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  • 201.
    Persson, Maria
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Hur arbetar skolsköterskor med att förebygga övervikt hos skolelever och tillämpas socialstyrelsens riktlinjer i detta arbete2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 202.
    Peterson, Peter
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Att leva med astma [testuppsats]: en intervjustudie med fem mellanstadiebarn2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att belysa barns upplevelse av att ha astma. För att kunna besvara syftet valdes en kvalitativ metod, där materialet bestod av fem intervjuer med barn i mellanstadieåldern. Resultatet visade att barnen på flera olika sätt känner sig begränsade i sin vardag. Främst är det känslan av att inte kunna göra samma sak som kamraterna som upplevs som mest begränsande. Barnen beskrev också

  • 203.
    Pettersson, Pia
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Does unemployment contribute to a poor self-esteem, and does social support, coping and perceived control have any effect during unemployment2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to examine whether self-esteem can be affected by unemployment and whether social support, self efficacy and perceived control have any effects on self-esteem during unemployment.

     

    Method: The study was of a quantitative and descriptive character and a convenience sample was used. Questionnaires were distributed to 64 unemployed males and females at a job-centre inEast Midland,England. The questionnaire consisted of 12 questions about the participant’s age, gender, education, length of unemployment, social support (meaning emotional support and help from friends and family), coping (meaning a person’s ability to handle a stressful and emotionally demanding situation).Rosenberg's self-esteem scale was also added into the questionnaire and the results were then analyzed by using a Likert scale.

     

    Results: The results showed, that the majority of the unemployed scored 30 or higher on the self-esteem scale which indicates a low self-esteem according toRosenberg's self-esteem scale. Regarding social support from friends during job loss or unemployment, the majority of the unemployed with a low self-esteem, felt they didn't have social support from friends during unemployment. A small part of the unemployed who had high self-esteem, felt they had social support from friends during unemployment.

     

    Discussion: Self-esteem is complex, and it was difficult to generalize the results in this study. However, it seems that social support, self efficacy and coping were important aspects regarding self-esteem.

  • 204.
    Påhlsson, Sofi
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv.
    Upplevelse av hälsa bland adopterade: 10 vuxna internationellt adopterade berättar om sin hälsa2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Till Sverige har det idag från utlandet adopterats ca 49 500 personer. Bland dessa personer har psykisk ohälsa och social problematik visat sig vara vanligt förekommande. I Folkhälsorapport 2009 uppmärksammas att barn som adopteras från länder utanför Europa vårdas två till tre gånger så ofta på sjukhus under ungdomsåren på grund av psykiatrisk sjuklighet, som ungdomar födda i Sverige. När det handlar om hälsa hos adopterade är det viktigt att beakta den speciella livssituation som det innebär att vara adopterad. Internationellt adopterade individer växer ofta upp i familjer med bättre socioekonomiska förhållanden, än den genomsnittliga ungdomen i Sverige. Trots det så talas det om en ökad sårbarhet hos adopterade.

    Avsikten med denna uppsats var att beskriva hur vuxna internationellt adopterade upplever sin hälsa, samt på vilket sätt de anser att situationen som adopterad påverkar hälsan. Intresset var att betrakta hälsa ur ett fysiskt, psykiskt och socialt perspektiv. Kvalitativa intervjuer genomfördes med tio vuxna informanter, adopterade från länder utanför Europa. Data analyserades med innehållsanalys, där det framkom olika teman. Dessa var: upplevd hälsostatus, faktorer som påverkar hälsan, samt: tankar kring hur situationen som adopterad påverkar hälsan.

    Av resultatet framgick att informanterna upplever sin hälsa som god. Faktorer som har inverkan på informanternas hälsa är bland annat kost, fysisk aktivitet, stressnivå och att ha goda sociala nätverk. Det förekom en medvetenhet hos informanterna om att situationen som adopterad kan bidra till ohälsa, även om de framhåller att det inte berör dem själva. Omständigheter kring att ha ett avvikande utseende framkom som den främsta orsaken till att situationen som adopterad påverkar den psykiska hälsan.

  • 205.
    Ramezanian, Maryam
    et al.
    Department of Health Science, Mid-Sweden University, Sweden; Health Services Management Research Center, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.
    Soares, Joaquim
    Department of Health Science, Mid-Sweden University, Sweden.
    Khankeh, Hamid
    Research Center in Emergency and Disaster Health, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Clinical Sciences and education, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Macassa, Gloria
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap. Department of Health Science, Mid-Sweden University, Sweden; Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Socioeconomic inequalities in health among school-aged adolescents in Tehran2016Inngår i: Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran, ISSN 1016-1430, E-ISSN 2251-6840, Vol. 30, nr 1, artikkel-id 447Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Socioeconomic status has been found to have a significant impact on the health as well as risk behaviors of adolescents across different contexts. This study was conducted to assess the effect of social relations adjusted by social class on physical and psychological well-being of adolescences in Teheran, Iran. Methods: This was a cross- sectional study and carried out on 1,742 adolescences living in Tehran during 2011. Adolescences were selected, using proportional stratified sampling method and a questionnaire was filled over an interview for data gathering. Data were analyzed, using SPSS18 logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of psychological symptoms was more than 24% and had a large range (24%-93%), while physical symptoms showed a lower prevalence with a smaller range (12%-33%). Furthermore, there was a significant relation between the adolescences gender and feeling the need for others' help (p<0.001). Factors related to feeling the need for others help, anxiety, and worrying were the most prevalent among both boys and girls. In the section of family social relations, talking to the mother and talking to the father had the lowest and the highest prevalence among girls and boys, respectively. With respect to relations, the number of close friends and after school gathering time with close friends had the highest prevalence among girls, while the number of close friends and E-communication with close friends had the lowest and the highest prevalence among boys, respectively. Conclusion: The physical and psychological symptoms were common among adolescents from families with high socioeconomic status.

  • 206.
    Rashid, Mamunur
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap, Medicin- och vårdvetenskap. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Annika
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap, Medicin- och vårdvetenskap. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Heiden, Marina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Factors associated with return-to-work among people on work absence due to long-term neck or back pain: a narrative systematic review2017Inngår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, nr 6, artikkel-id e014939Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:

    The purpose of this narrative systematic review was to summarise prognostic factors for return to work (RTW) among people with long-term neck/shoulder or back pain.

    METHODS:

    A systematic literature search was performed through three databases (Medline, CINAHL and PsycINFO) for studies published until February 2016. Only observational studies of people on work absence (≥2 weeks) due to neck/shoulder or back pain were included. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using guidelines for assessing quality in prognostic studies on the basis of Framework of Potential Biases. Factors found in the included studies were grouped into categories based on similarities and then labelled according to the aspects covered by the factors in the category.

    RESULTS:

    Nine longitudinal prospective cohort studies and one retrospective study fulfilled the inclusion criteria. From these, five categories of factors were extracted. Our findings indicate that recovery beliefs, health-related factors and work capacity are important for RTW among people with long-term neck or back pain. We did not find support for workplace factors and behaviour being predictive of RTW.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Our findings suggest that recovery beliefs, perceived health and work capacity may be important targets of intervention for people with long-term neck or back pain. However, more high-quality prospective studies are needed to confirm the results and improve our understanding of what is needed to facilitate RTW in this population.

  • 207.
    Rezagholi, Mahmoud
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Liv, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Cost efficiency comparison of four video-based techniques for assessing upper arm postures2012Inngår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 55, nr 3, s. 350-360Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many video-based techniques for assessing postures at work have been developed. Choosing the most appropriate technique should be based on an evaluation of different alternatives in terms of their ability to produce posture information at low input costs, i.e. their cost efficiency. This study compared four video-based techniques for assessing upper arm postures, using cost and error data from an investigation on hairdressers. Labour costs associated with the posture assessments from the video recordings were the dominant factor in the cost efficiency comparison. Thus, a work sampling technique associated with relatively large errors appeared, in general, to be the most cost-efficient because it was labour-saving. Measurement bias and other costs than labour cost for posture assessment influenced the ranking and economic evaluation of techniques, as did the applied measurement strategy, i.e. the number of video recordings and the number of repeated assessments of them.

