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  • 201.
    Ellis, Rachel
    et al.
    Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Zekveld, Adriana
    Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Section Ear and Hearing, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Editorial: Cognitive hearing mechanisms of language understanding: Short- and long-term perspectives2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, p. 1-4, article id 1060Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 202.
    Endre, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Brottsskeden kring infästning av stålpelare2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A infill wall is a non-bearing wall construction, often is made af wood, which has the aim of minimizing the energy consumption of buildings in concrete. The inside the construction is sometimes steel designed for supporting the overlyingstructures. Steel studs are subjected to loads that they must be dimensioned to support. Above and below the colums plates are welded to increase the loaded area and prevent damages to the concrete.

    In this thesis a computer program in Excel has been created, the program dimensions border pillars in steel that follows the Eurocodes.

    Included in the program is punching, local pressure, splitting, distance to concrete, reduction when drilling in concrete, compression load capacity of foot and top plates, and bending torque the plates.

    Punching is a conical damage that occurs in the concrete, the damage occurs without warning and the concrete’s bearing capacity decreases rapidly which can lead to collapse. Local pressure is a local damage of the concrete and splitting, meaning that because of the pressure force arising can lead to a horizontal thrust in the concrete, which can lead to injuries.

    Since it is difficult to perceive the distance between the plates and the concrete edge of structural strength in the Eurocodes a calculation method has been made, equally applies to the consequences when drilling near a pillar.

    Examples of holes can be stairs, elevators or holes for heat strain for radiators.

    The plates are calculated in cross-section class three.

    The program is built so that different dimensions and qualities is selected, then the program calculates the strength of the structure and reports if will support the load. Different dimensions and qualities can be tested to get the optimal structure sollution. Limits have been set, the program only calculates the various injuries mentioned above and applies only to square VKR-sections and plates. Pillar has been calculated as articulated in both secured repository where the only pressure forces dimensioned concrete and plates.

    During the first phase of the work, gathering facts for the various types of damages has been done. Facts have been gathered from literature, reports, studies, researches, previous solutions, discussions with industry experienced and previous and more recent regulations. Since then, the computer program has been made, the goal of the program is to get a quick result and a complete report. Therefore, the program is made so that all damages is on different tabs and can be reported separately. So that the program can used by third parties standard names, images and comments are used. The program has been checked with various calculation examples and applications to achieve a credible / useful result.

    Conclusion: A well-functioning model has been developed and can be used by structural engineers with a education at least of technical college.

  • 203.
    Engberg, Joakim
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Multikriterieanalys av dagvattenreningstekniker: Med fokus på Västra vägen i Gävle2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Gävle municipality strives to treat all stormwater that may prevent river and lakes from achieving a good water status under the EU water framework directive. There are three stormwater outflows at Västra vägen in Gävle that discharge untreated stormwater to Gavleån. Gävle municipality has an ambition to clean stormwater as close to the source as possible. The purpose of this study is to conduct a multi-criteria analysis to identify stormwater treatment solutions that are suitable from a technical, ecological, economic and sociocultural perspective. According to EU water framework directive Gavleån does not achieve a good chemical and ecological status because of the presence of contaminates in the river. The alternatives that will be evaluated in the multi-criteria analysis consists of a screen pool, percolation storage and four different types of filters. Except these six solutions a null alternative will be included to evaluate if the situation does not change and the stormwater is not treated as it is today. These seven alternatives will be evaluated by a panel that consists of people who work with stormwater or with matters related to the categories in the multi-criteria analysis. The panel's main priority of categories and criteria is produced by the average value of all participants’ weightings and ratings. The most important category was considered to be the sociocultural perspective and the least important was the technical perspective. The criteria that were considered important for the respective categories were operating and maintenance cost (economic perspective), reduction of pollution (technical perspective), environmental impact, land use (ecological perspective, shared position), and outdoor recreation (sociocultural perspective). The option that received the highest score in the analysis was null alternative followed by the screen pool. That is because the null alternative is considered to have the most positive impact on the socio-cultural perspective, ecological perspective and financial perspective while screen pool scored highest in the technical perspective. The results of the MCA should also be interpreted by different stakeholders' priorities and can be seen in Section 6 in which the scoring of all treatment alternatives are reported.

  • 204.
    Engelmark, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Förbättringsåtgärder vid nybyggnation av småhus för att uppnå kommande energikrav: En simuleringsstudie i IDA ICE2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The EU has demanded lower energy consumption in buildings through a new directive where each member state has been assigned the task of developing new energy consumption targets for their respective country. In Sweden, Boverket has been assigned this responsibility. There is a concern in the Swedish construction industry that it will be difficult to meet these new requirements. Manufacturers of small houses usually have a standardized design that they now may need to adjust.

    The purpose of this thesis was therefore to investigate whether a single-family house manufacturer needs to change its standard construction, and if so, what changes could be made to achieve the new requirements for energy usage.

    By studying current energy requirements and Boverket's proposal for future requirements as well as theories in architectural engineering, the theoretical basis for the thesis has been laid out. A literature study has also been performed of previous studies in the field. Particularly studies of home improvements to get energy-efficient houses have been of great help for this work. A single-family house has been constructed and simulated in the IDA ICE simulation program. The house was made out of wood with a ground source heat pump and FTX ventilation located in climate zone 1. Eight improvements in the house design have been studied with new simulations to identify which of these improvements are appropriate to implement. The most suitable improvements have finally been combined to meet the new energy requirements.

    The study shows that the current house construction design does not meet future requirements. Based on the delimitations that have been made for this thesis, it is recommended that the following three measures are to be taken; A heat pump with a COP of 4 instead of 3, windows and doors with a U-value of 0.8 W/(m2*K) instead of 1,2 W/(m2*K) and outer walls with a U-value of 0.1 W/(m2*K) instead of 0,137 W/(m2*K). These recommendations are based on the assumption that the proposed new requirements are also applicable for climate zone 1.

  • 205.
    Englund, Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Sundholm, Sara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Egenproducerad solel i ett småhusområde2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige ska år 2020 ha en energiförsörjning bestående av 50 % förnybara energikällor. Den viktigaste källan till förnybar energi är solen. Solel är dock en dyr investering idag och gällande regelverk försvårar möjligheterna till att tillgodoräkna sig egenproducerad el.

    Byggföretaget JM bygger redan hus med låg energianvändning. Ett sätt att bidra till ett förnybart energianvändande är att installera system som producerar egen el till husen. Detta arbete har genomförts för att undersöka om solel kan komma att bli en konkurrenskraftig produkt att erbjuda JM:s husköpare. I arbetet har ett specifikt område och en av företagets typhusmodeller studerats.

    Dagens solcellsteknik har studerats och ett system för huset har komponerats. Det finns ett flertal typer av solceller men i detta arbete har polykristallina solceller valts utifrån det offertförslag som legat till grund för arbetet. För att kunna dimensionera anläggningen har placering, orientering och solvinklar undersökts. Genom att välja en anläggning har investeringskalkyler och simuleringar kunnat utföras för ett par olika scenarier. Samtliga scenarier bygger på nätanslutna system men skiljer sig mellan dagens regelverk och ett framtida scenario med nettodebitering, dvs. kvittning av egenproducerad el och köpt el.

    Från JM:s sida har det funnits önskemål om att studera hur ett bostadsområde skulle kunna dela på en solcellsanläggning genom ett samfällt system. Den samfällda anläggningen har dimensionerats utifrån fullgott solläge. I aktuellt område innebar det att 16 av 35 hus är lämpligt placerade mot solen, detta kan dock skilja mellan olika områden.

    Resultatet visar att en investering i solel är svår att försvara idag. Med ett statligt stöd på 60 % är återbetalningstiden likväl 20 år. Med ett förändrat regelverk och ett långsiktigt stöd skulle det kunna bli ekonomiskt lönsamt. Genom att solcellstekniken blir billigare och elpriset stiger förbättras läget för solelen. Investeringskostnaden blir lägre per person och öppnar därmed upp för fler investerare.

