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  • 201.
    Jackson, Jennie A.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Uppsala universitet.
    Bias and Precision in Biomechanical Exposure Assessment: Making the Most of our Methods2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Insufficient exposure assessment is a suggested contributing factor to the current lack of clearly characterised relationships between occupational biomechanical risk factors and musculoskeletal disorders. Minimal attention has been paid to the potential bias of measurement tools from expected true values (i.e. accuracy) or between measurement tools, and empirical data on the magnitudes of variance contributed by methodological factors for measurement tool precision are lacking.

    Aim: The aim of this thesis was to quantify aspects of bias and precision in three commonly employed biomechanical risk factor assessment tools - inclinometry, observation, and electromyography (EMG) - and provide recommendations guiding their use. Methods: Upper arm elevation angles (UAEAs) were assessed using inclinometers (INC) and by computer-based posture-matching observation, and bias relative to true angles was calculated. Calibration models were developed for INC data, and their efficacy in correcting measurement bias was evaluated. The total variance of trapezius and erector spinae (ES) EMG recordings during cyclic occupational work was partitioned into biological and methodological sources, including the variance uniquely attributable to sub-maximal normalisation. Using algorithms to estimate the precision of a group mean, the efficacy of different trapezius EMG study designs was evaluated. Using precision criteria, the efficacy of different normalisation methods was assessed for ES EMG recordings.

    Results and Discussion: Inclinometer measured UAEAs were biased from true angles, with increasing bias at higher angles. In contrast, computer based posture-matching observations were not biased from true angles. Calibration models proved effective at minimizing INC data bias. The dispersion of estimates between- and within- observers at any given set angle underlined the importance of repeated observations when estimating UAEAs. For EMG, a unique but relatively small component of the total variance was attributable to the methodological process of normalisation. Performing three repeats of the trapezius EMG normalisation task proved optimal at minimizing variance for one-day EMG studies, while two repeats sufficed for multi-day EMG studies. A prone normalisation task proved superior for maximizing normalised lumbar ES EMG precision.

    Conclusion: Key aspects of measurement tool accuracy, bias between tools, and tool precision were quantified, and recommendations were made to guide future research study design.

  • 202.
    Jackson, Jennie A.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Callaghan, Jack
    Department of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.
    Dempsey, Patrick
    National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Pittsburgh, USA.
    Precision based guidelines for sub-maximal normalisation task selection for trunk extensor EMG2017Inngår i: Journal of Electromyography & Kinesiology, ISSN 1050-6411, E-ISSN 1873-5711, Vol. 37, s. 41-51Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The object of this study was to quantify the contribution of sub-maximal normalisation to the overall variance of exposure parameters describing erector spinae (ES) activity, and to provide guidelines for task selection which minimize methodological variance. Methods: ES EMG was measured from three locations (T9, L1 and L5 levels) on fifteen men performing a manual materials handling task in the laboratory on three separate days. Four repeats of each of eleven sub-maximal normalisation tasks (eight static, three dynamic) were collected, work data were normalised to each task and repeat, and exposure parameters calculated. The unique contribution of normalisation to the overall variance was determined for each task and exposure parameter using variance component analyses. Normalisation tasks were scored according to their relative contributions to the overall variance and coefficients of variation.

    Results: A prone task, similar to the Biering-Sørensen test posture, was the most repeatable for all electrode locations and across all exposure parameters. Thoracic level normalisation typically showed poorer repeatability than lumbar normalisation.

    Discussion: We recommend that future ES EMG studies employing sub-maximal normalisation utilise said prone task. An alternate normalisation task specific to thoracic level ES muscles may be warranted.

  • 203.
    Jackson, Jennie A
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada ; Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety, Hopkinton, USA.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Dempsey, Patrick G.
    Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety, Hopkinton, USA.
    Methodological variance associated with normalization of occupational upper trapezius EMG using submaximal reference contractions2009Inngår i: Journal of Electromyography & Kinesiology, ISSN 1050-6411, E-ISSN 1873-5711, Vol. 19, nr 3, s. 416-427Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To quantify the variance introduced to trapezius electromyography (EMG) through normalization by submaximal reference voluntary exertions (RVE), and to investigate the effect of increased normalization efforts as compared to other changes in data collection strategy on the precision of occupational EMG estimates. Methods: Women performed four RVE contractions followed by 30 minutes of light, cyclic assembly work on each of two days. Work cycle EMG was normalized to each of the RVE trials and seven exposure parameters calculated. The proportions of exposure variance attributable to subject, day within subject, and cycle and normalization trial within day were determined. Using this data, the effect on the precision of the exposure mean of altering the number of subjects, days, cycles and RVEs during data collection was simulated. Results: For all exposure parameters a unique component of variance due to normalization was present, yet small: less than 4.4% of the total variance. The resource allocation simulations indicated that marginal improvements in the precision of a group exposure mean would occur above three RVE repeats for EMG collected on one day, or beyond two RVEs for EMG collected on two or more days.