  • 208.
    Riddarström, Jenny
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för vårdvetenskap och sociologi, Ämnesavdelningen för medicinsk vetenskap.
    Används vårdprogram för identifiering och behandling av övervikt och fetma?: En undersökning av ett befintligt vårdprograms tillämpning på tre hälsocentraler i Sandvikens kommun2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

     

     

     Introduktion

     

     

     

     

    Övervikt och fetma (BMI > 25 respektive BMI > 30) ökar i omfattning i hela världen och så även i Sverige. Prevalensen av övervikt/fetma i Sverige är ca 44 % och specifikt i Sandvikens kommun så är drygt hälften av den vuxna befolkningen överviktig/fet vilket ökar risken för ohälsa och sjukdom.

    Det är angeläget att hitta de personer som löper risk att utveckla alternativt redan har övervikt/fetma för att kunna förebygga och behandla. Med tidig upptäckt och rätt behandling så gynnas förstås patienten i första hand, men även sjukvården och samhället i stort då detta i förlängningen minskar kostnaderna. I denna studie undersöktes hur ett vårdprogram som ska användas för upptäckt och behandling av övervikt/fetma tillämpades på tre hälsocentraler i Sandvikens kommun under två månader hösten 2005.

    Metod

    Utgångspunkten för vårdprogrammet med tillhörande flödesschema är att man mäter BMI först. Mätning ska ske på alla patienter som söker vård inom Primärvården Gästrikland – inte bara de patienter som specifikt söker för övervikt eller fetma. Kontroller gjordes först av hur många patienter som fick BMI uppmätt under vald tidsperiod och beroende på resultat av BMI-mätning kontrollerades därefter hur många patienter som fick behandling.

    Resultat

    Av totalt antal patienter som besökte hälsocentralerna under vald tidsperiod kontrollerades BMI på 6 %. Av dessa hade 38 % ett BMI som enligt vårdprogrammet skulle leda till erbjudande om behandling. Vid kontroll av behandling så hade i stort sett alla patienter fått någon form av behandling men med utgångspunkt från andra vårdprogram och orsaker än just övervikt och fetma. En femtedel av de 38 % fick behandling pga. sin övervikt/fetma och endast ett fåtal fick diagnos " övervikt/fetma".

    Konklusion

    Då så få patienter fick sitt BMI kontrollerat och därefter behandlades enligt vårdprogrammet finns misstanken att undersökt vårdprogram inte används överhuvudtaget. Detta skulle kunna bero på att personalen inte känner till dess existens alternativt inte finner vårdprogrammet användarvänligt. Det är synnerligen viktigt att använda sig av bevisat effektiva metoder för upptäckt och behandling av övervikt/fetma men oavsett metod så gäller förstås att de som ska använda sig av metoderna också känner till dem samt finner metoderna möjliga att använda i dagligt arbete.

  • 209.
    Rostad, Dag
    et al.
    Psychiatric service, Rennebu municipality Rennebu, Norway .
    Hellzén, Ove
    enter for Care Research, Mid-Norway; Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    Center for Care Research, Mid-Norway; Faculty of Health Sciences, Nord-Trøndelag University College, Namsos, Norway.
    The meaning of being young with dementia and living at home2013Inngår i: Nursing Reports, ISSN 2039-439X, E-ISSN 2039-4403, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 12-17Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies that explore the subjective experiences of younger people with dementia living at home are rare. Therefore, the aim of this study was to gain an understanding of the lived experience of younger persons (<65 years) who lived at home and suffered from earlyonset dementia, and the meanings that might be found in those experiences. The researchers conducted a qualitative study using a phenomenological hermeneutic approach. Data were collected through narrative interviews with four informants. Two men and two women ages 55 to 62 participated. Three of the informants lived with their spouses, and one lived alone, close to his children. The informants’ subjective experiences revealed the following four key themes: entrapment by circumstances, loss of humanity, the preservation of hope and willpower, and the desire to ensure one’s quality of life. These themes provide a deeper understanding of the experiences of younger people with dementia who live at home. The theme of preserving hope and willpower rebuts prejudicial contentions that life with Alzheimer’s syndrome does not have anything more to offer and may be seen as diminishing a patient’s humanity. Patients’ autonomy and self-determination should not be ignored. In all phases of the progression of dementia, the person in charge of giving care to the relative with dementia should be ethically aware of and reflective to the progress of his/her illness.

  • 210.
    Rutanen, Mira
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Stadsparken - en källa för hälsa och välbefinnande?: Inventering av Stadsparken/ Boulognerskogen i Gävle ur ett hälsoperspektiv2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Det här arbetet bygger på en inventering av Stadsträdgården/Boulognerskogen i Gävle, sett ur folkhälsosynpunkt, där syftet har varit att hitta och identifiera de åtta strukturella kvaliteter; egenskaper i uppbyggnaden, som behövs i en hälsofrämjande park. Utifrån ett formulär från Statens Folkhälsoinstitut har frågor angående grönområdets allmänna karaktärer (naturtyp, upplevelsekvaliteter) och särskilda karaktärer (tillgänglighet, trygghet, anpassningar) besvarats, utvärderats och sammanställts för att kunna svara på om parkens innehåll uppfyller de kriterier som förväntas av ett hälsofrämjande grönområde . I inventeringen har hänsyn tagits till följande målgrupper barn/ungdom, äldre, personer med funktionsnedsättning, övriga samhällsgrupper.

    För att kunna förstå stadsparkernas utvecklingsfaser i Sverige har en litteraturstudie gjorts om stadsparkers historia. En litteraturstudie har även gjorts inom ämnet miljöpsykologi och hälsa för att få en förståelse kring hur naturen påverkar och uppfattas av människor ur folkhälsosynpunkt.

    Stadsträdgården och Boulognerskogen har varit en plats för rekreation för Gävleborna sedan långt tillbaka och är det än idag. Parkens utseende och närområdet har förändrats en del under åren och det har fört med sig att även parkens hälsofrämjande kvaliteter förändrats. Resultatet visar att flertalet av dessa kvaliteter finns i Stadsträdgården/Boulognerskogen, men att det finns brister som gör att den inte kan benämnas som en hälsofrämjande park enligt de kriterier som nämnts ovan. En av orsakerna är trafikbuller.

  • 211.
    Rydhage, Moa
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap.
    Unga kvinnors syn på alkohol: En kvalitativ studie utförd på unga kvinnor i årskurs 92016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Alkohol används ofta av ungdomar och kopplas med skadliga hälsorelaterade utfall (t ex skada, beroende). Denna uppsats undersökt unga kvinnors attityder till alkoholkonsumtion. Valet av unga kvinnor som studiegrupp motiverades av det faktum att unga kvinnor börjar vanligtvis att konsumera alkohol vid en tidigare ålder än unga män i samma åldersgrupp.

    Studien bestod av två fokusgrupper med totalt nio unga kvinnor i nionde klass från en kommunal skola i en liten stad i södra Sverige. Resultatet visade att de unga kvinnorna ansåg att konsumtionen av alkohol med andra unga kvinnor inträffade på grund av en kombination av grupptryck och effekten av föräldrars påverkan på sina barn. De unga kvinnorna tänkte att om det fanns tydliga regler i hemmet barnen skulle veta vad som förväntades från själva. Resultatet visade också att ett behov av att bli accepterad av andra jämnåriga ansågs utgöra ytterligare en viktig orsak bakom alkoholkonsumtion. Sammanfattning utav denna studie är att både tidigare forskning och denna studies resultat visade att föräldrars påverkan på sina ungdomar och grupptryck har stor påverkan på hur ungdomar väljer att agera kring olika hälsorelaterade val. 

  • 212.
    Rådberg, Ida
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Vilka attityder unga män och kvinnor på gym har till dopning och kosttillskott: En enkätundersökning i Gästrikland2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate which attitudes young men and women at gym have to doping and supplements in Gästrikland. Method: This study is based on a cross sectional study design where a quantitative approach was used by 60 questionnaires which were distributed at different gyms in Gästrikland. Result: It was found that the majority had a relative negative attitude to doping, those who used supplements had a slightly more positive attitude to some of the statements compared with those who did not use supplements. Overall, the results showed a positive attitude to supplements. Compared with previous studies, it was found in the study that a smaller proportion didn’t agree that it is up to each one to use doping substances. Some differences regarding attitudes could also be seen among the genders. Conclusion: Those who used supplements had a slightly more positive attitude toward doping, this implies that preventive work should be deposited at an earlier stage with the aim of reducing the use of supplements. It’s also important to work with a support in the form of information about doping and supplements so more individuals get insight of the risks that exist.