  • 206.
    Englund, Marcus
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Sahlström Moen, Simon
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Energikartläggning av Kv. Freden, Gävle: Simulering av åtgärder och dess energibesparingspotential med modellerings- och simuleringsprogram IDA ICE2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon dioxide levels are increasing as a consequence of larger energy use worldwide. This has led to regulations and rules of emission and energy consumption. In order to stop global warming and reduce energy consumption, EU has agreed on four common goals to achieve by the year 2020, also known as the 20-20-20 goals. Sweden has also come up with its own environmental goals to achieve by the year 2020. They include increasing the share of renewable energy by at least 50 percent, improve the use of energy by at least 20 percent and increase the share of renewable energy in the transportation sector by at least 10 percent.   Due to the laws and requirements related to stricter energy consumption and carbon emissions companies strive to use more energy efficient technology and more energyconscious behavior. Energy audit is an effective and an important tool in identifying and illustrating a company's energy usage for the clarification of future measures and improvement.  The thesis aims to illustrate Kv. Freden's use of energy and come up with both economically and energy saving measures to reduce its and other similar building's energy consumption. Six questions have been used to determine the energy distribution in the building and find defects in the management and maintenance of the indoor climate and develop cost-effective solutions for the choice of measures.   Five methods were chosen for approaching and answering the questions. A literature review was performed using keywords such as "Energy Saving", "Energy Audit" and "Behaviour" in online databases containing scientific articles. Thereafter an empirical analysis of the data supplied for the building was performed, which enabled modeling and simulation of the building in the program IDA ICE 4.6.1. A thermography and a qualitative survey regarding energy conscious behavior were performed as proof of assumptions.  The ventilation in this thesis is found inadequate after applied methods.  With simulated FTX-systems installed in the building, a maximum energy saving potential about 17 percent is achieved, which corresponds to a energy use of 97 kWh/m2. Excluding FTX, the simulated measures which prove to be the most profitable for the building is the sealing of doors and windows in order to reduce infiltration. These two measures are the most cost effective energy saving solutions regarding Kv. Freden and similar buildings.  The building's simulated energy use is represented by 29 percent electricity and 71 percent of district heating usage, which compared with the energy data provided by Gävle Energi relates to a reliability equivalent to 97.5 percent and 96 percent. The simulation program IDA ICE proved to be an efficient tool for the simulation of a building's energy use and application of possible measures.

  • 207.
    Englund, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Hedbom, Sara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Energieffektivisering av gamla herrgården vid Forsmarks bruk: En studie med hänsyn till byggnadens kulturhistoriska värden2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Reducing energy use in buildings requires extensive action regarding energy effectivization in both modern and old buildings.The old mansion in Forsmark was established 250 years ago and is a building in need of energy effectivization in order to reduce its energy consumption, hence ensuring it’s continued use.

    In applying said measures special attention must be given to the mansions care requirements. These requirements are governed by the mansions heritage regulations which were established by the National Heritage Board in Uppsala 1975 in collaboration with the former owner Count Ludvig af Ugglas. The requirements clearly state which parts of the building that are to remain unchanged. This study presents how identification and and measurement of the mansion were conducted in order to validate an energy simulation model of the building, how to apply these measures as well as to see if they are economically feasible. It is of importance in this study to map the mansion in order to determine if possible measures can be adapted in order to accommodate its heritage regulations. Difficulties in validating the nominal energy simulation models with measured data have resulted in the conclusion that the mapping has too many uncertain parameters which themselves have an effect on the mansions energy use. The nominal model, based on measured data and U-values assumed for each part of the mansion, gives a value that is double the measured effect acquired from the buildings heating system. The measured effect acquired from the manors heating system was significantly lower than what is to be expected in such an old building. Consequently a sensitivity analysis of the building’s U-values regarding its exterior walls and foundation was conducted. The results of the sensitivity analysis indicated that uncertainty first and foremost in wall material and construction effect the energy use of the mansion, but also that additional parameters were probable to have an impact on the mansion’s energy use.

    The conclusion of this study is that the old mansion at Forsmark has a relatively low energy use regarding its size, age and that it is possible to take action in order to reduce its energy use. The first of which is to adjust the heating system as it has been discovered that it is incorrectly dimensioned.

  • 208.
    Engström, Cecilia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    ATTRAKTIVT BOENDE I HOFORS KOMMUN: Förslag och förbättringar till hyresrätter inom Hoforshus AB2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The little steel industrial community Hofors is situated in Gästrikland on the border to Dalarna and its population is decreasing every year. The biggest housing operator is in a place where they must tear down a lot of buildings because they do not have enough tenants. But what do people really want in an apartment and in the surroundings? What is needed to make it attractive? That is something that this study will discuss and in the end it will lead to a proposal of an area that is suitable for a new housing and a few proposals to make the existing apartments more attractive.

  • 209.
    Enquist, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Solel till Akademiska sjukhuset: möjlig genererad effekt och solcellers estetiska konsekvenser2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today many buildings and it´s nearby surroundings are designed to achieve some kind of environmental goal.The issue concerning energy consumption is currently at focus and it is relevant that we start increase the share of renewable energy. Solar energy is an infinite resource and should therefore be considered when selecting an energy supplier.

     

    Uppsala University hospital is facing major restructuring when parts of the existing buildings will be refurbished and a large new building will be constructed. White Architects have developed a study concerning the new building and for some of the existing buildings on the hospital campus. Uppsala County requires tough energy measures and wants the new building to be classified as an eco-building in Whites following work. The classifications will involve high energy source requirements.

     

    This work has been conducted to see if solar power can be envisaged as a supplementary energy source for the University hospital and also to investigate the aesthetic impact of solar cells on the new building. In this report, solar cells integrated on the facade and PV modules on the roofs have been studied. Focus has been to evaluate the potential of what each option can produce and what opportunity they have to become an intrinsic part of the architecture

     

    The type of solar cell module, which in this case study has been proven to generate most electricity is stand-alone modules on roofs. These are however, more difficult to reconcile with the architecture. Solar cells on the facades should therefore still be considered as an alternative application.The result shows that the potential energy that can be generated by solar panels on the new building is large but not in relation to hospital´s electricity use. It is for that reason questionable whether solar installation, applied on the new building, can be seen as a good additional source of energy or if it will more become a matter of public relations.

  • 210.
    Ericson, Arielle
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Flood, Lizette
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Energikartläggning för Kv Sälen2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 211.
    Ericsson, Sara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Industrial design.
    Bä, bä vita lamm har du någon ull?: En utforskande process av en outnyttjad svensk materialtillgång2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bä, bä vita lamm har du någon ull?- Ja, ja kära barn har, jag har säcken full!

    Denna text ur den kända barnvisan känner de flesta av oss igen, dock beskriver den ett stort problem vi har i Sverige idag.Nämligen att det kastas, bränns upp eller grävs ned mer än 600 ton ull per år.Man tar inte längre vara på ullen som man gjorde förr i tiden och ett naturligt material som finns tillgängligt går till spillo.

    I Sverige används ull främst till kläder, hemtextil eller möbler, vilket ställer krav på att ullen är av bra kvalitet. Med bra kvalitet menas det att ullen inte innehåller växtrester, färgmärkning, är tovig, har för korta fibrer och klippt vid rätt årstid.För att dessa kriterier ska uppfyllas krävs det att man tar hand om ullen och sköter om den redan när den sitter på fåret tills att ullen är klippt och sorterad för att säljas.Det är där problematiken uppstår, i Sverige är majoriteten av alla fårproducenter inriktad på köttproduktion för att det ger mer avkastning än ullproduktion.Man tar då inte hand om ullen när den sitter på fåret, vid och efter klippning vilket leder till att den får sämre kvalitet och minskar i värdet.Ullen blir bara en biprodukt och ses mest som ett problem då den måste klippas 1-2 gånger per år.

    Kan man då hitta lämpligt användningsområde för ullen oavsett skick och kvalitet för att öka ullens materialvärde?

    Det var frågeställningen som i inledningen av detta examensarbete jag ville undersöka vidare.Jag använde mig av en materialdriven designprocess där jag aktivt undersökte och testade materialet för att undersöka vilka möjligheter, begränsningar och unika kvaliteter det har.  I en materialdriven designprocess handlar det om att se materialet i sin helhet, därför tog jag även reda på hur människor upplever materialet, vilken sammanhang det ska ingå i och vilken betydelse det ska ha för samhälle och människor.

    Mitt arbete resulterade i flera intressanta upptäckter som jag även hoppas ska väcka intresse hos läsarna. Jag vill också att det ska skapa samtal kring förnyelsebara material och visa att man genom design kan vara med och arbeta mot ett mer hållbart samhälle.

     

  • 212.
    Eriksson, Denise
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Energibalans för Norra stegvalsverket: En fallstudie på Sandvik AB i Sandviken2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2014, industrial operations in Sweden consumed nearly 40% of the total energy use. The steel and metal industry uses the second largest amount of energy in the industrial sector, only the pulp and paper industry uses more. A large part of the energy is waste heat and is often considered as waste. I many cases the waste heat can be used for district heating if it has sufficiently high temperature.

    This thesis has been taken as a case study at the steel industry Sandvik. The aim of this study is to develop an energy balance for one of the buildings at the plant. Another purpose is to investigate whether there is a possibility to reuse the heat from the cooling system. The building that has been investigated is called Norra stegvalsverket, which is a cold-pilger mill. To reach the goal with this study, a literature study has been conducted, a case study containing some measurements of flows and temperatures, as well as a variety of interviews. To generate an energy balance, it is required that the energy flow of the building is mapped. The energy that is added is electricity, steam, and internal heat. The energy that the building consumes is transmission, ventilation, cooling water, and uncontrolled ventilation. The study has been limited to one building and no technical solutions have been investigated.

    The result of this work show that the temperature of the cooling water is too low to be used for district heating unless it is upgraded to a higher temperature. One possible application for the cooling water is to preheat the ventilation air. The study also shows that there is too little detailed information regarding the use of electricity in the building. The problem was discovered at the end of the project, which meant that there was no time to make further measurements. Due to this problem, the study does not give a fair picture how the energy is distributed in Norra stegvalsverket. To develop this study, a thorough investigation of the electricity usage is required to find exactly how much electricity the building uses. A study could also be carried out to find out if there are technical and economic opportunities to preheat the ventilation air with the cooling water.

