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  • 201.
    Chai, Tingyan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Chen, Liyan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Nurses’ experience ofsupporting and caring for women with postpartum depression: A interview study2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 202.
    Chatzoudis, Susanne
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Wikström, Anette
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Personers erfarenheter av att leva med ALS: En beskrivande litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) belongs to a group of motor neuron diseases. It is an incurable neurological disease that affects approximately 200 people per year in Sweden. The involuntary muscles of the body atrophies which causing the person problems to speak and breath. The disease progression varies depending on the version of motor neuron disease the person suffering, at ALS person usually dies within 5 years.

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to describe people's experiences of living with ALS and describe the study group of the included scientific articles.

    Method: A descriptive literature study consisting of 11 qualitative articles.

    Main Results: Some patients were not satisfied with the hospital care, they were met by ignorant staff and were sent between different care units before a diagnosis could be decided. At the end the patients themselves were searching for answers themselves. Patients describe several negative feelings diagnosed with ALS. During the progression of the disease even positive emotions came and encouraged the patients continue to struggle. Patients used different strategies like existential thoughts, acceptance of aid and help from outside caregiver. Support from family and friends were important to cope with the disease and the expected death.

    Conclusions: People who suffer from ALS experienced an emotional roller coaster, which commuted between positive and negative feelings. For many patients, it was important to take one day at a time to find meaningfulness. The experience from the illness is individual from ALS and it is important that the nurse uses the person-centered care. It is important that the nurse learn from the patients and relatives experience to preserve the integrity and autonomy.

  • 203.
    Chen, Ping
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Qian, Lidan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    The cognitive function of residents living in nursing home: A questionnaire study2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 204.
    Chen, Xiayu
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Lu, Yufang
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Women’s experiences after a myocardial infarction: A descriptive litterature review2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 205.
    Chen, Zhe
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Yang, Ni
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Women’s experiences of preeclampsia in pregnancy: A descriptive literature review2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 206.
    Chienh, Robin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Sjuksköterskans erfarenheter inom nutritionsomvårdnad: En litteraturstudie med deskriptiv design2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Malnutrition is common among elderly people in Sweden. There are clear guidelines on what kind of intervention should be made, yet there are few actions being taken. This shows a sign of inadequate organisation and management, or lack of expertise in staff performing nutrition nursing care.

    Aim

    The aim for this study is to describe nurses’ experience in nutritional nursing care. And describe the article’s data collection method.

    Method

    A descriptive literature study based on 10 scientific articles.

    Result

    Nurses had limited knowledge and skills in nutrition nursing care and therefore could not identify patients who were malnourished. They were also reluctant to use screening instruments because they do not know how to use it. The nurse has a major responsibility to perform nutritional nursing care, which at the same time must prioritize other tasks. The results were divided into three sections, which are listed under the headings: Insufficient Knowledge, Attitude, Responsibility and Priorities

    Conclusion

    Studies show that nurses have insufficient knowledge in nutrition care and use of screening instruments to identify malnourished patients. The Nurse needs more training in nutrition care and how to use screening instruments to better respond and treat malnourished patients.

  • 207.
    Christensen, Carina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Rovapalo, Elisabeth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Gerotranscendens: Kunskap ger omvårdnadspersonalen redskap för nytt bemötande av äldre2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Perceptions of older people and aging have an impact of needs and problems and how to care and treat for the elderly. Different theories of aging affect the nursing staff's views on aging, which in turn affects the elderly. Gerotranscendence is an aging theory that describes aging as something positive.

    The purpose of this study was to present the theory of gerotranscendence for nursing staff in a nursing home and investigate if they believe that knowledge of gerotranscendence change their approach towards the elderly.

    The study was conducted through semi-structured interviews with 12 nursing staff on a nursing home. The data were analyzed with a qualitative content analysis.

    This study suggests that knowledge of theories of aging provide a better understanding of the aging process and recognition by the nursing staff on how to recognize signs of gerotranscendence and thereby promote older people's to reach gerotranscendence. The study also suggests that knowledge of gerotranscendence gave nursing staff other tools to use in the care of the elderly.

    Nursing staff have through the knowledge of the theory of gerotranscendence awareness that they through changed working methods and communication with the older people can promote their way to reach gerotranscendence.

  • 208.
    Christensen, Karin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Holmstedt, Rebecca
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Metabolt syndrom hos neuroleptikabehandlade patienter inom rättspsykiatrisk vård 2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 209.
    Christiansen, Victoria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Öberg, Hanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Vuxna anhörigas beskrivning av livet efter deras närståendes stroke: en litteraturstudie2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to illuminate the adult relatives experiences of life after a close person suffered a stroke and become permanently disabled. Method: The study was conducted as a literature review, 16 research articles were examined and then compiled from a physically, mentally and socially perspective. Main results: The literature study shows that relatives of stroke survivors were affected from a physical, mental and social perspective. They felt fatigued as a result of the increased responsibility that the stroke resulted in. Their lives were turned upside down and many were dissatisfied with the care and treatment. Family members felt a lack of information and felt they lacked knowledge of the area. Feelings of anxiety, frustration, grief, depression and guilt were described. The relatives felt compelled to hold back their emotions and they indicated that support from family, friends and staff was important and gave them strength. Female relatives were found to be more vulnerable than male relatives. Relatives felt gratitude for the survival of the stroke victim. They experienced lack of own time, stagnated plans of the future and experienced being socially isolated. The changed roles was experienced as stressful. Conclusion: Knowledge about how family members experience life after a stroke of a close one, may give guidance to the nurse in the work of supporting and informing relatives.

  • 210.
    Classon, Olivia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Skogsberg, Hanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Upplevelser av att leva som anhörig till en person med demenssjukdom: En litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: 47.5 million people live with dementia today, and this number is expected to double every 20 year. This disease causes big changes for the person who suffers and the relative’s life and is often called "The relatives' disease". The relatives have an important role in the dementia sufferer's life, because he or she often has lived a large part of their life with the person with dementia, it is the relatives who know them the best, even though the disease leads to personality changes.

    Aim: To describe the experiences of living as a relative to a person with dementia (PWD) and to describe the study group in the included articles.

    Method: A literature study based on twelve qualitative scientific studies that was found through searches in the two databases PubMed and CINAHL. The material was processed and divided into content areas.

    Main results: The result showed that relatives of PWD often experienced feelings of frustration, anxiety and guilt due to lack of information and communication. They also described how they experienced the adaptation to the changes in their and the PWD lives and the ways in which they managed those changes.

    Conclusion: The perceived feelings that emerged in the results often came of loss of control and the changes that were difficult for the families to adapt to. Lack of confidence, poor communication and inadequate information were reasons for the lack of trust. By developing a good relationship between the nurse and the families, the families can experience trust and security. That in turn could help the care situations to be as good as possible for all involved parties. 

  • 211.
    Cluer, Sarah
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Åsblom, Lena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Barns upplevelser av att ha en förälder med cancer: En litteraturstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this literature review was to describe children’s experiences of having a parent with cancer and to examine the quality of the articles relating to the sampling process, response rates and withdrawal.

    Method: Databases CINAHL and PubMed were used to search for relevant articles published between 2003 and 2013. The result is based on thirteen articles.