  • 213.
    Rönnberg, Emilia
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Hinder för fysisk aktivtet hos ungdomar i övre tonåren2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Emilia Rönnberg.

    Barriers to physical activity in adolescents in their late teens. Vetenskaplig C- uppsats HT 12

     

    Physical activity has been essential to human health and well-being since several thousand years. In Sweden, it has been shown that both adults and young people are less physically active than the rest of Europe- a large proportion of young people today do not meet the recommendations for physical activity (60 minutes per day). The purpose of this study was to determine what proportion of young people, i.e. high school students, did not meet the recommendations for physical activity. Another objective was to identify what barriers existed for performing physical activity. In this cross-sectional study, a quantitative method was used with surveys as tool. The results showed that 73 percent of young people did not meet the recommendations for physical activity. Of these, 70 percent were boys and 77 percent were girls. The main reported barriers for physical activity were lack of time, watching television and computer use,- and disinterest / uninspired. Some differences were found in perceived barriers between boys and girls-, for boys,- television and computer time were the biggest barrier, while for girls lack of time was their biggest barrier.

  • 214.
    Salima, N.
    et al.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Okenwa-Emegwa, Leah
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap. Department of Health Sciences, The Swedish Red Cross University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stephen, L.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Public of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Victoria University, Kampala, Uganda .
    HIV testing among women of reproductive age exposed to intimate partner violence in Uganda2018Inngår i: Open Public Health Journal, ISSN 1874-9445, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 275-287Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) occur as dual epidemics with gender dimensions. IPV sometimes result in lack of decision making autonomy over one’s own health and this may negatively affect uptake HIV testing services. Objective: The study aimed to examine the association between exposure to IPV and HIV testing among women of reproductive age in Uganda. Method: The study is based on cross-sectional data from 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS). A sub-sample of 1705 ever-partnered women aged 15-49 who responded to the domestic violence module was examined in the study. Bivariate and multivariable (logistic regression) analyses were used to determine the association between exposure to IPV and HIV testing. Results: Up to 82.3% and 61.5% of the respondents were tested for HIV ever and in the past year, respectively. The prevalence of physical IPV and IPV of any form in the past year was 25.6% and 44% respectively. Exposure to physical IPV and emotional IPV in the past year was associated with HIV testing within the past year. In the multivariate analysis, exposure to physical IPV remained significantly associated with HIV testing within the past year (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.03-1.73). Frequent access to newspapers remained a significant predictor of HIV testing uptake. Conclusion: HIV testing in the past year is associated with exposure to IPV among women of reproductive age in Uganda. There is a need to include IPV as a part of global strategy to address HIV/AIDS. © 2018 Salima et al.

  • 215.
    Sand, Marie
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Vad har ett kost- och motionsprogram för effekter på nattarbetande restaurantanställda kvinnors subjektiva och objektiva hälsa?2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag arbetar mer än en tredjedel av Sveriges befolkning på udda arbetstider. Nattarbete medför ökad risk för ohälsa. Syftet med interventionsstudie var att beskriva och jämföra om den subjektiva och objektiva hälsan som framkommer i hälsoprofilsbedömningar före respektive efter införandet av ett kompendium med kost- och motionsråd förändras hos kvinnor som arbetar natt. Personer som arbetar natt är en riskgrupp, detta på grund av olika faktorer Urvalet bestod av tio kvinnor i åldern 20 till 25 år. Samtliga kvinnor arbetar regelbundet natt på restaurang under helgerna och har problem med regelbundna mat- och motionsvanor. Rekryteringen skedde med bekvämlighetsurval. Resultatet på första hälsoprofilsbedömningen visade att ingen av kvinnorna hade bra kondition och kvinnorna uppgav att de hade dåliga kost- och motionsvanor. Vid en uppföljning åtta veckor efter interventionen visade resultatet att kvinnorna fått bättre rutin både vad det gäller kost och motion samt att deras stress och symptom minskat. Deras upplevelse av hälsa dessutom ökat. Wilcoxon test påvisade signifikanta förbättringar på samtliga dessa variabler.

  • 216.
    Sandh, Johanna
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Unga idrottares upplevelser av krav: en kvalitativ studie inom individuell idrott och lagidrott hos ungdomar2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka unga idrottares upplevelser av deras egna och omgivningens krav samt att undersöka vilka konsekvenser det innebar för individens hälsa. Frågeställningar baserades på studiens syfte som var att få förståelse för vilka krav idrottarna upplevde och varifrån de ansågs komma. Vidare frågeställningar var att undersöka hur kraven påverkade motivationen till idrottande samt att se vilka konsekvenser det innebar på individens hälsa. Metoden var av kvalitativ ansats med halvstrukturerade intervjufrågor som konstruerades utifrån en intervjuguide. Sammanlagt genomfördes fem intervjuer på idrottande ungdomar från både en skidförening och en fotbollsförening i Gästrikland. Från individuella idrotten utfördes tre intervjuer och från lagidrotten, två intervjuer. Deltagarna var idrottsaktiva tjejer och killar mellan 15-20 år. Resultatet visade att ungdomarna anser att de största kraven kommer från dem själva och att i grund och botten upplevs idrottandet som positivt, motiverande och roligt. Trots det fanns tydliga indikationer kring de krav som ställdes och som ungdomarna upplevde. I negativ bemärkelse kan de upplevda kraven påverka individens fysiska som psykiska hälsa vilket påverkar livssituationer utöver idrotten. Från undersökningen är slutsatsen att de största upplevda kraven ansågs komma från ungdomarna själva men att idrottandet kändes motiverande och glädjefyllt.

  • 217.
    Sandh, Marie
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Är tillit till kollegor på arbetsplatsen associerat med mental hälsa?2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Tillit till andra individer förklarar variation i mental hälsa. På senare år har intresset ökat för tillit i ett inomorganisatoriskt sammanhang då arbete tillsammans förutsätter att man kan lita på sina kollegor, både för att uppnå organisationens mål men även sina egna. Tillit ses som en viktig komponent för de anställdas välmående då tillit främjar hälsa och motverkar mental ohälsa.

    Tillit kan definieras som viljan att vara sårbar inför andra individers agerande vilket ger en osäkerhet för andra individers handlande. Risken och osäkerheten som tillit innebär blir större vid mötet av en främling än vid mötet av en nära. Risken och osäkerheten som tillit medför utgör ett hinder för att ha stöd i relationer och därför kan låg tillit leda till ångest och depression. Det finns vissa likheter mellan tillit och socialt stöd och det tycks som om socialt stöd främjar tillit samtidigt som det främjar mental hälsa, därför kan det vara så att det är socialt stöd, och inte tillit, som förklarar variationen i mental hälsa i en organisatoriskt kontext.

    Syfte: Syftet med föreliggande uppsats var att studera om tillit mellan kollegor är associerat med mental hälsa i en organisatorisk kontext.

    Metod: Kvantitativ metod med en enkätundersökning med 117 deltagare varav 86 deltog, en svarsfrekvens på 73, 5%. Logistisk regressionsanalys genomfördes för att svara på frågan om tillit till kollegor är associerat med mental hälsa bland kontorshandläggare oberoende av socialt stöd. Signifikansnivån sattes till 0.05.

    Resultat: Resultatet visar stark tillit till kollegor innebär en lägre risk att utveckla ångest. Resultatet visade att tillit bland kontorshandläggare är signifikant associerat med mental hälsa.

    Slutsats: Tillit tycks dock vara en viktig variabel då tillit påverkar mental hälsa oberoende av socialt stöd. Tillit är signifikant associerat med mental hälsa trots att socialt stöd är med som en oberoende variabel i analysen.

  • 218.
    Sarenbrink, Hanna
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap.
    Sambandet mellan användning av sociala medier, självskattad hälsa och kroppsfixering hos unga vuxna: En kvantitativ studie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Background: While there are many positive benefits of social media, studies have shown that the use of certain types such as Facebook and Instagram may have negative health outcomes for young people including depression and eating disorders. Not much however is known about the impact of frequent exposure to Facebook and Instagram on health outcomes such as self-rated health and body fixation.