  • 213.
    Eriksson, Ida
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Industrial design.
    Sneakers: What footprint do you want to leave?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 214.
    Eriksson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Investigating fossil fuel utilization and the potential of reducing fossil fuels for heating in companies: The case of Gävleborg County2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fossil fuels constitute roughly 80 % of the world’s energy supply and of this amount oil makes up almost one third. The combustion of these fossil fuels leads to increasing levels of greenhouse gases, causing a warming of the earth through the so called greenhouse effect. Because of this, several environmental and energy goals have been established by both the European Union and Sweden.

     

    The purpose of this thesis was to investigate how the use of fossil fuels can be reduced in companies that use oil for heating, in Gävleborg County. The thesis was divided into four problems to be solved. First, the companies that fit this description was identified by contacting energy advisors at municipalities. The second task was to investigate how willing these companies were to change to some other form of heating, which meant creating and sending a survey to them.

     

    It was also investigated what other aspects can affect a companies’ decision making, both technical and behavioural. The technical aspects meant listing and discussing some of the technical difficulties that can hinder a company from changing heating technology. Behavioural aspects were investigated using the comments left on the survey as well as research on the topic of barriers and driving forces that can affect companies.

     

    The final task was to estimate the reduction in CO2 emissions that could be achieved. This was done with data for the companies that answered that they wanted to change to some other form of heating and assumption regarding to the amount of emissions from different fuels.

     

    It was found that 95 companies use oil in Gävleborg County and 26 of these companies answered the survey to some extent, although results were only based on 24 of these answers. On the question of whether companies could consider changing to a different heating system, the same number (nine) that said “yes” also said “no”. There were many reasons for a company not wanting to change. Technical difficulties might be proximity to district heating net, not being able to install heat pumps, lacking infrastructure for biomass supply or being too close to a densely populated area to use biomass. Even so, it was concluded that for every company there is a possible technical solution.

     

    Behavioural aspects were also found to be numerous. Some companies answered that their reason for not changing was not owning their working facility and seeing the heating need as being too low to justify an investment. The research collected stated that lack of time, lack of money and having other priorities are important barriers. Meaning that to help companies change heating system, financial aid should be given, for example in the form of subsidies and soft loans. It can also be important to provide consulting assistance and informing companies of energy related issues and the benefits of dealing with them.

     

    The other answers to the survey varied a lot. The amount of oil used varied from 5 MWh to over 125000 MWh. The companies could also consider changing to all the optional heating systems, though district heating and heat pump were the most chosen with eight each. Ten companies said that they needed consultation and the same number said that they didn’t need it. Ten companies also said that they needed investment support and eight said that they did not need it.

    It was estimated that greenhouse gas emissions could be lowered by approximately 28900 tons, for the companies that took part in the survey. Two companies could also consider installing solar heating and assuming that this replaces 20 % of the total heating demand, a further reduction of roughly 1030 tons of greenhouse gas emissions is achieved.

     

    Based on past research, it was concluded that it is possible to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels in a region or company. This might come in the form of lowering overall energy use or replacing oil with biofuels. The responses to the survey also show that there is some interest in the companies asked. Even though they might have answered that they did not want to change heating, they did at least answer the survey. 

  • 215.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Energy and Waste Management2017In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, no 7, article id 1072Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste management and energy systems are often interlinked, either directly by waste-to-energy technologies, or indirectly as processes for recovery of resources-such as materials, oils, manure, or sludge-use energy in their processes or substitute conventional production of the commodities for which the recycling processes provide raw materials. A special issue in Energies on the topic of “ Energy andWaste Management” attained a lot of attention from the scientific community. In particular, papers contributing to improved understanding of the combined management of waste and energy were invited. In all, 9 papers were published out of 24 unique submissions. The papers cover technical topics such as leaching of heavy metals, pyrolysis, and production of synthetic natural gas in addition to different systems assessments of horse manure, incineration, and complex future scenarios at a national level. All papers except one focused on energy recovery from waste. That particular paper focused on waste management of infrastructure in an energy system (wind turbines). Published papers illustrate research in the field of energy and waste management on both a current detailed process level as well as on a future system level. Knowledge gained on both types is necessary to be able to make progress towards a circular economy.

  • 216.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Environmental technology assessment of natural gas compared to biogas2010In: Natural Gas / [ed] Potocnik, Primoz, Rijeka: INTECH, 2010, p. 127-146Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 217.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Nuclear power and resource efficiency-A proposal for a revised primary energy factor2017In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, no 6, article id 1063Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measuring resource efficiency can be achieved using different methods, of which primary energy demand is commonly used. The primary energy factor (PEF) is a figure describing how much energy from primary resources is being used per unit of energy delivered. The PEF for nuclear power is typically 3, which refers to thermal energy released from fission in relation to electricity generated. Fuel losses are not accounted for. However; nuclear waste represents an energy loss, as current plans for nuclear waste management mostly include final disposal. Based on a literature review and mathematical calculations of the power-to-fuel ratio for nuclear power, PEF values for the open nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) option of nuclear power and different power mixes are calculated. These calculations indicate that a more correct PEF for nuclear power would be 60 (range 32-88); for electricity in Sweden (41% nuclear power) PEF would change from 1.8 to 25.5, and the average PEF for electricity in the European Union (EU) would change from 2.5 to 18. The results illustrate the poor resource efficiency of nuclear power, which paves the way for the fourth generation of nuclear power and illustrates the policy implication of using PEFs which are inconsistent with current waste management plans.

  • 218.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Perspektiv på biogas: En antologi om biogas som drivmedel med fokus på teknik, miljöpåverkan och samhällsnytta2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    På uppdrag av utvecklingsprojektet BiogasMitt har Högskolan i Gävle sammanställt denna antologi om biogas. Målgruppen är studenter som läser energi- och miljöteknik på högskolenivå, men den kan också användas i uppdragsutbildning för tjänstemän och politiker som vill veta mer om biogas som samhällsföreteelse.

    Antologin är sammansatt av följande delar:

    Del 1 En kunskapssammanställning om biogas. Denna del är en bearbetad version av en större systemanalys för Gästrikeregionen som Högskolan tagit fram med stöd av forskningsstiftelsen Gästrikeregionens Miljö. I bearbetningen har vissa delar valts och kompletterats med ny text. Studien i sin helhet är publicerad på BiogasMitts hemsida och skriven av Ola Eriksson och Teresa Hermansson. Texten publicerad här är bearbetad av Ola Eriksson.

    Del 2 Varför kommunerna är viktiga för framväxten av biogas. Denna del baseras på en presentation framförd vid seminariet ”LNG och LBG i Gävleborg och Dalarna?” som hölls i Stora gasklockan i Gävle torsdagen den 29 september av Ola Eriksson. Föredraget har dokumenterats i löpande text och anpassats till antologins format av Ola Eriksson.

    Del 3 Environmental technology assessment of natural gas compared to biogas. Denna del är skriven på engelska och tidigare publicerad i boken “Natural Gas” editedby Primoz Potocnik. Författare är Ola Eriksson.

    Del 4 Improvements in environmental performance of biogas production from municipal solid waste and sewage sludge. Denna del är skriven på engelska och tidigare publicerad som ett bidrag till konferensen World Renewable Energy Congresss om hölls i Linköping 8-12 maj 2011. Huvudförfattare är Ola Eriksson. Medförfattare är Mattias Bisaillon, Mårten Haraldsson och Johan Sundberg.

    Del 5 Energianalys av Svensk Växtkrafts biogasanläggning i Västerås. Denna del återger i sin helhet ett examensarbete som handletts av Ola Eriksson. Författare är Jenny Liljestam Cerruto.

  • 219.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Baky, A.
    Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering (JTI), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Identification and testing of potential key parameters in system analysis of municipal solid waste management2010In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 54, no 12, p. 1095-1099Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC) are well-established methods used for many years in many countries for system analysis of waste management. According to standard LCA procedure the assessment should include improvement analysis, in many cases this is performed by simple sensitivity analyses. An obstacle to perform more thorough sensitivity analyses is that it is hard to distinguish input data important to the results, i.e. key parameters. This paper further elaborates sensitivity analyses performed in an environmental system analysis fora hypothetical Swedish municipality. In this paper, the method to identify and test input data that can be categorised as potential key parameters is described. The method and the results from computer simulations of the identified parameters are presented, and some conclusions are drawn regarding the robustness of the results for environmental impact from municipal solid waste management. The major conclusion is that the results are robust. Changes in results, when changing the preconditions, are often small and the changes observed do not lead to new conclusions; i.e., a change of ranking order between treatment options.

