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  • 201.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Mooney Simmie, Geraldine
    University of Limerick.
    Democracy and teacher education: Dilemmas, challenges, and possibilities2020Book (Refereed)
  • 202.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Mooney Simmie, Geraldine
    University of Limerick.
    Exploring the notion of critical thinking in relation to teacher educator’s professional judgment within Teacher Education in Sweden and the Republic of Ireland2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 203.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Mooney Simmie, Geraldine
    University of Limerick.
    (Re)positioning the Democratic (Ethical) Identity of the Teacher Educator within Global Policy Discourses of Compliance2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Teacher Education (TE) in Sweden and the Republic of Ireland, as well as many other countries, has come, to be closely regulated by the state. In this study we conducted a comparative critical discourse analysis of four policy documents, two documents in each country. We tested our hypothesis that the democratic (ethical) identity of the teacher educator has been diminished in recent policy documents. Our critical discourse analysis to date has confirmed the accuracy of this hypothesis and indicated that the paradigm shift in this regard has been rapid and substantive. The findings have implications for the democratic (ethical) dimension of teacher education generally and for education’s role as a social and political shaper of contemporary democratic society.

  • 204.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Mooney Simmie, Geraldine
    University of Limerick.
    The changing democratic (ethical) dimension in Teacher Educator’s professional identity?: A comparative critical discourse analysis of policy documents regarding teacher educator’s democratic (ethical) identity in the Republic of Ireland and Sweden2014In: European Journal of Teacher Education, ISSN 0261-9768, E-ISSN 1469-5928Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we report on findings from a larger critical discourse analysis of official policy documents, in relation to the democratic (ethical) identity of the teacher educator in the Republic of Ireland and Sweden. The study framed with critical theory positions teacher education within competing discourses of education. The research methodology examines the hypothesis that in the last decade there has been a paradigm shift in the way policy documents regard the democratic (ethical) identity of the teacher educator (teacher).  In an earlier study we completed a historical contextual overview and a preliminary comparative word count of four policy documents, two documents from each country, at the start of this century and more recently. The study reported in this paper consists of a comparative initial textual analysis  in relation to the same four policy documents. Findings indicate a substantive paradigm shift in both countries from a predominantly progressive (pragmatic) discourse in the early years of this century to a more essentialist (technocratic) discourse  in  recent times. The study raises concerns not only about the democratic (ethical) identity of the teacher educator but also about the contemporary role for  education  as a social and political shaper of values (democratic) and emancipation.

  • 205.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Sharp, Heather
    Newcastle University, Australia.
    Ammert, Niklas
    Linnéuniversitet.
    Löfström, Jan
    Helsingfors universitet.
    Exploring moral responsibility(ies) within argumentations for the use of historical consciousnes2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 206.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Sharp, Heather
    Newcastle University, Australia.
    Ammert, Niklas
    Linnéuniversitet.
    Löfström, Jan
    Helsingfors universitet.
    Highlighting relationships between historical consciousness and moral consciousness: Objectives, consequences and moral foci2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 207.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Sharp, Heather
    Newcastle University, Australia.
    Löfström, Jan
    Helsingfors universitet, Finland.
    Ammert, Niklas
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Exploring moral responsibility(ies) within argumentations for the use of historical consciousness2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Totalitarian and nationalistic ideas, violence, and mass-murder of dissidents are part of our history; Educational programs like Council of Europe and the Forum for living history are created with the aim that knowledge about moral and ethical violence in the past can support students’ sense of moral responsibilities in the present (Selman & Barr, 2009). In this context, moral responsibility means broadly an obligation not to harm others (Kamm, 2007). In the 1980s a ‘moral’ turn took place in historical scholarship which implied that questions concerning good and bad as well right and wrong were recognized as vital in history education (cf. Cotkin: 2008). This process was closely intertwined with the development of historical consciousness within the field of history education (cf. Jensen, 1978).  Following Rüsen (2004), historical consciousness can be regarded as a narrative competence, a narrative ability to generate well-grounded interpretations of the world in relation to the past, the present, and the future.Accordingly, history education carries an important possibility to develop students’ commitment to moral responsibility and democracy in the present. However, the moral dimension in relation to the concept historical consciousness has, to date, only been raised in a general manner (Rüsen, 2004), which makes it difficult to theoretically understand the link between historical and moral consciousness.With this as a background, the purpose of the paper is to conceptually deepen the understanding of moral responsibilities present in descriptions of historical consciousness. This is done by exploring how a) historical consciousness as a concept developed during the 1960s, b) its relationship to didaktik, and c) theme(s) of moral responsibility(ies) expressed in theoretical definitions of historical consciousness. As such, the research this paper draws on will provide a typology of moral themes aligned with the use of historical consciousness in education, which can function as a support for teacher judgments (cf. Schön, 1983).  Sources used about historical consciousness are a selection of those frequently referred to in various published literature and university-level text books for teacher education students in Sweden, Finland, and Australia.Inspired by Faircloughs’ (1995) critical discourse analysis the material will be analyzed in three steps: (1) a text-analysis where the use of words and their intercorrelation have been essential to depict, (2) an interpretation, implying a structuring of the discursive themes found, and (3) an explanation of the themes discovered which are placed in a broader social context and research body.

  • 208.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Sharp, Heather
    Newcastle University, Australia.
    Löfström, Jan
    Helsingfors universitet.
    Ammert, Niklas
    Linnéuniversitet.
    Exploring the link between historical consciousness and moral consciousness: motivations, epistemological assumptions and moral purposes2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 209.
    Edman, Olof
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Relationen mellan religion och vetenskap i läromedel för det nya religionskunskapsämnet: En kvalitativ innehållsanalys2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna uppsats görs en kvalitativ innehållsanalys av ett urval av läromedel i religionskunskap 1 (ämnesplan 11). Analysen avser att fokusera på presentationen av relationen mellan religion och vetenskap, där analysen tar hjälp av fyra olika interaktionsmodeller inspirerade av Ian G. Barbour. Dessa interaktionsmodeller blir centrala i att försöka kategorisera olika mönster och avvikelser i läromedlen när de tar upp förhållandet mellan religion och vetenskap.

         Det som kunnat konstateras är att de läromedel som blivit analyserade för denna uppsats har till större delar liknande mönster. Dessa mönster beskriver för det mesta en pågående konflikt mellan religion och vetenskap men det finns en antydan till att denna beskrivning saknar en djupare inblick i de faktorer som lett till sagd konflikt. Förutom att läromedlens till största del fokus för lärornas relation är konfliktartad så får religionsbegreppet i princip bara representeras av kristna traditioner, något som kan upplevas som simplifierande i en bredare kontext.

         För att avsnitt i läromedel med fokus på momentet religion och vetenskap inte skall riskera att bara visa en förenklad bild av den komplexa relation som religion och vetenskap har så rekommenderas en applicering av historisk kontext, oavsett om läromedlen måste ändras eller om ansvarig lärare väljer att komplettera undervisningen med det.

  • 210.
    Edström, Kristina
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Levander, Sara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Engström, Julia
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Geschwind, Lars
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Peer review of teaching merits in academic career systems: A comparative study2019In: Proceedings of the 8th Research in Engineering Education Symposium, REES 2019 - Making Connections / [ed] Kloot, B., Research in Engineering Education Network , 2019, p. 282-291Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates peer review of teaching merits in promotion processes at two Swedish technical universities. At KTH, two external experts evaluate both scientific and teaching merits, while Chalmers invites three experts for scientific and one for pedagogical evaluation. 50 successful promotion cases, containing 126 expert statements, are investigated quantitatively and qualitatively. The analysis shows that neither university devotes the same attention to assessing teaching as scientific merits. In 2/3 of the cases, less than 1/3 of the text is devoted to evaluating teaching merits. Half the KTH cases are settled based on less than one page evaluating teaching. In pedagogical evaluations at Chalmers, teaching qualifications are broadly conceptualised including collegial and scholarly aspects. At KTH, the experts with Swedish affiliations demonstrate broader conceptualisations of teaching than the international experts do. This is interpreted as expressions of two different evaluation cultures, one scientific-international and one pedagogical-national. The legitimacy of these practices is considered.

  • 211.
    Edvinsson, Johanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Eriksson, Ida
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Den sociala omgivningens påverkan på kvinnors hälsa: En kvalitativ studie om sju unga kvinnors upplevelser2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Edvinsson, J. & Eriksson, I. (2014). Den sociala omgivningens påverkan på kvinnors hälsa - En kvalitativ studie om sju unga kvinnors upplevelser. Bachelor thesis in Education. University of Gavle, School of Education and Economy, Department of education science.