     

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate if there is an association between the frequent use of social media and self-rated health as well as body fixation among young adults between the ages of 18-25 years.

     

    Design and method: This study was a cross-sectional study using questionnaires anonymously answered via Facebook. There were 65 respondents in the survey. The analysis was performed by using descriptive statistics and chi-test in SPSS.

     

    Results: A larger proportion of those who frequently use social media had poorer self-rated health and more body fixation. After completing chi-squared tests, no statistically significant relationship was found for frequent use of social media and body fixation (p=0,164).

     

    Conclusion: Frequent use of social media specifically Facebook and Instagram, has no statistically significant association with body fixation and Self-rated health.

  • 219.
    Sellberg, Fanny
    et al.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Social Medicine, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ghaderi, Ata
    epartment of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Willmer, Mikaela
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap, Medicin- och vårdvetenskap.
    Tynelius, Per
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Epidemiology and Community Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Berglind, Daniel
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Change in Children's Self-Concept, Body-Esteem, and Eating Attitudes Before and 4 Years After Maternal RYGB2018Inngår i: Obesity Surgery, ISSN 0960-8923, E-ISSN 1708-0428, Vol. 28, nr 10, s. 3276-3283Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to look at longitudinal changes in children's self-concept, body-esteem, and eating attitudes before and 4 years after maternal RYGB surgery.

    METHODS: Sixty-nine women and 81 appurtenant children were recruited from RYGB waiting lists at 5 hospitals in Sweden. Families were visited at home pre-surgery, 9 months, and 4 years post-maternal RYGB to measure BMI. Furthermore, all participating family members completed questionnaires. Mothers' questionnaires measured eating behavior, depression, anxiety, and sleep quality, and children's questionnaires measured body-esteem, self-concept, and eating attitudes.

    RESULTS: Thirty-five/sixty-nine mothers and 43/81 children participated in all 3 measurements. Mothers reduced their BMI from pre-surgery (39.2) to 9 months (27.0) and 4 years post-surgery (27.4). Children's prevalence of overweight/obesity was lower 9 months post-surgery (48.8%) but at the same levels again 4 years post-surgery (58.1%), compared to pre-surgery (58.1%). The same rebound pattern was seen among children's eating attitudes, mothers' symptoms of depression and anxiety, and sleep quality. We found no correlations between mothers' BMI or eating behavior and children's BMI or eating behavior.

    CONCLUSION: Children's prevalence of overweight/obesity and eating attitudes improves soon after their mothers' RYGB, but then return to pre-surgery levels at 4 years post-surgery, as do mothers' sleep quality and symptoms of depression and anxiety, even though their weight loss was maintained.

  • 220.
    Sellfrid, Martin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för folkhälso- och idrottssvetenskap.
    Förekomsten av hormonstörande ämnen i lösa föremål på svenska förskolor: - en kvantitativ studie om sambandet mellan förekomst och självskattad kunskap och/eller byggnadsår2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract  Sellfrid, M. (2019) The occurrence of endocrine disruptors in objects on Swedish preschools: A quantitative study on the relationship between occurrence and self-rated knowledge and/or construction year. Bachelor thesis in Public Health Science. Department of Occupational and Public Health Science. Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies. University of Gävle, Sweden.  Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the occurrence of items containing Bisphenol A, forbidden phthalates and brominated flame retardants in all preschools in a Swedish municipality. Furthermore, to study whether the occurrence may have a connection with the factors self-related knowledge of the staff and/or construction year.  Method: The study is an explorative quantitative study using questionnaires answered anonymously by 270 preschool teachers out of 354. An inventory of all 24 preschools in the municipality was performed to investigate the occurrence. The numeric data was analyzed using an analysis of variances (Anova) or a Chi Square test.  The Results showed that the presence of objects containing endocrine disruptors clearly differed between preschools. Furthermore, the study finds that there is a significant correlation between the occurrence and the preschool's construction year (p= <0,001). On the other hand, there are no significant connections between the occurrence and the self-rated knowledge of the teachers (p=0,985).  Conclusion: the older a preschool is, the more likely it is to have a higher occurrence of items containing these chemicals. The most logical reasons for this are that older preschools have the same items now as decades ago and donated items occur in a greater extent.

  • 221.
    Simonsson, Clara
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Konsumenters attityder till att äta insekter och odlat kött: En intervjustudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Replacing meat from animals with cultured meat and edible insects might reduce the impact on climate and the environment. That said, in order to fulfill their function as a sustainable food, insects and cultured meat would need to be consumed, on a wider scale and with a real-time reduction in meat consumption.

     

    The aim of this study was to explore consumers' attitudes toward consuming insects and cultured meat, whilst gathering an understanding of what consumers, themselves, believe to be acceptable to consume in the future. Fifteen individual semi-structured interviews, of both men and women, were conducted outside a supermarket in central Sweden. Data was transcribed and analyzed thematically. The results highlight that for some respondents, insects are perceived as alien and undesirable, while cultured meat was perceived as too unnatural to be eaten; whilst others expressed both reluctance and a curiosity towards cultured meat and edible insects. Most respondents believed they will eat less meat, more vegetables and vegetarian protein in the future, and might try insects and cultured meat in hidden forms such as in sausage. The conclusion was that consumers had a mixed attitude toward eating insects and cultured meat.

  • 222.
    Sjögren, Moa
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv.
    Adolescents´attitudes towards physical activity on prescription for prevention and treatment for cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes.: Is there a relationship between a teen´s attitude and physical activity level?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 223.
    Skogberg, Nina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap.
    Unga vuxnas erfarenheter av och åsikter om hälsoinformation: en enkätstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Skogberg, N. (2016). Young adults’ experiences and opinions of health information. A survey study. Bachelor thesis in Public Health Science. Department of Occupational and Public Health Science. Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies. University of Gävle, Sweden.

    Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the experiences and opinions of health information among 40-100 young adults, aged 18-25 years.

    Method: A cross-sectional survey study was conducted, using a questionnaire in paper form as well as using a web questionnaire.

    Results: The results showed that the social media (for example Facebook and Instagram) was both the most used and preferred source of information. Most of the respondents thought that the information they found was useful and that the information was appealing and/or interesting. However, the majority of the respondents did feel that the information they found was lacking something.

    Conclusions: Social media can be a useful tool to reach out with health information to young adults. It is important that the information is perceived as accessible, reliable and credible. It is also important to make sure that young adults have access to information which has a scientific basis.

  • 224.
    Soares, Joaquim F J
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Avdelningen för Folkhälsovetenskap.
    Fraga, Silvia
    University of Porto Medical School, Porto, Portugal..
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mittuniversitetet, Avdelningnen för Folkhälsovetenskap.
    Stankunas, Mindaugas
    University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Sundin, Örjan
    Mittuniversitetet Avdelningen för Socialvetenskap.
    Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella
    Italian National Institute of Health and Science on Aging (INRCA), Ancona, Italy .
    Macassa, Gloria
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap. Mittuniversitetet, Avdelningen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Barros, Henrique
    University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    The chronicity and severity of abuse among older persons by country: a European study2014Inngår i: Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, ISSN 1759-6599, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 3-25Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to investigate chronicity (frequency) in different abuse types (e.g. psychological) and overall abuse (all abuse types) by severity (minor, severe, total) in seven European cities, and scrutinize factors associated with high chronicity levels (frequency on the median and higher) in psychological and overall abuse by severity.

    Design/methodology/approach: – The study design was cross-sectional. The sample consisted of 4,467 randomly selected women/men (2,559 women) aged 60-84 years from seven European cities, and data were analysed with bivariate and multivariate methods.

    Findings: – Chronicity varied across country and by abuse type. For instance, Germany had the highest chronicity means in physical and sexual abuse; Greece in physical, injury, sexual and overall abuse; Lithuania in physical, injury, financial and overall abuse; Portugal in physical abuse; Spain in physical, sexual and financial abuse; and Sweden in psychological, injury, financial and overall abuse. In general, Italy had the lowest chronicity means. The main perpetrators were people close to the respondents and women (in some cases).

    Research limitations/implications: – The independent relationship (regressions) between chronicity/ severity of abuse, country and other variables (e.g. depression) was examined only for psychological and overall abuse. More research into this issue with other types of abuse (e.g. sexual) is warranted.