  • 220.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Profu i Göteborg AB, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Bisaillon, Mattias
    Multiple system modelling of waste management2011In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 31, no 12, p. 2620-2630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to increased environmental awareness, planning and performance of waste management has become more and more complex. Therefore waste management has early been subject to different types of modelling. Another field with long experience of modelling and systems perspective is energy systems. The two modelling traditions have developed side by side, but so far there are very few attempts to combine them. Waste management systems can be linked together with energy systems through incineration plants. The models for waste management can be modelled on a quite detailed level whereas surrounding systems are modelled in a more simplistic way. This is a problem, as previous studies have shown that assumptions on the surrounding system often tend to be important for the conclusions. In this paper it is shown how two models, one for the district heating system (MARTES) and another one for the waste management system (ORWARE), can be linked together. The strengths and weaknesses with model linking are discussed when compared to simplistic assumptions on effects in the energy and waste management systems. It is concluded that the linking of models will provide a more complete, correct and credible picture of the consequences of different simultaneous changes in the systems. The linking procedure is easy to perform and also leads to activation of project partners. However, the simulation procedure is a bit more complicated and calls for the ability to run both models.

  • 221.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Profu AB, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Bisaillon, Mattias
    Profu AB, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Haraldsson, Mårten
    Profu AB, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Sundberg, Johan
    Profu AB, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Enhancement of biogas production from food waste and sewage sludge: environmental and economic life cycle performance2016In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 175, p. 33-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Management of municipal solid waste is an efficient method to increase resource efficiency, as well as to replace fossil fuels with renewable energy sources due to that (1) waste to a large extent is renewable as it consists of food waste, paper, wood etc. and (2) when energy and materials are recovered from waste treatment, fossil fuels can be substituted. In this paper results from a comprehensive system study of future biological treatment of readily degradable waste in two Swedish regions are presented. Different collection and separation systems for food waste in households have been applied as well as technical improvements of the biogas process as to reduce environmental impact. The results show that central sorting of a mixed fraction into recyclables, combustibles, biowaste and inert is a competitive option compared to source separation. Use of pellets is beneficial compared to direct spreading as fertiliser. Fuel pellets seem to be the most favourable option, which to a large extent depends on the circumstances in the energy system. Separation and utilisation of nitrogen in the wet part of the digestion residue is made possible with a number of technologies which decreases environmental impact drastically, however to a substantial cost in some cases.

  • 222.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Profu AB, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Bisaillon, Mattias
    Haraldsson, Mårten
    Sundberg, Johan
    Integrated waste management as a mean to promote renewable energy2014In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 61, p. 38-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Management of municipal solid waste is an efficient method to both increase resource efficiency (material and energy recovery instead of landfill disposal) and to replace fossil fuels with renewable energy sources (waste is renewable in itself to a large extent as it contains paper, wood, food waste etc.). The paper presents the general outline and results from a comprehensive system study of future waste management. In the study a multifunctional waste management system integrated with local energy systems for district heating and electricity, wastewater treatment, agriculture and vehicle fuel production is investigated with respect to environmental impact and financial economy. Different waste technologies as well as management strategies have been tested. The treatment is facilitated through advanced sorting, efficient treatment facilities and upgrading of output products. Tools used are the ORWARE model for the waste management system and the MARTES model for the district heating system. The results for potential global warming are used as an indicator for renewable energy. In all future scenarios and for all management strategies net savings of CO2 is accomplished. Compared to a future reference the financial costs will be higher or lower depending on management strategy. 

  • 223.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Finnveden, Göran
    Division of Environmental Strategies Research-fms, Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Sciences and Engineering (SEED), School of Architecture and the Built Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Energy Recovery from Waste Incineration: The Importance of Technology Data and System Boundaries on CO2 Emissions2017In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, no 4, article id 539Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies on waste incineration as part of the energy system show that waste management and energy supply are highly dependent on each other, and that the preconditions for the energy system setup affects the avoided emissions and thereby even sometimes the total outcome of an environmental assessment. However, it has not been previously shown explicitly which key parameters are most crucial, how much each parameter affects results and conclusions and how different aspects depend on each other. The interconnection between waste incineration and the energy system is elaborated by testing parameters potentially crucial to the result: design of the incineration plant, avoided energy generation, degree of efficiency, electricity efficiency in combined heat and power plants (CHP), avoided fuel, emission level of the avoided electricity generation and avoided waste management. CO2 emissions have been calculated for incineration of 1 kWh mixed combustible waste. The results indicate that one of the most important factors is the electricity efficiency in CHP plants in combination with the emission level of the avoided electricity generation. A novel aspect of this study is the plant by plant comparison showing how different electricity efficiencies associated with different types of fuels and plants influence results. Since waste incineration typically have lower power to fuel ratios, this has implications for further analyses of waste incineration compared to other waste management practises and heat and power production technologies. New incineration capacity should substitute mixed landfill disposal and recovered energy should replace energy from inefficient high polluting plants. Electricity generation must not be lost, as it has to be compensated for by electricity production affecting the overall results.

  • 224.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Hadin, Åsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Hennessy, Jay
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Hästkrafter och hästnäring – hållbara systemlösningar för biogas och biogödsel: Explorativ systemanalys med datormodellen ORWARE2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of horses in Sweden is increasing and according to estimated statistics from Swedish Board of Agriculture, there are an estimated amount of 360,000 horses in the country. These horses are found in different types of activities (agriculture, trail riding, trot and canter, etc.) and they generate large quantities of horse manure. Horse manure consists of feces, urine and bedding material which various bedding materials used to various amount. The management of horse manure causes environmental problems when emissions occur during decomposition of organic material, in addition to nutrients not being recycled. The interest for horse manure be subject to anaerobic digestion and thereby produce biogas has increased with the increased interest in biogas as a renewable fuel.

    This study has aimed to highlight the environmental impact of different ways to treat horse manure from a system perspective. Special attention has been focused on the involve­ment of different types of litter/bedding material and how it affects the effective­ness of various treatment processes. The treatment methods investigated are

    1. Unmanged composting
    2. Managed Composting
    3. Large-scale incineration in a waste fired CHP plant
    4. Drying and small-scale combustion
    5. Solid state anaerobic digestion
    6. Liquid state anaerobic digestion with and without thermal pre-treatment

    Following significant data uncertainty in the survey, the results are only indicative, but they still point to large-scale incineration as an environmentally sound method. An excep­tion is the contribution to climate impact where digestion in different forms are preferred. Based on the study of various bedding materials, paper pellet appear as an interesting alternative to move forward with.

    The overall conclusion is that more research is needed to ensure the quality of future surveys, thus an overall research effort from horse management to waste management.

  • 225.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Hadin, Åsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Hennessy, Jay
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, Sweden; University of Mälardalen, Västerås, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Life cycle assessment of horse manure treatment2016In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 9, no 12, article id 1011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Horse manure consists of feces, urine, and varying amounts of various bedding materials. The management of horse manure causes environmental problems when emissions occur during the decomposition of organic material, in addition to nutrients not being recycled. The interest in horse manure undergoing anaerobic digestion and thereby producing biogas has increased with an increasing interest in biogas as a renewable fuel. This study aims to highlight the environmental impact of different treatment options for horse manure from a system perspective. The treatment methods investigated are: (1) unmanaged composting; (2) managed composting; (3) large-scale incineration in a waste-fired combined heat and power (CHP) plant; (4) drying and small-scale combustion; and (5) liquid anaerobic digestion with thermal pre-treatment. Following significant data uncertainty in the survey, the results are only indicative. No clear conclusions can be drawn regarding any preference in treatment methods, with the exception of their climate impact, for which anaerobic digestion is preferred. The overall conclusion is that more research is needed to ensure the quality of future surveys, thus an overall research effort from horse management to waste management.

  • 226.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Hermansson, Teresa
    Avfallsprevention i stålindustrin: Exempel från Sandvik Materials Technology2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I samband med extern granskning av forskningsprogrammet Hållbar avfallshantering kom det fram att mer fokus borde läggas på att beskriva åtgärder som träffar högt upp i avfallshierarkin, d.v.s. att undvika att avfall uppkommer, återanvändning och återvinning. Denna rapport utgår från detta önskemål och beskriver hur återvinning och prevention av interna restproduktflöden inom stålindustrin kan gå till och ger exempel från Sandvik Materials Technology. Underlag till denna studie är ett studiebesök på SMT i Sandviken, samtal med Lotta Lind som arbetade som restproduktingenjör och granskning av textdokument som miljörapport och ett tidigare utfört examensarbete. Rapporten är en syntes utifrån dessa källor.

    I rapporten redovisas vilka problem och lösningar som finns för rent metallavfall som skrot, spånor och stofter, metalloxider som gasreningstoft och glödskal, metallhydroxidslam, slagger och blyhaltigt avfall. Det rena metallavfallet återanvänds redan till 100 % i processen, ofta internt men ibland av extern aktör. För metalloxider i form av glödskal finns det en fungerande återvinningsprocess utan för SMT, men planer finns på att göra investeringar för att SMT själva skall kunna ta hand om avfallet. Metallhydroxidslam deponeras men det finns långt gångna planer för hur processer och rening skall ändras så att slammet skall kunna återvinnas. Även för slagg, som är det till mängden mest betydelsefulla avfallet, finns planer för hur den nuvarande deponeringen skall kunna minskas drastiskt till förmån för återbruk och återvinning av materialet som exempelvis konstruktionsmaterial på deponier. Blyhaltiga avfall har visat sig kunna värmebehandlas så att blyet kan återvinnas. Resultatet blir att värdefullt och miljöfarligt bly recirkuleras inom SMT och de rester som blir kvar skulle kunna klassas om till icke-farligt.

