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  • 201.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Persson, Lina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Aktivitetsbaserade arbetsplatser: Koncentration, stillasittande och hälsa i jämförelse med traditionella kontor: Kartläggning år 2015-20172017Report (Other academic)
  • 202.
    Jarebrant, Caroline
    et al.
    Swerea IVF Mölndal; Institutionen för sociologi och arbetsvetenskap, Göteborgs universitet.
    Winkel, Jörgen
    Institutionen för sociologi och arbetsvetenskap, Göteborgs universitet; Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark.
    Johansson Hanse, Jan
    Psykologiska institutionen, Göteborgs universitet.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Öjmertz, Birgitta
    Swerea IVF Mölndal.
    ErgoVSM: A tool for integrating Value Stream Mapping and ergonomics in manufacturing2016In: Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing, ISSN 1090-8471, E-ISSN 1520-6564, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 191-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Value stream mapping (VSM) is a Lean tool aiming at waste reduction. Previous research suggests that the use of VSM may result in work intensification and thus an increased risk for the workers of developing work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSD). In the current study, VSM has been developed to also consider physical exposure in the analyzed production system (ErgoVSM). As the VSM, ErgoVSM is based on a participatory approach. ErgoVSM was tested in Swedish manufacturing industry. The results suggest that ErgoVSM catalyzes change processes that include intervention proposals emphasizing ergonomics in addition to waste reduction. Thus, it seems to be usable for the intended target group of engineers. The suggested performance improvements obtained by VSM seem not to be hampered by adding the ergonomics complement. However, the use of ErgoVSM is somewhat more time-consuming than the use of VSM. In conclusion, ErgoVSM may be suggested as a feasible tool to be used by production planners for including ergonomics considerations in the rationalization process.

  • 203.
    Johansson, Elin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bolin, Malin
    Avdelningen för Samhällsvetenskap, Mittuniversitetet .
    Olofsdotter, Gunilla
    Avdelningen för Samhällsvetenskap, Mittuniversitetet .
    Jämställd arbetshälsa? Genus, arbetsorganisation och fysisk belastning inom detaljhandeln2018In: FALF KONFERENS 2018 Arbetet – problem eller potential för en hållbar livsmiljö?   10-12 juni 2018 Gävle: Program och abstracts / [ed] Per Lindberg, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2018, p. 118-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund

    Det har länge varit känt att kvinnor har betydligt sämre arbetshälsa än män. En viktig orsak är att kvinnor och män till stor del befinner sig i olika branscher, men forskning tyder påatt arbetshälsan är ojämnställd även inom t.ex. städbranschen, monteringsyrken och detaljhandel. Kvinnor och män i dessa yrken har ofta olika arbetsuppgifter och kvinnornas uppgifter är överlag mer enahanda och repetitiva än männens. Kvinnor tros också ha en högre biomekanisk belastning än män när de utför samma arbetsuppgift, möjligen därför att arbetsstationer och verktyg ofta anpassats utifrån mannen som norm. Könssegregeringen på arbetsmarknaden och inom organisationer verkar alltså vara en viktig orsak till bristande jämställdhet i belastningsrelaterad arbetshälsa inom vissa yrken. Kunskapen om hur arbetsroller och arbetsvillkor påverkar belastningar hos kvinnor och män är i stora delar åldersdigen och inte anpassad till svenska förhållanden. Dessutom saknas studier av könsskillnader i fysisk belastning i relation till hur arbetet organiseras på enskilda arbetsplatser. Detaljhandeln är en lämplig bransch att studera då den sysselsätter män och kvinnor i någorlunda likartad omfattning och förekomsten av belastningsbesvär är hög. Dessutom har forskning visat att de arbetsuppgifter som förekommer i detaljhandeln har en stor spännvidd i fysisk belastning och att de olika arbetsuppgifterna är genuskodade, dvs ses som ”kvinnliga” eller ”manliga”.

    Syfte

    Att undersöka kvinnors och mäns arbetsuppgifter, arbetsbelastningar, arbetsvillkor och belastningsbesvär inom en organisation i detaljhandeln, och förklara organisatoriska orsaker till könsskillnader och -likheter. Syftet är också att ta reda på hur dessa förhållanden ändras över tid.

    Metod

    Två matvarubutiker inom samma koncern med vardera ca 50 anställda studeras. I varje butik samlas data in vid två tillfällen med ett års mellanrum. Kvantitativa och kvalitativa metoder används: Semi-strukturerade intervjuer med chefer för att kartlägga organisationoch bemanning; enkät till de anställda med frågor om arbetssituation, muskuloskeletala besvär mm; fokusgruppsintervjuer med ett urval anställda för fördjupad insikt i arbetsroller, arbetsvillkor och arbetsmiljö; mätning av arbetsställningar, arbetsrörelser och puls på ca hälften av de anställda. Under mätperioden dokumenteras olika arbetsuppgifter i en dagbok och under en dag videofilmas den anställde under arbete. Datainsamling påbörjas i mars 2018 och preliminära resultat väntas tillgängliga under våren. Studien finansieras av Arbetsmiljöverket och Högskolan i Gävle.

  • 204.
    Johansson, Sara
    et al.
    Department of Health Science, Luleå University of Technology.
    Rissén, Dag
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Centre for Research & Development, Uppsala University/Region of Gävleborg, Gävle, Sweden.
    Fjellman-Wiklund, Annchristine
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University.
    Paarup, Helene M
    Research Unit of Occupational & Environmental Medicine, Clinical Institute, University of Southern Denmark; Department of Occupational Medicine, Hospital of South-west Jutland, Esbjerg.
    Röijezon, Ulrik
    Department of Health Science, Luleå University of Technology.
    Musculoskeletal pain, work posture and physical activity among professional symphony and opera musicians in Sweden2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The objectives were to 1) investigate the point prevalence and the one year prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms among professional classical orchestra musicians, 2) estimate the work posture regarding standing vs. sitting, and the physical activity among the musicians, and 3) investigate associations between pain and gender, work posture, and physical activity.

    Methods: The study is part of an ongoing national survey investigating the health situation among Swedish professional orchestra musicians. The data were collected from two orchestras. Seventy-eight musicians (80%) participated, aged 45 ±9.6 years with 41% women.

    Result: Ninety-one percent of the musicians reported pain during the last 12 months; 80% at more than one site. For both men and women the most frequently reported problem within the last year was neck pain (figure 1). While 96% of the musicians had a seated work posture all or most of the time in the orchestra, work posture was more diverse while practicing alone (figure 2). In total 73% (for females 67%; for males 77%) of the musicians fulfilled the Nordic recommendations for physical activity. Binominal logistic regressions including pain prevalence during last 12 months and gender, work posture, and physical activity were significant for hip pain (p=0.020) with gender (Odds ratio 4.9, p=0.007) as significant predictor, and knee pain (p=0.035) with work posture (Odds ratio 0.517, p=0.046) as significant predictor.

    Conclusion: In harmony with previous studies [1-2], the majority of the examined orchestra musicians experienced pain at some time point during a year. While almost all musicians play in a sitting position during orchestra rehearsals and concerts, playing posture varied more when practicing alone. Regression models including gender, work posture and physical activity revealed that 1) women were more prone to hip pain compared to men, 2) an association between knee pain and standing posture, while 3) no impact was found for physical activity in these preliminary results.

  • 205.
    Kalezic, Ivana
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Surgical and Perioperative Science, Sport Medicine Unit, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Steffens, Heinz
    Changes in Tetrodotoxin-Resistant C-Fibre Activity during Fatiguing Isometric Contractions in the Rat2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 9, article id e73980Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is by now well established that tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) afferent fibres from muscle in the rat exhibit a multisensitive profile, including nociception. TTX-R afferent fibres play an important role in motor control, via spinal and supraspinal loops, but their activation and function during muscle exercise and fatigue are still unknown. Therefore, the specific effect of isometric fatiguing muscle contraction on the responsiveness of TTX-R C-fibres has been investigated in this study. To quantify the TTX-R afferent input we recorded the cord dorsum potential (CDP), which is the result of the electrical fields set up within the spinal cord by the depolarisation of the interneurons located in the dorsal horn, activated by an incoming volley of TTX-R muscle afferents. The changes in TTX-R CDP size before, during and after fatiguing electrical stimulation of the gastrocnemius-soleus (GS) muscle have been taken as a measure of TTX-R C-unit activation. At the end of the fatiguing protocol, following an exponential drop in force, TTX-R CDP area decreased in the majority of trials (9/14) to 0.75 +/- 0.03% (mean +/- SEM) of the pre-fatigue value. Recovery to the control size of the TTX-R CDP was incomplete after 10 min. Furthermore, fatiguing trials could sensitise a fraction of the TTX-R C-fibres responding to muscle pinch. The results suggest a long-lasting activation of the TTX-R muscle afferents after fatiguing stimulation. The role of this behaviour in chronic muscle fatigue in connection with pain development is discussed. Accumulation of metabolites released into the interstitium during fatiguing stimulation might be one of the reasons underlying the C-fibres' long-lasting activation.

  • 206.
    Kaltenbrunner, Monica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Nursing Department, Medicine and Health College, Lishui University, Lishui Shi, China.
    A questionnaire measuring staff perceptions of Lean adoption in healthcare: development and psychometric testing2017In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    During the past decade, the concept of Lean has spread rapidly within the healthcare sector, but there is a lack of instruments that can measure staff's perceptions of Lean adoption. Thus, the aim of the present study was to develop a questionnaire measuring Lean in healthcare, based on Liker's description of Lean, by adapting an existing instrument developed for the service sector.

    METHODS:

    A mixed-method design was used. Initially, items from the service sector instrument were categorized according to Liker's 14 principles describing Lean within four domains: philosophy, processes, people and partners and problem-solving. Items were lacking for three of Liker's principles and were therefore developed de novo. Think-aloud interviews were conducted with 12 healthcare staff from different professions to contextualize and examine the face validity of the questionnaire prototype. Thereafter, the adjusted questionnaire's psychometric properties were assessed on the basis of a cross-sectional survey among 386 staff working in primary care.

    RESULTS:

    The think-aloud interviews led to adjustments in the questionnaire to better suit a healthcare context, and the number of items was reduced. Confirmatory factor analysis of the adjusted questionnaire showed a generally acceptable correspondence with Liker's description of Lean. Internal consistency, measured using Cronbach's alpha, for the factors in Liker's description of Lean was 0.60 for the factor people and partners, and over 0.70 for the three other factors. Test-retest reliability measured by the intra-class correlation coefficient ranged from 0.77 to 0.88 for the four factors.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    We designed a questionnaire capturing staff's perceptions of Lean adoption in healthcare on the basis of Liker's description. This Lean in Healthcare Questionnaire (LiHcQ) showed generally acceptable psychometric properties, which supports its usability for measuring Lean adoption in healthcare. We suggest that further research focus on verifying the usability of LiHcQ in other healthcare settings, and on adjusting the instrument if needed.