  • 204.
    Jackson, Jennie A.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Liv, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Centre for Research and Development, Uppsala University/Region Gävleborg, Gävle.
    Observer performance in estimating upper arm elevation angles under ideal viewing conditions when assisted by posture matching software2016Inngår i: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 55, s. 208-215Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Selecting a suitable body posture measurement method requires performance indices of candidate tools. Such data are lacking for observational assessments made at a high degree of resolution. The aim of this study was to determine the performance (bias and between- and within-observer variance) of novice observers estimating upper arm elevation postures assisted by posture matching software to the nearest degree from still images taken under ideal conditions. Estimates were minimally biased from true angles: the mean error across observers was less than 2°. Variance between observers was minimal. Considerable variance within observers, however, underlined the risk of relying on single observations. Observers were more proficient at estimating 0°and 90° postures, and less proficient at 60°. Thus, under ideal visual conditions observers, on average, proved proficient at high resolution posture estimates; further investigation is required to determine how non-optimal image conditions, as would be expected from occupational data, impact proficiency.

  • 205.
    Jackson, Jennie A.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Grado Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
    Identification of individual working styles in a long-cycle assembly task using kinematic and EMG variables2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background.Increased motor variability while performing repetitive tasks has been suggested to decrease the risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders. However, support for this positive effect is lacking outside of short, simple, highly controlled tasks. It is also currently unknown whether or not existing motor variability metrics are viable for characterising occupational tasks. The purpose of this study was to assess motor variability during a long-cycle simulated occupational task. Using metrics previously validated for short-cycle tasks, this study aimed to determine the extent to which: (1) individuals dif-fered in motor variability with respect to kinematics and/or EMG activation; (2) individual motor variability was consistent across days; and (3) kinematics and EMG motor variability were correlated.

    Methods.Following a stringent, three-day training regime, 15 females proved sufficiently proficient to participate. On two occasions, participants performed 36 cycles of an assembly task (combining gross and fine motor skills) at 110 MTM pacing (51 s per cycle). For each cycle, multiple upper arm kinematic and trapezius EMG summary mean and SD variables were calculated; for each variable, the variability across the 36 cycles was assessed. The relative size of variability across individuals, and the consistency of each individual’s motor behaviour across days were assessed using kinematic and EMG vari-ables. The correlation between kinematic and EMG variables was also assessed.

    Results.Distinct individual behaviours were observed across days: some participants were clearly more consistent in their motor behaviour than others. Further, a high correlation was found between some kinematic and muscle activation variables.

    Discussion. Using previously validated upper arm assessment metrics, we were able to differentiate between individuals performing a long-cycle assembly task based on their degree of motor variability. Given the nature of our study task, we believe the metrics that we found to be successful at identifying individual behaviours could be used for assessing field tasks.

  • 206.
    Jackson, Jennie
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Uppsala University.
    Banerjee-Guénette, Priyanka
    University of Waterloo, Department of Kinesiology, Faculty of Applied Health Sciences.
    Gregory, Diane
    Wilfrid Laurier University, Health Sciences Program and Department of Kinesiology.
    Callaghan, Jack
    University of Waterloo, Department of Kinesiology, Faculty of Applied Health Sciences.
    Should we be more on the ball?: The efficacy of accommodation training on lumbar spine posture, muscle activity, and perceived discomfort during stability ball sitting2013Inngår i: Human Factors, ISSN 0018-7208, E-ISSN 1547-8181, Vol. 55, nr 6, s. 1064-1076Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of a nine-day accommodation protocol on reducing perceived discomfort while sitting on a stability ball (SB); trunk muscle activity levels and lumbar spinal postures were also considered.

    Background: Previous studies have compared SB sitting to office chair sitting with few observed differences in muscle activity or posture; however, greater discomfort during SB sitting has been reported.  These findings may indicate an accommodation period is necessary to acclimate to SB sitting.

    Methods: Six males and six females completed two separate, two-hour sitting sessions on an SB.  Half the participants completed a nine-day accommodation period between the visits while the other half did not use an SB during the time. On both occasions, self-reported perceived discomfort ratings were collected along with erector spinae and abdominal muscle activity and lumbar spinal postures.