    Samtliga exempel på avfallsprevention bygger på tankar om ökad recirkulering, extern avsättning för uppkomna restprodukter och minskad mängd restprodukt per mängd prima vara producerad. Förutom betydande miljömässiga fördelar uppvisar många av förändringarna goda ekonomiska resultat efter relativt kort tid.

  • 227.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Hermansson, Teresa
    Biogas i Gästrikeregionen - BiG: En systemanalys2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I södra Sverige finns en tämligen väl utbyggd infrastruktur för biogas (Gasföreningen, 2009). Totalt finns över 92 tankställen för personbilar och 30 tankställen för tunga fordon i landet. Gävleborgs län kallas ibland för ”stopplänet” eftersom det finns, eller kommer snart att finnas, fordonsgas såväl söderut, norrut som västerut. Förutom en lokal användning av biogas i regionen så passerar en betydande del av de bilburna semesterfirarna vårt län på väg till fjällen eller sommarvisten. En del av dessa vill kunna tanka biogas här.

    Undersökningar utförda på uppdrag av Gästrike Avfallshantering AB 1999 gav vid handen att det fanns för lite slakteriavfall för att göra rötning lönsamt. Några år senare ställdes frågan på nytt om vilken sorts biologisk behandling man borde ha och då valdes kompostering framför rötning p.g.a. teknikkrångel på andra ställen. Dessutom visade undersökningarna inte på någon större efterfrågan på biogas.

    Målet har varit att i en systemanalys ge en samlad bild av förutsättningarna (fysiska och icke-fysiska) för etablering av biogas i Gästrikeregionen. Systemanalysen har utförts i flera delar:

    1. Aktörsanalys
    2. Teknik- och omvärldsbevakning
    3. SWOT-analys
    4. Teknisk systemanalys

    Resultaten visar att det i regionen, eventuellt med stöd av omgivande regioner, finns möjligheter att röta avfallet. Anläggningarna är tekniskt sett bättre idag, det borde gå att få tag på tillräckligt med substrat som ger tillräckligt med gas och det finns efterfrågan på gasen.

    För att detta skall ske så måste kommunerna (förvaltningar, bolag, kommunalförbund) jobba samlat och klara av att hantera alla olika brickor i biogasspelet. Nästa lika viktiga är lantbrukarna som skulle kunna få fram stora mängder substrat samtidigt som de är viktiga för återförningen av rötrest till åkermark. Dessvärre noterar vi vissa samarbetssvårigheter mellan lantbrukare och kommun.

    Vad krävs då för att det skall bli någon biogasproduktion i regionen? Listan över kriterier som behöver vara uppfyllda för att biogasproduktion skall komma till stånd kan göras oändlig men vi har i denna studie försökt vaska fram några huvuddrag. Vi har redan betonat vikten av regional samordning inom kommunsfären och i synnerhet kommuner visavi lantbruket. Det handlar om förtroendeskapande åtgärder och det handlar om letter-of-intent och avtal för att säkra substratleveranser och avsättning för rötrest och biogas. Priset på fossil energi liksom den nationella energi- och miljöpolitiken påverkar på mer än ett sätt hur snabbt utvecklingen sker. Lokaliseringsfrågan är också en nöt att knäcka där vi i denna studie visat att det finns för- och nackdelar med både Forsbacka och Duvbacken. Det som avgör det hela är ifall det går att räkna hem en satsning ekonomiskt. Affärsmässigheten bedöms av Gävle Energi i en separat studie (dock med andra geografiska gränser).

  • 228.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Hermansson, Teresa
    Hållbar konsumtion och hållbar avfallshantering - vad är det?: Diskussion kring dagsläget och framtiden : Dokumentation från seminarium och workshop på Högskolan i Gävle den 18 mars 20102013Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    I samarbete med forskare inom forskningsprogrammet Hållbar avfallshantering inbjöd forskningsstiftelsen Gästrikeregionens Miljö till en heldag om avfall och konsumtion. Inbjudan riktades till kommuner, länsstyrelser, företag och organisationer i Gävleborg och Dalarna. Under förmiddagen hölls ett antal olika föredrag och presentationer med en avslutande paneldebatt. Eftermiddagen bjöd på en workshop med gruppvisa diskussioner kring vilka styrmedel som skulle fungera regionalt och lokalt samt kring avfallsminimering (avfallsprevention). Forskningsseminariet ägde rum torsdagen den 18 mars på Högskolan i Gävle.

    Syftet med seminariet var att sprida kunskap om pågående forskning till branschfolk samt att fånga upp vilka styrmedel som kan vara aktuella på lokal respektive regional nivå, men även diskutera mekanismer för att åstadkomma avfallsminimering. Dokumentationen av seminariet följer programmet.

  • 229.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Hermansson, Teresa
    Regional avfallshantering: Slutrapport från projekt finansierat av Forskningsstiftelsen Gästrikeregionens Miljö2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Varje svensk kommun är skyldig att upprätta en avfallsplan som redogör för hur avfallet som uppkommer i kommunen skall omhändertas. Den nuvarande avfallsplanen för Gästrikeregionen (som omfattar kommunerna Gävle, Sandviken, Hofors, Ockelbo och Älvkarleby) gäller för perioden 2011-2020. Avfallsplanen arbetades fram under 2009-2010 med Högskolan i Gävle som deltagare. I anslutning till detta utvecklingsarbete har högskolan arbetat med ett antal frågeställningar med koppling till avfallsplanen:

    • Miljöbedömning av avfallsplanen
    • Förebyggande av avfall
    • Människors beteende avseende sortering
    • Fastighetsnära insamling
    • Minskning av fossila koldioxidutsläpp
    • Energiberäkningar för material som lämnas via återvinningscentraler
    • Förutsättningar för och konsekvenser av en övergång från kompostering till rötning av matavfallet

    Projektet har pågått under 2009-2010 med Ola Norrman Eriksson och Teresa Hermansson som utförare. Utredningen har genomförts genom intervjuer, litteraturstudier, personlig kommunikation och ett publikt seminarium.

    Resultaten visar att en miljöbedömning av en avfallsplan är en komplex och omfattande uppgift. Bedömningen bör göras utifrån nuläget och beskriva de framtida konsekvenserna av de mål och åtgärder som planen föreskriver. Projektet har genom ett välbesökt seminarium också visat att samhället ännu inte funnit formerna för att arbeta med förebyggande åtgärder. Att på bästa sätt hantera ett uppkommet avfall är en sak, att förhindra dess uppkomst en annan. För produktionsavfall finns det goda exempel, medan det för konsumtionsavfall är betydligt svårare.

    Beteendevetenskapliga studier inom området visar att det är en utmaning att utforma information på ett sådant sätt att den når alla typer av mottagare och får dessa att agera i enlighet med infor-mationen. Vi människor tänker mer i termer av att återanvända och sortera olika slags material, snarare än att fundera på vad som är förpackning eller ej. Sortering av avfall är något folk i regel förväntar sig ska vara enkelt att utföra och det måste vara bekvämt. Införande av fastighetsnära insamling är ett sätt att underlätta och i de kommuner där det införts har mängderna återvinningsbart material ökat kraftigt samtidigt som mängderna brännbart restavfall minskat markant. Ett ökat insamlingsarbete för kommunen skall vägas mot minskat bilåkande till återvinningsstationer och återvinningscentraler samt minskade transporter till förbränning och därmed associerade utsläpp. Då återvinning generellt är bättre för miljön än förbränning uppstår vinster även i behandlingsledet. Studien visar också att avfall kan transporteras långa sträckor till återvinningscentraler utan att på något sätt hota den miljövinst som görs genom att avfallet materialåtervinns eller energiutvinns.

    Vid en övergång från kompostering till rötning tillkommer nya bioråvaror och denna studie visar på några av de faktorer man måste ta hänsyn till vid kapacitetsberäkningar. Detta är av yttersta vikt då mängder och gaspotentialer ligger som grund för de investeringskalkyler som upprättas och kan vara avgörande för om en biogasanläggning alls byggs. Men det är inte bara biogas som produceras utan även en biogödsel som bör komma in i kretsloppet. Studien redovisar svar från lantbrukare kring frågor om leverans av gödsel och användning av biogödsel liksom intresset för delägarskap i en framtida anläggning. Studien ger också några svar på frågor kring hur sorteringsinformationen bör förändras.