  • 207.
    Kaltenbrunner, Monica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Uppsala universitet, Uppsala, Sverige; Nursing Department, Medicine and Health College, Lishui University, China.
    Lean i primärvården - en bild av hur Lean tillämpas2018In: FALF KONFERENS 2018 Arbetet – problem eller potential för en hållbar livsmiljö?   10-12 juni 2018 Gävle: Program och abstracts / [ed] Per Lindberg, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2018, p. 112-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund

    Lean har sitt ursprung i bilindustrin och har spridits till andra sektorer såsom hälso-och sjukvård. Implementering av Lean syftar vanligtvis till att öka vårdkvaliten. Vid utvärderingar av Lean saknas ofta en beskrivning av vilka principer av Lean som implementeras och i vilken utsträckning. Föreliggande studie utgår från Likers beskrivning av Lean. Liker beskriver Lean i fyra övergripande grupper kallad 4P modellen; philosophy, processes, people and partners, och problem-solving (filosofi, processer, anställda och partners, och problemlösning), som består av ett antal principer. Att implementera alla principer och involvera alla medarbetare är ovanlig, vilket Liker menar är avgörande om organisationen ska nå de mål de satt med att införa Lean.

    Syfte

    Syftet med studien var att illustrera hur Lean praktiseras inom primärvården. 

    Metod

    Studien utgår från ett större forskningsprojekt där både privata och landstingsägda primärvårdsenheter deltog. All personal vid enheterna fick 2016 besvara en enkät om Lean-principer, svarsfrekvens 35% (298 medarbetare vid 45 enheter). Höga Lean skattningar indikerade hög mognad av Lean vilket innebar att medarbetarna var kunniga rörande den efterfrågade Lean-principen; låg mognad av Lean innebar att man helt saknade principen på sin arbetsplats eller hade implementerat den i liten utsträckning av ett fåtal medarbetare. Baserat på enkätsvaren valdes fyra enheter ut för observationer, två med hög mognad av Lean och två med låg mognad. Observationerna inkluderade intervjuer och fältanteckningar som illustrerade hur 4P-modellen praktiserades på enheterna. Hälso- och sjukvårdspersonal med olika professioner deltog (n=28).

    Resultat

    Rörande filosofi ansåg medarbetarna vid alla fyra enheter att den närmaste chefen, återkommande men i varierande utsträckning, kommunicerade gemensamma mål. Patienternas behov styrde planeringen av vården. Processer kunde innefatta att medarbetarna baserade sin planering av vården på statistik. För vissa patientgrupper eller symtom fanns generella ordinationer, d.v.s. utan kontakt med läkare, t.ex. på vilka prover som skulle tas. Rörande anställda och partners var det vanligt att arbeta i team både inom och utanför sin enhet. Men det framkom även att medarbetarna inte arbetade tillsammans fast de borde det. Problemlösning förekom men ofta ostrukturerat med brister på uppföljning. En enhet hade påbörjat utvecklande av problemlösning genom dagliga möten och strullistor att dokumentera problemen på.

    Konklusion

    Tillämpning av Lean varierar i stor utsträckning mellan vårdcentralerna. Ett par enheter hade implementerat Lean i större utsträckning och dessa enheter var mer strukturerade rörande t.ex. problemlösning och teamarbete.

     

  • 208.
    Kaltenbrunner Nykvist, Monica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Towards a Questionnaire to Measure Lean in Health Care2014In: 8th NOVO Symposium, Sustainable health care production systems - Abstract book / [ed] Kasper Edwards och Jørgen Winkel, Lyngby: Danmarks Tekniske Universitet, DTU, 2014, p. 19-20Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid spread of Lean implementation within the health care sector has made it urgent to evaluate the effects of Lean on productivity, working conditions and health. Therefor an instrument is needed to measure Lean in primary care. The aim with this research is to find an instrument that captures the character of Lean. A literature search was conducted in Academic Search Elite, WileyOnlineLibrary, PubMed, Cinahl, PsycInfo, JSTOR, ScienceDirect, Emerald and Scopus. Keywords used were reflecting Lean and measurement and the search resulted in 7933 hits. Included were articles that presented an instrument that had the possibilities to distinguish between high or low Lean adoption. Malmbrandt and Åhlstöm´s (2014) instrument fulfilled criteria and was chosen. The original instrument was firstly translated to Swedish. A back translation was made by a bilingual authorized translator. The prototype will be tested among health care professions in Sweden using the think aloud method (TA) with the aim to explore how the participants perceive and interpret the Swedish version (Collins 2003). Immediately afterwards, they will be interviewed about how they interprets specific expressions in the questionnaire. After every round of 5-15 interviews the prototype will be adjusted and when saturation is reached the TA will terminate. After psychometric tests the finalized Swedish version of the instrument is to be used in a longitudinal study to describe status of Lean and how Lean correlate with the health of primary health care staff, there working conditions and productivity over time.

  • 209.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lindberg, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Employees' and managers' perception of a healthy workplace - interviews from three medium-sized companies2015In: Proceedings 19th Triennial Congress of the IEA, Melbourne 9-14 August 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a recent review by van der Noordt et al. (2014), aimed at systematically summarize the literature on the health effects of employment, strong evidence was found for a protective effect of employment as such on depression and general mental health. Another review by Lindberg & Vingård (2012), aimed at systematically review the scientific literature and search for indicators of healthy working environments, defined as working environments that not just have a lack of detrimental factors at work but also yield a positive return in the form of rich job content, job satisfaction, social participation and personal development (Swedish Work Environment Authority 2010). The authors found 23 studies that either investigated employee´s views of what constitute a healthy workplace or were guidelines for how to create such a workplace. The most pronounced factors, considered as important for a healthy workplace were: collaboration/teamwork; growth and development of the individual; recognition; employee involvement; positive, accessible and fair leadership; autonomy and empowerment; appropriate staffing; skilled communication; and safe physical work (Lindberg and Vingård 2012).

    The knowledge in the field is still rather vague concerning what creates, promotes and sustains health and wellbeing at work among managers and employees and what factors might be the most important. In order to take action we need to further explore and understand these underlying factors, the “healthy work factors”. The aim of this study was therefore to explore how a sample of Swedish blue- and white collar workers describe healthy factors at work as well as understand the concept of wellbeing at work.

  • 210.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lindberg, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    God arbetsmiljö och välbefinnande på arbetet – en intervjustudie på tre medelstora företag2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 211.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lindberg, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    God arbetsmiljö och välbefinnande på arbetet: en intervjustudie på tre medelstora företag2013In: Arbetslivets föränderlighet: Individ-, organisations- och metodperspektiv / [ed] Sverke, Magnus, Stockholms universitets förlag, 2013, p. 17-17Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion

    Under de senaste decennierna har ett promotivt perspektiv vidgat arbetsmiljödiskursen i Sverige och internationellt. Främjande faktorer antas kunna bidra till såväl individers prestation, hälsa och välbefinnande, som till företags konkurrenskraft och lönsamhet. Den här studien har för avsikt att ur ett arbetstagarperspektiv stärka kunskapen om hälsofrämjande faktorer i arbetslivet.

     

    Syfte

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur en grupp svenska arbetstagare tolkar och beskriver begreppet god arbetsmiljö, vad de anser ger välbefinnande på arbetet samt hur de upplever sin egen arbetsmiljö.

     

    Metod

    På tre medelstora energiföretag genomfördes fokusgrupper med medarbetarna och individuella intervjuer med chefer. Därutöver fick deltagarna svara på en kort enkät rörande demografiska data. Rekrytering till fokusgrupperna gjordes i samarbete med cheferna för de avdelningar forskarna utsett genom strategiskt urval.  Cheferna ombads att rekrytera sex fokusgruppsdeltagare med, så långt det var möjligt, olika arbetsfunktion, kön, ålder, anställningslängd och etniskt ursprung. Tre huvudteman diskuterades vid intervjuerna: 1. Vad är en god arbetsmiljö? 2. Vad ger välbefinnande på arbetet? och 3. Upplevelser av den egna arbetsmiljön. Individual- och fokusgruppsintervjuerna utfördes av försteförfattaren, vid fokusgrupperna assisterad av andreförfattaren med uppgift att ta anteckningar och ställa kompletterande frågor.

     

    Resultat

    Efter 11 fokusgrupper med 3-6 medarbetare per grupp och 10 individualintervjuer med chefer ansågs datamättnad uppnådd. Demografiska data visade att deltagarna (n=62) till 84 % bestod av män, att 58 % fanns i åldersspannet 31-49 år och att 42 % hade en anställningstid av 11 år eller mer. Vid intervjuerna beskrevs visserligen fysiska faktorer (t.ex. lokaler och utrustning) som en fundamental grund i arbetsmiljön, men att psykosociala faktorer (t.ex. kamratskap och arbetsglädje) och organisatoriska faktorer (t.ex. kommunikation, delaktighet och ledarskap) var av större vikt för att skapa en god arbetsmiljö och välbefinnande på arbetet. Ett gott kamratskap var den faktor som, i de flesta fokusgrupper, spontant nämndes först som beskrivning av en god arbetsmiljö. Den egna arbetsmiljön upplevdes generellt som god, dock med en varierande grad av förbättringsbehov.

     

    Slutsatser

    En god arbetsmiljö antas inneha en stor potential för både individer och företag. Den här studien indikerar att psykosociala och organisatoriska faktorer är av stor vikt för att skapa en god arbetsmiljö. Resultatet kan fungera vägledande i företags strävan mot en hälsofrämjande arbetsplats samt i framtida arbetsmiljöforskning.

  • 212.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lindberg, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Berntson, Erik
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Wellbeing at work and the development of a questionnaire2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Improved employee wellbeing has been suggested to contribute to individual motivation and health, as well as to corporate competitiveness (Grawitch et al, 2006). However, in order to reach these potential benefits, we need to better understand the underlying factors that create wellbeing at work and healthy work environments.

    Aim. The aim of the study is to explore how a sample of Swedish blue- and white collar workers interprets the concepts of healthy work environments and workplace wellbeing, as a basis for the development of a questionnaire. In addition, a second aim is to investigate the psychometric properties of the subsequent questionnaire.