    The social environment and its different processes have been shown to influence individual’s perception of health and peoples’ attitude toward health and behavior constructions. However, the range of knowledge about these processes and their influence is small, while women perceive their health worse than ever. It is essential that more research be conducted, on the phenomenon of social processes and health, which can increase awareness around this. increase the awareness of health and its benefits. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate how young women describe health and how they perceive that heir social environment and surroundings influences their attitude and behavior toward health. The method that was used in this study was qualitative semi-constructed interviews that were answered by seven women, aged 20-30 years. The data have thereafter been categorized by common themes and was then analyzed with the help and inspiration of phenomenology. The result, the common experiences that these women shared, showed that health was perceived as a balance between psychical and physical wellbeing. The social environment contain expectations and norms regarding the attitudes and behaviors toward health, however the women did not conceive these to have any impact on their experience of health. The environment and surroundings have therefore no pronounced influence over the women’s experience of health. It is impossible, however, to verify that there are no influence what so ever, as it may be an unconscious process in interplay with the surroundings.

  • 212.
    Edwards, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Musiksamlingen – inte bara musik: En intervju- och observationsstudie om musiksamlingar i förskolan2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Musiksamling är ett vanligt inslag i förskolans verksamhet och i läroplanen (Lpfö, 98) betonas att barn ska uppmuntras till skapande genom olika uttrycksformer, till exempel genom musik. Enligt Lpfö 98 ska också verksamheten utgå från barnens intressen samt att lärandet hos barn måste baseras på vuxnas och barns samspel med varandra. Syftet med detta examensarbete är undersöka hur musiksamlingar genomförs på förskoleavdelningar med fokus på samspelet mellan deltagarna. Studien utgick ifrån intervjuer med förskollärare samt observationer med barn och förskollärare under musiksamlingar. Studiens resultat visar att det genomfördes olika aktiviteter på musiksamlingar. Aktiviteterna innehöll musik med sång och gitarr, rörelselekar och rim ramsor och teater. Samspelet förändrades beroende på vilken aktivitet som genomfördes. Vid musiksamling med gitarr och sång fanns ett sämre samspel mellan förskollärare och barn än i aktiviteter som präglades av rim, ramsor och teater. Slutsatsen visar att om ett gott samspel ska råda mellan förskolläraren som leder tillsammans med barnen, måste ett tydligt samspel råda mellan förskollärarna i musiksamlingen. Den brist på engagemang som visar sig bland förskollärare att leda en musiksamling kan istället vara en signal på ren osäkerhet.

  • 213.
    Ekberg, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Kallin, Therese
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Att arbeta med barn som har adhd och särskilda behov i fritidshemmet: En intervjustudie av sju pedagogers erfarenheter2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 214.
    Ekengren, Stina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Kouva Cornejo, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    IKT som pedagogiskt verktyg i förskolan: En enkätstudie om pedagogers inställning till IKT i förskolans verksamhet2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka pedagogernas inställning till användningen av IKT som pedagogiskt verktyg i förskolans verksamhet, både i lärande syfte gällande barnen men även synliggöra förskollärarnas uppfattningar om vilka hinder och möjligheter som kan uppstå. För att ta reda på detta användes en enkät som kvantitativ analysmetod med hjälp av sajten Survey Monkey. Enkätfrågorna skapades utifrån frågeställningarna och bestod av 22 stycken frågor, enkäten skickades ut i tre olika Facebookgrupper och sammanlagt valde 93 personer att delta. Resultatet delades upp i kategorierna: IKT en del av samhället och framtiden, barns lärande är oändligt, resurser utgör hinder och stora möjligheter med IKT. Det framkom att IKT användandet ses som en nödvändighet och en viktig del att kunna för barnen både nu och i framtiden. Lärandet är också en viktig aspekt där matematik, digitala verktyg, samspel och språk är ämnen som respondenterna såg i användandet av IKT. Hinder som uppstår i IKT användandet är brist på tid, dålig ekonomi och brist på kunskap och utveckling. Möjligheter som uppstår med IKT användningen är oändliga eftersom det finns förutsättningar till att skapa aktiviteter som innefattar läroplansmålen som förskolan ska arbeta för. Denna studie tydliggör pedagogers synsätt på IKT med fokus på barns lärande och det ges en inblick om och hur de använder IKT i förskolans verksamhet.

  • 215.
    Eklund, Ira
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Ulfves, Jenny
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    En studie om barns, förskollärares och barnskötares uppfattningar över den fysiska och sociala miljöns möjligheter att främja eller motverka trygga kamratrelationer2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Styrdokument ställer övergripande krav på förskollärare och barnskötare att skapa trygga miljöer som främjar goda kamratrelationer då många barn idag vistas i och berörs av förskolans fysiska miljö. Forskning visar dock att den fysiska miljön ofta tas för given inom den didaktiska forskningen. Föreliggande studie ämnar ge förskollärare och barnskötare verktyg att främja trygga kamratrelationer genom att arbeta med den fysiska miljön ur ett barnperspektiv. Empirin utgörs av semistrukturerade intervjuer i samtalsform med sjutton barn från två förskolor. För att lyfta barns perspektiv på relationen mellan den fysiska och sociala miljön intervjuas barn med stöd av fotografier och ikoner som representerar känslor. Även sju pedagoger intervjuas för att synliggöra möjliga likheter och skillnader mellan barns och vuxnas perspektiv. Ur barns perspektiv visar resultatet att barn är glada och har roligt tillsammans med kamrater i en miljö som innehåller ett varierat utbud av artefakter, möjligheter till fysiska aktiviteter samt gemensam planerad verksamhet, där artefakter kan uppfattas mediera trygghet. Den fysiska miljön kan således bidra till positiva känslor som främjar trygga kamratrelationer. Resultatet visar att pedagogerna lyfter vikten av närvarande vuxna och möjligheten till flexibla planlösningar. Att utrymmen som hall och groventré ligger nära varandra möjliggör att pedagoger skulle ha överblick i situationer som beskrevs som problematiska av både barn och vuxna. Studien visar att barn är utmärkta informanter om sina villkor och har själva lösningar på praktiska problem som kan finnas i förskolans miljö. Därmed är det fruktbart att öka barns delaktighet när pedagoger tänker kring den fysiska miljöns utformning på förskolan.

  • 216.
    Ekström, Josefine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Hansson, Lina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Den kommunikativa aspekten av förskolans dagliga rutiner: En komparativ studie om barns kommunikation och socialisation under måltiden, samlingen och den fria leken2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte har varit att undersöka hur de yngsta barnen på förskolan kommunicerar och socialiserar med varandra och pedagogerna. Genom videoobservationer har vi studerat barnens kommunikation under de vardagliga rutinerna måltiden, samlingen och den fria leken. Resultatet visar att dessa situationer är ypperliga tillfällen att utmana och utveckla barnens kommunikativa och sociala förmågor. Måltiden och samlingen erbjuder olika möjligheter till samtal där pedagogerna avgör vilka strategier som bör tillämpas för att upprätthålla kommunikationen. Den fria leken präglas av barnens intresse för stunden, därmed avgör barnen vilken typ av kommunikationsform de väljer att tillämpa. I de olika observationerna kunde vi urskilja kommunikation i form av kroppsspråk, gester, tal och tecken som stöd. 

  • 217.
    Elde Mølstad, Christina
    et al.
    Faculty of Education and Natural Sciences, Høgskolen i Hedmark, Norway.
    Lindblad, Sverker
    Department of Education and Special Education, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Comparative reasoning: curriculum making in the 'grey zone'2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Curriculum making concerns the possibility to decide and prescribe purposes, aims, and contents of schooling, but also how these purposes, aims and contents are legitimized. As such, we see curriculum making from the ‘wide’ interpretation of curriculum. We are in relation to curriculum making especially interested in investigating how some important international actors interact with educational purposes, aims, and contents on a world scale level affecting national level, as well as the very local of educational activities. Hence we are interested in investigating curriculum formulation based on comparative statistical reasoning. The actors we are most interested in are those that have been characterized as ‘grey zone’ actors (Lindblad, Pettersson & Popkewitz, 2015). The idea (and term) of the ‘grey zone’ emerged from a previous review of research and organizations using data from international largeVscale assessments (ILSA) (Lindblad et al., 2015) for comparing education systems. These ‘grey zone’ actors have only at best an indirect mandate in education systems, however they still make explicit statements on how to improve schooling and students’ performances; i.e. a form of curriculum making. It is the indirect mandate combined with relatively strong impact on the governing of education that place these actors in the ‘grey zone’.