    Results: Three general themes were found. 1) The effects on children’s wellbeing: The children were strongly affected by their experience but rarely showed clinical symptoms. Some children were at greater risk of poor health than others. 2) Life changes and fears which influence the children’s experiences: The children had many fears which impinged on their quality of life. Life changes consisted of increased emotional and practical responsibility within the family. A need to maintain normality through a social network outside of the family-home was identified.  3) The children’s communication and information needs: The needs were great and open communication within the family was important for the children’s wellbeing. Professional information was appreciated.

    Difficulties in recruiting participants and possible response bias, affected the reliability of several studies.

    Conclusion: The result backs up Socialstyrelsen’s (The National board of Health and Welfare) staff looking after the ill parent sees to the needs of these children. The general nurse needs to have good knowledge and understanding of general child development and these children’s specific situations, in order to help and support them in the best way possible.

  • 212.
    Connick, Mark J.
    et al.
    School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
    Beckman, Emma
    School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
    Vanlandewijck, Yves
    Faculty of Kinesiology and Rehabilitation Sciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Malone, Laurie A.
    Lakeshore Foundation, Birmingham, Alabama, USA.
    Blomqvist, Sven
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Tweedy, Sean M.
    School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
    Cluster analysis of novel isometric strength measures produces a valid and evidence-based classification structure for wheelchair track racing2018In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 52, no 17, p. 1123-1129, article id 097558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The Para athletics wheelchair-racing classification system employs best practice to ensure that classes comprise athletes whose impairments cause a comparable degree of activity limitation. However, decision-making is largely subjective and scientific evidence which reduces this subjectivity is required.

    AIM: To evaluate whether isometric strength tests were valid for the purposes of classifying wheelchair racers and whether cluster analysis of the strength measures produced a valid classification structure.

    METHODS: Thirty-two international level, male wheelchair racers from classes T51-54 completed six isometric strength tests evaluating elbow extensors, shoulder flexors, trunk flexors and forearm pronators and two wheelchair performance tests-Top-Speed (0-15 m) and Top-Speed (absolute). Strength tests significantly correlated with wheelchair performance were included in a cluster analysis and the validity of the resulting clusters was assessed.

    RESULTS: All six strength tests correlated with performance (r=0.54-0.88). Cluster analysis yielded four clusters with reasonable overall structure (mean silhouette coefficient=0.58) and large intercluster strength differences. Six athletes (19%) were allocated to clusters that did not align with their current class. While the mean wheelchair racing performance of the resulting clusters was unequivocally hierarchical, the mean performance of current classes was not, with no difference between current classes T53 and T54.

    CONCLUSIONS: Cluster analysis of isometric strength tests produced classes comprising athletes who experienced a similar degree of activity limitation. The strength tests reported can provide the basis for a new, more transparent, less subjective wheelchair racing classification system, pending replication of these findings in a larger, representative sample. This paper also provides guidance for development of evidence-based systems in other Para sports.

  • 213.
    Conradzon, Jessica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nilsson, Ida
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av samtal om sexualitet med patienter diagnostiserade med cancer: En deskriptiv litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 214.
    Cordova, Viktoria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Andersson, Linn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hur faderlig postpartumdepression påverkar familjens livssituation samt vilka tecken och riskfaktorer som finns för faderlig postpartumdepression: en litteraturstudie2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The purpose of this literature study was partly to describe how paternal postpartum depression effects the life situation of the family and to decribe which signs and risk factors that exist for paternal postpartum depression. Empirical articles were searched in Medline database (PubMed) and fourteen articles were selected. The articles were reviewed for quality regards the selection and dropping. Tables of the articles method and result description was compiled. Result of the present study revealed that an increased risk of "couple morbidity" existed and even the children were affected. Children of depressed fathers were more likely to have temperament problems. Depressed fathers felt difficulties in dealing with their childs temperament. The fathers became more irritable and had less patience for the child which resulted in fewer positive parent-child interactions, which in turn affected the children's vocabulary development negatively. The results of the present study also revealed that the father may display emotional expressions in the form of irritation as well as anger as a sign of postpartumdepression and that prenatal depression was a risk factor for the father to suffer from depression. After performed review none of the selected studies were judged to have low quality and only two studies were judged to have medium quality.

    The authors of the present study consider that depression in the father should be identified and addressed, since depression not only can have consequences for the partner but also on the child's welfare and development.

    Keywords: Paternal postpartum depression, Family, Life situation, Risk factors, Prevention.

  • 215.
    Cyrén, Monika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Karlström, Ylva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors uppfattningar och erfarenheter av personcentrerad omvårdnad i olika vårdkontexter: En beskrivande litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Personcentrering är en term som förekommer allt oftare inom vård och omvårdnad. Den beskriver en vård som organiseras med utgångspunkt från patientens individuella behov och har blivit synonymt med hög kvalitet inom vården. Personcentrerad vård har visat sig kunna leda till kortare vårdtider, tryggare patienter, ökad livskvalitet och färre medicinska komplikationer. I Sverige finns intentionen att införa mer personcentrering i vården.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att beskriva sjuksköterskors uppfattningar och erfarenheter av personcentrerad vård i olika vårdkontexter, samt att utföra en metodologisk granskning av den urvalsmetod som de valda artiklarna redovisade.

    Metod: En beskrivande litteraturstudie som baseras på nio artiklar, samtliga med kvalitativ design.

    Resultat: Sjuksköterskor från olika typer av sjukhusavdelningar, primärvård samt boenden för personer med demenssjukdom beskrev betydelsen av att se hela människan bakom patienten, att etablera en relation för att kunna individanpassa vården och att göra patienten delaktig i den egna vården. Majoriteten av de deltagande sjuksköterskorna hade erfarenheter av olika svårigheter med personcentrerad vård. Sex studier använde ändamålsenligt urval, två hade bekvämlighetsurval och en studie beskrev inte urvalsmetod utan benämnde att studie hade en pre/post-test/follow-up design.

    Slutsatser: Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter visade på likheter i uppfattningar och erfarenheter av personcentrerad vård oavsett vårdkontext. Personcentrerad vård är ett etiskt förhållningsätt och för att vården ska kunna bli personcentrerad måste hela hälso- och sjukvårdsorganisationen stödja personcentrerad vård.

  • 216.
    Czarnowska, Magdalena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lansén, Susanne
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Känslan av sammanhang och tilltro till sin egen förmåga hos patienter med stroke och patienter med kronisk njursvikt: En empirisk studie2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of the study was to describe and compare the sense of coherence and self-efficacy of patients with stroke and chronic kidney disease.

    Methods: The questionnaires GSE and SOC was used to measure the sense of coherence and self-efficacy of patients with stroke (n=63) and patients with chronic kidney disease (n=54). The study groups were chosen from the international classification of disease (ICD-10) from a county in Central Sweden.

    Results: Both of the study groups rated highest on the comprehensibility sub-scale and lowest on the meaningfulness sub-scale. There were significant differences between younger and older patients with stroke regarding the comprehensibility sub-scale. There were no significant differences between younger and older patients with chronic kidney disease. Both of the studygroups estimated self-efficacy comparable the same.