    Originality/value: – The paper reports data from the ABUEL survey, which gathered population-based data on elderly abuse.

  • 225.
    Soares, Joaquim J. F.
    et al.
    Stockholm Centre for Public Health, Stockholm, Sweden, and Karolinska Institutet , Stockholm, Sweden .
    Macassa, Gloria
    Karolinska Institutet , Stockholm, Sweden .
    Grossi, Giorgio
    National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health , Stockholm, Sweden .
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mittuniversitetet, Mid Sweden University, Department of Health Sciences, Sundsvall, Sweden .
    Psychosocial Correlates of Hopelessness Among Men2008Inngår i: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, ISSN 1650-6073, E-ISSN 1651-2316, Vol. 37, nr 1, s. 50-61Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined overall hopelessness, explored differences in various variables (e.g. burnout) between men reporting no/mild hopelessness and moderate/severe hopelessness, and scrutinized factors associated with hopelessness. The study design was cross-sectional, and the participants were 517 men randomly selected from the general population. About 12% of men reported moderate/severe hopelessness, and men with moderate/severe hopelessness were more often older, divorced/widowed, low educated, employed in blue-collar positions, on sick leave/other/unemployment/retirement, and financially strained. They also reported more depression, posttraumatic symptoms, and burnout. Only unemployment/retirement, depression, and posttraumatic symptoms were independently associated with an increased risk for moderate/severe hopelessness in the regression analysis, with unemployment and retirement as the most important factors. In conclusion, this study seems to corroborate previous findings and may provide new insights into men's experiences and predictors of hopelessness. More research into the predictors of hopelessness in men is warranted.

  • 226. Soares, Joaquim J.F
    et al.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Quality of life among lifetime victimized men2007Inngår i: Violence and Victims, ISSN 0886-6708, E-ISSN 1945-7073, Vol. 22, nr 2, s. 289-204Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Quality of life was compared for lifetime victimized (n = 353) and nonvictimized men (n = 167) for demographic and quality of life variables by a cross-sectional design. The univariate analyses showed that victims compared to nonvictims had a lower quality of life, were younger, more often had upper secondary school education, and were more often blue-collar/low white-collar workers, on student allowances, on unemployment, financially strained, and smokers. The regressions revealed that unemployment, financial strain, smoking, depression, and home/public abuse were associated with reduced quality of life among victimized men. Being a blue-collar/low/intermediate white-collar worker and social support were related to increased quality of life. This study may have provided new insights into the experiences of quality of life of victimized men.

  • 227.
    Soares, Joaquim
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Miranda, Jamilette
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mid Sweden Univ, Dept Hlth Sci, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Health among lifetime victimized men2007Inngår i: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 1239-9736, E-ISSN 2242-3982, Vol. 66, nr 4, s. 351-364Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. We examined differences in demographics/socio-economics, lifestyles and mental/physical health between victimized/non-victimized men, and identified/quantified factors associated with mental/physical health.Study design. The study design was cross-sectional.Methods. The men were assessed in various areas (e.g., depression) by means of a questionnaire.Results. The univariate analyses showed that victims compared with non-victims were younger. They also had higher intermediate education levels, were more often blue-collar/low white-collar workers, were on student allowances and financially strained, smoked more, had a lower BMI, and reported headaches, depression, tension and cognitive difficulties more frequently. The regression analyses showed that financial strain rather than violence was a more important factor for ill-health. Only headaches and cognitive difficulties were associated with violence.Conclusions. Quite an number of men were in a poor physical/mental state, but there were few differences between victims/non-victims. Financial strain was determined to be a more important factor for ill-health than violence. Our data indicate that violence had little effect on men's health. Our findings do not generally support a relationship between poor health and the abuse of men.

  • 228.
    Stenberg, Mikael
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Fysisk aktivitet som smärtlindring vid belastningsskada i nacke och skuldror: en litteraturstudie2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion/bakgrund: Att fysisk aktivitet är en del av ett hälsosamt liv är det säkert många människor som är överrens om. Många studier som har bedrivits inom området pekar på att fysisk aktivitet är viktigt för att förebygga skador av olika karaktär. Dessa skador kan vara av både fysisk och psykologisk karaktär. Fysisk aktivitet har även visat sig ha en positiv effekt på människor i rehabilitering. Beroende på skadans karaktär så finns det möjlighet att behandla problemet med fysisk aktivitet, istället för att bara se till den medicinska behandlingen som ofta får mycket utrymme i behandlingsstrategin. Människor som är drabbade av en belastningsskada i nacke och skuldror har alla ett gemensamt problem, nämligen den smärta som uppkommer i samband med problematiken. Att behandla smärta med fysisk aktivitet vid belastningsskada i nacke och skuldra är en relativt ny företeelse. Det bedrivs forskning på området, men man har inte hunnit utvärdera hur effektiv fysisk aktivitet egentligen är emot smärtproblematiken som följer en belastningsskada. Syfte: att undersöka hur verksam hälsofrämjande fysisk aktivitet är som smärtlindring vid belastningsskador i nacke och skuldror. Metod: En litteraturstudie valdes som arbetsmetod. Vetenskapliga artiklar har granskats och sökningen efter dessa har skett i olika databaser. Genom utgå ifrån ett antal frågeställningar i granskningen så har författaren lyft fram likheter och skillnader inom artiklarna. Resultat: Resultatet pekar på hur viktigt det är för en individ att känna sig förstådd när det kommer till sin smärtproblemtik, framförallt när man är drabbad av belastningsskada i nacke och skuldror. En klar skillnad kunde även konstateras mellan hur kvinnor respektive män i de aktuella studierna relaterar till sin smärtproblematik. Granskningen visade också att det är av central betydelse att ta individuell hänsyn vid ordination av motion till smärtpatienter, som ofta har en låg fysisk prestationsförmåga. Den multidimensionella rehabiliteringen var den som hade godast effekt gentemot smärtproblematiken som en belastningsskada för med sig. Slutsats: Fysisk aktivitet som smärtlindring vid belastningsskada i nacke och skuldror ger positiv effekt så länge träningen individanpassas. Smärtproblematiken som följer kan vara svår att förstå och förklara inom rehabiliteringsprocessen. Multidimensionell rehabilitering med anpassad fysisk aktivitet var den som hade godast effekt gentemot smärtan och kunde avsevärt förbättra tillståndet för de drabbade individerna. 

  • 229.
    Stenberg, Mikael
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Magnusson, Jonas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Pensionärers motionsvanor med fokus på styrketräningens roll för dem2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Elderly people have much to gain when it comes to physical activity andresistance training. Ageing is a process that every human being has to go through. The mostimportant physical attributes changes, when it comes to handle everyday life and ailment thatusually occurs in the later stages of life. Physical activity and resistance training may help thecommon problem among the elderly, when it comes to cope with issues of pain and strenuouseveryday life that occurs under this ailment. Objective: To identify a senior citizen´sperception about physical activity and attitudes about resistance training. Design: A surveystudy. Setting: Gävle, Sweden. Method: A questionnaire was created with questions toidentify senior citizens perception and behaving patterns concerning physical activity. Theirattitudes about resistance training were also taken into consideration. With senior citizens inthis study, we refer to people in the ages of 65-80. A number of 40 questionnaires were passedout to senior citizens. Among these, 22 copies were taken into the study and processedthrough SPSS, a statistics program. Result: The participants believed that physical activity intheir youth had a major influence on the attitudes of engaging in activities as a senior. Amongthe people that were included in the study, 86% believed that they had been given very littleinformation about resistance-training, and the health benefits it generates for the elderly.Conclusions: There was a significant correlation between the physical activity among theelders today and how active they were in their earlier life. The most common activities amongthe participants were activities where other people were involved either as competitors or inthe same group exercise. Few of the participants answered resistance training as a commonphysical activity in their life. The perception about resistance training was divided into twosides, either the participants had a negative attitude about resistance training or they werepositive or unsure what to answer.Keywords: PhysicalIntroduction: Elderly people have much to gain when it comes to physical activity andresistance training. Ageing is a process that every human being has to go through. The mostimportant physical attributes changes, when it comes to handle everyday life and ailment thatusually occurs in the later stages of life. Physical activity and resistance training may help thecommon problem among the elderly, when it comes to cope with issues of pain and strenuouseveryday life that occurs under this ailment. Objective: To identify a senior citizen´sperception about physical activity and attitudes about resistance training. Design: A surveystudy. Setting: Gävle, Sweden. Method: A questionnaire was created with questions toidentify senior citizens perception and behaving patterns concerning physical activity. Theirattitudes about resistance training were also taken into consideration. With senior citizens inthis study, we refer to people in the ages of 65-80. A number of 40 questionnaires were passedout to senior citizens. Among these, 22 copies were taken into the study and processedthrough SPSS, a statistics program. Result: The participants believed that physical activity intheir youth had a major influence on the attitudes of engaging in activities as a senior. Amongthe people that were included in the study, 86% believed that they had been given very littleinformation about resistance-training, and the health benefits it generates for the elderly.Conclusions: There was a significant correlation between the physical activity among theelders today and how active they were in their earlier life. The most common activities amongthe participants were activities where other people were involved either as competitors or inthe same group exercise. Few of the participants answered resistance training as a commonphysical activity in their life. The perception about resistance training was divided into twosides, either the participants had a negative attitude about resistance training or they werepositive or unsure what to answer.Keywords: Physical