  • 230.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Hillman, Karl
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Life cycle assessment of Swedish single malt whisky2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 112, no 1, p. 229-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agricultural production and further processing to food and drink have large impacts on the environment. However, there are still few examples of LCA studies on beverages such as whisky. This paper presents a life cycle assessment of Swedish single malt whisky and different environmental improvements of the production chain are discussed. The functional unit is one bottle (70cl) of whisky and results are obtained for global warming potential (GWP), Acidification Potential (AP), Eutrophication potential (EP) and primary energy (PE). The contribution to GWP is dominated by CO<inf>2</inf> emissions from transport of stillage. When avoided emissions from use of biogas are included, the net result is 2.1tonnes CO<inf>2</inf>-eq. Acidification is mainly due to emissions of SO<inf>2</inf> from bottle production, transport and barley cultivation which ends up to 14.6kgSO<inf>2</inf>-eq. Eutrophication results are totally dominated by barley cultivation, in total 8.6kgPO43-The total use of primary energy is 53.5MJ/FU with a 50/50 distribution in renewable and non-renewable. Non-renewables emanate from fossil fuels used for transports and in glass production, whereas renewables are mostly used for heating in the distillery. Improvement analysis of transports included; (1) decreasing need of transport, (2) change of fuel and (3) change of transport mode. Decreasing transport of stillage is an efficient measure to reduce GWP and use of non-renewable energy. Substituting diesel with biodiesel for all road transports is an even more efficient measure for these categories, but increases other environmental impact. For all impact categories except use of renewable energy a scenario combining all improvements is the most efficient measure to reduce environmental impact. The results can be used by the manufacturer, but an improved and expanded LCA on product level can be used for a more specific eco-labelling of the different whisky editions. 

  • 231.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Jönsson, Johanna
    Svensk avfallshantering: Diskussion kring dagsläget och branschens forskningsbehov : Dokumentation från workshop på Högbo bruk 19 Januari 20052013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Stiftelsen Gästrikeregionens Miljö inbjöd i samarbete med Högskolan i Gävle till en eftermiddag och kväll med workshop-diskussioner kring var avfallshanteringen i Sverige står idag och vilka frågor som behöver få en lösning framöver. Workshopen ägde rum onsdag 19 januari 2005 kl. 12-21 på Högbo Bruk i Sandviken.

    Syftet med workshopen var att sprida kunskap om pågående forskning (frågeställningar, kompetenser och idéer för framtiden) till branschfolk samt att tillsammans lokalisera vilka frågor som engagerar mest och där vi kan göra en gemensam insats. I konkreta termer vill stiftelsen hitta kompletterande forskning till den verksamhet som redan bedrivs vid Högskolan i Gävle och som i enlighet med Stiftelsens och Gästrike Återvinnares önskemål är inriktad på människors och företags attityder, kunskaper och göranden.

    Dokumentationen följer workshopens program så som det genomfördes. Bilagorna är upplagda enligt följande:

    Bilaga 1 är en kopia av programmet.

    Bilaga 2-8 innehåller det underlag som användes vid de olika presentationerna.

    Bilaga 9 innehåller en förteckning över de personer som deltog på workshopen.

    Bilaga 10 innehåller det förslag som Leif Magnusson lade fram angående grundandet av Föreningen Avfallsforskning.

  • 232.
    Eriksson, Olle
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Energieffektivisering av Valhalla: Åtgärdsförslag för minskad energianvändning med hänsyn till en byggnads kulturvärde2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 233.
    Eriksson, Philip
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Andra slänger mat, inte jag: Nudging för mindre matsvinn i skolor2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Food waste is a problem that permeates the whole food supply chain and cause economic losses, negative effects on the climate and environment and depletion of finite resources. The scale of required change necessary to counteract the negative effects is huge. In Swedens schools food waste loss is a matter of a costly wastage, both from an environmental perspective, but also with regard to municipalities' limited resources. Due to this, there is a big demand for waste loss reducing measures. Something that can help mitigate the extent of the food waste problem is behavioral change. Unfortunately, we cannot expect change to occur on one’s own. We need tools that can nudge us in the right direction.

    This thesis is a theoretical base that explores and describes how nudging, a tool for sustainable behaviors, can be a part of the solution to the food waste problem in school canteens. Recommendations for design and implementation of such change strategies are presented, with a special focus on planned interventions (nudges) and practical application. The goal is that the study will contribute to the application of behavioral insights in the environmental field. The foundation of the thesis consists of two earlier studies, a literature study, aimed at examining nudging as a tool for sustainable societal development, and a pilot study, aimed at examining students' behavior in canteens, and how they deal with leftovers. The first study found a number of practical shortcomings if nudging (the tool) is to be used successfully, long-term and more extensively in environmental work. The pilot study found irrationally made decisions among students.

    In order to answer how nudging can be part of the solution to the food waste problem in schools, the thesis applied the strategic framework for sustainable development. According to the strategic framework for sustainable development nudges employs as a catalyzing action while nudging is a tangible tool for strategic behavior change management. In the thesis nudging and nudges are presented as two separate parts of the behavior change management process, this also illustrates how each part can be part of the solution to the problem, because it clarifies the scope of the notions and their role in resolving the issue. Based on knowledge gained from the pilot study, the thesis draws conclusions that there is a theoretical potential to use nudging to encourage sustainable development in school canteens and reduce food waste, especially when students are about to leave the canteen, but also in the serving situation and during everyday school hours. Identified areas to focus on when applying nudges were mainly evaluation and feedback, smart anchors, order, normative messages, commitment, reminders, fewer options, strategic planning, loss disclosure and less social proof.

    In addition to this, the thesis finally gave suggestions for working with nudging from an above- or below perspective (by integrating assessment questions in the decision-making process) to adjust the application of interventions.

  • 234.
    Eriksson Skytt, Linda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Brink, Christian
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Tvärkraftsförstärkning av limträ: En undersökning av metoder med förstärkningselement av träribbor2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine the shear capacity of glulam beams through various designs of reinforcement with wooden bars. A literature study is conducted to identify previous research on the subject. There are a number of tested reinforcement methods of glulam available, however, only a few of them are about shear capacity.

    This work is an extension of a previous study of Ahlskog and Ross (2015). Their study is based on a method where glulam beams were reinforced for shear breakage by strengthening wooden bars glued to the beam with PVAc.

    Five different test series have been examined for shear capacity. To obtain a statistical basis each series contained eight specimens. One series was unreinforced, two series were reinforced with glued wooden bars and two series were reinforced with milled in wooden bars. The reinforcement bars were put at an angle to take tensile or compressive force in the different methods.

    The capacity of the reinforcement bars is tested with a tensile and compressive testing machine which recorded deformation and compression force. The measured values were treated by a statistical analysis and normal distribution curves were drawn for the entire number of specimens based on the assumption that the test results were normally distributed. The four series were compared with both the unreinforced series and the other reinforced methods.

    The work resulted in an increase of shear capacity by 16% for the average of the sample series with milled in wooden bars subjected to compressive force. It has also been found that the characteristic value of shear capacity increased by 14% in the test series with the glued wooden bars exposed to traction.

  • 235.
    Eriksson, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Renöfält, Kristin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Mötesplatsen: Utformning av en plats för möten, kommunikation och återhämtning på jobbet2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The meeting place is an investigative design essay which covers the subjects meeting, communication and recovery at the workplace. A literary investigation is made where we study research by Rachel and Stephen Kaplan, Gary W. Evans och Janetta Mitchell McCoy based on the questions:

    How could a restorative space be designed?

    How could a meeting place and a place for communication be designed?

    How could a meeting place to get to know each other be designed?

    To broaden our investigation we are carrying out surveys and interviewing three architects by profession. Based on a creative process the investigation results in an interior design concept together with a furniture designed for a planned meeting place for a recently united concern.

  • 236.
    Erkkilä, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Modellering av metangasproduktionen på Koviks återvinningsanläggning2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    By using a modeling tool developed by IPCC, this report examines the production of methane in the landfill at Koviks recycling facility. Models for calculating methane production has existed since the 1980s and the results can serve as a basis for decisions on investments in equipment for gas extraction and energy production. Landfilling has occurred at Kovik since 1964 and the gas extraction started in the mid-1980s. Methane gas production and methane emissions at the facility have for several years been calculated with the EPER France model. However, studies show that this model tends to underestimate the methane emissions and thereby probably also the methane production.

    A review of the calculations at Kovik also shows that wrong data for the amount of landfilled waste has been used. For these reasons, it is interesting to use correct data in another model to get a more accurate result.

    The model used in this report is a First-order Multi-phase model. It takes into account a number of factors, including quantities of landfilled waste, its age, its half-life time and its content of degradable organic carbon. The waste is divided into such categories as Household Waste, Industrial Waste and Sludge. Household waste is also divided into Food, Garden, Paper, Wood, Textile and Inert waste. The different types of waste affect the production of methane gas in different degrees. Due to the lack of information regarding the composition of the landfilled household waste the result is presented in three scenarios with different composition. The composition in scenario 1 is assumed to be the most realistic.

    Although the results differ slightly among the scenarios, all those scenarios suggest that methane gas production peaked around 2005. The amount of waste, and thereby the methane production, then decreases quickly because of the ban on landfilling of organic matter. The results of scenario 1 shows that methane potential from 2015 to 2030 is about 15 % of the total produced methane gas from the landfill starting year 1964 to 2030, the final year in the modeling tool. This corresponds to a remaining methane potential of about 30 kilotons by 2030. The extraction of methane gas can continue at the current level for about five years.

    It should be mentioned that the uncertainty of the parameters that have been used and the lack of data on landfilled waste could result in a limited reliability of the calculated gas production.