    Method. Interviews focusing on healthy work environments and workplace wellbeing were undertaken with managers and employees (n=62) at three medium-sized companies. All interviews were verbatim transcribed and analyzed in order to identify factors reported as important for healthy work environments and workplace wellbeing. The interview findings, together with factors identified in a systematic review about indicators of healthy work environments (Lindberg & Vingård, 2012) were used to develop items for a questionnaire aimed at measuring underlying factors for workplace wellbeing. The questionnaire, including newly constructed “workplace wellbeing items” as well as well-established questions for employee health, working conditions, and organizational factors was distributed to all employees at the three companies, where 74 % (n=303) responded. A retest survey was distributed to a subsample of the participants. 86 % (n=107) responded. 

    Preliminary results. The interview data suggested a broad spectrum of factors to be significant for establishing healthy work environments and workplace wellbeing. These factors represented six categories: Psychosocial climate; Physical working conditions; Communication; Management; Autonomy & Competence; and Values. The survey data showed that the single most important statement for workplace wellbeing was “that work- and family life can be combined in a good way”. Further psychometric properties, including reliability and factor analysis, are being conducted and will be presented at the conference.

    Conclusion. A healthy work environment is believed to hold great potential for both individuals and companies. With a mixed method approach this study test a set of questions measuring factors for a healthy work environment and wellbeing at work.

     

    References

    Grawitch MJ, Gottschalk M, Munz DC. (2006)The path to a healthy workplace: A critical review linking healthy workplace practices, employee well-being, and organizational improvements. Consulting Psychology Journal,58(3):129-47

    Lindberg P & Vingård E. (2012). Indicators of healthy work environments – a systematic review. Work, 41(0), 3032-3038.

  • 213.
    Kelson, Denean
    et al.
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg VA, USA.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg VA, USA.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Differences in trapezius muscle activation patterns in office workers with and without chronic neck-shoulder pain, as quantified through exposure variation analysis2018In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Sage Publications, 2018, Vol. 62, p. 962-966Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to quantify upper-trapezius muscle activation patterns using exposure variation analysis (EVA) in healthy computer workers and those with chronic neck-shoulder pain. Eight healthy and five chronic pain participants were asked to complete three computer-based tasks (TYPE, CLICK, and FORM) in two pacing conditions (self-paced and control-paced). EVA was used to quantify variation using five amplitude classes and five duration classes. Performance in each task was also quantified. Healthy workers and those with chronic pain did not differ in performance, and they both exhibited similarly low levels of muscle activation amplitude. Pain participants, however, were found to spend less time in lower duration classes across tasks and conditions. These results indicate that individuals with chronic neck-shoulder pain utilize movement strategies involving sustained durations of continuous muscle activation. This may be suggestive of decreased temporal variation in muscle activation patterns in those with chronic pain.

  • 214.
    Kelson, Denean
    et al.
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg VA.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg VA.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Trapezius Muscle Activity Variation during computer work performed by individuals with andwithout chronic neck shoulder pain2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 215.
    Kietrys, David
    et al.
    School of Health Related Professions, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey.
    Gerg, Michael
    Occupational Therapy Assistant Program, Harcum College; Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Temple University .
    Dropkin, Jonathan
    Department of Occupational Medicine, Epidemiology, and Prevention, Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine.
    Gold, Judith
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Public Health, Temple University.
    Mobile input device type, texting style and screen size influence upper extremity and trapezius muscle activity, and cervical posture while texting2015In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 50, p. 98-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study aim was to determine the effects of input device type, texting style, and screen size on upper extremity muscle activity and neck and wrist posture during a short texting task in college students. Users of a physical keypad produced greater thumb and wrist extensor muscle force than when texting with a touch screen; using a touch screen required greater wrist extension. Texting on either device produced greater finger flexor and wrist extensor muscle force and greater radial deviation when 1 hand/thumb was used, compared to both hands/thumbs. As touch screen size increased, more participants held the device on their lap, and there was a trend for greater muscle force in finger flexors, wrist extensors, and trapezius, and greater wrist extension, ulnar deviation, and cervical spine flexion. Future research can help inform whether the ergonomic stressors observed during texting are associated with the risk of musculoskeletal disorders.

  • 216.
    King, Debra
    et al.
    Flinders University, Australia.
    Svensson, Sven
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Wei, Zhang
    Flinders University, Australia.
    Not always a quick fix: the impact of employing temporary agency workers on retention in the Australian aged care workforce2017In: Journal of Industrial Relations, ISSN 0022-1856, E-ISSN 1472-9296, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 85-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of external labour such as temporary agency workers in the general workforcehas increased in recent decades, but comparatively little is known about their impactwithin the aged care workforce. This article analyses quantitative data from a census ofaged care facilities and a large-scale survey of their workforce regarding the use andimpact of temporary agency workers on internal workers. It demonstrates that employ-ing temporary agency workers helps address labour shortages generally and skill short-ages in particular. However, it has a negative impact on the job satisfaction of internalpersonal care workers – a predictor of an increase in intention to leave. In contrast,there was little impact on internal nurse satisfaction. The use of temporary agencyworkers could therefore create a paradox: increasing personal care worker numbersin the short term, but negatively impacting on their retention in the long term. Giventhe need for an expanded and sustainable aged care workforce, this finding has import-ant implications for organisations, policy and unions.

  • 217.
    Kjellberg, Katarina
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Nyman, Teresia
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden ; Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden; School of Technology and health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Palm, Peter
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rhén, Ida-Märta
    Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Kristina
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; School of Technology and health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Ruth
    Swedish Work Environment Authority, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Balliu, Natalya
    Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Comparisons of six observational methods for risk assessment of repetitive work - results from a consensus assessment2015In: Proceedings 19th Triennial Congress of the IEA, Melbourne 9-14 August 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During last decades several risk assessment methods for physical ergonomics have been developed. In a literature review 30 observational methods for assessment of biomechanical exposures at work were evaluated (1). It was found that several methods are insufficiently tested in terms of validity and reliability. Comparisons between methods' resulting risk levels are rare. The Swedish Work Environment Authority has recently emphasized the demands on risk assessments of musculoskeletal disorders (2). Practitioners mostly use observational methods to assess biomechanical risks(1). Despite a recent study comparing eight methods evaluating risk factors associated with musculoskeletal disorders (3), there is a lack of knowledge and guidance on which methods are the most effective and valid.

    This study is part of a larger on-going project, the OBS-project, with the overall purpose to evaluate six observational methods for assessment of biomechanical exposures of repetitive work in respect of validity, reliability and usability. A further purpose is to provide information on which of the methods are best suited for practitioners in risk assessment of repetitive work. The specific aim of this sub-study was to investigate the agreement between six observational methods for risk assessment of repetitive work by comparing the risk levels as assessed by a group of experts.

  • 218.
    Korshøj, Mette
    et al.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Birk Jørgensen, Marie
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lagersted-Olsen, Julie
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Prolonged sitting at work is associated with a favorable time course of low-back pain among blue-collar workers: a prospective study in the DPhacto cohort2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 530-538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sitting at work is suggested to increase risk for low-back pain (LBP). Thus, an association between temporal patterns of sitting and time course of LBP, across 12 months, among 665 participants from the DPhacto cohort was conducted. We found that longer durations of total and temporal sitting periods at work were significantly associated with a favorable time course of LBP.

  • 219.
    Korshøj, Mette
    et al.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Lagersted-Olsen, Julie
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Birk Jørgensen, Marie
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Is there an association between temporal patterns of sitting and low-back pain?: A cross-sectional study2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Low back pain (LBP) is a major global health challenge. Sitting is a suggested risk factor for LBP among blue-collar workers. Previously, information on sitting time has been collected by self-reports, being imprecise and biased compared to objective measurements. Therefore, we aimed at investigating the association between objectively measured sitting time and LBP among blue-collar workers.

    Methods

    The analysis is based on the DPHACTO cohort, and included 601 Danish blue-collar workers recruited from the cleaning, manufacturing and transport sector. Cross-sectional information on LBP intensity (range 0-10) was collected by questionnaire. Objective measurements of sitting were collected using two accelerometers (ActiGraph GT3X+) worn on the thigh and trunk during 1-5 workdays. Sitting time were split in occupational and leisure time and analyzed as the total duration, and divided in temporal patterns of uninterrupted long (> 30 min), moderate (> 5 – 30 min) and short (< 5 min) bouts by the exposure variation analysis method. Association between sitting and LBP intensity was analyzed using univariate ANOVA adjusted for age, sex, smoking, BMI, job seniority and occupational lifting and carrying activities. Additionally, total sitting were adjusted for physical activities (standing, walking, running, walking in stairs and biking) and sitting in opposite domain (occupational/leisure); and temporal pattern variables were mutually adjusted for other lengths of sitting bouts.

    Results

    No associations were seen between total sitting time and LBP; (occupational B=0.017, p=0.53; leisure B=0.008, p=0.76). No associations seen between long (occupational B=-0.002, p=0.97; leisure B=0.010, p=0.75), moderate (occupational B=0.025, p=0.50; leisure B=0.006, p=0.90), or short (occupational B=0.035, p=0.63; leisure B=-0.009, p=0.95) bouts of uninterrupted sitting and LBP.

    Conclusions and implications

    Objectively measured sitting time was not associated with LBP in blue-collar workers; pointing toward other factors being attributed to LBP. Thus, this finding needs to be investigated in prospective designs.

  • 220.
    Korshøj, Mette
    et al.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Aadahl, Mette
    Research Centre for Prevention and Health, The Capital Region of Denmark, Glostrup, Denmark; Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Birk Jørgensen, Marie
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Is objectively measured sitting at work associated with low-back pain?: a cross sectional study in the DPhacto cohort2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 96-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. Low back pain (LBP) is a substantial health challenge, due to the risk for long term sickness absence and early retirement. Several biomechanical exposures at work, including sitting, have been suggested to increase the risk for LBP. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which temporal patterns and total amount of objectively measured sitting is associated with LBP intensity, and whether selected modifiers influence these associations.

    Methods. This cross sectional study uses baseline data from the Danish PHysical ACTivity cohort with objective measurements of physical activities in the cleaning, transport and manufacturing sectors. Peak intensity of LBP was collected by questionnaire on a 0-10 scale and sitting was expressed in terms of total duration and temporal pattern, i.e. time spent in brief bursts (≤5 minutes), moderate periods (>5 – ≤20 minutes) and prolonged periods of sitting (>20 minutes); both during work and whole day (waking hours only). Associations were determined using linear regression in models accounting for moderation and confounding. Factors evaluated as moderators or confounders were assessed by questionnaire.