    Results: Discomfort ratings were reduced in female participants following the accommodation; no effects on muscle activation or lumbar spine postures were observed.

    Conclusion: Accommodation training may reduce perceived low back discomfort in females. Trunk muscle activity and lumbar spine postures during seated office work on an SB did not differ between groups; however, greater sample power was required to conclusively address these variables.

    Application: When deciding whether to use an SB in place of a standard office chair, this study indicates females electing to use an SB can decrease discomfort by following an accommodation protocol; no evidence was found to indicate SB chair use will improve trunk strength or posture, even following an accommodation period. 

  • 207.
    Jackson, Jennie
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Institutet för miljömedicin, Karolinska institutet, Stockholm.
    Heiden, Marina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Waleh Åström, Amanda
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Symposium: Measuring posture in working life: Observation or inclinometry? [Mätning av arbetsställningar: observation eller inklinometri?]2018Inngår i: FALF KONFERENS 2018 Arbetet – problem eller potential för en hållbar livsmiljö?   10-12 juni 2018 Gävle: Program och abstracts / [ed] Lindberg, Per, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2018, s. 38-40Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantifying postures during work is a key aspect of understanding the physical loads experienced by the body at work. Two commonly used tools to assess posture are observation and inclinometry. Observation can be performed in many ways, from real-time observations made at the worksite assessing gross body postures, to estimates of individual joint angles made by observers assessing still images taken from video recorded at the work site. Inclinometry is a direct technical measurement tool which typically uses tri-axial accelerometers to determine angles of specific body segments with respect to the line of gravity. Regardless of which tool is used, it will introduce some variability between repeated measurements of a same posture – this is called method-logical variability. Over the past ten years we have worked extensively in our Cost-efficient measurement of physical exposures research program to quantify the magnitude of error resulting from different measurement strategies – both in terms of bias (that is, the difference between the truth and the measured values) and precision (that is, how different repeated estimates of a same posture are). Further, we have compared the monetary costs and relative performances (in terms of measurement quality) of different measurement strategies. From these studies we have developed a set of recommendations to guide effective posture assessment.

    We assessed bias in both observation and inclinometry to determine how close posture estimates were to the true body segment angles. Under ideal observation conditions, observers were not biased in estimating upper arm elevation angles (1). Conversely, we found a systematic underestimation of upper arm elevation angles made using inclino-metry, particularly for angles at or above 60° (2). We developed a simple, on-body incli-nometry calibration procedure, and determined it was effective at reducing inclinometer bias (2).

    We investigated how data sampling should be distributed within and across days, and how much data was required to obtain a specific level of precision. Regardless of the tool, we found that efficiency was improved by distributing shorter sampling periods using a fixed-interval strategy across an entire day or days rather than collecting one longer period (3,4). Precision of inclinometer data is high and thus a single measurement of an event is sufficient. In contrast, observation requires repeated estimates of an image, even under ideal conditions (1, 5). For observation of still images from videos, we determined that efficiency was improved by assessing images extracted at set intervals across the recorded data (i.e. a work sampling approach) rather than making estimates based on continuously viewed intervals of video data (5). Further, repeated observations by one or more observers of a smaller number of frames of data improved the precision of angle estimates compared with a single observer rating a larger number of frames (6). In the case that a worker is obstructed from the camera view, additional frame analysis may be required and the uncertainty of the angle estimate may increase (7).

    We developed models to assess the net cost of each method, including equipment acquisition, data collection and data analysis. While the initial expense may seem higher for inclinometers, cost gains are made during collection and analysis stages compared to the work-intensive post-collection efforts required for observation. We found that inclinometry was more cost efficient than observation in certain settings (8), but that uncertainty exists even in cost assessment models and thus that cost-efficiency is situation-dependent (9).

    There are strengths and weaknesses to both tools and one must evaluate the goals of each data collection and the relative merits of each tool when determining the appropriate assessment method. Observation may be preferable for studies seeking a general impression of a working day, identifying the tasks comprising a working day, assessing twisting during work, or assessing whether anatomical segments are loaded or supported during work. Inclinometers may be preferred for studies requiring full day or multi-day assessments, a high degree of accuracy and precision in angle estimates, information on segmental movement velocities, and/or studies where workers cannot be adequately filmed. Rapid advances in inclinometer technology and smart phone analogues will serve to further minimise set-up times and acquisition costs, making direct technical measurement increasingly feasible.