  • 230.
    Stenquist, Pär
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för folkhälso- och idrottssvetenskap.
    Jämställdhetsintegrering på gymmet – En intervjustudie i en medelstor svensk stad2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that gender equality gaps are prominent and experienced when it comes to strength training and gym use. The health benefits of strength training are many, and it is of importance to public health science that any gender inequalities are exterminated so that both men and women can benefit from these. The gym is a common area for practising strength training, but the research done about gender equality from a gym perspective does however seem to be limited, particularly regarding from a gym enterprises point of view. The purpose of this study was hence to explore how different gym enterprises in a medium-sized Swedish city integrated gender equality in their business operation. This was carried out through a total of four individual interviews with a voluntary representative from each different gym. The results displayed five main themes with different aspects, wich all somehow connected to integration of gender equality at the gym. The most characteristic of these themes turned out to be ambiguity, wich could be observed in several of the five main themes and noticed through all four interviews. The conclusions came to be that the gyms did not see gender equality as one of their specific fields of work, and also that gender equality was not something established or recognized by them. They did however work for inclusion and affinity wich could be seen as some kind of contribution to gender equality. It was shown that the gyms did not seem to consciously integrate gender equality in their business operation. 

  • 231.
    Straker, Leon
    et al.
    School of Physiotherapy, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Abbott, Rebecca
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Heiden, Marina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Toomingas, Allan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Sit-stand desks in call centres: associations of use and ergonomics awareness with sedentary behavior2013Inngår i: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 44, nr 4, s. 517-522Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. Sedentary behavior is an independent risk factor for obesity, diabetes, and all cause mortality. With adults in occupational settings spending two thirds or more of their time in sedentary behavior, novel strategies are required to intervene with occupational sitting. To investigate whether or not use of sit-stand desks and awareness of the importance of postural variation and breaks are associated with the pattern of sedentary behavior in office workers.

    Method. The data came from a cross-sectional observation study of Swedish call centre workers. Inclinometers recorded ‘seated’ or ‘standing/walking’ episodes of 131 operators over a full work shift. Differences in sedentary behavior based on desk type and awareness of the importance of posture variation and breaks were assessed by non-parametric analyses.

    Results. 90 (68.7%) operators worked at a sit-stand desk. Working at a sit-stand desk, as opposed to a sit desk, was associated with less time seated (78.5 vs 83.8%, p=0.010), and less time taken to accumulate 5 minutes of standing/walking (36.2 vs 46.3 minutes, p=0.022), but no significant difference to sitting episode length or the number of switches between sitting and standing/walking per hour. Ergonomics awareness was not associated with any sedentary pattern variable among those using a sit-stand desk.

    Conclusion. Use of sit-stand desks was associated with better sedentary behavior in call centre workers, however ergonomics awareness did not enhance the effect. Further investigation into how best to intervene with occupational sitting is required.

  • 232.
    Straker, Leon
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth.
    Campbell, Amity
    Curtin University, Perth.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Abbott, Rebecca
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Parry, Sharon
    Curtin University, Perth.
    Davey, Paul
    Curtin University, Perth.
    Capturing the pattern of activity: Exposure variation analysis of accelerometer data2012Inngår i: 4th International Congress on Physical Activity and Public Health, Australian Conference of Science and Medicine in Sport, National Sports Injury Prevention Conference Abstracts, 2012, s. S94-S94Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Physical activity, in particular moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary behaviour (SB) are known to impact on health. Less well established is how patterning of activity affects health. Capturing the complex time pattern of activity using accelerometry remains a challenge. Occupational health research suggests Exposure Variation Analysis (EVA) could provide a useful tool. The purpose of this paper is to 1) explain the application of EVA to accelerometer data, 2) demonstrate how EVA thresholds, derivatives could be chosen, used to examine adherence to MVPA, SB guidelines, 3) explore the validity of EVA outputs.

    Methods: EVA reduces a complex time-line of exposure into a two-dimensional matrix showing combinations of exposure level (in categories) and duration of uninterrupted sequences (in categories). Data from 4 individuals with different daily activity patterns were collected to demonstrate the applicability of EVA. EVA outputs were also compared for accelerometer data collected from 3 occupational groups with known different activity patterns: seated workstation office workers, standing workstation office workers and teachers. Standard accelerometer data collection procedures were used. Data processing by a custom LabVIEW program calculated EVA matrices and derivatives aligned to common guidelines.

    Results: Data from one individual is presented in a time-based line graph form in conjunction with the resultant EVA matrix and EVA graph. Line graphs and related EVA graphs for 3 further individuals highlight the use of EVA derivatives for examining compliance with MVPA and SB guidelines. For the seated office workers, standing office workers and teachers, analyses confirm no difference in bouts of MVPA but very clear differences as expected in extended bouts of SB and brief bursts of activity, thus providing evidence of construct validity of the EVA approach.

    Conclusion: The major advantage of EVA is its ability in a single analysis to simultaneously capture the time pattern of activity at various levels of intensity according to the choice of the researcher. Whilst presented here with four levels of intensity, sedentary, light, moderate and vigorous, EVA could be utilised with dichotomous data such as sitting vs standing, or adjusted to match future refinements of activity guidelines. EVA offers a unique and comprehensive generic method that is ideal for processing large quantities of accelerometer data. EVA is able, for the first time, to concisely capture the time pattern (both frequency and intensity) of activity, and can be tailored for both occupational and public health research.

  • 233.
    Straker, Leon
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth.
    Campbell, Amity
    Curtin University, Perth.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Abbott, Rebecca
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Parry, Sharon
    Curtin University, Perth.
    Davey, Paul
    Curtin University of Technology, Perth.
    Capturing the pattern of physical activity and sedentary behavior: Exposure Variation Analysis of accelerometer data2014Inngår i: Journal of Physical Activity and Health, ISSN 1543-3080, E-ISSN 1543-5474, Vol. 11, nr 3, s. 614-625Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Capturing the complex time pattern of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) using accelerometry remains a challenge. Research from occupational health suggests exposure variation analysis (EVA) could provide a meaningful tool. This paper (1) explains the application of EVA to accelerometer data, (2) demonstrates how EVA thresholds and derivatives could be chosen and used to examine adherence to PA and SB guidelines, and (3) explores the validity of EVA outputs.

    METHODS: EVA outputs are compared with accelerometer data from 4 individuals (Study 1a and1b) and 3 occupational groups (Study 2): seated workstation office workers (n = 8), standing workstation office workers (n = 8), and teachers (n = 8).

    RESULTS: Line graphs and related EVA graphs highlight the use of EVA derivatives for examining compliance with guidelines. EVA derivatives of occupational groups confirm no difference in bouts of activity but clear differences as expected in extended bouts of SB and brief bursts of activity, thus providing evidence of construct validity.

    CONCLUSIONS: EVA offers a unique and comprehensive generic method that is able, for the first time, to capture the time pattern (both frequency and intensity) of PA and SB, which can be tailored for both occupational and public health research.