    There are at least three important actors that stood out in terms of activities spread to a world scale level; the McKinsey, the OECD and the Pearson Company, which all have arisen as important nodes for knowledge on what education is perceived as and maybe more importantly, should be. Their position within education is further reinforced by the comparative and data driven aspects of the contemporary society (cf. Pettersson, Popkewitz & Lindblad, 2016). We examine, three,  what we call  ‘grey zone’ activities involved in curriculum formulation and how a specific reasoning (cf. Hacking, 1992) is used and evolves in these activities: i) the McKinsey producing international reports on educational improvements and developments. Within the terminology of McKinsey recommendations are produced for these purposes: ii) the OECD not only producing ILSA and recommendations, but also producing newsletters where the results of ILSA are mediated and communicated to policy, research and practice: iii) the Pearson Company not only the winner of the open tender to perform PISA 2018, but also the producer of a vast amount of websites for school development within the frameworks of The Learning Curve (TLC) and The Efficacy Framework as well as producing school textbooks. Hence we investigate how these activities frame education defining what content curriculum making should focus on and as such making prerequisites on what education is and should be perceived as.

    All three of these agencies can be discussed in terms of producing activities important for curriculum making in the ‘wider’ sense of the concept. By analyzing products by the agencies we are in a position to highlight them as important sites for curriculum making on an international level. In our study we especially highlight these products in terms of producing a specific reasoning about education, which creates narratives framing curriculum making on a national as well as on a local school level.

  • 218.
    Elde Mølstad, Christina
    et al.
    Inland University, Elverum, Norway.
    Pettersson, DanielUniversity of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education. Uppsala universitet.
    New Practices of Comparison, Quantification and Expertise in Education: Conducting Empirically Based Research2019Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New Practices of Comparison, Quantification and Expertise in Education discusses contemporary trends and activities related to comparisons and quantifications. It aims to help scholars to conduct empirically based research on how comparisons and quantifications are instituted in practice at different levels in the educational system.

    The book furthers discussions on policy by looking at the kinds of activities that comparisons and quantifications lead to at an international, regional and national level. Most of the book’s chapters are based on empirical research conducted in different research projects. The book thus brings all these projects together and discusses them as activities promoted by the reasoning of comparisons and quantifications.

    New Practices of Comparison, Quantification and Expertise in Education will be of great interest to academics, researchers and post-graduate students in the fields of comparative education, curriculum research and policy studies. It will also appeal to those in the fields of teacher education, including student teachers.

  • 219.
    Elde Mølstad, Christina
    et al.
    Inland Norway University, Norway.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Soft infusion: Constructing 'Teachers' in the PISA sphere2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 220.
    Elde Mølstad, Christina
    et al.
    Inland University, Norway.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Who Governs the Numbers?: The Framing of Educational Knowledge by TIMSS Research2018In: Education by the Numbers and the Making of Society: The Expertise of International Assessments / [ed] Sverker Lindblad, Daniel Pettersson, Thomas S. Popkewitz, New York: Taylor & Francis, 2018, p. 166-184Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In contemporary society, different tests of educational performance have been given importance in educational research, policy initiatives and curriculum change as well as in media. Consequently, performance in schools has been increasingly judged on the basis of effective student learning outcomes. One of the most active agencies in performing international comparative tests is the IEA—International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement. The IEA has a history dating back to the 1950s (for a discussion on the history of the IEA see, e.g., Pettersson, 2014), and since 1995 an international large-scale assessment with the acronym TIMSS repetitively has been launched. TIMSS, together with other tests staged by either the IEA or other international organizations, has gradually transformed into reference points for general economic and social policies (Pettersson, 2014). In this context, the phenomenon of international large-scale assessments (ILSA) are serving a global governance constituted by a specific reasoning (cf. Hacking, 1992) connected to the use of numbers. ILSA research, for example, studies using data or results from TIMSS, is based on numbers constructed for partly governance reasons and is a growing interdisciplinary and increasingly international field of study (Lindblad, Pettersson, & Popkewitz, 2015). Hence, the scientific development of the field is highly relevant to analyze. However, it is surprisingly few educational studies that have made use of the data rapidly accumulating with the development of various databases and software. Given the importance of this numbered educational discourse as a social and scientific practice, we propose that it is crucial to take into account how this discourse is framed through different written formats.

  • 221.
    Elde Mølstad, Christina
    et al.
    Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Forsberg, Eva
    Uppsala universitet, Sweden.
    A Game of Thrones: Organising and Legitimising Knowledge Through PISA-research2017In: European Educational Research Journal (online), ISSN 1474-9041, E-ISSN 1474-9041, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 869-884Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates knowledge structures and scientific communication using bibliometric methodsto explore scientific knowledge production and dissemination. The aim is to develop knowledgeabout this growing field by investigating studies using international large-scale assessment (ILSA) data,with a specific focus on those using Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) data.As international organisations use ILSA to measure, assess and compare the success of nationaleducation systems, it is important to study this specific knowledge to understand how it is organisedand legitimised within research. The findings show an interchange of legitimisation, where majoractors from the USA and other English-speaking and westernised countries determine the academicdiscourse. Important epistemic cultures for PISA research are identified: the most important of whichare situated within psychology and education. These two research environments are epicentrescreated by patterns of the referrals to and referencing of articles framing the formulation of PISAknowledge. Finally, it is argued that this particular PISA research is self-referential and self-authorising,which raises questions about whether research accountability leads to ‘a game of thrones’, whererivalry going on within the scientific field concerning how and on what grounds ‘facts’ and ‘truths’ areconstructed, as a continuing process with no obvious winner.

  • 222.
    Elde Mølstad, Christina
    et al.
    Inland University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Forsberg, Eva
    Uppsala universitet.
    Framing of Curriculum Research: Experts or Algorithms?2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 223.
    Elde Mølstad, Christina
    et al.
    Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences (INN University), Norway.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Forsberg, Eva
    Departement of Education, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Scientific Framing of Curriculum Research: Experts or Algorithms?2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mapping research in relation to research interest is a common act of performing a research review. This kind of activity is an important part of being a researcher both to portray the competence of knowing a field and to frame specific research theoretically and analytically. The act of showing belongingness and relationship to different paradigms and thinkers (Kuhn, 1962) or various epistemic cultures (Knorr-Cetina, 1999) has over time been given different forms within the community of research. In relation to the act of framing research by different systematic research strategies we raise questions on: who inhabits and cultivates the field of curriculum research according to different strategies for scientific communication? Our theoretical framework is based on an argument that acknowledge the importance of investigating scientific reasoning (Hacking, 1992) and epistemic cultures (Knorr-Cetina, 1999) for understanding the intellectual organizing of knowledge, and by that exemplify how scientific ‘facts’ and ‘truths’ are constructed and legitimized, which is knowledge perceived as ‘common sense’ (cf. Gramsci 1992) within different scientific fields.

    We investigate four common systematic research strategies for performing research reviews, most used and reproduced within the community of researchers. We have first the handbooks where experts of a specific field are given the legitimacy to portray a specific field of research; second, the systematic search strategies performed with the help of various databases such as e.g. Web of Science, Scopus or ERIC; third, the investigating act of systematically browsing through research journals of special interest within a specific field, and fourth, the systematic research reviews performed by special institutes set up for performing these tasks, such as e.g. Danish Clearinghouse or EPPI centre, which in turn are used as a source by some researchers for illustrating the findings of more restricted and specific research questions.

    Focusing on four different forms of performing systematic research reviews we describe, analyze and compare the various forms with regards to:

    • how knowledge of/in a research field is constructed,
    • what kind of research that is selected and privileged

     In particular, we are interested in the potential movement of research reviews from an act of collective ‘intellectualizing’ among ‘experts’ to an act of ‘technologizing’ dependent on algorithms and terminology embedded in various databases, in which the amount of data is more important in ‘evidence-making’ than the perceived expertise of the source. To put it differently, the databases with their vast aggregation of data, organized by algorithms and terminology, are perceived as the authority and not the authors or the epistemic cultures in which the authors are embedded.

    We use the field of curriculum research to elaborate on the different forms of research reviews and their consequences for knowledge produced. Within the field of curriculum research, handbooks have had a dominant position in describing the field. Also, explicit research reviews within different journals have been important among researchers in the framing of the field of curriculum. However, in the contemporary, bibliometric analyses grounded in database searches and systematic research review performed by special institutes are more and more employed. 

