusion: Relatives are affected in many ways. Facing challenges is everyday life for these relatives, and help from friends, family and health professionals are important for family members with a person with cancer. It is relevant with information in just the right amount and that the nurse is showing empathy towards relatives. Finally, it’s relevant that the nurse also sees the whole family and not just the person with cancer.

  • 241.
    Emnehult, Lina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Landsem, Jonna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans erfarenheter av att möta transpersoner: en litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A transgender person is a person who does not identify themselves as the gender assigned at birth but more as the opposite gender, as both man and woman or as neither of them. The process undergoing sex reassignment is social as well as medical and legal. The nurse should strive to treat all patients equally.

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to describe nurses experience in meeting transgender persons and to conduct a methodological review of the included articles.

    Method: This is a literature review with a descriptive design in which the result is based on eight qualitative and one quantitative article. These were collected from the databases Cinahl and Medline through PubMed. In the research of the articles there emerged two themes with five subheadings. The methodological aspect is study group.

    Results: The nurses expressed low knowledge about transgender people and therefore was uncertain how to meet and nurse them. Most nurses felt fear of discriminating despite the intention to treat these people with respect and dignity. The number of nurses who participated in the studies of the included articles was 400. The studies were performed in the United States, Canada and Australia.

    Conclusion: Inadequate knowledge and fear of making mistakes affect the nurse in the care of transgender persons. More research is needed to increase understanding for all health care professional and to provide better conditions for equal treatment of transgender persons and to provide better support for those undergoing gender sex reassignment treatment.

  • 242.
    Endahl, Ann-Louise
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Linder, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Patienters fysiska och psykiska symtom av fasta i väntan på operation: en litteraturstudie : sjuksköterskans möjlighet att befrämja patientens hälsa2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrunden till denna litteraturstudie var att tidigare forskning påvisat att framtagna riktlinjer gällande preoperativ fasta inför planerade operationer ej efterlevs optimalt. Syftet var att beskriva vuxna patienters fysiska och psykiska symtom vid fasta i väntan på planerad operation, hur sjuksköterskan kan främja patientens hälsa under den preoperativa tiden samt beskriva de ingående studiernas urvals- och datainsamlingsmetod. Metoden som användes var en beskrivande litteraturstudie där artiklar söktes via PubMed (Medline) och Cinahl. Där påfanns 17 artiklar som utgjorde grunden till studien. I resultatet framkom att patienter som fastar i väntan på planerade operationer visar på fysiska symtom som törst, hunger och illamående samt psykiska symtom som oro och ångest. Den övergripande omvårdnadsåtgärden för att förebygga dessa symtom vid fasta i väntan på planerad operation var att administrera patienten kolhydratrik dryck fram till två timmar innan operation. Vidare framkom sjuksköterskans viktiga roll att beakta detta och främja för ökad hälsa för patienter i väntan på planerade operationer. Slutsatsen visar på att det behövs kontinuerliga uppdateringar och spetsutbildningar samt utökat samarbete mellan de olika professionerna och klinikerna för att vårdpersonal skall bli medvetna om detta problemområde. Bättre förutsättningar skapas då för såväl patienterna som vårdpersonal inom den planerade operationsverksamheten.

  • 243.
    Engberg-Nordqvist, Lena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Upplevelse av den egna matsituationen hos äldre som har matdistribution i ordinärt boende2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to describe how older people living in ordinary housing and had food distribution by the municipality was experiencing its meal situation. The study has been carried out through unstructured interviews with eight people who were over 75 years who living in their own homes and had food distribution by the municipality. Data were analysed using qualitative manifest content analysis and five categories revealed: about food's nature and content , internal and external conditions , adaptation, needs and strategies and being dependent on other people. The informant felt that they missed having social companionship at mealtimes. They felt that the food distribution was a good way to ingest food when you were unable to do it youself . The biggest gripe with the mealbox was that the potatoes were perceived not tasting good. The informant also described not feeling hungry this was particularly noticeable among those who felt that their health was deteriorating , was miserable, had few social relationships, had physical limitations and was in need of much help from home care services . Home service was described as an important social contact, but all informants felt that the staff was stressed. The study's conclusion indicates that informants wish more active staff support at mealtimes and that lunchbox portion should be reduced. The reduced portion should contain nourished diet for those who are in need of it. Lunch boxes and the potatoes should be made more appetizing to older should get increased appetite

    Keywords: older people , malnutrition, food distribution, ordinary housing .