    Conclusion: The result of this study shows that elderly stroke patients perceive to have greater intelligibility than younger patients, which may be caused by life experience which is consistent with previous studies. There were no differences in how patient groups estimated confidence in their own ability, so how they estimate appears to be due to chronic illness rather than a specific disease.It is also described in previous research. Knowledge of how patients with chronic diseases are using copingresources can lead to getting better at making use of patients ' internal and external resources to develop the quality of nursing care.

    Keywords: Chronic kidney disease, stroke, sense of coherence, self-efficacy, GSE, SOC

  • 217.
    Dahlberg, Emma
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Åkerman, Marcus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Homosexuellas upplevelser av bemötande från vårdpersonal: En litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Homosexuality historically had a series of laws that spoke against their human rights. In Sweden, a healthcare law about fair treatment exists, however, not everyone got the same care. A nurse's key area of expertise is the care and understanding of patient treatment.

     

    Aim: The aim of the literature study was to explore homosexual experiences of treatment in the meetings with healthcare professionals and to look at the included articles sample groups.

     

    Method: Literature study with descriptive design based on 12 qualitative scientific articles from the search engine MedLine and manual searches.

     

    Main results: The results showed both negative and positive experiences of meetings with healthcare professionals. The elements that influenced how the meetings were experienced were the professionals' attitudes, knowledge about the subject and usage of heteronormative words. Most of the included articles informed about the participants' ages and inclusion criteria. The largest part of participants were women and nine of twelve articles were made in Europe.

     

    Conclusion: This have shown that the treatments homosexual patients got could have been influenced by the healthcare professionals’ knowledge, attitudes and personal values. The homosexuals described both positive and negative experiences where heterosexual assumption, certain word choices and feelings of doubt have occurred. An increased knowledge and education about questions concerning homosexual’s and their experiences in the meeting with healthcare can help the undergraduate nurses to develop the capability for a more individual and positive encounter for homosexual people.

  • 218.
    Dahlin, Madelene
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ragnarsson, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Upplevelser och hantering av traumatisk stress hos sjuksköterskor innom akutsjukvård: En litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Nurses and other professionals who work with traumatic events and disasters have a stressprotection that will help them in difficult situations. But sometimes events penetrate through that protection and trigger a traumatic stress reaction. Most people who work in emergency care meet at least one traumatic event in a week, some even more. To have a good copingstrategy becomes important to be able to continue their work.

    Purpose: To describe how nurses in emergency care experience and handle traumatic stress. Further,the methodological aim is to describe the selection groups in the included articles.

    Method: Compilation of nine scientific articles by qualitative approach was made. Systematic searches were made for articles in four different databases.

    Results: Nurses' experiences of traumatic stress were described as different feelings of psychic illness such as anger and anxiety. Recurring memories in body and soul were common. Sound, smell and images could trigger the memories of the situations. Some reported feelings of guilt and shame. The coping was mostly about a good social network both private and professional, flaws were reported in both areas. To find a meaning and to have an inner dialogue with oneself were described as important. Avoidant strategy were seen when the nurses avoided certain patients.

    Conclusion: Lack of support from employers and colleagues have been demonstrated and therefore the authors think that it is important to ask the employer in emergency care to constantly develop and improve the professional assistance to nurses who have experienced traumatic events in their work. There is a need for more qualitative research in the field and research should be continuously updated as the care and nurses' work situations are constantly evolving.

  • 219.
    Dahlkvist, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    The Garden/Patio in Residential Care Facilities for Older People: Characteristics and the Users Perspectives2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 220.
    Dahlkvist, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Health and Medicine, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Hartig, Terry
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala university, Uppsala, Sweden; Institute for Housing and Urban Research,Uppsala university, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Annika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Högberg, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Skovdahl, Kirsti
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Buskerud and Vestfold university, Norway.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Garden greenery and the health of older people in residential care facilities: A multi-level cross-sectional study2016In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 72, no 9, p. 2065-2076Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS:

    To test the relationship between greenery in gardens at residential facilities for older people and the self-perceived health of residents, mediated by experiences of being away and fascination when in the garden and the frequency of visitation there. To examine how these indirect effects vary with the number of physical barriers to visiting the garden.

    BACKGROUND:

    Many older people in residential facilities suffer from complex health problems. Access to a green outdoor environment may enable psychological distance, engage effortless attention, encourage more frequent visitation and promote resident health.

    DESIGN:

    A multi-level, cross-sectional, correlational design.

    METHODS:

    Questionnaires were administered June-August, 2011 to convenience samples of residents at 72 facilities for older people with complex healthcare needs. One to 10 eligible residents were sampled during self-motivated garden visits at each facility (n = 290). They reported on their garden experiences and health. Facility staff reported on objective garden characteristics and barriers to access. A serial mediation model was tested with multiple linear regression analysis.

    RESULTS:

    The total indirect effect of greenery on self-perceived health was positive and significant. Garden greenery appears to affect health by enhancing a sense of being away, affording possibilities to experience the outdoor environment as interesting and encouraging visitation. Among residents in homes with multiple barriers, only fascination mediated the relationship between greenery and self-perceived health.

    CONCLUSION:

    Ample greenery in outdoor space at residential facilities for older people appears to promote experiences of being away and fascination, more frequent visitation and better health.

  • 221.
    Dahlkvist, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science. Department of Health and Medicine, Örebro University.
    Nilsson, Annika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Skovdahl, Kirsti
    Örebro Universitet, Institutionen för Hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Is there a caring perspective in garden/patio design in elderly care?: a description and a comparison of residents' and staff members' perceptions of these outdoor spaces2014In: Journal of Housing for the Elderly, ISSN 0276-3893, E-ISSN 1540-353X, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 85-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aimed to describe characteristics of and design elements in gardens/patios at 87 residential living homes for older people and to describe and compare residents’ and staff members’ perceptions of these spaces. The result showed that many gardens/patios had several recommended design elements and at the same time obvious deficiencies. The residents (n=415) valued various aspects of the garden/patio more highly than the staff did (n=667). One conclusion is that managers responsible for residential living homes for older people should pay attention to and takes measures to ameliorate shortcomings and deficient elements in design and accessibility so that the garden/patio can be used as an important health promotion resource in the care of older people. Residents and staff can be seen as very important actors in such development work.

     

  • 222.
    Dalborg, Frida
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Skolsköterskans förebyggande arbete mot psykisk ohälsa utifrån hälsosamtalet2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 223.
    Danhard, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Avslappnande, makalöst och underbart: En intervjustudie om upplevelse av taktil massage och hälsorelaterad livskvalitet hos kvinnor med bröstcancer2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 224.
    Danhard Rundquist, Lisa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av att i sin profession möta barn som far illa: En litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Child abuse leave marks into adulthood. Research shows that abused children take higher risks in their teens, report lower self-estimated health as adults, are overrepresented in several physical and psychological conditions, and also hold lower socioeconomic status. Child abuse includes all forms of physical, psychological and emotional abuse as well as neglect. It is the outermost responsibility of the Swedish state to protect all children under the age of 18. As a part of that responsibility some professions, including health care personnel, are legally liable to report to social services. However, figures indicate that health care personnel in comparison to other professions with duty of mandatory reporting are under-reporting. Aim: To describe nurses’ experiences of in their role as professionals meeting abused or neglected children. Method: A descriptive literature review of ten studies with a qualitative approach. Main results: Meeting abused or neglected children is often a very emotional experience and several nurses express a need of support. A feeling of being unprepared is common and an insecurity of when to report a case is shown among many nurses. More education on the subject is requested as well as guidelines and support from the employer. Conclusion: Nurses are in need of support regarding these issues. Specific education, guidelines and a better communication with the child protective services has all emerged as possible improvements that can be implemented.