    Method

    Dependent on which strategies used by researchers for framing different research fields we especially hypothesize on the importance of epistemic cultures and how these epistemic cultures historically have transported research, and how this is transformed, or even disappeared, with the entrance of various databases. First, we chose the collaborative act of ‘experts’ producing handbooks as an example of ‘intellectualizing’ dependent on that some researchers are given, or have taken, the role of ‘experts’. Second, we perform bibliometric searches, for reason of illuminating variances, by using Web of Science and Scopus as examples of ‘technologizing’, where databases more than individual researchers or research groups have transformed into the epistemic culture per se. Third, we will systematically browsing through research journals within the curriculum research field using explicit research reviews, within different journals (e.g. Journal of Curriculum Studies, Curriculum Inquiry, Educational Reviewer). This has been an important practice among researchers within the field of curriculum and hence it is important to capture this approach for framing the field. Fourth, we will analyze some systematic research reviews from special institutes (e.g. Danish Clearinghouse or EPPI centre) addressing curriculum research questions This has to a growing extent become a regular way to produce research reviews. Consequently, we are in a position to elaborate on how the field of curriculum research is portrayed by using different strategies for framing a research. This is most important for understanding how the field of curriculum research today is reproduced in various research settings.

    Expected Outcomes

    The preliminary results indicate that for example the use of handbooks portrays the curriculum field by mostly internationally well-recognized curriculum theory researchers, with resembling results for the use of review articles. The use of Web of Science and Scopus to map the curriculum field portrays both a broader and a narrower picture of the field, where more subject specific topics are included while some research is excluded as a consequence of the character of the corpus of journals and data in the databases. This leads to a picture of the curriculum field where actors are publishing on topics and journals more loosely connected to the core for what can be called curriculum research, this since subject specific topics are not in the same way highlighted in the handbooks. The findings of the reviews from the institutes are still to be elaborated. However, the findings so far indicate that there are important differences in the way a field is portrayed depending on which approach is applied. In sum, the results indicate that the approaches we apply shape how a field is portrayed, and by that also how a specific research field can be interpreted and understood. This is important knowledge and should have consequences for example in the way we guide PhD candidates for performing a systematic research review, as well as adding to researchers’ knowledge of the complexity and challenge of the task. It also indicates notions on how a research field is framed in the contemporary, is it made by ‘experts’ of the field or by algorithms and database specific terminology, which is situated outside well-recognized epistemic cultures? What are the consequences of this movement from defining frames of a research field among peers into a technologizing of this act?

    References

    Gramsci, A. (1992) Prison Notebook. G. Lawrence & Wishart: London.

    Hacking, I. (1992). 'Style' of historians and philosophers. Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science, 23(1), 1-20.

    Knorr Cetina, K. (1999) Epistemic Cultures: How the Science Make Knowledge. Harvard University Press.

    Kuhn, T (1962) The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press

  • 224.
    Elde Mølstad, Christina
    et al.
    Inland University of Applied Sciences, Elverum, Norway.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Prøitz, Tine S
    University College of Southeast Norway, Nottoden, Norway.
    Soft Infusion: Constructing 'Teachers' within the PISA sphere2018In: Education policies and the restructuring of the educational profession: Global and comparative perspectives / [ed] Normand, R., Liu, M., Carvalho, L.M., Oliveira, D.A., LeVasseur, L., Singapore: Springer, 2018, 1, p. 13-26Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since their inception, international large-scale assessments introduced by the OECD, such as PISA, have been widely discussed and disseminated in various social fields, e.g. policy, research, practice and the media. Administrative and political actors have responded to PISA and taken part in discussions about the results (e.g. Pettersson in Internationell kunskapsbedömning som inslag i nationell styrning av skolan. Uppsala University, Uppsala, 2008; Hopmann in European Educational Research Journal 6:109–124, 2007, 2015; Ozga in Fabricating quality in education: data and governance in Europe. Routledge, New York, 2011; Ertl in Oxford Review of Education 32:619–634, 2006; Grek in Journal of Education Policy 24:23–37, 2009).

  • 225.
    Eldesten, Simon
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Kommunikation i förskolan: En studie baserad på semistrukturerande intervjuer och observationer av kommunikationssituationer på förskolan2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the preschool's activities there is constant communication between children and adults but how it looks can look different. This study investigates how preschool teachers communicate with younger children and how the children themselves communicate with each other. The methods on which the study is based on are semistructured interviews with 10 preschool teachers from two different preschools as well as observations of adult and child communication with each other. The collected material has been analyzed and categorized according to the questions asked during the interviews and study question. What the outcome of the study shows is that the preschool plays a major role in the communicative development of children and that it affects their participation in activities and games. That's why it's important that the preschool teacher takes advantage of the children's interests and needs.

  • 226.
    Elfving, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Hyllsjö, Elsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Wåhlander, Sandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Hållbar utveckling, en hållbar utbildning? En kvalitativ fallstudie.2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 227.
    Elm, Annika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    "Det är något i luften!" - barns meningsskapande om luft2017In: Didaktik i omvandlingens tid: Text, representation och design / [ed] Insulander, Eva; Kjällander, Susanne; Lindstrand, Fredrik; Åkerfeldt Anna, Stockholm: Liber, 2017, 1, p. 105-113Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Barns lärande i förskolan är nära förbundet med ett socialt sammanhang, med en tonvikt på resurser och barns riktande av sitt intresse. Det handlar om lärande som inte är mätbart utifrån universella jämförande måttstockar, men som kan påvisas. det handlar samtidigt om att som förskollärare synliggöra det lärande som hela tiden äger rum då barnen skapar mening om de företeelser som deras uppmärksamhet riktas emot. I kapitlet följer vi förskollärares arbete tillsammans med barnen på en förskoleavdelning då ett naturvetenskapligt innehållsområde om luft behandlas.

  • 228.
    Elm, Annika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Documentation between local professionalism and accountability – a case from the Swedish preschool2018In: ATEE, 2018, book of abstracts., 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Documentation of pedagogical practise has become a vibrant issue through its relationship with educational policy- and government in many national contexts. Documentation is also regularly used as a tool for local, collegial development, not necessarily driven by the external demands for accounting educational outcomes. Against this background, the practise of documentation could be related to different modes of teacher professionalism; outside-in-professionalism, characterized by teachers as responding to external and standardized demands, and inside-out-professionalism characterized by teachers  as responding to complexity and change, through qualified judgment.   

    Although documentation is regularly employed as a tool for local, collegial development, the responsibility for documentation commissioned by educational authorities remains an assignment, coming with consequences for how to relate this self-initiated local documentation to the demands of the educational authorities. The purpose of this presentation is to investigate the tension, between documentation based in inside-out-professionalism and outside-in-professionalism, by means of a case study from the Swedish preschool.  Our research questions reads: how do external demands of documentation impact on the collegial conditions of documenting practise? How do professional conditions of documenting impact on the external demands of documentation?

    Our analytical point of departure proceeds from the assumption that documentation is shaped from certain positions, interests and perspectives (Vallberg Roth 2012), including the crossing between different interests and logics within educational institutions.  A qualitative case study of one preschool setting in which a long term documentation has been performed, using CoRe (pedagogical content representation) has been adapted as an approach for teaching science, in a practice based research collaboration project, will be related to intentions from the municipality. The gathering of data includes participant observations in preschool and interviews with participating preschool teachers, at municipal briefings, interviews with responsible parties representing the local preschool as educational agency, and by collection of documents. 

    The expected outcomes of our study indicate that preschool teachers are acting between norms of designing documentation from their professional and local interests and that of adapting to the interests of the educational agencies. The first norm is based in their collegial self-defined needs (in collaboration with the researchers) for teaching science in preschool, mainly by teaching science and technology themes, paying attention to preschool children’s responses to science and technology content.  The second norm is characterised by accounting for national goals in the national syllabus, in ways corresponding with the national school system.  The preschool teachers respond to this latter assignment through (professional) deliberations, aiming to deliver material from their everyday work to the agency, while simultaneously keeping the integrity of their own work as separated from the assignment of the agency. These local deliberations and decisions will further be analysed in terms of the dynamic between the two modes of professionalism mentioned above, in light of the local policy context.      

    Our project shed light on conditions shared with several European countries regarding possibilities for sustainable teacher development within broader contexts of demands for accountability impacting on teachers professional work.   