  • 244.
    Engelmark, Emilia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap.
    Johansson, Elin
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap.
    Upplevelser av livskvalitet i samband med en pacemakeroperation: En litteraturstudie2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this literature study was to describe how patients experience their quality of life while undergoing a pacemaker implantation. Searches were carried out in the databases Academic Search Elite, Ebsco Host, Pub Med, Pub Med Central, Science Direct and manually. Keywords used were quality of life, treatment outcomes, emotions, pacing and life. This resulted in nineteen peer rewieved articles that were selected for the study results. The results showed that patients undergoing a pacemaker implantation experienced an improvement in their physical health with increased functional status, more energy and strength. From a psychological perspective, some patients experienced an improvement in quality of life while others felt worried and depressed. A common factor among the patients was anxiety and insecurity concerning daily routine activities. The amount of time passed after the pacemaker implantation was also a common factor that had impact on how patients experienced their physical and psychological health. To get a deeper knowledge and understanding when meeting patients undergoing a pacemaker implantation it is important that more research, especially qualitative, is carried out.

  • 245.
    Englund, Ingela
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Wallin, Pia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Information och stöd kring egenvård som individer med diabetes typ 2 finner värdefull: En beskrivande litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    Introduction:

    Diabetes mellitus type 2 is the most common form of diabetes in the world and is rapidly increasing, it is a serious endocrinology, progressive illness with high chance of complications. Due to the patients life quality being a very important priority it is necessary for a continuous and rigorous selfcare. In order for the patient to have an opportunity to do so the nurse needs to support the patient with knowledge in the form of education, assistance and information.

    Purpose:

    The main purpose of this study is to describe what type of information, knowledge and support in regards to selfcare for grownups are valuable and helpful for individuals with diabetes mellitus type 2.

    Method:

    A descriptive literature study based upon twelve scientific articles found from PubMed database using the search words Diabetes Mellitus Type 2, Selfcare and Information. Both authors have processed the articles and search words.

    Aim objective:

    Numerous patients expressed the need for support and education concerning food, physical activities and weight balance. Education in group and individual levels are highly demanded, especially to share individual experiences between diagnosed patients. The educational activities generated an increased feeling of self-esteem and an opportunity through selfcare of being able to treat yourself in a correct manner. Mobilized selfcare support was considered useful and resulted in good control over Diabetes. Blood samples where used to examine the effect of different behavioral changes related to the treatment.

    Conclusion:

    Education in group and individual levels are considered very import-ant and valuable, furthermore web- and mobile support were also considered valuable. Patients with type 2 diabetes desired information and support in to a greater extent, the caretaker and nurse with their knowledge within care, have a key role in the process of improving selfcare treatment for the diagnosed patients.

  • 246.
    Englund, Sandra
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Mårtensson, Thèrése
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Livskvalitet hos personer med Amyotrofisk lateralskleros (ALS) - En litteraturstudie2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to describe how people with Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) experience their quality of life. The method used was a study of literature with design description. A various combination of search words, such as “amyotrophic lateral sclerosis”, “ALS”, “quality of life” and “people” were used in searching the computer bases Medline (Pubmed) and Science Direct. In total, thirteen scientific articles were analysed and quality tested, subsequently they were categorized into four categories: physical, mental, social and existential quality of life. Research into the physical aspects surrounding the quality of life showed that it is, above all, the disparaging functional capabilities and restrictions related to the illness which causes the mental suffering. In time, the patients interests changed from active to passive. In contrast to this, the experience of mental suffering was very low. Results of the studies into the social aspects showed that the patients relationship with family and friends was of the greatest value to quality of life, as well as the foremost support towards conquering the difficulties which the illness causes. The patients religious beliefs and access to a priest, play a significant part regarding the conquering of existential questions and thoughts.

  • 247.
    Englund Åsbrink, Towe
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nedeljkovic, Jonathan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    HIV- positiva personers uppfattningar och upplevelser av bemötande från sjukvårdspersonal: en litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Idag lever ca 30-35 miljoner av världens befolkning med Humant immunbrist virus. I Sverige är ungefär 6500 personer infekterade och varje år rapporteras 400-500 nya fall. När en person drabbas av Humant immunbrist virus medför det ofta en stor förändring i livet. Hos sjukvårdspersonal finns det en bristande kunskap inom ämnet.

    Syfte: Beskriva hur personer med Humant immunbrist virus uppfattar och upplever att de bemöts av sjukvårdspersonal, samt beskriva undersökningsgruppen i inkluderade artiklar.

    Metod: En litteraturstudie med en deskriptiv design. Elva artiklar inkluderades, två kvantitativa och nio kvalitativa.

    Resultat: Två teman identifierades: Negativt bemötande och Positivt bemötande. Tre underrubriker hittades under rubriken Negativt bemötande, vilket var: Att bli bemött annorlunda, Bemött med rädsla och Brist på empati. Undersökningsgruppen presenteras under rubriken: Presentation av artiklarnas undersökningsgrupp. HIV- positiva personer upplevde ofta att de blev bemötta med fördomar från sjukvårdspersonal. Sjukvårdspersonalen kunde få deltagarna att känna sig ignorerade och respektlöst behandlade. Många HIV- positiva personer upplevde att de behandlades annorlunda på grund av sin sjukdom. Goda kunskaper inom HIV- vård från sjukvårdspersonalens sida resulterade i att deltagarna kände sig väl bemötta.