  • 225.
    Darnemo, Marlene
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjöö, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av att ha sex- och samlevnadsundervisning på högstadiet - En intervjustudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande studie var att beskriva sjuksköterskor inom skolhälsovårdens uppfattningar av att ha sex- och samlevnadsundervisning för ungdomar på högstadiet.

    Metoden var kvalitativ intervjustudie av deskriptiv design och analyserades med kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Undersökningsgruppen var sex sjuksköterskor inom skolhälsovården i en kommun i mellansverige. Huvudresultatet visade att samtliga sjuksköterskor beskrev att deras undervisning i klass inte existerar utan att det är pedagogernas ansvar att undervisa i ämnet sex- och samlevnad. Sjuksköterskorna beskrev att de istället har ett omfattande hälsosamtal med ungdomar i årskurs åtta där fokus ligger på psykisk ohälsa, känslor och kroppsuppfattning. För att nå fram till ungdomarna i fråga ansåg sjuksköterskorna att ett förtroende bör skapas och att ungdomars självkänsla sätts i fokus samtidigt som god undervisning inom ämnet bidrar till ett stärkande av ungdomars relationer. Samtliga sjuksköterskor påvisade tidsbrist inom yrket och att sex- och samlevnadsfrågor bortprioriteras. Samtidigt upplevde majoriteten brist på kunskap inom ämnet och att en kontinuerlig kunskapsutveckling är ett behov. Slutsatsen var att sjuksköterskorna som deltog i studien ansåg att de inte deltog i sex- och samlevnadsundervisning i den utsträckning som de önskar. Detta på grund av tidsbrist och stort antal elever per sjuksköterska. 

  • 226.
    Davey, Amira
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Jaana, Krantz
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Faktorer som kan inverka på sjuksköterskors följsamhet i att förebygga vårdrelaterade infektioner: En litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Healthcare associated infections creates great strains in healthcare at asocietal-, organizational- and individual level. Healthcare workers implementation andadherence to existing evidence-based guidelines is the most effective way to preventnosocomial infections. For nurses to conduct preventive work and enabling a safe carefor patients, it is important to examine the cause of deficiencies in adherence to theseguidelines.Aim: The aim of this survey was to describe factors that can explain why nurses do notfollow evidence-based guidelines for preventing healthcare-associated infections.Furthermore, the aim has been to examine the articles regarding the data collection method.Method: A descriptive literature survey based on fourteen articles. Articles have beenexamined in terms of the data collection method.Main result: Several different factors contribute to why nurses do not follow evidence-based guidelines, where both internal and external factors interact. It’s clearly revealedthat nurses lack knowledge and practical skills. Nurses' beliefs about their own capacityand actual application of the guidelines correspond poorly with reality. It has alsoemerged that according to the nurses' beliefs about consequences, the nurse has atendency to minimize the extent of the consequences of their act or omission of action. Conclusion: Nurses lack knowledge about evidence-based guidelines for preventinghealthcare-associated infections. However, there are several factors that could explainwhy the guidelines are not applied.

  • 227.
    Deikan, Zahra
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Stathakis, Laura
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Erfarenheten och upplevelsen av att vara mamma och sjuk i bröstcancer: En beskrivande litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common malignant disease among women in Sweden. Research has shown that the children of women with breast cancer are affected by the mother's disease due to the fact that the relationship between mother and child is special. The mother is traditionally responsible for the care of the children and when she falls ill the children experience anxiety about the future and their well-being is affected. The responsibility of the nurse is to promote health and prevent illness. The nurse should work from a holistic perspective ensuring that family and relatives are involved in order for all to cope better with the new situation.

    Aim of the study: The purpose of this literature review is to describe the experience of mothers between 19-65 years old with breast cancer while having 0-30-year old children. Furthermore, the purpose is also to describe the methodological aspect of data collection for the included articles of the study.

    Method: A descriptive literature review. Systematic searches on well-known databases using search terms was applied. Subject headings were used. 11 articles were included in the study. The data analysis was done gradually and the data was examined both individually and within the group before consensus was reached and the data categorized under themes.

    Findings: This study shows that the experience of breast cancer for mothers between 19-65 years old having children of 0-30 years is influenced by the fact that they are mothers. Results showed that mothers tried to maintain normality and to not let the breast cancer diagnosis affect their families, specifically their children, more than necessary. Mothers prioritized their children's needs before their own needs. The results showed that this is because of the mother´s conception of the children as being the woman’s and mother’s responsibility. The included articles in this study collected their data through different types of interview techniques and questionnaires. 

    Conclusion: In order to provide good care for the mother affected by breast cancer and her family, it is important for the nurse to highlight not only the patient as a woman, but also as a mother and thus considering her entire lifeworld.

  • 228.
    Delin, Rebecca
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Hammarlund, Matilda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Riskfaktorer för att utveckla posttraumatiskt stressyndrom hos ungdomar: En deskriptiv litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Posttraumatic stress disorder should be considered as a public health disease where diagnosing and treatment require attention. Adolescents who have survived life-threatening events tend to relive these traumatic events and avoid to deal with the emotions that occur, which can lead to mental disorders.

    Aim

    Identify which risk factors there is to develop posttraumatic stress disorder among adolescents and examine which data collection methods the included articles have chosen.

    Method

    Descriptive design has been used in this literature study including 13 articles collected from the databases PsycInfo and PubMed and has been categorized by similarities and differences. The articles data collection methods has been presented from the methodological aspect.

    Main results

    To be exposed to violence and traumatic events as physical injury or see someone suffer/die, be a girl, older adolescent, exposed to daily stress, broken family and have less social support were some risk factors for developing posttraumatic stress disorder. Ten of thirteen articles had a quantitative approach and used questionnaire to get responses for which risk factors there was. One article had a quantitative approach but did not use a questionnaire and two articles had qualitative approach and used interview as data collection method.

    Conclusion

    In this literature study different risk factors were identified underlying to develop PTSD among adolescents. The most common risk factors in almost all of the studies were to be exposed to violence, experience traumatic events, be a girl, have less social support from family and school, lose a family member and daily stress. As a nurse it is important to keep this in mind so the care for the adolescents are as good as possible and that coping is used in the right way.

  • 229.
    Demont, Amir Valentin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sörhuus, Marit
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors inställning till eutanasi: En litteraturstudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The aim of this literature review was to describe nurse’s attitudes towards euthanasia.

    The method used was a descriptive design. Of the 220 hits, 14 was chosen by CINAHL and PubMed (MedLine) and then analyzed. Both qualitative and quantitative aspects were included.