    Results. The population consisted of 704 participants. No significant associations were found between total duration or temporal patterns of sitting and LBP intensity, neither during work nor for the whole day. Body Mass Index significantly moderated the association between sitting and LBP; participants with a high and low BMI showing a negative and positive association, respectively.

    Conclusion. Sitting was not independently associated with peak LBP intensity, suggesting other exposures to be more powerful risk factors for LBP.

  • 221.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Healthy and effective leadership behaviour through a leadership development programme2017In: Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 28, no 13-14, p. 1617-1631Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analysed the influence on leadership behaviours acquired through a structured development programme. A total of 30 municipality workplaces around the west coast of Sweden participated in a leadership intervention using a case-control design. The oneyear programme included lectures, seminars, group and individual reflection, and for some participants, an intervention that included group development activities with subordinates. The intervention was based on the healthy and effective leadership (HEL) model. The model draws from common leadership behaviours in successful organisations. Among municipalities in western Sweden, does subordinate perception of their managers’ HEL behaviours differ between subordinates whose managers participated in one-year leadership development programs and subordinates whose managers were in a control group? The leadership development programme, both with and without a systematic group development process, had a significant positive relation with the change in the HEL behaviour index when controlled for age, gender and education compared with a control group from the same region and sector. Further research is suggested using longitudinal leadership behaviour intervention studies that focus on both subordinate health and organisational effectiveness.

  • 222.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Ledarskapsbokslut: ett systematiskt reflektionsverktyg för utveckling av hälsofrämjande och effektiva chefer och specialister2012Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 223.
    Lennernäs Wiklund, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Hälsovetenskaper, Medicinska fakulteten Lunds Universitet .
    Lindberg, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Olofsson, Niclas
    Region Västernorrland FoU.
    Risberg, Anitha
    Institutionen för Hälsovetenskap, Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Willmer, Mikaela
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Hann du äta?: En enkät och intervjustudie av arbetsmåltidens förutsättningar och betydelse för hälsa och välbefinnande vid skift- och schemalagt arbete med nattarbete2018In: FALF KONFERENS 2018 Arbetet – problem eller potential för en hållbar livsmiljö?   10-12 juni 2018 Gävle: Program och abstracts / [ed] Per Lindberg, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2018, p. 129-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund

    Ohälsosamma matvanor och stress bidrar till sjukskrivningar och nedsatt arbetsförmåga genom övervikt, hjärtkärlsjukdom, diabetes typ 2 och psykisk ohälsa. Slimmade organisationer och flexibla arbetstider begränsar möjligheten att äta hälsosamt i samband med arbete. Särskilt utsatt är personal med skift- och schemalagt arbete. Att inte kunna på-verka när man äter under arbetspasset kan öka stress och irritation, med risk för sänkt prestations- och koncentrationsförmåga. Arbetsmiljöverkets föreskrifter om organisatorisk och social arbetsmiljö (AFS 2015:4) syftar till att främja en god arbetsmiljö och förebygga ohälsa på grund av organisatoriska och sociala förhållanden i arbetsmiljön. Det finns ingen lagstiftning angående matrastens längd eller utformningen av matrum. Arbetsgivaren har rätt att byta ut raster mot måltidsuppehåll, det senare innebär måltid om arbetssituationen medger det. Personal med ständig larmberedskap kan arbeta en hel natt utan möjlighet att äta. Detta är tveksamt med hänsyn till hälsa, säkerhet och arbetsförmåga.

    Syfte

    Studiens syfte är 1) att få en bättre förståelse av de faktorer som påverkar möjligheten och formerna för att äta i samband med natt- och skiftarbete och de val anställda gör utifrån de förutsättningar som finns 2) att öka förståelsen av hur arbetsmåltiden påverkas av organisatoriska och psykosociala förhållanden, och måltidens betydelse för återhämtning, välbefinnande och hälsa.

    Frågeställningar

    Hur gestaltas arbetsmåltider för personal med skift- och schemalagt arbete? Vilka strat-egier och handlingsutrymmen har personalen för att planera sina arbetsmåltider? Vi kommer särskilt att uppmärksamma vad personalen äter, under vilka omständigheter de äter samt vilken betydelse måltiden har för välbefinnande och gemenskap.

    Urval och metod

    Enkät riktas till anställda med dag-, skift- och schemalagt arbete inom industri och hemtjänst. Intervjuer genomförs med chefer inom dessa verksamheter.

    Resultat

    Studien startar våren 2018 med inledande intervjuer och test av enkät till målgrupper efter arbetsplatsbesök. Under konferensen kommer vi att kortfattat sammanfatta den forskning som finns inom ramen för våra frågeställningar samt att redovisa resultat från några intervjuer med chefer.

    Genom vårt deltagande vill vi bidra till att sätta arbetsmåltiden på agendan inom arbetsmiljöforskning och diskutera med andra forskare hur de ser på arbetsmåltiden ur ett arbetsmiljöperspektiv.

  • 224.
    Lewis, Charlotte
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Belastning, genus och hälsa i arbetslivet2013Report (Refereed)
  • 225.
    Liebl, Andreas
    et al.
    Fraunhofer Institute for Building Physics, Stuttgart, Germany.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Review of research on the effects of noise on cognitive performance 2014-20172017In: 12th ICBEN Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem, Zurich, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A literature review was conducted covering the years 2014 to 2017 with a focus on the methods used to study the effects of noise on cognitive performance. Sound or noise and cognitive performance as well as several synonymous or related terms were used in the search string. The search resulted in a total of 1114 posts which were reduced by keeping only those publications that were work-related. This resulted in 82 articles. After a practical screen of the abstracts 47 publications still remained relevant. Several studies aimed to investigate the effects of office noise and addressed either only main effects of noise and/or interaction effects with other parameters, such as ventilation parameters or odors. Some studies extended the focus to the effects of noise in different office types. In this context noise abatement measures, like sound masking, were also tested. Furthermore, some studies dealt with the positive effects of sound by means of its restorative potential. Besides the more applied research work, several basic research studies were found dealing with the irrelevant sound effect and tests of different tasks and outcome measures of cognitive performance, such as mathematics, reading, word processing and writing.

  • 226.
    Lind, Nina
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Söderholm, Anna
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Palmquist, Eva
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Andersson, Linus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Millqvist, Eva
    Asthma and Allergy Research Group, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nordin, Steven
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Comorbidity and Multimorbidity of Asthma and Allergy and Intolerance to Chemicals and Certain Buildings2017In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 80-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: We tested the hypothesis of high comorbidity between asthma/allergy and chemical intolerance (CI) and between asthma/allergy and building intolerance (BI), and high multimorbidity between asthma/allergy, CI, and BI.

    Methods: Population-based questionnaire data were used from 530 participants with asthma/allergy (allergic asthma, nonallergic asthma, allergic rhinitis, and/or atopic dermatitis), 414 with self-reported and 112 with physician-diagnosed CI, and 165 with self-reported and 47 with physician-diagnosed BI. Separate reference groups were formed for each of the five case groups.

    Results: Adjusted odds ratios varied from 4.6 to 13.1 for comorbidity, and from 6.6 to 46.4 for multimorbidity.

    Conclusion: The large comorbidity and multimorbidity between asthma/allergy, CI, and BI evokes the question as to whether there are similarities in underlying mechanisms between these conditions.

  • 227.
    Lindberg, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Arbetsmiljöarbete i omvandling - positivt tillskott eller kejsarens nya kläder?2014Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Trots mångårigt riskeliminerande arbetsmiljöarbete drabbas 20 % i Sverige årligen av arbetsrelaterade fysiska och/eller psykiska besvär. Många orkar idag inte arbeta fram till pensionsåldern. Den demografiska utvecklingen medför dock att vi kommer att behöva arbeta längre än i dag. Det traditionella arbetsmiljöarbetets risktänkande har lärt oss hur arbetet inte skall vara. Risktänkande är en nödvändig kunskap för att förhindra ohälsa men otillräckligt i ett omstrukturerat arbetsliv där nyckelfaktorerna för framåtskridande är motivation, samarbete och kreativitet. Undvikandet av exponering för negativa förhållanden leder heller inte alltid till en positiv situation då positiva tillstånd ofta är något kvalitativt annorlunda – inte bara det omvända. För att nå ett hälsomässigt hållbart arbetsliv är det troligt att det behövs insatser från flera olika håll och av olika typ. Under särskilt det senaste decenniet, har ett främjande perspektiv utökat arbetsmiljödiskursen. ”Främjande faktorer” i arbetet antas främja både individens fysiska och psykiska hälsa och företagets konkurrenskraft och lönsamhet och därmed ge ”friska” företag/verksamheter. Vilka faktorer som verkar hälsofrämjande, liksom hur en organisation skall arbeta för att främja hälsan hos anställda och samtidigt gynna en affärsmässigt sund verksamhet, är dock ännu i sin linda. Med utgångspunkt från det s.k. GodA-projektet kommer detta att diskuteras.

  • 228.
    Lindberg, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    FALF KONFERENS 2018 Arbetet – problem eller potential för en hållbar livsmiljö?   10-12 juni 2018 Gävle: Program och abstracts2018Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 229.
    Lindberg, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    God arbetsmiljö och friska arbetsplatser2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 230.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Strömberg, Annika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    The birth, rise and success (or fall?) of an intervention project: GodA – a project set up to test a model of the prerequisites for a healthy workplace2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conditions in today’s working life make new approaches necessary in order to limit negative health effects of working life and to enhance wellbeing and health at work. Despite rather progressive legislation, a century of labour inspections, and the efforts of thousands of occupational health personnel, still around 20% of the Swedish workforce report to have had work-related disorders other than accidents during the last year (1). Even if this "elimination approach" partly has succeeded it´s obvious that it is insufficient or inadequate for a working life where key issues for progress are motivation, cooperation and creativity (2). In order to achieve a sustainable working life, not the least to coop with issues related to the ageing population in the developed countries, it is likely that strategies and actions from different and new angles are needed.

    Healthy workplace has been defined as an organization that maximizes the integration of worker goals for wellbeing and company objectives for profitability and productivity(3). It is noteworthy that the notion healthy workplace is not a substitute for good work environment it is a consequence. Different models, e.g. the PATH-model by Grawitch et al.(4) shows a synthesis of earlier research in a number of different disciplines and frames how a healthy workplace with wellbeing for the individual and organizational improvements can be achieved. Five general categories of healthy workplace practices were identified in the literature: work-life balance, employee growth and development, health and safety, recognition, and employee involvement. Previous research also suggests that the link between these practices and employee and organizational outcomes is contingent on the effectiveness of communication within the organization and the alignment of workplace practices with the organizational context.