  • 237.
    Ersson, David
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Yngvesson, Robert
    Permakultur i Byggandet: En utredning inför uppförande av en miljöanpassad utbyggnad av skola i Ljusdal2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Calculations show that the current population on earth and with a western life-style takes up to seven earth-like planets to sustain a sustainable lifestyle. Today Europe and the U.S. consume 2/3 of the resources on earth of which many are already over-used. The current population is overconsuming the resources on earth with 120% above the sustainable level. With the standard that the western citizen demands, the earth would only be able to house only one billion citizens in a sustainable way.

    The suggestion to solve this problem is mostly to invest in energy saving technologies and to invest in energy saving solutions. Of course, energy savings indeed are important but technical solutions can not alone provide a solution. It is often shown that investments in energy efficiency and in energy saving technology leads to higher instead of lower energy consumption. This is known as Jevons paradox.

    A way to solve this paradox is to create awareness among the energy consumers. By decreasing the distance between energy use and energy production, the awareness among the consumers is likely to increase. Thus, the use of natural resources will no longer remain difficult to grasp and feel remote but will be something everyone can relate to. When it comes to the built environment, the best solution would therefore be to utilse relatively small units with a high grade of self supply.

    Permaculture, which is a concept captured from the world of farming, provides tools to investigate and to make this idea real. What permaculture and the planning tools of permaculture do is that it focuses on small scale solutions close to the end users. Permaculture is also a concept that allows implementation on levels that can be adapted to every single case. This means that there can be different levels of self sufficiency in every unique project.

    The method that is presented in this paper focuses in investigating the conditions of the site and the project, and to find the technical solutions that fulfill the prerequisites of the actual case. The purpose is not necessarily just to create a working technical solution but to create a solution that makes the inhabitants aware of their energy use.

    Therefore this paper focuses a lot on a real example: The Freinet School Tallbacken in the Swedish municipality of Ljusdal. The school is about to build a sports hall and a canteen using these principles. This paper shows the considerations made in that actual case and provides therefore a model for anyone who is interested in the implementation of these principles in any other project. 

  • 238.
    Evertsson, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Walfridsson, Helen
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Ändring av befintligt ridhus: Gävle Fältrittklubb2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 239.
    Fagervall, Tove
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Energiförluster via spillvattenventilation: En fallstudie på Hus Freja tillhörande Högskolan i Gävle2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Energy losses through wastewater ventilation are an unexplored subject. This dissertation focuses therefore on determining how much heat the building loses through the wastewater ventilation and if this subject is worth a closer investigation.This dissertation is an investigation regarding energy losses transferred through wastewater ventilation, it is a case study regarding the wastewater ventilation at Building 99 at the University of Gävle. A literature review has been made, which led to the conclusion that there is no previous studies within this subject. This dissertation focuses therefore on investigating how big the energy losses through the wastewater ventilation in Building 99 are. Differences in energy loss through the ventilation while using large and small flush on the toilets are also an element in this dissertation.Through measurements of the system in Building 99 and calculations based on literature regarding heat transfer the desired results were achieved. The results showed that around 800 kWh transfers through the wastewater ventilation in Building 99 annually, where 110 kWh of the total amount occurs while flushing. The results from both measurements and calculations show that there is a difference between usage of large and small flush regarding energy losses. Based on the results the conclusion is drawn that the total energy loss through wastewater ventilation is very low, despite that the investigation involves a big sewage system.

  • 240.
    Falk, Anders B.
    et al.
    SLU.
    Lindström, Svante
    University of Gävle, Central University Administration.
    Mattsson, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology.
    Influence of some weather parameters on the susceptibility of apple fruit to postharvest grey mould attack2018In: Proceedings 2018, 2018, p. 124-127Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several cultural and weather factors during the season influence the susceptibility of apple fruit to post-harvest pathogens. In the present study, the effect of different weather parameters on postharvest susceptibility of apples of the cv. ‘Ingrid Marie’ to grey mould was investigated. In 2015, apple fruit were collected from orchards in Southern Sweden, where local weather stations monitored different parameters. After harvest, the fruit were tested for susceptibility to grey mould by artificially inoculating them with%FLQHUHD. Lesion development was monitored over a 10-day-period. Analysis of results for a few orchards showed that cold weather for over a month preceding harvest and a low total number of growth degree days gave apples that were more susceptible to grey mould. This study was carried out in conventional orchards, but the conclusions can be important also for organic production, since they deal with the general effect of sunshine, temperature and rain, factors that may strengthen fruit during cultivation, regardless of production type. Future studies may focus on organic production to investigate whether these effects are general and also apply to organic production.

  • 241.
    Fallenius, Bengt E.G.
    et al.
    KTH.
    Sattari, Amir
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Building science - installation technology.
    Fransson, Jens
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Building science - installation technology.
    Sandberg, Mats
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Building science - installation technology.
    Experimental study on the effect of pulsating inflow to an enclosure for improved mixing2013In: International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, ISSN 0142-727X, E-ISSN 1879-2278, Vol. 44, p. 108-119Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 242.
    Farah, Hussein
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Björnholm, William
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Mohamud, Abdirahim
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Miljöbyggnad och hållbart byggande: En fallstudie på Almvägen2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability in the construction and real estate sector has gained more attention in recent decades. In Sweden, the parliament and the Government work on a global and nation level to achieve increased sustainability in the construction industry. Today, the construction and real estate sector is responsible for many of the world's environmental problems such as pollution, marine exploitation and waste. In order to achieve higher sustainability, an environmental certification of building can be done, which means a transparent assessment of sustainability of a building. Today, there are over 500 environmental classification systems in the world. Among the systems, is Miljöbyggnad the most used system in Sweden with more than 1100 certified buildings by 2018. Miljöbyggnad is a Swedish certification system that is designed and adapted to Swedish conditions. The system contains various indicators aimed at encouraging low energy use, good indoor environment and a good choice of materials.

    This thesis aims at studying in what degree Miljöbyggnad is used in Sweden and whether the system can be used to reflect the building's sustainability. Furthermore, the purpose is to check whether the number of sustainable buildings in Gävle is in line with the “Gäle kommuns” forecast by assessing a "non-certified" building, Almvägen, in Gävle. Research methods in this degree project was a combination of site visits, computer simulations, questionnaires, mathematical calculations, environmental engineering manuals and literature studies via databases, books and other types of reports. In addition, the authors have also conducted various qualitative interviews with a politician, representatives from the municipality of Gävle and AB Gavlegårdarna.

    The reference case is a multi-family house located in the neighborhood Almvägen, owned by AB Gavlegårdarna. The result clearly showed that the multi-family house achieved the grade SILVER according to Miljöbyggnad´s requirements and criteria. Furthermore, the interview showed that Miljöbyggnad was considered a good tool for achieving increased durability in the construction industry.

    However, Miljöbyggnad does not cover social and economic sustainability to a large extent as environmental sustainability. What is most focused on the system is environmental improvements, that is, the ecology, which results in an unfair saturation of the building's sustainability. On the other hand, the systems are constantly evolving and updated continuously, which may mean that there is room for improvement to also measure the social and economic sustainability of the building to the same extent.

  • 243.
    Fernandes, C. A. F.
    et al.
    Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal .
    Torres, J. P. N.
    Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal .
    Gomes, João
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Branco, P. J. C.
    Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal .
    Nashih, S. K.
    Stationary solar concentrating photovoltaic-thermal collector - Cell string layout2016In: Proceedings - 2016 IEEE International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference, PEMC 2016, IEEE, 2016, p. 1275-1282, article id 7752179Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work is to design the cell string layout in stationary concentrating photovoltaic (PV) or hybrid systems (PVT) in order to minimize the effects of both the longitudinal and transversal shading inherent to concentrating collectors. In this paper it is determined the best configuration of a PV string of cells, composed by several modules, by using a simple mathematical model based on the current vs. voltage of the PV cell. The model calculates the power vs. voltage curves of different possible configurations, in order to identify the optimal one according to efficiency and reliability. The company SOLARUS manufactures PVT collectors with cell strings of 38 solar cells connected in series. Solar cells in the concentrated side of the collector are shaded due to the presence of the aluminium frame of the PVT collector. The effects of shading and non-uniform illumination are minimized by including bypass diodes. Each string has 4 modules of bridged cells, each one associated to a bypass diode. In this work, different combinations of string cells in the collector receiver have been simulated using the free circuit simulation package from Linear Technology Corporation (LTSPICE). Test results are provided by SOLARUS to validate the proposed approach. A comparative analysis is presented at the end, showing that the simulation model is an important tool to define the module configurations that achieve the best energy efficiencies of the PVT panel. 

  • 244.
    Ferneryd, Anton
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Industrial design.
    E-waste, skräpet med värde: En industridesignlösning på ett farligt avfall2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete grundar sig i mitt intresse för hemelektronik. Och eftersom jag nu snart har studerat sex terminer på industridesignprogrammet på Högskolan i Gävle så betyder det att jag även har kunskap om industridesign med ett fokus på hållbarhet. Då kändes det naturligt för mig att koppla mitt intresse för hemelektronik med hållbarhet, och därmed skapades detta examensarbete om e-waste.