  • 229.
    Elm, Annika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Preschool Teachers’ Design for Learning Physics in Early Childhood Science Education2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on an ongoing practice-based research project in which preschool teachers and researchers collaborate on the content in physics. The aim is to contribute to a deeper knowledge of preschool teachers’ design for teaching physics (friction) and how children create meaning of the content. The research questions are: How do the preschool teachers design learning opportunities so that the children can create meaning about friction? How do young children create meaning from the teaching aids that are offered to them? A number of studies have reported on preschool children’s (aged 5-6 years) and older children’s misconceptions in their reasoning about natural phenomena and how this differs from accepted scientific ideas. Previous research has also shown that there is a gap in preschool teachers’ knowledge of natural science and physics. Most of the research in this field has focused on the effect of preschool teachers’ teaching of natural phenomena rather than children´s meaning-making and learning processes. Research on young children´s (aged 3-7) learning often highlights their individual knowledge and emphasises cognitive understanding and conceptual development. The most common methods used are interviews, pre- and post-tests that aim to show cognitive understanding and scientific conceptual development as an effect of the teaching intervention. When it comes to preschool education and young children’s learning, children´s experiences of natural phenomena are seldom verbal, but are instead physical and practical. In this respect, there is a need to use different methods to investigate preschool activities in order to acquire more knowledge about preschool teachers’ teaching and young children’s meaning-making of natural phenomena. In order to deal with these challenges, this study adopts a multimodal design-oriented qualitative approach and makes use of the concepts of representation and transformation. Here, the focus is on preschool teachers’ and children’s creation of symbols as a social activity. The use of symbols combines content and form in order to carry meaning and create and express conditions for meaning-making. The data consists of audiotaped video self-reflection seminars (focusing on children’s verbal, physical and practical actions) and semi-structured interviews with nine preschool teachers. The findings indicate that preschool teachers’ teaching of physics is closely linked with their vision of how the subject will stimulate the children’s learning. They also show how friction is represented in connection with play, outdoor activities and experimental activities. The results of the children’s meaning-making show that they become familiar with friction as a notion in relation to everyday experiences and are in that way introduced to what friction means in scientific terms. Further, the children relate their experiences of play to their own bodies and preferences, for example, by learning that icy slopes are slippery (low friction), that surfaces are slippery or rough (have different friction) and friction has force (over-under effect). These findings address the relevance and implications for science education and research by moving from the idea of focusing on children’s verbal communication and their conceptual understanding of natural phenomena towards an approach that includes their learning processes and physical experien

     

     

     

  • 230.
    Elm, Annika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Preschool Teachers´ Professional Development : Teachers and Researchers in Collaboration2019In: ECER 2019: Abstracts, 2019, article id 468Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As in many other European countries early childhood education, including preschool, includes teaching in the area of subject knowledge. In Sweden this is related to a changed policy in order to connect preschool with the school system. Since 2011, “teaching” has been established as a new aspect of the preschool’s mandate and, since 2010, subjects like maths, science have been added to the national syllabus. Earlier, subjects has also been part of a preschool tradition already present in Fröbel’s kindergarten. In this earlier approach the intention was not to prepare for the forthcoming school and its subject content. Today, the national preschool syllabus has subject goals that overlaps with those of the school, often stated in a rather detailed, academic form. In addition, the Swedish school inspectorate has also included the preschools in its evaluations. According to the Swedish education act, practice should be based on scientific knowledge and proven experience. These changed directives comes with increasing expectations and demands on the preschool teacher profession for implementing this assignment. In light of this background we aim to support the preschool teachers to develop a professional and inside-out based (Stanley & Stronach 2013) knowledge for acting as professionals in this changed context. In this contribution we will direct our interest on the subject area of science and technology.

    Previous research has identified possibilities or lack of possibilities for science and technology learning in early childhood environments, with a tendency to a ‘diagnostic’ approach to preschool teacher knowledge. However, this research does not go far enough in investigating programs for developing preschool teachers´ science content knowledge (e.g. Nilsson, 2014; Fleer, 2009; Nilsson & Elm, 2017). Against the background of the need for including preschool teachers experiences and knowledge in a fair way (cf. Berry et al. 2008), while simultaneously recognize the need of further development in subject content, in the institutional frame of the preschool, we will address preschool teachers pedagogic content knowledge (PCK). The latter (PCK) refers to teachers´ understanding of the content and experiences and attitudes towards science. Our research question reads: In what ways can collaboration between preschool teachers´ and researchers contribute to preschool teachers’ professional learning and preschool development with special regard to preschool teachers’ pedagogic content knowledge?

    Our methodological approach is guided by Participatory Action Research (PAR) highlighting the need of a democratic process, developing of practical knowledge related to issues that are of great concern for the participants (Reason & Bradbury 2001). Furthermore, PAR recognizes our partners’ knowledge and experiences as a vital element to be brought into the research process (Brydon-Miller, Greenwood & Maguire, 2003). Thus, an important factor is the interaction between the researcher and the interests within the educational field, in order to promote both researchers and the practitioners work and goals. From this starting point there is initially an explicitly stated drive to meet on equal terms and to support each other to develop.

    The other leg, pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) includes teachers’ understanding of how children learn, or fail to learn; in relation to this specific subject matter has been found to be an important matter. That is, a perspective on professional development that focus on preschool teachers´ understanding of the content, pedagogical content knowledge and attitudes towards science (cf. Schulman, 1987; Van Driel & Berry, 2012). Representation of teacher content knowledge (CoRe) by means of a commonly developed table, is systematically used as a tool to trigger preschool teachers´ ideas of both science and technology content as a tool for development and cooperation.

    Methodology or Methods/ Research Instruments or Sources Used

    9 preschool teachers during 1,5 year (currently ongoing) participates in the research project which includes both indoors- and outdoors activities focusing on technology and science content, paying attention to children’s perspectives. The teachers are meeting in reflective group sessions once a month. For this paper data was collected through a qualitative approach consisting of 23 + 29 hours recorded semi structured interviews with the participating preschool teachers from one preschool unit. The interviews were conducted after the first and third semester of participation. Data was then analysed out from thematic content analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006).

    As Braun and Clarke (2006) argue, it is a method that requires researchers to be clear about what they do, why they do it and how the analysis is conducted. The analyses of the data in this study were part of an inductive process from a) transcription → b) identifying emergent initial codes → c) searching for themes → d) reviewing and revising themes → e) defining and naming themes → f) formulating the result (with the starting point in identified and named themes). First, the interviews were transcribed verbatim. Some of the statements made in the interviews that did not correspond to the subject were not transcribed. Second, the data was read, and assigned initial codes.

    The third step involved searching for overall themes, based on the initial codes. In this step, the researchers sorted the data under each theme separately. In the fourth step themes were compared, data were reviewed the themes revised. In this process, similarities were identified in the themes that had emerged in the analysis of the interviews. Related examples of the participants’ learning were examined and refined until consensus was reached. Fifth, to establish the validity of the coding and identified themes, the authors worked to finally define and name the themes. The main data was then compared with the themes and provided a critical overview in terms of aspects being overemphasised, under represented, too vague or biased. The final step in the analysis, with a starting point in the themes, was to formulate the results.

    Conclusions, Expected Outcomes or Findings

    Our results from the interview data shows that the use of CoRe:s contribute to focus on the specific content in a more systematic way. Some of the preschool teachers expressed how the use of the CoRe:s and the formulation of ‘Big Ideas’ supported them to establish the fundamental ideas of the topic they were teaching. With documentation in CoRe preschool teachers have been able to make visible aspects of their own practice and to see the educational value of a current situation. In their collegial work, the documentation of CoRe contributes to the preschool teachers distancing themselves from their daily practices and makes them evaluate their actions and activities. Further, the use of CoRE seems to provide a different point for innovative change in the preschool development. In this way, the collective knowledge of a team becomes qualitatively different to that of a single individual. In addition, other themes also comprises: improved knowledge of processes for planning; visibility of different aspects in the daily practice and in children's learning processes; a broader view connected to international and national development in preschool and society, and a practice on scientific basis.

     Our research contributes with how “teachers and other professionals on the field of education learn and develop throughout their professional career” in the developing field of early childhood education and its rising expectation of subject knowledge. We also attempt to show how teacher development and the research process is dependent on their reciprocal development in order to be accomplished. In a time characterized by rapid policy changes in the educational systems in Europe, the need for practitioner-researcher collaborations supporting professionalism based on conscious professional agency is of great concern.

    References

    Berry, A., Loughran, J. & van Driel, J.H. (2008) Revisiting the Roots of Pedagogical Content Knowledge. International Journal of Science Education, 30:10, 1271-1279.

    Braun, V. & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, vol. 3. (2). p. 77-101.

    Brydon-Miller, M., Greenwood, D. & Maguire, P. (2003). Why action research? Action Research, vol. 1. (1). p. 9-28.

    Fleer, M. (2009). Supporting scientific conceptual consciousness or learning in ‘a Roundabout Way’ in play-based contexts. International Journal of Science Education, 31(8), p. 1069–1089.

    Nilsson, P. (2014). When Teaching Makes a Difference: Developing science teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge through learning study. International Journal of Science Education, 36(11), 1794-1814.