    The results showed that euthanasia is a complex issue where many ethical and moral aspects come in to play. The nurses felt that euthanasia was ethically acceptable for safeguarding patient autonomy, but also when patients’ suffered from incurable disease and severe pain therefore requested euthanasia. Arguments against euthanasia where directed towards the nurse’s role as lifesaver and preserver of life, the risk of misuse and religious beliefs. The study showed that younger nurses and those with lower formal education where more prone to the use of euthanasia than elderly nurses and those with higher education. Attitudes toward euthanasia differed depending on what type of ward the nurses worked in, for example at intensive care units, palliative care or pediatrics. Those who work in pediatric wards or with palliative care are those who more often oppose the use of euthanasia. Nurses who described themselves as religious often argued against the use of euthanasia and its legislation. In countries where euthanasia is legal there is an ongoing debate about nurses’ role in euthanasia and in its decision processing.

    The conclusion is that questions regarding euthanasia are important to investigate, not only by exploring the public’s attitudes but also by exploring the reflections of professionals. The debates will continue regarding euthanasia.

     Keywords: Euthanasia, nurses’ attitudes, palliative care, end of life decisions

  • 230.
    Devik A., Siri
    et al.
    Centre of Care Research Mid-Norway, Steinkjer, Norway; Faculty of Nursing and Health Sciences, Nord University, Namsos, Norway.
    Olsen, Rose M.
    Faculty of Nursing and Health Sciences, Nord University, Namsos, Norway.
    Fiskvik, Inger Lise
    Centre for Development of Institutional and Home care Services in Nord-Trøndelag, Stjørdal, Norway.
    Halbostad, Terje
    Namsos Hospital, Hospital Pharmacy, Namsos, Norway.
    Lassen, Tone
    Apotek 1, Malvik, Norway.
    Kuzina, Natalia
    Department of Laboratory Medicine Children's and women's Health, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Centre of Care Research Mid-Norway, Steinkjer, Norway.
    Varations in drug-related problems detected by multidisciplinary teams in Norwegian nursing homes and home nursing care2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, ISSN 0281-3432, E-ISSN 1502-7724, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 291-299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:

    Traditionally, nursing homes have been associated with suboptimal drug therapy and drug-related problems (DRPs). In contrast, less is known about drug safety in homecare. The aim of this study was to describe and compare DRPs in older persons across two care settings: nursing homes and home nursing care.

    DESIGN:

    Cross-sectional study using descriptive and inferential statistics.

    SETTING:

    Nursing homes (n = 5) and home nursing care units (n = 8) across nine municipalities in the middle of Norway.

    PARTICIPANTS:

    Multidisciplinary medication reviews for 61 nursing home residents and 93 patients receiving home nursing care performed over the 2013-2014 period, were mapped and examined (N = 154).

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

    DRPs classified by a Norwegian Classification Tool.

    RESULTS:

    In all, 740 DRPs were detected in the total sample, 227 in nursing homes and 513 in home nursing care. DRPs were significantly higher among patients receiving home-based care (Mean =5.5) compared to patients in nursing homes (Mean =3.7, p = 0.002). Among the problem categories, the need for additional drug was most frequent in nursing homes (p = 0.001), while documentation discrepancies reached the highest numbers in patients receiving home nursing care (p = 0.000). Additionally, patients in home nursing care had more problems concerning adverse reactions (p = 0.060); however, this was not statistically significant. Differences in DRP categories leading to changes in the patients' medication lists were also discovered.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    The frequency of unclear documentation and adverse reactions found in the homecare setting is alarming. This is an important issue given the trend in aged care towards caring people in their own homes. Further research is warranted to explore how different care settings may influence the safety of pharmacotherapy for older persons.

    Key Points

    Drug related problems are a significant cause of concern among patients receiving home nursing care as well as for patients living in nursing homes. The findings of this study showed that:

    • Significantly more DRPs were detected among patients receiving home nursing care than patients living in nursing homes.
    • While patients living in nursing homes were often undermedicated, documentation discrepancies were more frequent in home nursing care.
    • DRP categories leading to changes on the medication lists differed between the settings.
  • 231.
    Didricksson, Lotta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors kunskaper och attityder till patienter med alkohol- och drogproblematik: En enkätstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 232.
    Ding, Mingxia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Zhu, Huifang
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Nursing students’ self-regulated learning ability: A descriptive literature review2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 233.
    Diraoui, Fatima
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Sääf, Lotten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Sjuksköterskans erfarenheter av att vårda patienter i livets slutskede: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Every year between 90 000 and 100 000 people dies in Sweden, the majority of these were cared in palliative care. The palliative care primarily focus on relief of symptoms and improvement of patient's quality of life.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe nurse’s experiences of caring for patients in the final stages of life and to describe the data collection method that was used in the included articles.

    Method: A descriptive literature study. The study was based on 14 qualitative articles found through searches in the databases PubMed and Cinahl.

    Main Results: Nurses experiences of showing respect for both patients and their relatives contributed to a better relation and trust. Nurses experienced that the palliative caring could be mentally burdened, but through support from colleagues the burden could be reduced. The demands from relatives could create a feeling of stress. Nurses on surgical and oncological ward experienced a lack of knowledge when it came to palliative care and communication. According to the nurses, communication between nurses and doctors didn't work well and were a source of stress. Data collection method in the included articles were interviews and focusgroup interviews.

    Conclusions: Nurses described a lack of knowledge within the palliative care and difficulties communicating with patients and their relatives. Education within palliative care and communication could contribute to nurses feeling more confident and allow them to grow in their role and improve the collaboration with doctors.

  • 234.
    Djuanvat, Kristine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sidenvall, Stina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av transkulturell omvårdnad i Sverige: En litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    Background: In our contemporary society there have been an increasing number of people migrating to Sweden. Most of these migrants will at some stage seek medical attentions. Norms and traditions might be questioned when people from different cultures interact with each other; it is in the nurses’ best interest to identify and allay possible conflicts, in a professional way, in order to provide a good care.Aim: The aim of this study was to describe nurses’ experiences of transcultural care in Sweden. Furthermore, it also shows how the reviewed articles collected their data.Design: The study is a literature study.Method: Twelve scientific papers were reviewed and analyzed for this study.Result: The literature study urged the importance of the individuality of each patient in order to avoid consternation in either side. Moreover, the study showed the readers on how to identify possible cultural differences that could reflect and/or model nurses’ transcultural experiences. Nurses’ negative experiences of encountering patients from other cultures in Sweden were partially linked to their fears and prejudices; through transcultural education the nurses’ experience of transcultural care would then be positively changed. The result of the methodological aim proves that semi-structured interviews were most commonly used in the following study.Conclusion: Fears and prejudices could possibly create obstacles between patients and their nurses. One of the main sources of these fears and prejudices is the cultural gap between caregivers and their patients. Therefore, it is crucial for a nurse to have a holistic view while adapting their care depending on their patient’s cultural values. Nonetheless, further education and practice in transcultural care are considered necessary.

  • 235.
    Dolk, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Jonsson, Lisa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Sjuksköterskors attityd till inducerad abort: En litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Sweden women has the right to abortion until pregnancy week 18, as long

    as there’s no risk for her life. Abortion after pregnancy week 18 require a permit from The

    National Board of Health and Welfare (Socialstyrelsen). The law regarding abortion varies a

    lot around the world. Approximately 45 million abortions are performed annually around the

    world. It’s estimated that half of them are performed illegally.