  • 234.
    Stål, Frida
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för folkhälso- och idrottssvetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap.
    Verkställande direktörers föreställningar om ansvarsfullt ledarskap och deras uppfattningar om socialt ansvar för intressenters hälsa2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka Verkställande direktörers (Vd) föreställningar om Ansvarsfullt ledarskap och deras uppfattningar om socialt ansvar för intressenternas hälsa.

    Semistrukturerade kvalitativa intervjuer genomfördes bland ett ändamålsenligt urval av tio Vd:ar från företag som representerar olika sektorer. Innehållsanalys utfördes för att identifiera mönster och kategorier i data.

    Fyra kategorier identifierades i data. De intervjuade Vd:arnas föreställning om rollen som ansvarig ledare var att bidra, inkludera, skapa en gemenskap och struktur. Deras förståelse för CSR och intressenters hälsa och välbefinnande var i stor utsträckning begränsad till sin egen organisation (interna intressenter). Även om de kunde se att deras aktiviteter påverkat andra intressenter, så var det inte deras första prioritet.

  • 235.
    Stålenberg, Jessica
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Sjukvården för kvinnor och barn på ett sjukhus i Tanzania en observationsstudie2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate how maternity and child care was carried out at Regional Hospital in Morogoro, Tanzania as well as how it was perceived by mothers and children. The study was conducted with a qualitative method through observation and interviews. The results of the study showed that the staff knew what they were doing and how they should treat their patients and that they helped them without thinking about preventive measures. The study concluded that people wanted to seek the care provided at the hospital and some people stated that they had confidence in the staff. The people that came to the hospital sought care for various diseases and conditions and they all got medical attention of some sort. However, this occurred with limited resources and under inadequate circumstances, which in many cases meant that all women and children could not get optimal care.

  • 236.
    Sundahl, Lina
    et al.
    Department Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Zetterbreg, Marie
    Department Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Wester, Anita
    Department of Research and Evaluation, Swedish National Agency for Education, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rehn, Börje
    Department Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Blomqvist, Sven
    Swedish Development Centre for Disability Sport, Bollnäs, Sweden.
    Physical activity levels among adolescent and young adults women and men with and without intellectual disability2016Inngår i: JARID: Journal of applied research in intellectual disabilities, ISSN 1360-2322, E-ISSN 1468-3148, Vol. 29, nr 1, s. 93-98Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    As physical activity can prevent overweight and promote general health, the aim was to investigate the amount of physical activity among adolescent and young adult women and men with intellectual disability (ID), compared to age-matched control groups without intellectual disability. A further aim was to examine whether physical activity level was associated with the body mass index (BMI).

    Materials and methods

    Fifty-two adolescent and young adult women and men with intellectual disability and 48 without intellectual disability, between the ages 16 and 20 years, BMIs ranging from 16.3 to 50.3 kg/m2, were measured for number of steps taken with a pedometer for five consecutive days (Sunday–Thursday).

    Results

    The only group to meet recommendations regarding number of steps (10 000–12 000/day) was women without intellectual disability. No significant associations were found between total number of steps taken and BMI.

    Conclusion

    As the majority of adolescents and young adults with intellectual disability, especially women, did not reach recommended activity levels regardless of their BMIs, this call for broad measures to increase physical activity.

  • 237.
    Sundin, Örjan
    et al.
    Department of Social Sciences, Division of Psychology, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Soares, Joaquim
    Institution for Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Department of Public Health Sciences, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Grossi, Georgio
    Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap.
    The experiences of burnout among migrant and native Swedish women: a longitudinal study2011Inngår i: Women & health, ISSN 0363-0242, E-ISSN 1541-0331, Vol. 51, nr 7, s. 643-660Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 238.
    Svedin, Lovisa
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för folkhälso- och idrottssvetenskap.
    Strategiskt arbete med hållbar IT och digital arbetsmiljö en empirisk kvalitativ studie av företag inom privat sektor.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 239.
    Särkioja, Daniel
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv.
    Skateboardens kontext och dess påverkan på fysisk aktivitet2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I tidigare studier har det uppmärksammats hinder i den fysiska miljön och i bemötandet för skateboard på allmänna platser. Det har även visats att skateboardparker verkar främja skateboardutövandet. Denna studie syftar därmed till att kartlägga hinder och förutsättningar för skateboard och undersöka hur skateboardparker påverkar den fysiska aktiviteten. Det är även av intresse att studera hur de sociala faktorerna påverkar skateboardutövande då tidigare forskning tyder på att det är ett viktigt inslag i skateboardutövandet. Som metod använder sig studien av en kvalitativ design. Sammanlagt genomfördes 12 individuella intervjuer. Resultatet i studien tyder på att de största problemen med skateboard på allmänna platser är dåligt underlag och bristen på attraktiva platser att utöva sporten på. Det är en vedertagen uppfattning att skateboardparker påverkar utövarnas fysiska aktivitet positivt då deltagarna uppskattar att de åker mer skateboard tillföljd av tillgången av skateboardanläggningar. Skateboardparken bidrar även med en mötesplats för skateboardutövare vilket leder till en ökad social dimension av utövandet och ökar glädjen och nöjet i aktiviteten. Slutligen anses det därmed att skateboardparken är en arena som ökar både den fysiska aktiviteten och den sociala interaktionen bland utövarna.

  • 240.
    Söderberg, Helena
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap.
    En metaanalys om samband mellan motivation och fysisk aktivitet2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att via tidigare utförd forskning undersöka om det finns och hur eventuella samband ser ut mellan motivation och motion. Studien utfördes genom en metaanalys, insamlingen av artiklar var ifrån databaser vilket Högskolan i Gävle ger studenter tillgång till. Utsållning av artiklar skedde utifrån sökkriterier som skrevs utifrån syftet och målgruppen vilket är vuxna människor generellt sett. Vidare analyserades de funna artiklarna och ett resultat trädde fram. Resultatet visar på att samband mellan motivation och motion träder fram i studiens belysta artiklar samt att motivation är föränderligt och påverkningsbart genom olika metoder. Slutsatsen är att ett eventuellt samband mellan motivation och motion finns samt att den är påverkningsbar, det som visar sig enligt resultatet binda samman motivation och fysisk aktivet är vilja och beteende. Resultaten visar exempelvis på att individer anser utseende, uppmuntran, förebyggande av skador, viktminskning och skapande av kunskap och sociala kontakter är motiverande

  • 241.
    Söderhäll Ek, Lisa
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Hur upplevs en främre korsbandsskada som ådragits för mer än 10 år sedan påverka den skadade idag?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate how women who have incurred ACL injury for more than 10 years ago, feel that the injury affects them today.

    Method: A qualitative semi-structured interview survey with five women who 10- 28 years ago incurred the anterior cruciate ligament injuries when playing handball or soccer has been performed. The study has been inspired by a phenomenological concept of science, mainly by life-world concept. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis.

    Main result: Some informants have experienced severe loss of physical ability in both daily living situations and in training, while others did not appreciably felt impacted in daily living and experienced great opportunities for physical activity. Limitations which emerged were restrictions in movement, joint stiffness, pain, swelling, and crepitations that led to the loss of physical ability. One respondent had been diagnosed with advanced osteoarthritis. The reduced capacity affected both everyday situations, at work and in certain training situations. The view of their physical condition also showed to be impaired due to knee injury. The respondents also expressed that they were emotionally affected. Emotional states such as frustration, sadness, debilitating emotions and depression, but also joy and relief were described by the respondents. Participants in the survey reported that they feel strongly influenced by fear of new injury. This in turn has led them to develop fear of everyday situations where new damage could potentially occur, such as stepping in potholes, go on curbs, quick turns and stumbling. Some even feel socially inhibited due to knee injury. The injury has also caused mixed feelings about the future, where some have expressed concern, while others see the future with confidence.

    Conclusion: The results may indicate that the population studied is not sufficiently rehabilitated and recovered emotionally after injury. Variations in perceived impacts were seen. This was attributed to the informant’s life-world. Although some strains may appear to be of similar nature, the informants have been affected in differently in their ways of living.