    Nilsson, P. & Elm, A. (2016). Capturing and developing early childhood teachers´ science Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) through CoRes. International Journal of Science Education, 28 (5), 406-424.

    Reason, P & Bradbury, H (2001). Introduction: Inquiry and participation in search of a world worthy of human aspiration. Peter Reason & Hilary Bradbury (eds.) Handbook of Action Research. London: SAGE.

    Skolverket (2011). Curriculum for the preschool Lpfö98. www.skolverket.se

    Shulman, L. S. (1987). Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the new reform. Harvard Educational Review, 57, 1-22.

    Stanley, E. and, & Stronach, I. (2013) Raising and doubling ‘standards' in professional discourse: a critical bid. Journal of Educational Policy, 28(3), pp. 291-305.

    van Driel, J. H., & Berry, A. K. (2012). Teacher professional development focusing on pedagogical content knowledge. Educational Researcher, 41(1), 26 - 28.

  • 231.
    Elm, Annika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Morberg, Åsa
    Proceedings of the 43rd Annual ATEE Conference 2018 A Future for All - Teaching for a Sustainable Society2019Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 43rd annual conference A Future for All – Teaching for a Sustainable Society focused on critical questions concerning changes in society.  The conference theme emphasized teacher education and education as the solution to broad societal problems. The urgent need to understand the past for building tomorrow with new approaches in education puts important questions in focus regarding human wellbeing, social inclusion, environmental protection and globalization. These perspectives and approaches in research and practice in teaching and teacher education calls for a rethinking of what the educational sciences now consist of and how they are characterised. The central focus of the conference was the relevance of those rethinking perspectives. 

  • 232.
    Elm, Annika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Nordqvist, Ingrid
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    The research circle - a tool for preschool teachers’ professional learning and preschool development2019In: European Journal of Teacher Education, ISSN 0261-9768, E-ISSN 1469-5928, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 621-633Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article explores a professional learning programme, a research circle, in which preschool teachers and researchers collaborate on content relating to sustainable development, science and technology. It investigates how collaborations between preschool teachers and researchers can contribute to professional learning and preschool development. The research focuses on experiences of participation in research circles and makes use of Participatory Action Research (PAR). The data consists of twelve preschool teachers’ written documentation as preparation for seminars in the research circle and semi-structured interviews with eight preschool teachers. The analysis explores three bodies of social and educational change: individuals, teams and organisations. The overall conclusion is that participation in a research circle support preschool teachers to become more aware of their own practices, address issues and challenges and make improvements in a collaborative and reflective way, it is a useful tool for preschool teachers’ professional learning and preschool development. 

  • 233.
    Elm Fristorp, Annika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Tecken på lärande - att fånga barns meningsskapande inom naturvetenskap2016In: Naturvetenskap i ett förskoleperspektiv / [ed] Susanne Thulin, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2016, 1, p. 171-184Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Bokkapitlet är ett bidrag till att förstå barns lärande inom naturvetenskapliga innehållsområden i förskolan på ett sätt som kompletterar, och kanske utmanar, andra perspektiv. Det designorienterande perspektivet på lärande som presenteras i kapitlet innebär att lärande ses som en social, kommunikativ och teckenskapande aktivitet. Ett antagande i detta synsätt är att barn (och vuxna) hela tiden bearbetar och uttrycker sin förståelse kring naturvetenskapliga innehållsområden genom att skapa egna kombinationer av tecken - med hjälp av olika medier - i en omskapande (eller transformativ) process.

  • 234.
    Elm Fristorp, Annika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Johansson, IngeBarn- och ungdomsvetenskapliga institutionen, Avdelningen för förskollärarutbildning och förskoleforskning/Section for Early Childhood Education, Stockholms universitet.
    Professionellt lärande i förskolan - med utgångspunkt i hållbar utveckling2015Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Boken handlar om deltagarorienterat och kollaborativt lärande för hållbar utveckling i förskolan. Efter en presentation av de teoretiska utgångspunkterna får läsaren ta del av konkreta exempel på aktiviteter i förskolan. Dessa har fokus på olika aspekter av hållbar utveckling och hur det går att använda såväl språk och kommunikation som IKT, matematik, naturvetenskap och teknik i arbetet.

  • 235.
    Elving, Marcus
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Hansson, Jenny
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Thunborg, Moa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Organiserade rastaktiviteter i grundskolan: aspekter som enligt skolpersonal kan främja elevers sociala utveckling och fysiska aktivitet : en enkätundersökning2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the fact that recess is a substantial part of childrens’ day in elementary school, there are no national guidelines regarding recess or what it should contain. The aim of the study was to examine educators’ views on how organized activities during recess can further social development and physical activity among schoolchildren. A web survey was used and a total of thirty respondents participated. The study indicated that organized activities during recess can further social development and physical activity in numerous ways. The social development mainly through kinship, adult presence and democratic approach. The physical activity mainly through joy of movement, a varied range of activities and voluntary participation.

  • 236.
    Engström, Hilda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Nielsen, Fanny
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Barns möjlighet till fysisk aktivitet i förskolan: En enkätstudie angående förskollärares arbete med fysisk aktivitet2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I förskolan har förskollärare möjligheten att skapa en aktiv livsstil bland barn och detta är viktigt på grund av att det idag blir allt vanligare med sedentärt beteende bland människor. Syftet i denna studie har därför varit att undersöka hur förskollärares attityder till fysisk aktivitet kan påverka barns möjlighet till deltagande i fysiska aktiviteter. För att ta reda på förskollärares attityder har en enkätundersökning genomförts. Resultatet från enkäten har sedan i en analys kopplats samman till tidigare forskning och Bronfenbrenners utvecklingsekologiska teori för att besvara studiens frågeställningar och syfte. Resultatet i studien visade att de förskollärare som valde att delta i denna undersökning har en positiv attityd till fysisk aktivitet och detta styrktes av att förskollärarna svarade att det både genomfördes samt att de kunde ge exempel på olika fysiska aktiviteter. I analysen diskuterades att detta kan innebära goda möjligheter för barn till att delta i fysisk aktivitet.

  • 237.
    Engström, Kristin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Lindström, Malin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Fria lekens betydelse på fritidshemmet: En kvalitativ intervjustudie med fem pedagoger2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med arbetet är att undersöka verksamma pedagogers syn på fri leken i fritidshemmet. Styrdokument, litteratur och tidigare forskning menar att den fria leken är viktig och tar upp att barn tränar på sin sociala utveckling, sitt språk, problemlösning och samarbete. Uppsatsen är skriven genom en kvalitativ metod med strukturerade intervjuer som gjorts med fem verksamma pedagoger. Resultatet visar kategorierna vikten av fri lek, begränsningar med fri lek, vuxenledd inte fri lek. Studien visar att leken är en viktig del på fritidshemmet där barnen tränar på sociala förmågor och att leken sker varje dag. Slutsatsen är att den fria leken är nödvändig för barnens lärande på fritidshemmet.

  • 238.
    Enros, Malin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Manns, Elin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Barns positionering och interaktion runt lärplattan i förskolan2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka barns interaktion och positionering runt lärplattan. Det empiriska materialet har samlats in genom fem observationer. Denna studie grundar sig på ett sociokulturellt perspektiv.

    Resultatet av denna studie visar att barnen positionerar sig och interagerar runt lärplattan på flera olika sätt. Vid observationerna utgick vi ifrån Ljung-Djärfs (2004) tre positioner ägare, deltagare och åskådare. Vi kunde se alla dessa men också ytterligare en positionering. En stor del av interaktionen bestod av att barnen förhandlade om makt över lärplattan, men också att de mer kunniga barnen stöttade och hjälpte sina kamrater. Vi kunde också se att konstellationen av barn visade sig ha betydelse för interaktionen, samt att pedagogens roll var ännu viktigare än förväntat, på grund av den struktur som pedagogen skapade i aktiviteten. Även valet av applikation var av relevans för interaktionen. Baserat på observationerna upplevdes vissa applikationer främja kommunikation och samarbete mer än andra.

     

    Förhoppningsvis kan den här studien bidra till att främja och berika både vårt men också andra pedagogers förhållningssätt kring barns interaktion med varandra runt lärplattan, samt ge en djupare förståelse för hur lärplattan kan fungera som ett kulturellt redskap och stödja barns utveckling av sociala och kommunikativa förmågor.