    Aim: To describe nurse's attitude towards induced abortion and to describe the survey group

    in the included articles.

    Method: A literature review with a descriptive design. The articles were searched in the

    database PubMed and Cinahl and resulted in 14 articles that was included in the study.

    Main results: It occurred both negative and positive attitude among nurses towards induced

    abortion. Negative attitude were shown through the nurses conception of life, religious belief

    as well as repeated abortions. In some cases this was shown through discrimination of the

    patients. Positive attitude was shown through the nurses conviction of women's right to

    abortion. An equal and non-judgemental care was emphasized. The nurses had different

    methods to cope with the situation and perform an adequate job with regard for the patient's

    best.

    Conclusion: Nurses attitudes may affect women’s experience of health care in a positive or

    negative direction. Knowledge of the occurring attitudes among staff involved in induced

    abortion give nurses an opportunity to reflect on their own attitude.

  • 236.
    Dragon, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Persson, Margareta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Upplevelser i vardagen hos personer med demenssjukdom och som bor i ordinärt boende.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Several people are living with dementia disease and the numbers are expected to rise as the population ages. The aim of the study was that by people with dementia disease and their narratives describe the experiences of living in ordinary housing and deal with daily life. The study has been carried out through unstructured interviews with nine people with dementia disease who are over 65 years old and living in ordinary housing. Data were processed by qualitative manifest content analysis. The results are presented in six categories dealing with limitations in daily life, altered self, feeling of dissatisfaction, the feeling of contentedness, social relationships and strategies.The older persons experienced limitations and were dependence on others because of their dementiadisease. Bitterness to have suffered illness was the main source of the feeling of dissatisfaction. Contentedness was perceived by feeling safe and be able to perform for them meaningful tasks. Social relations were important, but sometimes influenced by the feeling of not being good enough. Everyday living in ordinary housing meant different pursuits and handled by using different strategies and a certain acceptance. The conclusion of the study shows that people with dementia disease perceive their life situation and everyday living satisfying and manageable in ordinary housing with appropriate support and assistance.

  • 237.
    Edholm, Johannes
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Fa, Denise
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av tvångsvårdsåtgärder på patienter med psykisk ohälsa – en litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to describe nurses' experiences of performing compulsory measures of patients with mental illness and review the selected articles sample method. 

                                                                                                                             Method: The present literature study has a descriptive design that includes articles of both qualitative and quantitative approach; the literature review includes a total of twelve articles.

      Result: The results showed that nurses' experiences of performing compulsory treatment measures include a wide range of emotions that involve, among other things, a conflict of emotions in conjunction with the exclusion of the patient's autonomy. Results showed differing experiences of nurses existing idea of ​​compulsory measures favored the patient in question or not. The majority of nurses felt that the execution of coercive measures was used too casually as well as to undermine the therapeutic alliance with the patient. Nurses’ common view was that there was need for the opportunity to vent action procedure.  

    Conclusion: The results showed that the majority of nurses felt that compulsory measures implied negative experiences. A recurring verdict associated with compulsory measures was a contradiction of emotions in nurses due to the ethical dilemma that arose. Common experiences were identified, that compulsory measures was used too lightly. Alternative measures should have more room to be implemented in clinical practice. It should also develop a forum for ventilation for the nurses that are in contact with the coercion, an opportunity for discussion and improvement of the procedure.

  • 238.
    Edin, Ann-Sofie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nicolaisen, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hinder och möjligheter för sjuksköterskan att identifiera faktorer som påverkar undernäring hos äldre dementa på äldreboenden: En deskriptiv litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract. Background: Because people live longer the number of people with dementia will also increase. With old age and increasing presence of chronic diseases such as dementia, it will also be an increase in the malnutrition problem in the elderly population.

    Aim: The present study’s aim was to describe the obstacles and opportunities for the nurse to pay attention to, prevent and minimize malnutrition in elderly demented in geriatric care. The aim was also to scrutinize the quality of the articles based on the methodological aspect selection. Method: A literature review with a descriptive approach was conducted based on 16 research articles that were searched in PubMed, Scopus and Chinal. Results: The study shows that the three stages of dementia causes nutritional problems. Lack of communication and interaction in the eating environment, lack of mealtime training and side effects of certain drugs affected the nutrition of people with dementia negatively. Lack of assessments and the lack of education / knowledge hinders the nurse to detect malnutrition. The nurse can use instruments to help to detect malnutrition and those at risk of malnutrition. The nurse may also change in the environment and put into relief efforts such as nutritional beverages, so that it benefits the nutrition better. Mealtime training has been shown to help people with dementia to reduce their eating difficulties and gain weight. Nutritional knowledge was found to be higher among those with higher education

    Conclusion: Nurses, who work in nursing homes for older people with dementia, have a responsibility to ensure that nutritional needs are met. Nutritional care is a team work. Parts of the nurse’s work include the role of being a leader, which means to educate and inform other healthcare professionals in nutritional care. There is extensive research on dementia and malnutrition, but few studies have been conducted using the demented person's perspective. Therefore, further research based on interviews with people with dementia is relevant.

  • 239.
    Edin, Caroline
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Mälby, Sara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Faktorer på akutmottagningen som är av betydelse för patientens tillfredställelse av vården: - en litteraturstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To describe the factors of patient satisfaction in the emergency department. Method: A literature review with descriptive design. The data was based on 13 articles searched in the PubMed database.Result: In total, seven factors of patient satisfaction of care were identified in the emergency department. The factors were the patient's background, health professional response, information, communication, the triage process, waiting time and the environment. The result showed that the main factor that had an impact on patient satisfaction in the emergency department was waiting time, the uncertainty surrounding this and the impact of the triageprocess. Conclusion: The factors shown to be important in itself, and more importantly, in combination with each other. If patients were dissatisfied with one factor it often affected the satisfaction of the other factors during the visit to the emergency department. The waiting time suggest being the most significant factor for patient satisfaction and the triage system affected how long the patients actually waited in the emergency department. Research exists on what factors that are significant for patients in the emergency department. Yet patients continued to be unsatisfied and unaware in the emergency department. Further research is needed about the relationship between the factors that are important for patient satisfaction in the emergency department and specific the triage system's impact on waiting times and patient satisfaction. Also research on the triage system as a functioning system, as association showed to waiting times.

  • 240.
    Edäng, Zarah
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Åström, Emma
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors attityder och erfarenheter till att vårda personer med missbruksproblematik inom slutenvården: En litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Narkotikamissbruk medför hälsoproblem och sjuksköterskan möter människor med missbruksproblematik inom alla vårdinrättningar. Bristande kunskap, fördomar och negativa attityder är något som förekommer mot dessa människor ute i samhället och kan påverka sjuksköterskans professionella förhållningssätt i vården av personer med missbruksproblematik. Rätten till en god omvårdnad skall inte tas bort på grund av ett missbruk.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att beskriva sjuksköterskors attityder och erfarenheter till att vårda personer med missbruksproblematik inom slutenvården samt att beskriva de inkluderade artiklarnas datainsamlingsmetod.

    Metod: En beskrivande litteraturstudie där databaserna Cinahl och PsycINFO användes för att hitta vetenskapliga artiklar. 14 kvantitativa och kvalitativa artiklar inkluderades i studien och granskades och sammanställdes av författarna.