  • 242.
    Tahir, Navid
    et al.
    Punjab Emergency Service, Lahore, Pakistan .
    Naseer, Rizwan
    Punjab Emergency Service, Lahore, Pakistan.
    Khan, Samina Mohsin
    Division of Global Health, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Macassa, Gloria
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap. Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Hashimi, Waseem
    Punjab Emergency Service, Lahore, Pakistan .
    Durrani, Moshin
    Punjab Emergency Service, Lahore, Pakistan .
    Road traffic crashes managed by Rescue 1122 in Lahore, Pakistan2012Inngår i: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion, ISSN 1745-7300, E-ISSN 1745-7319, Vol. 19, nr 4, s. 347-350Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this retrospective study was to describe demographic characteristics, injury patterns and causes of road traffic crashes (RTCs) managed by Rescue 1122 in Lahore, Pakistan during the period 2005–2010. In total 123,268 RTCs were reported and responded by Rescue 1122 ambulance service during the study period. Of the 132,504 victims of RTCs, there were 67% male and 33% female subjects, and the maximum share (65%) was reported among people aged 16–35 years. Motorcyclists were involved in 45% of crashes, with over-speeding (40%) found to be the major reason of these collisions. Similarly, minor injuries (65%) and fractures (25%) were the most reported outcome of these crashes. It is concluded that data from ambulance services, if appropriately collected, can provide valuable epidemiological information to monitor RTCs in developing countries. However, in Pakistan, the collection of data as well as the registration process needs further improvement.

  • 243.
    Thorngren, Emelie
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Träningsappar som verktyg i hälsofrämjande syfte: - Användares erfarenheter och upplevelser2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Physical inactivity is the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. To prevent and change this the society need to develop good approaches and interventions to promote physical activity. The purpose of this thesis was to investigate which experience existing users have of smartphone training applications. Also to study if this can be a possible resource for health promotion. Six active users applied to participation after they had seen an ad in social media. The participants were interviewed with semi-structured interview. The result of the study showed that it is common that the use of the application is mainly for fun, and that the application´s visual documentation contributes to increased motivation to be physically active. The users also enjoy recording the physical activity and to collect all the activities at the same place makes it easy to go back and evaluate and compare the training results. The conclusion was that the use of these training applications can be seen as a free and accessible tool and can be a future tool in health promotion to provide greater motivation to be physical active. In order to ensure that the use of training applications contributes to increased physical activity, further studies are needed such as a randomized control study with larger sample groups and a longer period of study.

  • 244.
    Thorsell, Lena
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Drogmissbrukare och psykisk hälsa2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between mental illness and socioeconomic factors such as education, age and gender among drug users. Descriptive and ANOVA analysis were performed to 68 structured interviews (Addiction Severity Index basic). Analysis addressed associations between drug usage and level of education, age and gender. Results showed gender differences in self-rated mental health with women drug users rating their mental health lower than men. In addition, there was no association between age, educational level and self-rated mental health. Further studies are warranted to investigate mental health among drug users.

  • 245.
    Thunberg, Charlotta
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv.
    Socioeconomic Status and Depression among women in Stockholm County2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigated the relationship between socioeconomic status (by occupation) and self-reported depression among women in Stockholm County. A quantitative study was conducted based on secondary data from the 2006 Stockholm County Public Health Survey. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis through SPSS statistical package. Results showed that low socioeconomic status (by occupation) increased the risk of reporting depression among women in Stockholm County. In addition, the study found that the relationship was to some extent explained by income and marital status. However, further studies are warranted of the relation between socioeconomic status (e.g. education and income) and depression among women in the Swedish population but particularly in Stockholm County.

  • 246.
    Thuresson, Anna
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv.
    Friskvårdstimmen - hur används den?: Erfarenheter hos vårdpersonal kring friskvårdstimmen och annan fysisk aktivitet2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 247.
    Tinnerholm Vikström, Alexander
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Cannabis påverkan på kognitiva funktioner: – en litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether cannabis use can affect cognitive functions. The method that was chosen to answer the purpose of the study was a general literature review. Article search occurred in the databases PsycINFO and PubMed. Nine articles were selected based on the study’s inclusion criteria. These studies was then analysed to see that they matched the criterias that were selected in the study regarding study quality. The results show that cannabis use can affect cognitive functions. Though it is not certainly established that the use of cannabis always leads to a negative impact on cognitive functions, two of the nine included studies showed that this was not the case. It was possible to see that cannabis use can lead to a change in activity in regions of the brain that are associated with cognitive function. Seven out of nine studies showed that cannabis use leads to a negative impact on cognitive functions, particularly in the form of memory impairment.

  • 248.
    Toomingas, Allan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Heiden, Marina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Nilsson, Tohr
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå university.
    Variation between seated and standing/walking postures among male and female call centre operators2012Inngår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 12, s. 154-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to assess variation in gross body posture amongst male and female call centre operators using whole-day registrations of seated and standing/walking periods, analyzed and described by a number of novel variables.

    Methods: Body postures, identified as either seated or standing/walking, were recorded using inclinometers throughout an entire work shift for 43 male and 97 female call centre operators at 16 call centres. Data were analyzed using an extensive set of variables describing occurrence of postures, switches between postures, posture similarities across the day, and compliance with posture recommendations.

    Results: The majority of the operators, both male and female, spent more than 80% of the shift in a seated posture. The average number of switches between seated and standing/walking or vice versa was 10.4 per hour. Female operators spent, on average, 11% of the day in periods of sustained sitting longer than 1 hour; male operators only 4.6% of the day (p=0.013). Only 38% of the operators followed current standard recommendations of having an uninterrupted break from seated work, lasting a minimum of 5minutes within a one hour of work and only 11% of operators had a 10 minute (or longer) uninterrupted break. Substantial variation between operators was observed in many variables. Since work tasks were essentially similar across operators and were expected to be similar across days, this indicates individual differences in working technique.

    Conclusions: The dominance of seated work for extended periods indicates that efforts should be made at call centres to introduce more gross physical variation during the work day. Appropriate and effective initiatives for realizing this intervention need to be identified

  • 249.
    Törnhult, Therese
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Kommunanställdas uppfattning om och nyttjande av kommunens friskvårdsinsatser.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The personnel policy program for the employees in studied municipality includes guidelines for the working environment, saying that health promoting activities is offered to all employees.                              Objective: To investigate how these activities were used and how the staff perceived the activities offered. The aim was also to find out how well the information about current health promotion efforts reached the staff.Method: A qualitative approach was used in the form of interviews. The sample consisted of municipal employees from seven different work sites.  A total of 12 women aged 32-52 years participated. The interviews were recorded and a hermeneutic theory was used to interpret the results.Results: The results showed that most informants used some form of fitness activity. In most cases health care-time was used for anything from walking to organized workouts. The great barrier was lack of information and lack of trained and dedicated health motivators. In several cases, informants had no knowledge about what a health motivator is supposed to do. The informants own suggestions for health promotion interventions included stress management and foot care.Conclusion: The survey showed that respondents were poorly informed about which wellness activities the municipality offered. The result could also be interpreted as a communication gap between the local authority, health motivators and the employees. A request for group activities was detected.  

  • 250.
    Vallin Eriksson, Helena
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Implementering av fysisk aktivitet på recept i Uppsala kommun2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att beskriva arbetet med Fysisk aktivitet på Recept, FaR®, bland fysioterapeuter och arbetsterapeuter i Uppsala kommun sex månader efter införandet. Metoden som användes var kvantitativ och genomfördes i form av en webbaserad enkätstudie. Kriteriet för att delta i studien var att ha en anställning som fysioterapeut eller arbetsterapeut inom något av Uppsala kommuns ansvars- och verksamhets-områden. Enkäten besvarades av 111 personer och analyserades i SPSS. Resultatet visade att förskrivningen av FaR® sker sporadiskt och utförs av en liten andel av personalen. Attityden till FaR® som metod tycktes vara positiv och man hade tillräcklig kunskap för att förskriva, däremot verkade man inte anse att FaR® passar de aktuella patientgrupperna. Slutligen ansåg en majoritet av respondenterna att det organisatoriska stödet i form av riktlinjer, planering och utveckling av det lokala arbetet saknades. Slutsatsen är att fortsatta insatser är nödvändiga för att undvika att implementerings-processen avstannar. Resultaten pekade på tre viktiga faktorer att beakta i det fortsatta implementeringsarbetet: tillämpning i det dagliga arbetet, personalens attityd och motivation att förskriva FaR® samt behovet av en stödjande organisation.

     

    Nyckelord: Implementering, Fysisk aktivitet på recept (FaR®), Inställning, Kunskap, Samordning.

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