  • 239.
    Ericsson, Hanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    ”… Det känns som att djuren förstår mig så bra… alltså de dömer ju inte en som människor kan göra...”: En narrativ studie om tre kvinnor med utvecklingsstörning och deras upplevelser och erfarenheter av djurens hälsofrämjande effekter2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats var att belysa vilka hälsofrämjande effekter djur har på människor med en utvecklingsstörning. För att ta reda på detta intervjuades tre kvinnor  med livsberättelseforskning som metod. Informanternas berättelser sammanställdes sedan med hjälp av en narrativ analys, dels var berättelse för sig men även utifrån olika kategorier. Som teoretisk utgångspunkt användes synsätt ur sociokulturellt och salutogent perspektiv samt Weiss relationsteori om ”social tillförsel”. Resultatet av berättelserna lyfter fram de tre informanternas erfarenheter och upplevelser av djurs närvaro. Informanterna berättar exempelvis att deras hälsa främjas genom att spendera tid med djuren. Det framkommer även att djur bidrar till att informanterna känner sig behövda och unika. Djur bidrar också till att det blir lättare för informanterna att bidra i sociala sammanhang. Alla informanterna känner samhörighet och förståelse till djuren och uppger att djur förstår dem bättre än människan. Det ökade välbefinnandet hos informanterna genom djurs påverkan bidrar till att närma sig de uppsatta folkhälsomålen; Delaktighet och inflytande i samhället, Hälsa i arbetslivet samt Fysisk aktivitet.

  • 240.
    Eriksson, Amanda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Target Language Use during English Lessons for Young Language Learners2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One of the subjects in Swedish schools that has become increasingly important is the English subject. This study aimed to analyse what language teachers use in different situations in an English lesson. The study’s purpose was also to find out what reasons teachers gave for their choice of language use during English lessons. The method chosen for this study was a survey. The survey was published in Facebook groups intended for teachers. The results of the survey showed that when asking questions to pupils most teachers chose to use English whereas Swedish was mostly used when helping the students during exercises. The results also showed that teachers’ own experience was the main determining factor when teachers planned the lessons and what language to use.

  • 241.
    Eriksson, Amanda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Forsberg, Elin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Rörelse i förskolan: En enkätstudie om hur ofta förskollärare och barnskötare planerar rörelseaktiviteter i förskolan2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att undersöka hur ofta förskollärare och barnskötare utför planerade rörelseaktiviteter på förskolan och vad som påverkar att vissa av dessa rörelseaktiviteter inte blir av. I bakgrunden ges en översikt om hur rörelsen i förskolan ser ut, hur förskollärarens förhållningssätt till rörelse är samt rörelsens positiva effekter utifrån vetenskapliga artiklar och för ämnet relevant litteratur. Forskning visar att barnen behöver röra på sig för att stärka kroppsuppfattning, motorik och koordination. Genom att dessa delar stärks bidrar det till att barnens koncentrationsförmåga ökar. Forskning visar även att förskollärarnas inställning till rörelse påverkar ifall barnen erbjuds rörelseaktiviteter på förskolan. Genom en enkätstudie som delades ut till 110 respondenter på nio olika förskolor har vi undersökt hur ofta förskollärare och barnskötare planerar rörelseaktiviteter på förskolorna. Av de 110 enkäterna som delades ut fick vi in 103 stycken som vi kunde använda i vår studie. Vi valde att använda oss av pappersenkäter som vi personligen delade ut till varje förskola, för att få ett sådant högt deltagande som möjligt. För att få fram ett resultat har vi analyserat svaren i enkäterna mot varandra med hjälp av figurerna som lyfts i resultatet, där kan det tydligt utläsas vilka svar vi fått in. Avslutningsvis har vi en diskussion där vi diskuterar och jämför våra resultat mot forskning vi lyft i bakgrunden. Vårt resultat visar på att det är förskollärarna som planerar flest rörelseaktivitet på förskolan, och största anledningen till att vissa rörelseaktiviteter inte blir av är för att förskollärarna känner sig rädda för att utföra rörelseaktiviteter, det är stora barngrupper och att det var många ur personalen borta när de hade planerat att utföra rörelseaktiviteterna.

  • 242.
    Eriksson, Angelica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Zackrisson, Stina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Dokumentation i förskolan: En enkätstudie och samtal med sju pedagoger2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Eriksson, Angelica & Zackrisson, Stina (2014), Dokumentation i förskolan, Examensarbete i didaktik. Förskollärarprogrammet. Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi. Högskolan i Gävle.

     

    Sammanfattning

    I förskolans styrdokument Läroplan för förskolan (Skolverket, 2010) står det att i uppdraget som förskollärare ingår det att kontinuerligt och systematiskt dokumentera verksamheten för att den ska utvärderas, utvecklas och kvaliteten vara god. ”Syftet med utvärdering är att få kunskap om hur förskolans kvalité, d.v.s. verksamhetens organisation, innehåll och genomförande kan utvecklas så att varje barn ges bästa möjliga förutsättningar för utveckling och lärande” (Skolverket, 2010, s.14-15). För att uppfylla detta mål behöver förskollärare få fler synsätt, infallsvinklar och metoder vilket är avsikten att detta arbete ska bidra till.

    Det övergripande syftet med arbetet är att undersöka hur förskolor arbetar med dokumentation. De frågeställningar arbetet berör är vad fokus läggs vid i dokumentationsarbetet samt undersöka hur pedagoger använder det insamlande dokumentationsmaterialet. Genom att besöka sju förskolor har data inhämtas via sju enkäter och sju samtal från erfarna pedagoger som arbetar inom förskolan.

    Resultatet visar att alla förskolor dokumenterar med syftet att synliggöra barns lärande och utveckling utifrån deras intresse, förmåga och kunskap. Det visar också att förskolor använder olika verktyg och metoder vid dokumentationsarbete. Förskolorna framhåller vikten av att reflektera över dokumentationerna tillsammans i arbetslaget för att utveckla verksamheten. Vår slutsats av studien är att alla förskolor är eniga om att de upplever dokumentationen som något positivt då den synliggör barnens lärande och reflektion leder arbetet framåt. Samtidigt visar det att pedagoger känner sig stressade över dokumentation då tiden inte räcker till. Trots detta överväger fördelarna nackdelarna vilket visas i studien då pedagogerna försöker att hitta metoder och förutsättningar för att finna tid för dokumentationsarbetet.

     

    Nyckelord: Dokumentation, dokumentationsmetoder, förskola, pedagogisk dokumentation 

  • 243.
    Eriksson, Evelina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Eriksson Fridh, Micaela
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Barns inflytande i rutiner2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie har vi undersökt hur barns inflytande kommer till uttryck med fokus på verksamhetens dagliga rutiner. Syftet med undersökningen har varit att synliggöra i vilken grad barnen kan vara med och påverka innehållet i förskolan och de rutiner som finns och hur förskollärare arbetar med barns inflytande.

    För att undersöka detta har vi intervjuat åtta förskollärare på två olika förskolor i Mellansverige. Varje intervju har skett individuellt och respondenterna har ej fått ta del av frågorna innan intervjutillfället. Båda studenterna medverkade vid varje intervju.

    Alla förskollärare i denna studie definierade barns inflytande på samma sätt. För dem handlade inflytande inte om att få bestämma utan det handlade om att få en chans att påverka, att få göra sin röst hörd. Resultatet i denna studie visar att förskollärarna upplevde att rutiner kunde vara till hinder för barns inflytande i verksamheten. Något som också påverkade barns möjligheter till inflytande kunde vara yttre faktorer som förskollärarna själva inte kunde styra över som till exempel personaltäthet, eller att de var beroende av andra yrkesgrupper så som kökspersonal eller liknande. 

  • 244.
    Eriksson, Ingela
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Andersson, Elin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Delaktighet hos barn i behov av särskilt stöd: En studie om hur möjligheten ser ut för barn i behov av särskilt stöd att få vara med och påverka vardagen i förskolans verksamhet2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 210 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier studies shows that democracy within the preschool is an important and on-going work, but could implicate certain consequences. For example that goals regarding democracy and influence in the preschool, rarely is done in practice but instead remains just words on a paper. It could also mean that the pedagogues lack education and knowledge within the area, but also how they react to the influence of children.

     

    Preschool is expected to be a place for all children, no matter what luggage the child is carrying. The luggage is filled with the life experience, the personality and in this case the needs that the child has. The needs could be anything from nearness to physical and psychological disorders that requires more pedagogical attention. We have in this study looked closer into how children in need of certain support are allowed to influence the everyday work in the preschool. We have observed two different preschools within the same school district, interviewed teachers and handed out questionnaires to parents and legal guardians. The object has been to study if children with disabilities and children without disabilities, gets the same opportunity to influence and to participate in the everyday work in the preschool. Our question formulation in this study is; How does children with special needs get the opportunity to influence the everyday work within the preschool?   By comparing these preschools we have been able to draw the conclusion that differences exist regarding how the children gets to influence the everyday work in the preschool. A lot of it has to do with what approach and viewpoint the pedagogue has regarding inclusion. The goals from the curriculum and other steering documents, often ends up only being guidelines and are not fulfilled. The children we have studied has disabilities which are both neurological and neuropsychiatrical. The result in this study does not represent the entire teacher community. It is only based on the preschools that we have decided to observe.