    Slutsatser: HIV- positiva personer upplevde att de blev dåligt bemött av sjuvårdspersonal.

    Fördomar och diskriminering var vanligt förekommande företeelser i vårdmötet. Det visade sig även att den sjukvårdspersonal som hade ökade kunskaper om Humant immunbrist virus, hade ett bättre bemötande gentemot denna patientgrupp.

  • 248.
    Engstrand, Frida
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Nilsson, Linnéa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Nyutexaminerade sjuksköterskors upplevelse av att arbeta som sjuksköterska2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: approximately 5000 nurses are examined each year in Sweden. A nurse has many tasks in addition to the care around the patient. As a person, the nurse should be respectful and show compassion. Experienced nurses felt that newly graduated nurses lacked the knowledge required to independently exercise the profession. The experienced nurses felt responsible for the newly graduated nurses, saying that, among other things, they experienced tiredness and fatigue.Aim: to describe newly graduate nurse´s experience of working as a nurse. Furthermore, the aim of this study was to examine the sampling of the included articles.Methods: a literature study with a descriptive design. The eleven scientific articles included in the study were quantitative, qualitative and mixed approaches. The articles were searched in the PubMed database.Main results: newly graduated nurses felt that good guidance promoted the development of knowledge, but that several factors negatively affected self-confidence in the professional role; including the lack of clinical experience. Experiences of hierarchy and bullying were described as well as the communication leading to experiences of stress. The fact that newly graduated nurses thought to quit their work was due, inter alia, to the fact that they felt incompetent and had difficulty feeling free because they thought about work all the time.Conclusion: newly graduated nurses experienced the first professional years as mentally demanding and exhaustive due to the lack of clinical experience and experiences of bullying. A good supervisor fostered the development of knowledge and contributed to a better experience. Increased understanding of the experience of newly graduated nurses is beneficial for both experienced nurses and for the occupations so that they can improve the working environment of newly graduated nurses.

  • 249.
    Engström, Malin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Helsing, Sara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Att leva med HIV och upplevelsen av stigmatisering från samhället - ett patientperspektiv: Deskriptiv litteraturstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med litteraturstudien var att beskriva hur vuxna personer med HIV upplever och hanterar sitt liv efter diagnos. Deskriptiv design användes och studien omfattade 16 artiklar som söktes fram via databaserna Cinahl och PubMed samt genom manuell sökning. Resultatet visade att rädsla och oro fanns över att berätta för andra om sin HIV diagnos. De var rädda att bli utstötta av vänner och familj samt annorlunda behandlade än före diagnos. Stigmatisering var vanligt förekommande bland personer diagnosticerade med HIV och många upplevde ensamhet och isolering från samhället, många gånger beroende på svårigheter att känna tillit till andra. Att ha ett socialt nätverk var betydande och då både av vänner och familj samt interaktion med andra i liknande situation men även att kunna fokusera på andra saker än sjukdomen, att sätta upp framtida mål och ha fritidsintressen. Personer diagnosticerade med HIV upplever stigmatisering från samhället. Känslor av skuld och skam är vanligt förekommande och vikten av ett socialt nätverk är betydande för att kunna hantera dessa känslor samt den förändrade livssituationen. Varje individ är unik och bör bemötas med respekt och utan förutfattade meningar.

  • 250.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap. Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap..
    A Caregiver Perspective on Incorporating IT support into Dementia Care2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The overall aim of the present thesis was to describe and evaluate IT support in dementia care from the perspectives of staff and relatives. More specifically, it was to examine staff members’ satisfaction with work, life satisfaction and sense of coherence before and after increased IT support, to describe staff members’ opinions and perceptions of IT support during the process of implementation, to describe relatives’ opinions of IT support and to compare relatives’ perceptions of their irritations with care and life satisfaction before and after increased IT support. In addition, three questionnaires were further developed and tested among staff working in elderly care, and then used in the staff evaluation. Methods: A quasi-experimental design with baseline assessments and follow-ups and experimental and control groups was used in two studies to investigate the outcomes of IT support. A descriptive design was used to study staff views on IT support, and a correlative design was used in the methodological study. Participants were 33 staff members and 22 relatives in the evaluation, 14 staff members in the descriptive study and 299 staff members in the methodological study. Data collection methods were questionnaires and group interviews. The IT support consisted of passive passage alarms, fall detectors, sensor-activated night-time illumination of the lavatory, movement detectors, email communication, an Internet website and additional computers. Findings and conclusions: Staff job satisfaction and perceived quality of care increased in the experimental group. The relatives were generally positive about the IT support, and the experimental group showed a decrease in practical/logistical irritations. Staff described ‘moving from fear of losing control to perceived increase in control and security’ and ‘constant struggling with insufficient/deficient systems’. Conclusions are that IT support can be a resource in dementia care as perceived by caregivers if IT support is incorporated into the care system.

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