    E-waste, eller elektroniskt avfall, är ett stort problem i dagens samhälle. Det är ett av de snabbast växande sopbergen på grund av den ständiga teknologiska utvecklingen och produkter som inte håller tillräckligt länge. Därför handlar detta examensarbete om att förbättra en elektronisk produkts hållbarhet.  För att identifiera en problematisk produkt och lära mig mer om hur situationen kring e-waste ser ut så har jag börjat med en litteraturstudie om ämnet och intervjuat stora svenska återvinnare. Sedan följde jag upp detta med en relativt strukturerad klassisk industridesignsprocess med fokus på konstruktionen för den identifierade produkten. Denna arbetsprocess resulterar i ett koncept på en golvdammsugare som visar hur produkten skulle se ut om det fanns ett producentansvar på konstruktionen. Alltså att produkten enkelt ska gå att återvinna, repareras eller demonteras för att öka värdet på produkten när den blir till e-waste och för en miljöfokuserad hållbar utveckling. Det blir en arbetsprocess där användare och producenters behov kopplas till form, konstruktion och material för att resultera i ett slutgiltigt koncept.   

    Men arbetet handlar inte endast om detta, det handlar även om vad som klassificerar en problematiskt elektronisk produkt och framförallt hur designers har en väldigt stor makt i att påverka vår framtid här på jorden med hur de tänker under sin produktutveckling.

  • 245.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Architecture and Built Environment, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Ekvall, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Architecture and Built Environment, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Bisaillon, Mattias
    Profu AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Greger
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Architecture and Built Environment, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Gunnarsson Östling, Ulrika
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Architecture and Built Environment, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Ljunggren Söderman, Maria
    Chalmers University of Technology, Environmental Systems Analysis Energy and Environment, Göteborg, Sweden .
    Sahlin, Jenny
    Profu AB, Mölndal, Sweden .
    Stenmarck, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Sundberg, Johan
    Profu AB, Mölndal, Sweden .
    Sundqvist, Jan-Olov
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Architecture and Built Environment, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Economics Unit, Luleå, Sweden .
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Architecture and Built Environment, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Forsfält, Tomas
    Konjunkturinstitutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Guath, Mona
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Architecture and Built Environment, Department of Urban Planning and Environment, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Policy Instruments towards a Sustainable Waste Management2013In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 841-881Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to suggest and discuss policy instruments that could lead towards a more sustainable waste management. The paper is based on evaluations from a large scale multi-disciplinary Swedish research program. The evaluations focus on environmental and economic impacts as well as social acceptance. The focus is on the Swedish waste management system but the results should be relevant also for other countries. Through the assessments and lessons learned during the research program we conclude that several policy instruments can be effective and possible to implement. Particularly, we put forward the following policy instruments: "Information"; "Compulsory recycling of recyclable materials"; "Weight-based waste fee in combination with information and developed recycling systems"; "Mandatory labeling of products containing hazardous chemicals", "Advertisements on request only and other waste minimization measures"; and "Differentiated VAT and subsidies for some services". Compulsory recycling of recyclable materials is the policy instrument that has the largest potential for decreasing the environmental impacts with the configurations studied here. The effects of the other policy instruments studied may be more limited and they typically need to be implemented in combination in order to have more significant impacts. Furthermore, policy makers need to take into account market and international aspects when implementing new instruments. In the more long term perspective, the above set of policy instruments may also need to be complemented with more transformational policy instruments that can significantly decrease the generation of waste.

  • 246.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    IVL.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, Miljöstrategisk analys (flyttat 20130630).
    von Borgstede, Chris
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Forsfält, Thomas
    Konjunkturinstitutet.
    Guath, Mona
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Henriksson, Greger
    KTH, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Ljunggren Söderman, Maria
    IVL.
    Stemarck, Åsa
    IVL.
    Sundqvist, Jan-Olof
    IVL.
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    KTH, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Åkesson, Lynn
    Lunds Universitet.
    Regeringen måste satsa på resurseffektivt samhälle2013In: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 2013-04-01Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Regeringen förbereder en avfallspolitisk proposition. Den kommer förhoppningsvis att klargöra vem som ska ha ansvaret att samla in våra förpackningar. Men fokus borde också ligga på hur vi kan gå mot ett samhälle där resurser används så effektivt som möjligt, skriver forskare på miljöområdet.

  • 247.
    Flyckt Jönsson, Johannes
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Jackalin, Marcus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Energieffektivisering på Skutskärs Bruk: Varvtalsstyrning till utvalda pumpenheter på Blekeri 42012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In modern society in terms of economics and environmental impact, it is important to ensure that a company is as energy efficient as possible to reduce the amount of energy used. About 10 TWh of electricity used annually to pump drives in Swedish industry. Therefore, pumping system has great potential for energy savings.

    The objective of this report was to determine how much energy and money that can be saved with the insertion of variable speed drive to six pumps on Bleach plant 4 in Skutskär Mill. The work was performed with electrical measurements during one week, analysis of pump curves and the compilation of production data over a year.

    The results show that four of these six pumps were profitable and yielded an annual saving of 1172 MWh of electricity and 560 000 SEK. With an economic lifetime of 10 years and a discount rate of 6.8% the final result for the entire life-cycle savings became 3 355 000 SEK. The conclusion was that it is preferred to introduce variable speed drive on pumps with a motor power above 50 kW.

  • 248.
    Fornstedt, Joachim
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Sena ändringar: studie av sena ändringar under produktionsfasen av Kv. Valhall2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sena fördyrande ändringar under produktionsfasen i byggprojekt är vanligt

    förekommande i byggbranschen. Skanska Mora är inte ett undantag och har börjat se

    dessa fördyrande ändringar som ett problem som de vill undersöka. Syftet med detta

    arbete har varit att definiera och minimera fördyrande sena ändringar under

    produktionsfasen. Målet har varit att ta fram en rekommendation till Skanska Mora på hur

    de kan förebygga kostsamma sena ändringar under produktion. Förhoppningen har varit

    att detta på sikt ska leda till möjligheter till fler lyckade byggprojekt på många plan för

    Skanska Mora, och att skapa diskussion för att belysa grundproblematiken i området.

     

    Arbetet grundar sig främst på en litteraturstudie i områden om fördyrande sena

    ändringar, ändringshantering i projektarbeten och andra delar i byggbranschen. En studie

    på tre fördyrande sena ändringar i Skanska Moras projekt Kv. Valhall har genomförts

    parallellt med en skriftlig intervjuundersökning som skickats ut till en utvald del av

    projektpersonalen. Litteraturstudien har format studien av projektet för att identifiera och

    utreda dessa sena ändringar. Utifrån studierna formulerades en rekommendation till hur

    Skanska Mora ska kunna arbeta för att förebygga dessa sena fördyrande ändringar.

     

    I rekommendationen föreslås att man börjar arbeta mot ett bättre samarbetsklimat för en

    bättre social miljö mellan alla medarbetare. För att uppnå det så ska arbetet inriktas mot

    att effektivisera kommunikationen och informationsöverföringen och skapa teamkänsla i

    företaget och projekten. Teamkänsla uppnås genom att ledarskapet inriktas mot att värna

    om de inre resurserna, det vill säga människorna i projekten. Att arbeta mot en bättre

    fungerande erfarenhetsåterföring är också en rekommendation som bidrar till att skapa

    god teamkänsla och ger möjlighet att tillsammans arbeta mot mer lyckade projekt utifrån

    att dra nytta av alla värdefulla erfarenheter.

  • 249.
    Fors, Micael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Kirunametoden-Jämförelse emot en konventionell injusteringsmetod2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    AbstractWith increasing population and increasing demands for comfort and thus an increase in energy demand, it is necessary to examine various energy-efficiency measures. This work deals with the ability to control the flow through the heating system to achieve the desired comfort with as little energy as possibleA heating system contains of different parts, roughly speaking, you can divide it to three main components: Heat source, Distribution and Heat emitters. All components are working together to bring heat to the building. What is examined in this report are different ways of adjusting the flow and supply temperature and how it affects comfort and energy use in a building.At today ́s date the conventional method is to use a high flow through the heating system, which affects pressure drop and cooling of the fluid. In the mid 1960 ́s there was an engineer named Östen Sandberg that started to use a lower flow rate with a higher supply temperature as a result. The upside of that was that you could neglect the pressure drop that the fluid in motion contributed with and that it helped to reach the desired comfort.The purpose of this study was to determine if a low flow adjustment is a viable option and to see its advantages or disadvantages.The author of this work has made use of the software IDA ICE 4.0, which is a simulation tool for indoor climate and energy usage, to a build a residential building and then applies different scenarios such as extreme thermal bridges and internal heat. After that used different supply temperature to simulate a low/high flow.A general conclusion of the work when using a simulation of this kind is that a low flow with high supply temperature is better to adapt to different circumstances and is able to keep the desired temperature at the expense of a negligible increase of energy. The adjustment of heating system seems to be an easier task at low flow than at high flow because of the dynamic pressure drop that occurs with fluids in motion becomes negligible.

  • 250.
    Forsberg, Lina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Meningsbyggarn: spelet där slumpen avgör vilka ord du ska använda i din mening2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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