    The GodA-project aims at investigating if work place strategies in line with the PATH-model lead to better health and wellbeing among the employees as well as organizational improvements.

    The GodA project is a 2 year follow up study with a survey feedback design in three companies with both blue- and white collar workers within the energy sector. One of the companies serves as "intervention company", the other two as controls. The project started out with a pre-project, by means of focus groups and individual interviews, in 2012 in order to find out how employees and managers in the three companies describe the concept of a healthy work environment, what they consider to create well-being at work, and how they perceive their own work environment:

    What factors are important for well-being at work? presented by T. Karlsson

    In 2013 a baseline questionnaire where was sent out including items a) based on the results from the pre-study, and b) well-established questions and indices on health and work environment. The results from the survey have been reported back to the companies, which now are processing their results. Research question to be presented and discussed at the symposium:

    Is there a balance between factors of importance for wellbeing at work and the extent to which they are present at the workplace? presented by P. Lindberg.

    Is there a correlation between psychosocial work climate indicators and work-related well-

    The PATH-model emphasizes internal communication as critical in establishing a healthy workplace. As the baseline results show that the communication is not very well developed, this is the primary target for our intervention. We will demonstrate a method for how the survey data are presented back to the intervention company and how they are going to work with the results to improve their work environment, and at the same time enhance communication skills.

    After our presentation we invite the audience to discuss both the GodA-study and more general methodological issues when conducting intervention-studies, e.g:

    - When is a company ready (mature) to take part in research activities?

    - What are the pitfalls in workplace intervention studies?

    - To what degree can the researchers interact at the workplace and still be objective?

    - What is the value of focusing on the items that the employees responded to in the survey?

    References

    1. Swedish Work Environment Authority. Work -related disorders 2010 - Arbetsmiljöstatistisk Rapport 2010:4. Stockholm: Swedish Work Environment Authority. & Statistics Sweden 2010.

    2. Aronsson G, Gustafsson K, Hakanen J. On the development of a positive work-life psychology. In: Christensen M, editor. Validation and test of central concepts in positive work and organizatinal psychology The second report from the Nordic project 'Positive factors at work'. TemaNord 2009:564. Copenhagen: Nordic Council of Ministers; 2009. p. 93-4.

    3. Sauter S, Lim S, Murphy L. Organizational health: A new paradigm for occupational stress research at NIOSH. Japanese Journal of Occupational Mental Health. 1996;4:248-54.

    4. Grawitch MJ, Gottschalk M, Munz DC. The path to a healthy workplace: A critical review linking healthy workplace practices, employee well-being, and organizational improvements. Consulting Psychology Journal. 2006;58(3):129-47.

  • 231.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet.
    Berntsson, Erik
    Stockholms universitet.
    Härenstam, Annika
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Pousette, Anders
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet.
    Westlander, Gunnela
    Stockholms universitet.
    Workshop: Interventionsforskning: GodA - God arbetsmiljö och Friska företag2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 232.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Nordlöf, Hasse
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Engström, Veronica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science.
    Vingård, Eva
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Factors at work promoting mental health and wellbeing - a systematic litterature review2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    There is strong evidence that work itself, despite its risks, reduces the risk of depression and improves mental health (Waddell & Burton, 2006; van der Noordt, IJzelenberg, Droomers, & Proper, 2014). Mental health, like mental illness, is a vaguely defined concept. Mental health is a non-contextual concept which can be defined as absence of mental illness and with the opportunity to develop and flourish with high levels of emotional, psychological and social well-being (Keyes, 2005). The concept of wellbeing at work is inclusive. It relates to the physical environment, work-related risks, organization of work and tasks, relationships with colleagues, personal health and work ability and even family-related stress (Suomaa Leo, Yrjänheikki Erkki, Savolainen Heikki, & Hannu, 2011). It can also be seen as an important determinant of productivity at the individual, corporate and community levels (Schulte & Vainio, 2010).

    "Healthy factors" for mental health in the workplace are factors and circumstances at work that may have a preventive and/or promotional effect on mental health and wellbeing of the workers. These factors can serve as resources (buffers) against negative consequences of various risks at work, but they may also be factors that, by themselves, create positive health benefits for the individual and the workplace.

    The large numbers of work-related mental unhealthy in the western world (not the least in Sweden), call for actions in improving working conditions, but which are the important determinants of positive mental health and wellbeing at work to be influenced?  A review of indicators for healthy workplaces has recently been performed (Lindberg & Vingård, 2012), but we have not found any comprehensive review explicitly concerning positive mental health at work. Hence, the aim of this study was to review current knowledge concerning determinants for mental health and wellbeing at work.

    Method

    Two comprehensive literature searches were conducted in nine scientific databases, EBSCO (includes Academic Search Elite, Cinahl, PsycINFO och PsycARTICLES), Emerald, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science, for relevant articles written in English, German or the Scandinavian languages. The first search, covering 2000-2014, was done for a Swedish government report (Lindberg & Karlsson, 2015). The second search, covering 2014 - June 2016, updated the previous data for the purpose of a scientific publication. Exclusion of articles was made stepwise by title, abstract and full text. The quality of included articles was assessed by acknowledged guidelines (STROBE Statement) and done separately by two researchers. The combined results are being analysed and will be presented in Montreal.

    Search terms were: work OR workplace OR "healthy workplace" OR "healthy work" OR "healthy work* environment" OR "good work* environment" AND "depressive disorder" OR depression OR "behavioral symptoms" OR "anxiety disorders" OR "stress, psychological" OR "common mental disorders" OR "mental health" OR "sustainable mental health” OR "mental wellbeing" OR "mental well-being" OR "job wellbeing" OR "job well-being" OR "positive mental health" OR "good mental health" OR "positive mental wellbeing" OR "positive mental well-being" AND prevention OR promotion.

    Results

    According to preliminary analyses 5378 unique publications were found, of these 30 review-, cohort-, cross sectional-, and qualitative studies are included.

    In the included studies 25 individual or categories of related factors promoting positive mental health and wellbeing at work were identified. Below is a list of the twelve most frequently researched factors listed in order of descending frequency.

    • Style of  leadership
    • Empowerment; Autonomy; Control at work; Participation
    • Possibilities for own development
    • Positive work climate
    • Social  support from supervisor
    • Communication supervisor-employee
    • Clear goals
    • Appreciation from supervisors, colleagues, customers
    • Work time control; Enough time
    • Effort-reward balance
    • Intellectually stimulating
    • Job security

     As seen above the most frequently investigated factor was the impact of leadership on mental health. It was found that “good leadership”, i.e. fair, supportive and empowering, gave positive health changes and increased well-being, that increased quality of a staff-oriented leadership reduced sickness absence in the company and that transformational leadership increased psychological wellbeing and job satisfaction among workers.

    Conclusion

    Independent of study design leadership was the most scrutinized factor. Apart from possibly being a research trend (?), this may be interpreted as an understanding of both its explicit influence on the well-being of the employees, and its implicit influence by having the authority to facilitate communication, empowerment, control, support, respect, work content, feedback, etc.

    Practical implications

    Working conditions arise in the interaction between the individual and the organization, but creating working conditions that promote mental health cannot be put on the individual. It must be organized in the workplace for the employees in that special context, whereby the leadership seems to be paramount for the promotion of mental health and wellbeing at work.

  • 233.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Nordlöf, Hasse
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Engström, Veronica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Vingård, Eva
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Factors at work promoting mental health and wellbeing at work – a systematic literature review2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    There is strong evidence that work itself, despite its risks, reduces the risk of depression and improves mental health (Waddell & Burton, 2006; van der Noordt, IJzelenberg, Droomers, & Proper, 2014). Mental health, like mental illness, is a vaguely defined concept. Mental health is a non-contextual concept, which can be defined as absence of mental illness and with the opportunity to develop and flourish with high levels of emotional, psychological and social well-being (Keyes, 2005). The concept of wellbeing at work is inclusive. It relates to the physical environment, work-related risks, organization of work and tasks, relationships with colleagues, personal health and work ability and even family-related stress (Suomaa, Yrjänheikki, Savolainen, & Jokiluoma, 2011). It can also be seen as an important determinant of productivity at the individual, corporate and community levels (Schulte & Vainio, 2010).

    "Healthy factors" for mental health in the workplace are factors and circumstances at work that may have a preventive and/or promotional effect on mental health and wellbeing of the workers. These factors can serve as resources (buffers) against negative consequences of various risks at work. They may also be factors that, by themselves, create positive health benefits for the individual and the workplace.

    The large numbers of work-related mental unhealthy in the western world (not the least in Sweden), call for actions in improving working conditions, but which are the important determinants of positive mental health and wellbeing at work to be influenced?  A review of indicators for healthy workplaces has recently been performed (Lindberg & Vingård, 2012), but we have not found any comprehensive review explicitly concerning mental health at work. Hence, the aim of this study was to review current knowledge concerning determinants for mental health and wellbeing at work.

    Method

    Two comprehensive literature searches were conducted in nine scientific databases, EBSCO (includes Academic Search Elite, Cinahl, PsycINFO och PsycARTICLES), Emerald, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science, for relevant articles written in English, German or the Scandinavian languages. The first search, covering 2000-2014, was done for a Swedish government report. The second search, covering 2014- June 2016, updated the previous data for the purpose of a scientific publication. Exclusion of articles was made stepwise by title, abstract and full text. The quality of included articles was assessed by acknowledged guidelines (STROBE Statement) and done separately by two researchers. The combined results are being analysed and will be presented in Montreal.

    Search terms were: work OR workplace OR "healthy workplace" OR "healthy work" OR "healthy work* environment" OR "good work* environment" AND "depressive disorder" OR depression OR "behavioral symptoms" OR "anxiety disorders" OR "stress, psychological" OR "common mental disorders" OR "mental health" OR "sustainable mental health” OR "mental wellbeing" OR "mental well-being" OR "job wellbeing" OR "job well-being" OR "positive mental health" OR "good mental health" OR "positive mental wellbeing" OR "positive mental well-being" AND prevention OR promotion.

    Results

    5378 unique publications were found, of these 30 review-, cohort-, cross sectional-, and qualitative studies are included (preliminary data).

    We found 25 individual or “group of related factors” promoting positive mental health and wellbeing at work. Below is a list of the twelve most frequently investigated factors arranged in order of descending frequency.