    1. Jackson, J. A., Mathiassen, S. E. & Liv, P. Observer performance in estimating upper arm elevation angles under ideal viewing conditions when assisted by posture matching software. Appl. Ergon. 55, 208–215 (2016).

    2. Jackson, J. A., Mathiassen, S. E., Wahlström, J., Liv, P. & Forsman, M. Is what you see what you get? Standard inclinometry of set upper arm elevation angles. Appl. Ergon. 47, 242–252 (2015).

    3. Liv, P., Mathiassen, S. E. & Svendsen, S. W. Theoretical and empirical efficiency of sampling strategies for estimating upper arm elevation. Ann. Occup. Hyg. 55, 436–449 (2011).

    4. Liv, P., Mathiassen, S. E. & Svendsen, S. W. Accuracy and precision of variance components in occupational posture recordings: A simulation study of different data collection strategies. BMC Med. Res. Methodol. 12, 58–68 (2012).

    5. Rezagholi, M., Mathiassen, S. E. & Liv, P. Cost efficiency comparison of four video-based techniques for assessing upper arm postures. Ergonomics 55, 350–360 (2012).

    6. Liv, P., Mathiassen, S. E. & Wahlström, J. Statistical power and measurement requirements in studies comparing observed postures between groups. (PhD Thesis, Umeå University, 2012).

    7. Trask, C., Mathiassen, S. E., Rostami, M. & Heiden, M. Observer variability in posture assessment from video recordings: The effect of partly visible periods. Appl. Ergon. 60, 275–281 (2017).

    8. Trask, C., Mathiassen, S. E., Jackson, J.A. & Wahlström, J. Data processing costs for three posture assessment methods. BMC Med. Res. Methodol. 13, 124–137 (2013).

    9. Waleh Åström, A., Heiden, M., Mathiassen, S. E. & Strömberg, A. Uncertainty in monetary cost estimates for assessing working postures using inclinometry, observation or self-report. in review, (2018).

  • 208.
    Jackson, Jennie
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    The trade-off between meticulousness and methodological variance in normalization of low back EMG2012Inngår i: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, nr Suppl. 1, s. 2307-2314Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Normalization of surface electromyography (EMG) is a common and recommended practice, however this methodological step itself introduces variability to a data set. Quantification of this variance is necessary to correctly interpret overall EMG variability. This information is also paramount to identifying experimentally and clinically relevant normalization task(s) which minimize induced variance yet are time-efficient. Purpose: The goal of this study was to quantify the within-day variance of two commonly reported, sub-maximal tasks utilised for low back EMG normalization: one collected with a high degree of meticulousness, and the other collected in a more rapid manner. Results: Only minimal differences were seen between tasks in the magnitude of within-day variance for EMG amplitude at all recording sites, save the right-side L5 location, which showed a significant difference (p=0.020). For trunk posture, within-day variance for the highly meticulous tasks was significantly higher than for the less-meticulous task (p=0.011). Conclusion: A less meticulous sub-maximal normalization task performed in a standing position was equal or superior to a more meticulously collected task in terms of kinematic task repeatability and within-day EMG variance. These findings are encouraging for field study applications where meticulous methods are not feasible, and provide a time saving strategy for lab studies.

  • 209.
    Jackson, Jennie
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Wahlström, Jens
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Liv, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Centre for Research and Development, Uppsala University/County Council of Gävleborg, Gävle, Sweden .
    Forsman, Mikael
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Digging deeper into the assessment of upper arm elevation angles using standard inclinometry2015Inngår i: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 51, s. 102-103Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 210.
    Jackson, Jennie
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Wahlström, Jens
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University.
    Liv, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Centre for Research and Development, Uppsala University/County Council of Gävleborg.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Is what you see what you get? Standard inclinometry of set upper arm elevation angles2015Inngår i: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 47, s. 242-252Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research suggests inclinometers (INC) underestimate upper arm elevation. This study was designed to quantify possible bias in occupationally relevant postures, and test whether INC performance could be improved using calibration.

    Participants were meticulously positioned in set arm flexion and abduction angles between 0° and 150°. Different subject-specific and group-level regression models comprising linear and quadratic components describing the relationship between set and INC-registered elevation were developed using subsets of data, and validated using additional data.

    INC measured arm elevation showed a downward bias, particularly above 60°.  INC data adjusted using the regression models were superior to un-adjusted data; a subject-specific, two-point calibration based on measurements at 0° and 90° gave results closest to the ‘true’ set angles.