  • 245.
    Eriksson, Linnea
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Westman, Jenny
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Ledarskapets betydelse: En kvalitativ studie om två träningsinstruktörers ledarskap och dess påverkan på en grupps engagemang2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Träningsresor expanderar runt om i Sverige och i världen. I alla träningsresor finns det ledare som är en bidragande faktor för hur en grupp samspelar med varandra. Syftet med den här studien var att undersöka ledarskapet hos två olika träningsinstruktörer samt se hur de påverkar deltagarnas engagemang under en träningsresa. Metoden som användes var semistrukturerade intervjuer och deltagande observationer. Intervjudata sammanställdes och bearbetades med en hjälp av kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Resultatet visade att ledarna har en betydande roll för gruppen och att det är viktigt att situationsanpassa sitt ledarskap. Ledarskapet är också en process där båda ledarna har och fortsätter att utvecklas. Resultat visar också att en driven ledare med ett situationsanpassat ledarskap tillsammans med en grupp likasinnade människor upplever starkt engagemang, samhörighet och en “vi-känsla”.

  • 246.
    Eriksson, Sandra
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Widmark, Klara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Att möjliggöra en fritidshemsverksamhet: En studie om uppfattningar hos personalen som arbetar på fritidshemmet gällande deras uppdrag2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med vår studie är att ta reda på hur personalen som arbetar på fritidshemmet uppfattar sina möjligheter att erbjuda eleverna en meningsfull fritid utifrån läroplanens mål och syfte för verksamheten. I strävan att komma fram till detta har vi valt att ta stöd av läroplansteoretiska begrepp såsom formuleringsarenan, transformeringsarenan och realiseringsarenan. Vi valde en kvantitativ metod i form av en enkätundersökning ställd till fyra olika skolor, varav två kommunala och två privata i Mellansverige. Enkäten innehöll även tre öppna frågor vilket innebär att vår undersökning också har inslag av en kvalitativ metod. Svaren på enkätundersökningarna har vi valt att redovisa i form av diagram samt att tematisera i följande kategorier: resurser, kvalitetsarbete, samverkan och övrigt.

     

    I resultatet och av vår analys framkommer det att personalen som arbetar på fritidshemmet anser att de har den kunskap som krävs för att erbjuda eleverna en meningsfull fritid men att ramfaktorer som tid, budget, lokaler, personal samt storlek på barngrupper försvårar processen med att realisera läroplanens mål och syften. Vår studie lyfter fram glappet mellan de mål och syften för fritidshemmets verksamhet som formuleras på en nationell nivå och det som uppfattas vara möjligt att genomföra på lokal nivå.

  • 247.
    Ertas, Cihan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Matematik: En studie om hur några förskollärare undervisar matematik inom förskolan2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Matematiken är ett av inslagen i förskolans verksamhet och i förskolans läroplan (Skolverket, 2010) betonas att förskolan ska sträva efter att varje barn utvecklar sin förmåga att använda matematik för att undersöka, reflektera över och prova olika lösningar av egna och andras problemställningar. I läroplanen betonas också att förskolan ska sträva efter att varje barn utvecklar sin förmåga att urskilja, uttrycka, undersöka och använda matematiska begrepp och samband mellan begrepp. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur några förskollärare synliggör den matematiska undervisningen i sin verksamhet. I denna studie valdes intervju som metod där sju förskollärare från olika förskolor intervjuades. Studiens resultat visar olika tillvägagångssätt som förskollärarna använder sig av i sin matematiska undervisning. Det framkom att förskollärarna till stor del synliggör matematiska begrepp och antal, medan matematisk problemlösning förekom i mindre skala. 

  • 248.
    Faldet, Ann-Cathrin
    et al.
    Inland University Norway, Elverum, Norway.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Elde Mølstad, Christina
    Inland University Norway, Elverum, Norway.
    Jeg, du, meg och deg: Hva kan vi egentligen lære av PISA?2019In: Norsk pedagogisk tidsskrift, ISSN 0029-2052, E-ISSN 1504-2987, Vol. 103, no 1, p. 42-52Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In the presentation of the PISA results, we can see certain patterns in how the debate is being constructed and we can see certain patterns in how participating actors act in the media, and in the political and administrative arena (Pettersson, 2008). The study illustrates how PISA’s ranking lists elicit specific action patterns and rationality, where rationality is based on a particular mindset (Fleck 1997). These structural action patterns we have called something-else-ism and someone-else-ism, and we will go back in history to see how this situation could occur and highlight some challenges associated with these two action patterns.

  • 249.
    Falk, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Mannen som en minoritet i förskolan: en intervjustudie om förskolans arbete med genus2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med arbetet är att undersöka hur genusbegreppet tolkas i förskolan beroende på pedagogernas kön. Vidare undersökts hur pedagogerna tänker kring den manliga förskollärarens roll som en minoritet i förskoleverksamheten.

    Undersökningen har genomförts genom semistrukturerad intervjumetod. Åtta pedagoger, varav fyra manliga och fyra kvinnliga, har fått svara på frågor gällande genus, jämställdhet och mannen som en minoritet i förskolan. I denna studie analyseras mannen utifrån att vara en minoritet i förskolan i ett genusperspektiv.

    Resultatet av undersökningen visar att pedagogerna tolkar genusbegreppet som att alla barn ska ha samma möjligheter att utvecklas och att barnen inte ska särbehandlas eller rotas i traditionella könsmönster. Majoriteten av pedagogerna anser att det bör vara fler manliga pedagoger. Ett fåtal av pedagogerna menar dock att de föredrar en kunnig pedagog, oberoende av kön, istället för att anställa en man enbart för hans kön. Synen på genus skiljer sig inte mellan de manliga och kvinnliga pedagogerna. Intervjuerna visar dock att pedagogernas kunskap kring genusfrågor varierar. Av intervjuerna framgår också ett tydligt mönster av att arbetet med genusfrågor har i praktiken kommit i skymundan. Även om pedagogerna menar att de alltid har genusproblematiken i bakhuvudet, är det inte säkert att de dagligen arbetar med dessa frågor.

  • 250.
    Falk, Olof
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Michael, Löfgren
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Serier i skolan: En C-uppsats i bildpedagogik2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    ABSTRACT

    Vår uppsats har som syfte att undersöka möjligheterna för och effekterna att använda sig av serier som undervisningsmedel inom bildpedagogiken. För att skapa oss en bild av detta valde vi att söka svar på hur skolväsendet traditionellt betraktat tecknade serier och annan populärkultur och jämföra detta med lärare och elevers syn på populärkultur och serier idag. Vi ställde oss också frågan hur och i vilken mån tecknade serier är en del av dagens bildundervisning i högstadiet. För att söka svar på våra frågeställningar genomförde vi en fallstudie på tre av vardera klasser i årskurserna 7-9 och samlade in material i form av kvalitativa intervjuer med bildlärarna samt en enkätundersökning riktad till eleverna. Resultaten som framkom av undersökningen visade jämfört med tidigare forskning att skolväsendet och lärarnas syn på tecknade serier generellt kan anses ha genomgått en förändring. Från att serierna och andra populärkulturella element haft mycket låg status har de på senare tid i någon mån börjat erkännas som ett välkommet inslag i klassrummet. Alla tre bildlärare som deltog i undersökningen ställde sig positiva till att använda serier som undervisningsmedel och vi kunde tydligt se att tecknade serier utgjorde ett uppskattat inslag i bildundervisningen från elevernas sida. Vi hittade flera exempel på hur serier kan användas som undervisningsmedel, till exempel genom temaarbeten och ämnesöverskridande undervisning. Den mest uppenbara fördelen vi kunde se i att använda tecknade serier som undervisningsmedel var dess potentiella motivationshöjande och kreativitetsstimulerande effekter. Elevernas svar i undersökningen visade tydligt att serier är uppskattat, men då det saknas tidigare studier som undersöker huruvida elevernas intresse för bildämnet skulle vara mindre utan inslag av serier bedömer vi denna fråga som en intressant grund för vidare forskning.

    Nyckelord: Serier, bildpedagogik, bildundervisning, populärkultur, högstadiet

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