    • Style of leadership
    • Empowerment; Autonomy; Control at work;      Participation
    • Possibilities for own development
    • Positive work climate
    • Social support from supervisor
    • Communication supervisor-employee
    • Clear goals
    • Appreciation from supervisors, colleagues,      customers
    • Work time control; Enough time
    • Effort-reward balance
    • Intellectually stimulating
    • Job security

    As seen above the most frequently investigated factor was the impact of leadership on mental health. It was found that “good leadership”, i.e. fair, supportive and empowering, gave positive health changes and increased well-being, that increased quality of a staff-oriented leadership reduced sickness absence in the company and that transformational leadership increased psychological wellbeing and job satisfaction among workers.

    Conclusion

    Independent of study design leadership was the most investigated factor. Apart from possibly being a research trend, this can be interpreted as an insight into both its explicit influence on the well-being of the employees, and its implicit influence by having the authority to facilitate communication, empowerment, control, support, respect, work content, feedback, etc.

    Working conditions arise in the interaction between the individual and the organization, but creating working conditions that promote mental health cannot be put on the individual. It must be organized in the workplace for the employees in that special context, whereby the leadership seems to be paramount for the promotion of mental health and wellbeing at work.

  • 234.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Strömberg, Annika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Can a systematic participative method for procesing workplace survey data enhance organizational communication skills?2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    The concept healthy workplace has been defined as an organization that maximizes the integration of worker goals for wellbeing and company objectives for profitability and productivity (Sauter, Lim, & Murphy, 1996). The PATH-model (Grawitch, Gottschalk, & Munz, 2006) shows a synthesis of earlier research in a number of different disciplines and frames how a healthy workplace with wellbeing for the individual along with organizational improvements can be achieved. The model suggests five general categories of healthy workplace practices: work-life balance, employee growth and development, health and safety, recognition, and employee involvement. In order for these workplace practices to have an influence on the employees and the organizational outcomes the effectiveness of communication within the organization is crucial as is the alignment of workplace practices with the organizational context. Effective organizational communication in this context means that the management communicates what the organization offers the employees in order to enable good performance and wellbeing at work as well as that the employees state their needs in order to do a good job. The ongoing GodA-project (a Swedish acronym for good work environments and healthy workplaces) aims at investigating if workplace strategies in line with the PATH-model add to better health and wellbeing among the employees as well as organizational improvements. The present study is part of the GodA-project and aims at exploring to which extent the specific “GodA-method” for processing workplace survey data influences organizational communication skills. 

    Methods

    The GodA study is a 2-year follow up study with a survey feedback design in three companies with both blue- and white collar workers. One of the companies serves as “intervention-company”, the other two as controls. The project started in 2012 with a pre-project by means of focus groups and individual interviews in order to find out how employees and managers in the three companies describe the concept of a healthy work environment and what contributes to their well-being at work. In 2013 a baseline questionnaire was sent out including items, a) based on the combined results of the pre-study and a comprehensive literature review (Lindberg & Vingård, 2012) , and b) well-established questions on health and work environment. The results from the survey were reported back to the companies, which have been processing their respective results. In spring 2015 another survey wave was administered. Parallel, data concerning the company’s key indicators and internal development have been collected.

     Baseline results in the GodA-study showed that the employees considered communication as a very important factor for their well-being at work. However, they also reported that the internal communication was not at all at desired level. Considering that the PATH-model emphasizes internal communication as critical in establishing a healthy workplace, the intervention was designed to enhance communication skills. The “GodA-method”, to process the survey feedback was developed in collaboration with the “intervention-company”. In short, the baseline results concerning health, and physical- and psychosocial factors at the workplace, as reported by respective working group, are split into nine themes. Each theme is designed small enough to be processed during the groups’ monthly staff meetings. At the meetings the employees discuss today’s theme, first without then together with their supervisor and decide upon one measurable action to be taken to improve their work environment. To begin each discussion without the supervisor was a chosen strategy in order to empower the employees and in an implicit way train communication skills. The intervention has been followed by process evaluation forms for the supervisors as well as group interviews with employees and supervisors, respectively.   

    Results

    Nine working groups, each with 7-13 employees, were studied. The individual groups performed heterogeneous. The degree to which the various groups actively took actions for improvements seemed to be associated with the closest supervisor’s understanding of the importance of respective themes and his/her capability to conduct group discussions.

    Communication was measured by a 5-item index showing the discrepancy between experienced and desirable communication level, where an index score of -0,5 to 0 (no discrepancy) was considered as good and a score below -.5 was considered undesirable. Preliminary results show that in groups (=5) performing 3-5 meetings the communication index in average deteriorated from -0.89 to -1.41, whereas groups (=4) performing 8-9 meetings the index improved or remained at a rather high level, in average from -0.92 to -0.71. Further analyses and results will be presented at the conference.

    Conclusion

    The results give support to the hypothesis that systematic and continuous training focusing on a mutual theme is a feasible method for improving communication skills.

    Practical implications

    Healthy workplaces are not created overnight. The GodA-method for processing employee surveys seems to be a useful way to systematically work with continuous improvements of the workplace. However, training of supervisors for group discussions seems necessary.

  • 235.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Strömberg, Annika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Can a systematic participative method for processing workplace survey data enhance organizational communication skills?2016In: Scientific programme: Book of Abstracts, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    The PATH-model (1) frames how a healthy workplace with wellbeing for the individual along with organizational improvements can be achieved, suggesting five healthy workplace practices. In order for these practices to have the desired influence, the effectiveness of communication within the organization is crucial. The ongoing GodA-project (an acronym for good work environments and healthy workplaces) is set up to investigate different aspects of the PATH-model. The present sub-study aims at exploring to which extent the specific “GodA-method” for processing workplace survey data influences organizational communication skills. 

    Methods

    The GodA study is a 2-year follow up study with a survey feedback design in three companies with both blue- and white collar workers. In one of the companies the “GodA-method” for processing survey feedbacks was developed and tested. Baseline results concerning workplace factors were split into nine themes, small enough to be processed during respective working groups’ monthly staff meetings. At the meetings the employees discussed today’s theme, first without, then together with their supervisor and decided on one action for improvements. This strategy was chosen in order to empower the employees and implicitly train their communication skills. The intervention was followed by process evaluations.   

    Results

    Nine working groups, each with 7-13 employees, were studied. The degree to which the various groups actively took actions for improvements seemed to be associated with the closest supervisor’s understanding of the importance of respective themes and his/her capability to conduct group discussions.

    Communication was measured by a 5-item index showing the discrepancy between experienced and desirable communication level, where -0,5 – 0 was considered as good. In groups (=5) performing 3-5 meetings the communication index in average deteriorated from -0.89 to -1.41, whereas groups (=4) performing 8-9 meetings the index improved or remained at a rather high level, in average from -0.92 to -0.71.

    Conclusion

    The results give support to the idea that systematic and continuous training focusing on a mutual theme is a feasible method for improving communication skills. Training of supervisors for group discussions seems necessary.

  • 236.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Strömberg, Annika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Can a systematic participative method for processing workplace survey data enhance organizational communication skills?: Experiences from the GodA-project for healthy workplaces2015In: Proceedings 19th Triennial Congress of the IEA, Melbourne 9-14 August 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conditions in today’s working life make new approaches necessary in order to limit negative health effects of work and to enhance wellbeing and health at work. Despite rather progressive legislation, a century of labour inspections, and the efforts of thousands of occupational health personnel, still 24 % of the working population in Sweden report to have had work-related disorders during the last twelve months (Swedish Work Environment Authority and Statistics Sweden, 2014). Even if the “elimination approach” partly has succeeded in reducing detrimental factors at work, it is obvious that this is insufficient or inadequate for a working life where key issues for progress are motivation, cooperation and creativity (Aronsson, Gustafsson, & Hakanen, 2009). In order to achieve a sustainable working life, not the least to coop with issues related to the ageing population, it is likely that strategies and actions from different and new angles are needed.

    The concept healthy workplace has been defined as an organization that maximizes the integration of worker goals for wellbeing and company objectives for profitability and productivity (Sauter, Lim, & Murphy, 1996). The PATH-model (Grawitch, Gottschalk, & Munz, 2006) shows a synthesis of earlier research in a number of different disciplines and frames how a healthy workplace with wellbeing for the individual along with organizational improvements can be achieved. The model suggests five general categories of healthy workplace practices: work-life balance, employee growth and development, health and safety, recognition, and employee involvement. In order for these workplace practices to have an influence on the employeesand the organizational outcomes the effectiveness of communication within the organization is crucial as isthe alignment of workplace practices with the organizational context. Effective organizational communication in this context means that the management communicates what the organisation offers the employees in order to enable good performance and wellbeing at work as wellas that the employeesstate their needs in order to do a good job.The ongoing GodA-project (a Swedish acronym for good work environments and healthy workplaces) aims at investigating if workplace strategies in line with the PATH-model (Grawitch et al., 2006) lead to better health and wellbeing among the employees as well as organizational improvements. The present study is part of the GodA-project and aims at exploring to which extent the specific “GodA-method” for processing of workplace survey data influences organizational communications skills.

  • 237.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Strömberg, Annika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University.
    GodA-metoden och dess inflytande på kommunikationsförmågan på arbetet2015In: Book of Abstracts: FALF 2015 : Conference10-12 June 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Trots en progressiv arbetsmiljölagstiftning, 10 år av arbetsmiljöinspektioner och ansträngningar från tusentals arbetsmiljöaktörer rapportera 24% av den arbetande befolkningen i Sverige att de haft arbetsrelaterade besvär under senaste året. Även om eliminationsstrategin delvis varit framgångrik är den otillräcklig eller inadek-vat i dagens arbetsliv där nyckelfaktorer för framgång är motivation, samarbete och kreativitet. För att nå ett hållbart arbetsliv är det troligt att det behövs strategier och åtgärder från andra och nya utgångspunkter. Begreppet ”frisk arbetsplats” har definierats som en organisation/företag som maximerar integrationen av ar-betstagarnas mål med företagets mål. PATH-modellen visar genom en syntes av forskning från olika discipliner hur en frisk arbetsplats kan uppnås. För att, enligt modellen, nå verksamhetseffekter av olika personalfrämjande åtgärder är det nödvändigt med en väl utvecklad kommunikation mellan anställda och ledning. Det pågående GodA-projektet syftar till att undersöka om arbetsplatstrategier i linje med PATH-modellen le-der till bättre hälsa och välbefinnande bland de anställda så väl som organisatoriska förbättringar. Föreliggande delstudie undersöker i vilken grad den s.k. ”GodA-metoden” för bearbetning av medarbetarundersökningar kan påverka kommunikationsförmågan i företaget.