    Thus, inclinometer measured arm elevation data required calibration to arrive at ‘true’ elevation angles. Calibration to a common measurement scale should be considered when comparing arm elevation data collected using different methods.

  • 211.
    Jackson, Jennie
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Punnett, Laura
    Department of Work Environment, University of Massachusetts Lowell.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Statistical precision of categorical PATH observations of trunk posture2012Inngår i: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, nr Suppl. 1, s. 5519-5521Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Field studies assessing biomechanical occupational exposures frequently utilize direct observation. PATH (Postures, Activities, Tools, and Handling) is a tool for systematically observing occupational exposures during non-cyclic or long, irregular-cycle jobs. While PATH has been used in many studies, its statistical performance under different data collection strategies has not yet been investigated. The purpose of the current study was to examine this issue. Methods: Data from labourers performing the four tasks comprising a ‘Jacking Pit Construction’ operation was extracted from a previously collected data set. Using a probability based re-sampling bootstrap approach, categorical trunk posture exposure data was compared across nine simulated data collection strategies. Results/Conclusion: At the operational level, dispersion curves showed consistent trends of increased precision with increased sizes of the data set and curves tended to intersect at the expected value seen in the parent data set. At the task level, curves did not always follow the predicted pattern, highlighting the potential pitfalls of using PATH for infrequent tasks and the striking effect that individual workers can have on group exposure estimates of such tasks.

  • 212.
    Jackson, Jennie
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Consistent individual motor variability traits demonstrated by females performing a long-cycle assembly task under conditions differing in temporal organisation2019Inngår i: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Low motor variability (MV) during repetitive work has shown association with higher risk for developing work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Whether consistent individual MV characteristics exist across working conditions remains unknown. This study aimed to determine if individual MV traits were consistent during complex assembly work performed under conditions differing in temporal organisation.

    Fifteen women performed cyclic-assembly under four conditions differing in pace and organisation (line-type, batch-type). Variability of trapezius muscle activity and upper arm elevation was quantified. Total MV variance was partitioned into components attributable to subjects, days and conditions.

    For all metrics, a non-zero between-subjects variance was found, indicating consistent individual MV traits across conditions. Variance between subjects was higher for EMG MV metrics compared with kinematic metrics.

    Our results showed individuals exhibited consistent MV traits across working conditions differing in pace and production process, and support continued research into MV as a possible individual risk factor for MSDs.

  • 213.
    Jackson, Jennie
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Is movement variability a consistent personal trait? Kinematic evidence from long-cycle assembly work2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 214.
    Jahncke, Helena
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Omväxlande fysiska och mentala arbetsuppgifter i detaljhandel och industri – hur mycket förekommer det, och vad önskar de anställda? 2018Inngår i: FALF KONFERENS 2018. Arbetet - problem eller potential för en hållbar livsmiljö? Gävle 10-12 juni 2018: Program och Abstracts / [ed] Lindberg, Per, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2018, s. 56-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 215.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Edvinsson, Johanna
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Bjärntoft, Sofie
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Bergsten, Eva
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Larsson, Johan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Uppsala universitet, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Flexibelt arbete: Hälsofrämjande interventioner för en hållbar digitalisering: Kartlägning hösten 20162017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 216.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Edvinsson, Johanna
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Bjärntoft, Sofie
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Larsson, Johan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Symposium: Återhämtning och ledarskap i flexibla arbeten: resultat från ett forskningsprojekt på Trafikverket2018Inngår i: FALF KONFERENS 2018 Arbetet – problem eller potential för en hållbar livsmiljö?   10-12 juni 2018 Gävle: Program och abstracts / [ed] Lindberg, Per, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2018, s. 78-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion

    Den stressrelaterade ohälsan ökar i samhället i stort och det är möjligt att bristande återhämtning kan vara bidragande. Det finns dock ännu inte några tydliga svar på hur ett gynnsamt mönster av arbete och återhämtning bör se ut. Frågan om balansen mellan krav i arbetet och möjligheter till återhämtning är särskilt aktuell i yrken där digital teknik möjliggör flexibelt arbete, dvs. ett arbete där de anställda till stor del själva kan styra över sin arbetstid, sitt arbetsställe och/eller sitt arbetssätt. Möjligheten att arbeta flexibelt kan innebära både för- och nackdelar för såväl individen som organisationen och medföra nya utmaningar för chefer när det gäller hur de ska leda sina medarbetare på ett hälsofrämjande sätt. Samtidigt kan flexibiliteten underlätta för medarbetare att få ihop livspusslet och att anpassa arbetsinsatsen utifrån arbetstoppar, vilket kan gynna organisationens produktivitet. Risken är dock att den stressrelaterade ohälsan ökar om balansen mellan arbete och återhämtning rubbas genom t.ex. övertidsarbete och ständig tillgänglighet till arbetet på ogynnsamma tider.