    Resultat: Resultatet i studien visade att sjuksköterskan i vården av personer med missbruksproblematik kan ha negativa attityder till denna patientgrupp. De negativa attityderna kan orsakas av samhällets stigmatisering mot missbruk, det oförutsägbara beteendet samt hotfulla situationer som kan uppstå i arbetssituationen. Attityderna sågs vara bättre hos de sjuksköterskor som hade längre erfarenhet och mer kunskap inom missbruksproblematik. Vid granskning av metodologiska aspekten framkom att alla de inkluderade artiklarna hade beskrivit datainsamlingsmetoden, dock med varierande noggrannhet. Majoriteten av de granskade artiklarna använde frågeformulär som datainsamlingsmetod.

    Slutsats: Vården av personer med missbruksproblematik skall ske på samma villkor som till andra patientgrupper. För att förbättra attityder och fördomar mot dessa personer krävs utbildning och kunskap.

  • 241.
    Efverström, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports and health. Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, Stockholm.
    Synen på kunskap inom idrott och hälsa: Ett utbildningssociologiskt perspektiv2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 242.
    Efverström, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Två aktuella böcker problematiserar den moraliska kampen mot dopning inom idrotten: Recension av böckerna The War on Drugs in Sport av Vanessa McDermott och Testing for Athlete Citizenship av Kathryn E. Henne2016In: Idrottsforum.org/Nordic sport science forum, ISSN 1652-7224, Vol. 16 marsArticle, book review (Other academic)
  • 243.
    Efverström, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science. Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, Stockholm.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, Stockholm.
    Hoff, David
    Lunds universitet.
    Anti-doping and legitimacy: An international survey of elite athletes’ perceptions2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although there are a number of studies on policy making concerning doping and anti-doping in elite sports, the athletes’ perspective has largely been neglected. The present study contributes to bridging this gap. Since forming and developing the anti-doping policy utterly depends on how legitimate the practitioners believe this policy to be, the specific aim for this paper is to study how elite athletes at the broad international arena perceive the legitimacy of anti-doping policy and practices. An on-line questionnaire, designed to capture elite athletes’ perceptions, was answered by 261 respondents from 51 different countries and four international sports federations. Respondents were elite athletes belonging to the International Registered Testing Pool of each federation. The respondents were generally supportive towards anti-doping policy. Over 80% agreed that different anti-doping activities, from doping controls and the whereabouts system to storing of test samples and biological passports, are essential parts of the work against doping in sports. Support for anti-doping policy is also shown when 80% of the athletes agreed that anti-doping work should develop in a way that there is the same level of, or more, anti-doping activities compared to the current. The principle of anti-doping is, in this study, shown to be legitimate. However, at the level of practices, four areas were perceived as challenging. Regarding practical procedures, 34% experienced difficulties filing whereabouts information and 73% felt worried that they won’t be available for testing at the right place and right time in correlation to the whereabouts information they had provided. Concerning the athletes’ personal life and privacy, 50% of female athletes and 30% of males stated that they feel somewhat or very uncomfortable regarding their privacy when providing a urine sample. Furthermore, in regard to the whereabouts system, 47% of the respondents stated that they feel monitored. The efficacy and equality of anti-doping work is put under question by 58% who believed that users of forbidden substances/methods escape detection and 44% who did not believe that the whereabouts system is working properly in all countries. 70% of the respondents did not believe that all athletes applying for a therapeutic use exemption are treated in the same way. Regarding the athletes influence and participation in the policy work, 85% believe that athletes should be more involved. These four areas can be seen as unintended consequences of the work and reveal a weak point for the legitimacy of anti-doping when the athletes not fully perceive procedural justice. In conclusion, legitimacy for anti-doping policy in general is strong while a questioning of the legitimacy in the execution of the rules is discerned. If anti-doping authorities wish to maintain and increase the legitimacy of the anti-doping efforts, a thorough understanding for and consideration of the athletes’ perceptions is beneficial.

  • 244.
    Efverström, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science. Swedish School of Sports and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Ahmadi, Nader
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Hoff, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science. School of Social Work, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Anti-doping and legitimacy: an international survey of elite athletes’ perceptions2016In: International Journal of Sport Policy, ISSN 1940-6940, E-ISSN 1940-6959, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 491-514Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anti-doping work is a comprehensive enterprise that entails control and governance of elite athletes’ everyday lives. However, in policy-making regarding doping and anti-doping in elite sports, the athletes’ perspective has not been considered adequately. Focusing on elite athletes’ perceptions of anti-doping as both principle and praxis, the study aimed to analyse how these perceptions can be understood from a legitimacy perspective. A survey study involving 261 elite athletes from 51 different countries and four international sports federations was conducted. The results showed that the athletes did not question the legitimacy of the rules, but had concerns about the legitimacy of the way the rules and principles are enforced in practice, specifically with regard to matters of privacy, lack of efficiency and equal conditions as well as athletes’ involvement in the anti-doping work. The article describes how athletes’ perceptions of the legitimacy of anti-doping work constitute the basis for their willingness to follow regulations as well as a precondition for the work’s functionality and stability. In light of this finding, the article calls for the empowerment of athletes in anti-doping work.

  • 245.
    Efverström, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science. Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, Stockholm.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, Stockholm.
    Different socities, different conditions: Lessons from anti-doping in elite-sport on a global level2017In: Doping in sport, doping in society - Lessons, themes and connections: Book of abstracts, Aarhus University, Department of Public Health , 2017, p. 7-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Justice and fairness in sport is fundamental for its legitimate existence. On a global level, the creation of the World Anti-Doping Agency and the regulatory framework World Anti-Doping Code was formed largely as a consequence of the need for a coordination of the work against performance enhancing drugs in sports. Today, the anti-doping system often means application of rules and "best practice" developed in the cultural West for the cultural rest. Research on anti-doping policy or practice not only tends to be based on deductive models, these models may also assumingly be culturally biased. Moreover, we have relatively little knowledge of the practical conditions for individual athletes concerning implementation of the rules in different contexts around the world. This presentation, however, adds to the existing research with new empirical findings from interview data on diverging conditions for elite athletes in different social, cultural and geographical contexts. Through exploring how 13 elite athletes from five continents and three different sports federations perceived the anti-doping programme, we were able to show that global anti-doping policy was implemented in different contexts under different conditions. These differences included infrastructure, knowledge and support. How participation in anti-doping procedures on an everyday basis is endorsed may thus vary around the world. By examining our interview data on the athletes’ perceptions and experiences in relation to theories of procedural justice, we were able to analyse the legitimacy of anti-doping in practice. These findings suggest that inequities and structural injustice emerge on an individual level because of the varying contexts and conditions. In turn, the consequences may have implications for the legitimacy of the anti-doping work. In order to understand implementation processes of regulations, we propose that anti-doping policy-making pay attention to differences that may exist on an individual and practical level. Perspectives that underpin regulations applied globally should in other words be sensitive to varying contexts and conditions.