  • 238.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Vingård, Eva
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Determinanter för psykisk hälsa och välbefinnande på arbetet – en litteraturöversikt.2015In: Book of Abstracts: FALF 2015 : Conference10-12 June 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det har konstaterats att det generellt är fördelaktigt för hälsan att vara i arbete och att det finns stark evidens att arbete, trots sina risker, reducerar risken att drabbas av depression liksom förbättrar generell psykisk hälsa. Psykisk hälsa är ett icke-kontextuellt begrepp vilket kan definieras som ett tillstånd då individen är fri från psykisk ohälsa, utvecklas och mår bra (flourish) med höga nivåer av emotionellt, psykologiskt och socialt välbefinnande. Begreppet välbefinnande i arbetet är allomfattande, det relaterar till den fysiska miljön, arbetsrelaterade risker, organisering av arbete och arbetsuppgifter, relationer med kollegor, personlig hälsa och arbetsförmåga och även familjerelaterade påfrestningar. Det kan dessutom ses som en viktig determinant av produktivitet på individ-, företags- och samhällsnivå.

    “Friskfaktorer” för psykisk hälsa på arbetet är faktorer och omständigheter på arbetet som kan ha en preventiv och främjande effekt på arbetstagarna psykiska hälsa och välbefinnande. Dessa faktorer kan vara inverterade riskfaktorer och fungera som buffrare mot negativa konsekvenser av riskfaktorer. De kan också vara faktorer som av sig själva ger positiva hälsovinster för individ och arbetsplats. En kunskapsöversikt över indikatorer för en god arbetsmiljö har nyligen gjorts, men till vår kännedom saknas en översikt som berör psykisk hälsa på arbetet. Således, var syftet med föreliggande studie att fastställa kunskapsläget vad gäller determinanter för psykisk hälsa och välbefinnande på arbetet.

  • 239.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Vingård, Eva
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Determinants for positive mental health and wellbeing at work – a literature review2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    There is strong evidence that work itself, despite its risks, reduces the risk of depression and improves mental health. Mental health is a non-contextual concept which can be defined as the absence of mental illness, and with the opportunity to develop and flourish. The concept of wellbeing at work is inclusive, relating to the physical environment, work-related risks, organization of work and tasks, relationships with colleagues, personal health and work ability and even family-related stress. The large numbers of work-related mental unhealthy call for actions in improving working conditions, but which are the important determinants to be influenced?  Hence, the aim of this study was to review current knowledge concerning determinants for mental health and wellbeing at work.

    Methods

    A comprehensive literature search was conducted in nine scientific databases for articles published 2000 and forward. The exclusion by titles were made by one of the researcher, the further selection was made by two researchers independently.

    Results

    Of the 4262 found unique publications 27 were included encompassing 7 reviews,

    12 cohort-, 5 cross-sectional-, and 3 qualitative studies.

    Results

    Of the 4262 found unique publications 27 were included encompassing 7 reviews, 12 cohort-, 5 cross-sectional-, and 3 qualitative studies.The most frequently investigated determinants for mental health and wellbeing at work were, in descending order:

    • Style of leadership: transformative, transactional, positive, employee oriented, ethical, supportive as well as managers own wellbeing
    • Empowerment; Autonomy; Control at work; Participation
    • Possibilities for own development
    • Positive work climate- Social support from supervisor
    • Communication supervisor-employee
    • Clear goals
    • Appreciation from supervisors, colleagues, customers
    • Work time control; Enough time
    • Effort-reward balance
    • Intellectually stimulating
    • Job security

    Conclusion

    Independent of study design leadership is the most investigated factor, which can be interpreted as a sign of its influence on the mental health of the employees. Beside the explicit influence of leadership styles on the employees’ mental health, several studies show an implicit influence, e.g. (enabling) support at work, skilled communication, empowerment, control, treated with respect and intellectual stimulation.Working conditions arise in the interaction between the individual and the organization, not least psychosocial conditions. Prevention and establishment of good working conditions cannot be put on the individual; it must be organized in the workplace for the employees in that special context.

  • 240.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Vingård, Eva
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Determinants for positive mental health and wellbeing at work – a literature review2015In: The Proceedings of the 19th Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association - Melbourne, 9-14 August, 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In general it can be stated that it is beneficial for your health to be employed. There is strong evidence that work itself, despite its risks, reduces the risk of depression and improves mental health(Waddell & Burton, 2006; van der Noordt, IJzelenberg, Droomers, & Proper, 2014).Mental health, like mental illness, is avaguely defined concept.Mental healthis a non-contextual concept which canbedefined asthe absence ofmental illness, and with the opportunity to developand flourish with high levels ofemotional,psychological and socialwell-being(Keyes, 2005).The concept ofwellbeingat workis inclusive.Itrelates tothe physical environment,work-relatedrisks, organization of work andtasks, relationships with colleagues,personalhealth and work ability and evenfamily-relatedstress(Suomaa, Yrjänheikki, Savolainen, & Jokiluoma, 2011). It canalso be seenas an importantdeterminantofproductivityat the individual, corporate and community levels(Schulte & Vainio, 2010).

    "Healthy factors" for mental health in the workplace are factors and circumstances at work that may have a preventive and/or promotional effect on mental health and wellbeing of the workers. These factors can be reversed risk factors and serve as a resource (buffer) against negative consequences of various risks at work. They may also be factors that, by themselves, create positive health benefits for the individual and the workplace. The large numbers of work-related mental unhealthy call for action in improving working conditions, but which are the important determinants of positive mental health and wellbeing at work to be influenced? A review of indicators for healthy workplaces has recently been performed (Lindberg & Vingård, 2012), but we have not found any comprehensive review concerning mental health at work. Hence, the aim of this study was to review current knowledge concerning determinants for mental health and wellbeing at work.

  • 241.
    Locks, Francisco
    et al.
    Laboratory of Clinical and Occupational Kinesiology (LACO), Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, Brazil.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Birk Jørgensen, Marie
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Association between objectively measured static standing and low back pain - a cross-sectional study among blue-collar workers2018In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 61, no 9, p. 1196-1207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to investigate the cross-sectional association between objectively measured total time and temporal patterns of static standing (short bouts: 0-5 min; moderate bouts: >5-10 min; and long bouts: >10 min) during work and leisure and low back pain (LBP) among 698 blue-collar workers. Workers reported LBP on a 0-10 scale. The association between time spent on static standing and LBP was tested with linear regression. A positive association with LBP intensity was found for long bouts of static standing (β = 0.27) during total day (work + leisure), and total static standing time at leisure (β = 0.12). No significant associations were found for static standing during work and LBP intensity. These findings indicate that particularly long bouts of static standing over the entire day contribute to LBP in blue-collar workers.

  • 242.
    Long, Jennifer
    et al.
    School of Optometry and Vision Science, UNSW, Australia.
    Richter, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Visual ergonomics at work and leisure2014In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 419-420Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 243. Long, Jennifer
    et al.
    Toomingas, Allan
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Glimne, Susanne
    Helland, Magne
    Hemphälä, Hillevi
    Horgen, Gunnar
    Logadottir, Asta
    Nylén, Per
    Osterhaus, Werner
    Richter, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Schiotz Thorud, Hanne-Mari
    Vuorenmaa, Nina
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Zetterlund, Christina
    Örebro Universitet.
    A definition of visual ergonomics2014In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 1263-1264Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 244.
    Luger, Tessy
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bosch, Tim
    TNO Leiden.
    Douwes, Marjolein
    TNO Leiden.
    Veeger, Dirkjan
    VU University Amsterdam.
    Hoozemans, Marco
    VU University Amsterdam.
    de Looze, Michiel
    TNO Leiden.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Influence of posture variation in a repetitive manual task on maximal acceptable work pace and perceived exertion2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. It is generally agreed that constrained postures during assembly work can lead to musculoskeletal disorders in the neck and shoulders. In a controlled experiment, we investigated the extent to which more variation of upper arm postures in a one-hour repetitive task influences maximal acceptable work pace (MAWP), perceived exertion (RPE), kinematics and muscle activity.

    Methods. 13 participants (6 females, 7 males; age 26 (SD 3) years) performed a pick-and-place task for one hour, using their dominant hand to movie pins between two targets. We compared three conditions in which the hand was moved: (1) horizontally, at an intended upper arm elevation of 30°; (2) obliquely, at an upper arm elevation between 20° and 40°; and (3) vertically, at an upper arm elevation between 10° and 50°. Using a psychophysical approach — with imposed work paces changing every two minutes (7-13 cycles/min) — we arrived at the MAWP of each participant. Postures of the arm, trunk and shoulder were recorded throughout, as was the activity of selected muscles (not reported here). Participants reported their RPE (Borg CR-10) at baseline and at MAWP.

    Results. The kinematics data confirmed that the conditions had similar average upper arm elevations (32.3° (SD 1.0°) but differed in variation (arm elevation SD: 5.2°, 8.1°, 10.9°). Increased posture variation did not lead to changes in MAWP (10.7, 10.6, 10.8 cycles/min), though it did lead to slightly lower RPE values (average increase from baseline: 5.4, 4.8, 4.7).

    Discussion.Increased biomechanical variation has been suggested to reduce the risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders. Even though our data suggest that there may be a trend towards a positive effect of variation on work perception, the increase in posture variation imposed here was not sufficient to influence performance. Further analyses of arm, shoulder and trunk kinematics and muscle activity patterns may reveal biomechani-cal differences of interest between the protocols.