    Det här symposiet presenterar resultat från ett forskningsprojekt som undersökt flexibelt arbete på Trafikverket. I ett första steg genomfördes en kartläggning av arbetsvillkor, återhämtning och hälsa med hjälp av en webbaserad enkät till 4926 anställda. Resultaten från kartläggningen har sedan legat till grund för fokusgruppsdiskussioner med chefer och medarbetare, där åtgärdsförslag har tagits fram i syfte att förstärka fördelarna och reducera riskerna med flexibelt arbete. Även åtgärdsförslagen från fokusgrupperna kommer att presenteras vid symposiet.

  • 217.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggvetenskap - tillämpad psykologi.
    Hygge, Staffan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggvetenskap - tillämpad psykologi.
    Halin, Niklas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggvetenskap - tillämpad psykologi.
    Green, Anne Marie
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggvetenskap - tillämpad psykologi.
    Dimberg, Kent
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Biologi.
    An experiment on noise and cognition in a simulated open-plan office2010Inngår i: 39th International Congress on Noise Control Engineering 2010, INTER-NOISE 2010, Lisbon, Portugal: Portuguese acoustical society , 2010, Vol. 4, s. 2827-2836Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate cognitive, emotional, and physiological effects of two background noise conditions (high noise: 51 LAeq and low noise: 39 LAeq) during work in a simulated open-plan office, followed by four restoration conditions (river movie with sound, only river sound, silence, and office noise) after the work period. Students (N = 47) went through one practice session and two experimental sessions, one each with the low and high noise conditions. In each experimental session they worked for two hours with tasks involving basic working memory processes. We also took physiological measures of stress (cortisol and catecholamine) and self-reports of mood and fatigue. The results showed that the participants remembered fewer words, rated themselves as more tired and less motivated in high noise compared to low noise. The participants showed high levels of cortisol when they arrived to the experimental session and they had a significant (p <.001) decline in both noise conditions after two hours of work. An identical decline was shown in the norepinephrine levels (p < 0.001). The restoration phase also indicated that the sound conditions may promote different restorative experiences. To conclude, the present study showed that noise level can be of importance for working memory performance and subjective feelings of tiredness and motivation in an open-plan office and that varying sound conditions may promote different restorative experiences.

  • 218.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hygge, Staffan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöpsykologi.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mixter, Susanna
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    A cross-sectional study of alternations between physical and mental tasks2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Health and well-being at work is generally assumed to be associated with sufficient physical and mental variation. Job rotation, where workers typically alternate between different physical tasks, is a popular initiative. Controlled experiments suggest that favourable effects are associated with alternations between mental and physical tasks, but little is known about this intervention in real work. The aims of this study were (1) to describe the occurrence of alternations between mental and physical tasks, and (2) to identify key determinants of such alternations.

    Method. We developed a questionnaire combining established questions with specific questions about alternations. Workers from two occupations (industrial and non-industrial blue-collar work), in jobs containing both physical and mental tasks, were included in the study. 122 (55 females) out of 293 workers approached at four companies answered the questionnaire.

    Results. On average, the workers alternated 3.5 times per day between mental and physical tasks. In the non-industrial companies, workers reported wanting more alternations than they had, while desired and actual alternations did not differ in the industrial companies. This effect of occupation on the difference between the number of alternations wanted and the actual alternations available was significant (p < 0.001). Furthermore, there was a general preference for performing a physical task after a mental task, and vice versa. This main effect of primarily performed task type (i.e. either physical or mental) on preferred subsequent task type was significant (p < 0.001). In a univariate analysis, gender appeared to be a strong determinant of the occurrence of alternations, but the effect was absorbed when adding the occupation variable.

    Discussion. Within the studied companies, work offered alternations between mental and physical tasks and there was a preference among workers to alternate between tasks. Occupation rather than gender was a key determinant of the number of alternations reported.