  • 246.
    Efverström, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science. Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, Stockholm.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Hoff, David
    School of Social Work, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Contexts and conditions for a level playing field: Elite athletes’ perspectives on anti-doping in practice2016In: Performance Enhancement & Health, ISSN 2211-2669, E-ISSN 2211-2669, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 77-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The implementation of global anti-doping regulations was intended to provide a level playing field for all athletes entering sports competitions. However, studies have shown that the worldwide harmonization of rules has not been entirely efficacious. For instance, great variation has been found in how anti-doping organizations implement anti-doping regulations, and it has also been shown that athletes distrust the equivalence of the worldwide rules as regards their effects. The purpose of the present article is to examine how elite athletes from different contexts experience anti-doping procedures and to analyse the legitimacy of anti-doping practice. In order to capture a variety of voices and perspectives, 13 elite athletes from five different continents and three international sports federations were interviewed. The analysis shows that when global anti-doping policy is implemented in different contexts and under different conditions, inequities and structural injustices emerge concerning infrastructure, knowledge and support at the individual athlete level. These consequences may have implications for the legitimacy of anti-doping work, because the existence of procedural justice may be called into question. We therefore suggest that anti-doping policy-making should be based on taking into account these different conditions and being aware of the perspectives that underpin regulations intended to be applied global.

  • 247.
    Egerfors, Johanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Jansson, Matilda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Personers upplevelser efter en organtransplantation - en litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Approximately 700 organ transplantations are undertaken in Sweden every year. Organs can be donated from both living and deceased donors. The number of possible donors has increased but is not enough to accommodate the need. Waiting for an organ means living with great uncertainty. It also changes relationships with family and friends. People waiting for an organ are hopeful for the future and are anticipating normalcy after the transplantation. Living donors do not regret their decision to donate. Nurses caring for people waiting for an organ establish close relations to the patient, their work can be mentally demanding but also rewarding. 

    Aim: To describe people´s experiences after an organ transplantation. 

    Method: Descriptive literature review based on 10 qualitative articles. 

    Result: Time after an organ transplantation is experienced as isolating and restrictive. There are experiences of anxiety of organ rejection and worry about the future and people adapt in different ways. People feel a lack of understanding from others and find it hard to meet expectations. There is a need for support and relations alter. Feelings of gratitude and guilt are of significance. 

    Conclusion: Time after an organ transplantation is isolating and there are feelings of anxiety, gratitude and guilt. People adapt by making lifestyle changes and experiences a new living. Meeting others expectations is difficult and relationships alter. People experiences lack of understanding and need for support. Helping people find meaning in their experiences and guiding them to use their abilities and resources is an important aspect of nursing. 

  • 248.
    Ehn, Marie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Englund, Kristina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Svårigheter och möjligheter med egenvårdshantering vid Diabetes typ 2 - Ur ett patientperspektiv: En litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Type 2 diabetes has increased significantly worldwide and is most common with older people but affects people at younger and younger ages as well. Self-care constitutes a large part of the treatment of type 2 diabetes and is an important factor in maintaining a good quality of life. Lack of self-care can result in fatal complications.

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the difficulties and possibilities of patients with type 2 diabetes and how they feel about managing their self-care. A further aim was to show how the data have been collected in the articles used in the literature study.

    Method: A descriptive literature study is based on eleven scientific articles published between the years 2010-2015. All the articles were found in databases Cinahl, Pubmed and Scopus. Articles of qualitative approach were examined along the purpose and research questions.

    Results: The patients had insufficient knowledge about self-care which could be due to the information from the nurse was incomplete or insufficient. The patients thought lifestyle changes was important, but still there was a big negative approach towards changing habits.

    Conclusion: Information and knowledge are essential to conducting effective self-care when type 2 diabetes is such a challenging disease for both the patient and the nurse. When the patients saw lifestyle changes difficult to accomplish on their own the nurse was an important resource to achieve treatment goals.

  • 249.
    Eidborn, Johanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kindevåg, Åsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Vård i hemmet av ALMA-teamet: Närståendes perspektiv2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund:

    Den geriatriska patienten bor i allt större utsträckning i det egna hemmet, trots multisjuklighet, vilket ställer stora krav på sjukvården. Modellen Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment  innebär helhetsbedömning av den geriatriske patientens behov och multiprofessionellt teamarbete. ALMA-teamet i västra Region Östergötland är ett sådant team som vårdar äldre patienter med komplexa vårdbehov i hemmet.  Syftet med studien var att utifrån närståendes erfarenhet och upplevelse beskriva den vård som deras anhöriga fått av ALMA-teamet i ordinärt boende.  Metoden som användes var semistrukturerade intervjuer som analyserades med hjälp av kvalitativ innehållsanalys, och totalt intervjuades tolv närstående.

    Resultat:

    De närståendes erfarenheter var att ALMA-teamets hembesök gjorde vården mer lättillgänglig för patienterna, samt besparade dem besvärliga resor och långa väntetider i sjukvården. Det kunde vara tryggt att få vara hemma och ha tillgång till avancerad vård i samarbete med kommunal hemsjukvård. Gemensamma besök av ALMA-teamet och Hemsjukvården kunde både upplevas som en trygghet med samlad kompetens eller att det blev rörigt, framförallt med närvarande studenter. Det fanns hos de närstående en önskan om att ALMA-teamet skulle finnas kvar och utökas, både regionalt och nationellt. Slutsatsen är att det upplevdes positivt att vårdas i det egna hemmet och slippa resor och väntetid i sjukvården.  

  • 250.
    Ek, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Holmqvist, Sandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Anestesisjuksköterskans personcentrerade omvårdnadsåtgärder för att lindra oro hos patienter som genomgår regional anestesi2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Anestesisjuksköterskan är den som står i närmast kontakt till patienten under operationen och som främst ska skydda och tillgodose dennes individuella behov. Det är vanligt att patienter som genomgår kirurgi i regional anestesi upplever oro inför och under ingreppet. Både utifrån det aktuella sjukdomstillståndet men även på grund av rädsla för vad som ska ske inne på operationssalen. Syfte: Beskriva hur anestesisjuksköterskan identifierar och lindrar oro ur ett personcentrerat omvårdnadsperspektiv hos patienter som genomgår regional anestesi. Metod: En kvalitativ intervjustudie med kvalitativ innehållsanalys. I studien intervjuades 11 anestesisjuksköterskor som arbetade med planerad och akut operationsverksamhet med varierande ålder och yrkeserfarenhet. Huvudresultat: Anestesisjuksköterskornas erfarenheter visade att tydlig och individanpassad information var viktigt för att kunna arbeta personcentrerat. För att kunna ge individanpassad information var det viktigt att få tid och enskildhet tillsammans med patienten innan operationen. Oro hos patienten identifierades genom att observera fysiska tecken samt att kommunicera med patienten under operationen. Strategier för att lindra oro var närvaro, ögonkontakt, fysisk beröring samt att erbjuda musik och lugnande läkemedel. Slutsats: Studien belyste anestesisjuksköterskors erfarenhet av att arbeta personcentrerat för att identifiera och lindra oro hos patienter under regional anestesi. Det framkom att de ofta saknade tid och enskildhet med patienten som var viktigt för att kunna arbeta personcentrerat. För att identifiera och skatta oro användes inga andra hjälpmedel än anestesisjuksköterskans egen bedömning, det ställdes därmed höga krav på den egna förmågan att läsa av och bemöta patienterna på ett individanpassat sätt.

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