  • 245.
    Luger, Tessy
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bosch, Tim
    TNO, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Hoozemans, Marco
    Department of Human Movement Sciences, Faculty of Behavioural and Movement Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
    Douwes, Marjolein
    TNO, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Veeger, DirkJan
    Department of Human Movement Sciences, Faculty of Behavioural and Movement Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
    de Looze, Michiel
    Department of Human Movement Sciences, Faculty of Behavioural and Movement Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
    Changing variation by work station design2017In: Industrial and Systems Engineering at Work, ISSN 2168-9210, Vol. 49, no 8, p. 53-54Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 246.
    Luger, Tessy
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bosch, Tim
    TNO, Leiden, the Netherlands.
    Hoozemans, Marco
    Department of Human Movement Sciences, Faculty of Behavioural and Movement Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Douwes, Marjolein
    TNO, Leiden, the Netherlands.
    Veeger, DirkJan
    Department of Human Movement Sciences, Faculty of Behavioural and Movement Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    de Looze, Michiel
    TNO, Leiden, the Netherlands.
    Influence of posture variation on shoulder muscle activity, heart rate, and perceived exertion in a repetitive manual task2017In: IISE Transactions on Occupational Ergonomics and Human Factors, ISSN 2472-5838, Vol. 5, p. 47-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Repetitive light assembly work is associated with an increased risk for developing work-related musculoskeletal disorders. More exposure variation, for instance by redesigning the workstation, is generally proposed as an effective intervention. Purpose: We investigated the effect of upper arm posture variation in a one-hour repetitive pick-and-place task on shoulder muscle activity, heart rate and perceived exertion, measured on the Borg CR-10 scale and in terms of maximal acceptable work pace (MAWP). Methods: Thirteen healthy participants performed the task in three workstation designs where the hand was moved either horizontal (H30/30), diagonal (D20/40), or vertical (V10/50) with a mean upper arm elevation of ~30°. In a fourth design, the hand was moved horizontally at ~50° mean arm elevation (H50/50). Results: As intended, upper arm posture variation, measured by the upper arm elevation SD and range of motion, differed between H30/30, D20/40, and V10/50. However, MAWP (10.7 cycles·min-1 on average across conditions; determined using a psychophysical approach), average upper trapezius activity (54% reference voluntary exertion [RVE]), and heart rate (69 bpm) did not differ between these workstation designs. In H50/50, MAWP was lower (9.3 cycles·min-1), while trapezius activity (78% RVE) and perceived exertion (Borg CR-10) tended to be higher. Conclusions: Our results indicate that posture variation to the extent achieved in the current experiment leads to less effects on muscle activity and perceived exertion than a moderate change in working height.

  • 247.
    Luger, Tessy
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bosch, Tim
    TNO, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Hoozemans, Marco
    Faculty of Behavioural and Movement Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
    Douwes, Marjolein
    TNO, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Veeger, DirkJan
    Faculty of Behavioural and Movement Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
    de Looze, Michiel
    Faculty of Behavioural and Movement Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
    Posture variation and maximal acceptable work pace during repetitive work2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. It is generally agreed that work postures can lead to musculoskeletal disorders in the neck and shoulders. We investigated the extent to which more variation of upper arm postures in a repetitive task influences maximal acceptable work pace (MAWP), muscle activity, and perceived exertion.

    Methods. Thirteen healthy subjects (6F/7M; age 26 (SD 3) years) performed a repetitive pick-and-place task using their dominant hand in four one-hour conditions. In three conditions the average upper arm elevation was 30°, and the hand was moved (1) horizontally (H30), (2) diagonally with upper arm elevation between 20° and 40° (D20/40), (3) vertically, with upper arm elevation between 10° and 50° (V10/50). In the fourth condition, the hand was moved horizontally at 50° average upper arm elevation angle (H50). The travelled distance of the hand was the same for all conditions. Using a psychophysical approach with imposed work paces changing every two minutes (7-13 cycles/min), we arrived at the MAWP of each participant after 50 minutes. Postures of the arm were recorded throughout, as well as dominant upper trapezius muscle activity. Participants reported their perceived exertion (Borg CR-10) just after each protocol.

    Results. Kinematic analyses showed that we successfully designed protocols (Figure) differing in posture variation but not in average upper arm elevation angle (H30, D20/40, V10/50), and differing in average upper arm elevation angle but not in posture variation (H30, H50). MAWP was comparable in the conditions with differing posture variation (10.7 cycles/min), but lower in H50, although not significant (9.3 cycles/min). Subjects worked at MAWP with an upper trapezius activity level that did not significantly differ between experimental conditions (median 54% RVE). Dominant trapezius muscle activity at MAWP in H50 (78% RVE) was higher than in H30 (47% RVE), but not significant. Perceived exertion of the upper arm was higher in H50 (2.5) than H30 (1.5), but also not significant.

    Conclusion. Variation in upper arm elevation within the investigated limits did not affect MAWP although upper trapezius activity showed a tendency to increase with more variation. Increased working height tended to increase especially upper trapezius muscle activity and decrease MAWP. Thus, our results indicate that posture variation as applied in the current setting did not lead to significant differences in MAWP or muscle activity variables. More thorough workplace redesigns are apparently needed than those investigated by us to accomplish any major changes in psychophysical outcomes as measured by MAWP. Our results do show that engineers should pay attention to working height when advising companies on work pace.

  • 248.
    Luger, Tessy
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. TNO Leiden, Leiden, The Netherlands; Department of Human Movement Sciences, Faculty of Behavioural and Movement Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, MOVE Research Institute Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Institute of Occupational and Social Medicine and Health Services Research, Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital, Eberhard Karls University Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, USA.
    Bosch, Tim
    TNO Leiden, Leiden, The Netherlands; Department of Human Movement Sciences, Faculty of Behavioural and Movement Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, MOVE Research Institute Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Influence of work pace on upper extremity kinematics and muscle activity in a short-cycle repetitive pick-and-place task2017In: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 356-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: This study investigated the extent to which controlled changes in work pace in a cyclic pick-and-place task influence upper extremity kinematics and muscle activity, and whether an effect depends on working height. Methods: Thirteen participants performed the task four minutes at each of five work paces ranging from 8 to 12 cycles·min-1 in each of two experimental conditions where the hand was moved horizontally with an average upper arm elevation of 30° and 50°, respectively. For each work cycle, we calculated the average and standard deviation of the upper arm elevation angle and the activity of the trapezius and deltoid muscles, as well as the angular peak velocity. We summarized these seven variables by calculating averages across cycles and cycle-to-cycle variabilities. Results: At 30° arm elevation, pace significantly influenced within-cycle angle variation, cycle-to-cycle variability of the average angle, angular peak velocity, and cycle-to-cycle variability of peak velocity. However, only angular peak velocity increased monotonically across all paces from 8 to 12 cycles·min-1). Average activity in the trapezius and the deltoid were the only muscle activity variables to increase consistently with pace. These effects of work pace did not change with working height. Conclusion: The present study did not find any consistent work pace effect on upper extremity kinematics and muscle activity, in spite of a comprehensive empirical basis compared to previous literature. While our results suggest that work pace may not be of critical concern in an occupational health context, we encourage further studies verifying or disproving this notion.

  • 249.
    Lunde, Lars-Kristian
    et al.
    National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo.
    Koch, Markus
    National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo.
    Knardahl, Stein
    National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo.
    Wærsted, Morten
    National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    Veiersted, Bo
    National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo.
    Musculoskeletal health and work ability in physically demanding occupations: study protocol for a prospective field study on construction and health care workers2014In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 14, article id 1075Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Musculoskeletal disorders have a profound impact on individual health, sickness absence and early retirement, particularly in physically demanding occupations. Demographics are changing in the developed countries, towards increasing proportions of senior workers. These senior workers may have particular difficulties coping with physically demanding occupations while maintaining good health. Previous studies investigating the relationship between physical work demands and musculoskeletal disorders are mainly based on self-reported exposures and lack a prospective design. The aim of this paper is to describe the background and methods and discuss challenges for a field study examining physical demands in construction and health care work and their prospective associations with musculoskeletal disorders, work ability and sickness absence.

    Methods and design: This protocol describes a prospective cohort study on 1200 construction and health care workers. Participants will answer a baseline questionnaire concerning musculoskeletal complaints, general health, psychosocial and organizational factors at work, work demands, work ability and physical activity during leisure. A shorter questionnaire will be answered every 6 months for a total of two years, together with continuous sickness absence monitoring during this period. Analysis will prospectively consider associations between self-reported physical demands and musculoskeletal disorders, work ability and sickness absence. To obtain objective data on physical exposures, technical measurements will be collected from two subgroups of N = 300 (Group A) and N = 160 (Group B) during work and leisure. Both group A and B will be given a physical health examination, be tested for physical capacity and physical activity will be measured for four days. Additionally, muscle activity, ground reaction force, body positions and physical activity will be examined during one workday for Group B. Analysis of associations between objectively measured exposure data and the outcomes described above will be done separately for these subpopulations.

    Discussion: The field study will at baseline produce objectively measured data on physical demands in the construction and health care occupations. In combination with clinical measurements and questionnaire data during follow-up, this will provide a solid foundation to prospectively investigate relationships between physical demands at work and development of musculoskeletal disorders, work ability and sickness absence.

  • 250.
    Lundqvist, Lars-Olov
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Zetterlund, Christina
    Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; The Low Vision Center, Region Örebro County, Örebro, Sweden.
    Richter, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Reliability and Validity of the Visual, Musculoskeletal, and Balance Complaints Questionnaire2016In: Optometry and Vision Science, ISSN 1040-5488, E-ISSN 1538-9235, Vol. 93, no 9, p. 1147-1157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the reliability and validity of the 15-item Visual, Musculoskeletal, and Balance Complaints Questionnaire (VMB) for people with visual impairments, using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and with Rasch analysis for use as an outcome measure. METHODS: Two studies evaluated the VMB. In Study 1, VMB data were collected from 1249 out of 3063 individuals between 18 and 104 years old who were registered at a low vision center. CFA evaluated VMB factor structure and Rasch analysis evaluated VMB scale properties. In Study 2, a subsample of 52 individuals between 27 and 67 years old with visual impairments underwent further measurements. Visual clinical assessments, neck/scapular pain, and balance assessments were collected to evaluate the convergent validity of the VMB (i.e. the domain relationship with other, theoretically predicted measures). RESULTS: CFA supported the a priori three-factor structure of the VMB. The factor loadings of the items on their respective domains were all statistically significant. Rasch analysis indicated disordered categories and the original 10-point scale was subsequently replaced with a 5-point scale. Each VMB domain fitted the Rasch model, showing good metric properties, including unidimensionality (explained variances ≥66% and eigenvalues <1.9), person separation (1.86 to 2.29), reliability (0.87 to 0.94), item fit (infit MnSq’s >0.72 and outfit MnSq’s <1.47), targeting (0.30 to 0.50 logits), and insignificant differential item functioning (all DIFs but one <0.50 logits) from gender, age, and visual status. The three VMB domains correlated significantly with relevant visual, musculoskeletal, and balance assessments, demonstrating adequate convergent validity of the VMB. CONCLUSIONS: The VMB is a simple, inexpensive, and quick yet reliable and valid way to screen and evaluate concurrent visual, musculoskeletal, and balance complaints, with contribution to epidemiological and intervention research and potential clinical implications for the field of health services and low vision rehabilitation.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially.

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