  • 219.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hygge, Staffan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöpsykologi.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mixter, Susanna
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Variation at work: alternations between physically and mentally demanding tasks in blue-collar occupations2017Inngår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 60, nr 9, s. 1218-1227Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this questionnaire study were to describe the occurrence and desired number of alternations between mental and physical tasks in industrial and non-industrial blue-collar work, and determine to which extent selected personal and occupational factors influence these conditions. On average, the 122 participating workers (55 females) reported to have close to four alternations per day between mental and physical tasks, and to desire more alternations than they actually had. They also expressed a general preference for performing a physical task after a mental task and vice versa. In univariate regression models, the desired change in task alternations was significantly associated with Gender, Age, Occupation, Years with current work tasks, and Perceived job control, while Occupation was the only significant determinant in a multiple regression model including all factors. Our results suggest that alternations between productive physical and mental tasks could be a viable option in future job rotation.

  • 220.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Persson, Lina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Aktivitetsbaserade arbetsplatser: Koncentration, stillasittande och hälsa i jämförelse med traditionella kontor: Kartläggning år 2015-20172017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 221.
    Januario, Leticia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap.
    Karstad, Kristina
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Dk.
    Rugulies, Reiner
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Dk.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Dk.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Association between psychosocial working conditions and perceived physical exertion among eldercare workers: a cross-sectional multilevel analysis of nursing homes, wards and workers2019Inngår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, nr 19, artikkel-id 3610Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This cross-sectional multilevel study aims at investigating the associations between psychosocial working conditions of different workplace levels and perceived physical exertion among eldercare workers. Data were obtained from the ‘Danish Observational Study of Eldercare work and musculoskeletal disorderS’ (DOSES) study, including 536 eldercare workers, nested in 126 wards and 20 nursing homes. Psychosocial working conditions were measured by the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ). The physical workload was measured with a self-administered scale (0–10) rating perceived physical exertion. Multilevel linear mixed models were used to determine associations of psychosocial conditions between nursing homes, wards, and workers with physical exertion. Most of the variance in the perceived physical exertion was explained by differences between workers (83%), but some variance was explained by wards (11%) and nursing homes (6%). Workers employed in nursing homes with low influence (p = 0.01) and poor leadership (p = 0.02), and in wards with high quantitative demands (p = 0.03), high work pace (p < 0.001), and low justice (p = 0.01) were at increased risk of reporting higher physical exertion. The strongest associations were found for low influence, low quality of leadership, and high work pace at nursing homes and ward levels. In conclusion, improving specific psychosocial working conditions at nursing home and ward levels may be of particular importance to reduce excessive physical workload in eldercare workers

  • 222.
    Jarebrant, Caroline
    et al.
    Swerea IVF Mölndal; Institutionen för sociologi och arbetsvetenskap, Göteborgs universitet.
    Winkel, Jörgen
    Institutionen för sociologi och arbetsvetenskap, Göteborgs universitet; Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark.
    Johansson Hanse, Jan
    Psykologiska institutionen, Göteborgs universitet.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Öjmertz, Birgitta
    Swerea IVF Mölndal.
    ErgoVSM: A tool for integrating Value Stream Mapping and ergonomics in manufacturing2016Inngår i: Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing, ISSN 1090-8471, E-ISSN 1520-6564, Vol. 26, nr 2, s. 191-204Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Value stream mapping (VSM) is a Lean tool aiming at waste reduction. Previous research suggests that the use of VSM may result in work intensification and thus an increased risk for the workers of developing work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSD). In the current study, VSM has been developed to also consider physical exposure in the analyzed production system (ErgoVSM). As the VSM, ErgoVSM is based on a participatory approach. ErgoVSM was tested in Swedish manufacturing industry. The results suggest that ErgoVSM catalyzes change processes that include intervention proposals emphasizing ergonomics in addition to waste reduction. Thus, it seems to be usable for the intended target group of engineers. The suggested performance improvements obtained by VSM seem not to be hampered by adding the ergonomics complement. However, the use of ErgoVSM is somewhat more time-consuming than the use of VSM. In conclusion, ErgoVSM may be suggested as a feasible tool to be used by production planners for including ergonomics considerations in the rationalization process.

  • 223.
    Jensen, B. R.
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Krag, I. R.
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Bronée, L.
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Crenshaw, Albert G.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Tissue oxygenation and haemoglobin kinetics as a function of depth in two shoulder muscles differing in fibre-type composition2010Inngår i: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 40, nr 2, s. 135-139Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim was to examine the effects of measurement depth on tissue oxygenation, and haemoglobin kinetics in the oxidative supraspinatus/trapezius muscle and in the deltoid muscle. Seven female subjects performed dynamic arm abductions (0.5 Hz) with an external load of 1.2 kg at level of the elbows. Tissue oxygenation (StO2) expressed as %StO2 saturation, total haemoglobin (HbT) , oxyhaemoglobin (HbO2) and deoxyhaemoglobin (Hb) were measured in two different measurement depth using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). HbT reflects blood volume. Measurements were performed simultaneously in the supraspinatus/trapezius and in the anterior part of the deltoid muscles.

    The average StO2 level at rest was in general lower in the supraspinatus/trapezius muscles (67.7(5.3) % StO2) than in the deltoid muscle (85.4(4.4) % StO2). Submaximal dynamic arm abductions resulted in decreased StO2 in both muscles. However, the initial decrease was steeper and larger for the deltoid muscle than for the supraspinatus/trapezius region. Correspondingly, the initial reoxygenation in the recovery phase was faster for the deltoid muscle than for the supraspinatus/trapezius muscle.

    At rest no differences in StO2 were found with increasing measurement depth in any of the two muscles. However, during exercise StO2 decreased with increasing measurement depth in the deltoid muscle whereas StO2 was more homogeneous in the supraspinatus/trapezius muscle.

    Furthermore, HbT and HbO2 were largely maintained in the supraspinatus/trapezius muscle whereas HbT and HbO2 decreased during exercise and with increasing measurement depth (HbT) in the deltoid muscle. Hb increased during exercise in both muscles.

    The hemodynamic differential responses to exercise for the two regions may reflect a combined effect of differences in muscle fibre composition and a dependency of depth related changes in the intramuscular pressure during exercise. Thus, the supraspinatus/trapezius muscles seems to be more

    efficiently adapted to the oxygen demand during submaximal dynamic exercise than the deltoid muscle although the intramuscular pressure during the contractions is expected to be higher in the supraspinatus muscle than in the deltoid muscle.

    In conclusion, muscle hemodynamic responses to dynamic exercise are highly muscle specific and may be spatially homogeneous or inhomogeneous depending on the muscle

  • 224.
    Johansson, Amanda
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Forsgren, Sture
    Department of Integrative Medical Biology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Stenberg, Berndt
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Wilen, Jonna
    Department of Radiation Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Kaiezic, Nebojsa
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Sandstrom, Monica
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    No effect of mobile phone-like RF exposure on patients with atopic dermatitis2008Inngår i: Bioelectromagnetics, ISSN 0197-8462, E-ISSN 1521-186X, Vol. 29, nr 5, s. 353-362Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the effect of exposure to a mobile phone-like radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field on people with atopic dermatitis (AD). Fifteen subjects with AD were recruited and matched with 15 controls without AD. The subjects were exposed for 30 min to an RF field at 1 W/kg via an indoor base station antenna attached to a 900 MHz GSM mobile phone. Blood samples for ELISA analysis of the concentration of substance P (SP), tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNF RI), and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in serum were drawn before and after the provocation (exposure/sham). Baseline heart rate and heart rate variability, local blood flow, and electrodermal activity were also recorded. No significant differences between the subject groups were found for baseline neurophysiological data. The cases displayed a serum concentration of TNF RI significantly higher than the control subjects and a significantly lower serum concentration of BDNF in the baseline condition. For SP there was no difference between groups. However, no effects related to RF exposure condition were encountered for any of the measured substances. As to symptoms, a possible correlation with exposure could not be evaluated, due to too few symptom reports. The result of the study does not support the hypothesis of an effect of mobile phone-like RF exposure on serum levels of SP, TNF RI, and BDNF in persons with AD.

  • 225.
    Johansson, Amanda
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University.
    Heiden, Marina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Sandstrom, Monica
    Umeå Unversity.
    Symptoms, personality traits, and stress in people with mobile phone-related symptoms and electromagnetic hypersensitivity2010Inngår i: Journal of Psychosomatic Research, ISSN 0022-3999, E-ISSN 1879-1360, Vol. 68, nr 1, s. 37-45Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Some people report symptoms that they associate with electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure. These symptoms may be related to specific EMF sources or to electrical equipment in general (perceived electromagnetic hypersensitivity, EHS). Research and clinical observations suggest a difference between mobile phone (MP)-related symptoms and El-IS with respect to symptom prevalence, psychological factors, and health prognosis. This study assessed prevalence of EMF-related and EMF-nonrelated symptoms, anxiety, depression, somatization, exhaustion, and stress in people with MP-related symptoms or EHS versus a population-based sample and a control sample without EMF-related symptoms. Methods: Forty-five participants with MP-related symptoms and 71 with EHS were compared with a population-based sample (n=106) and a control group (n=63) using self-report questionnaires. Results: The EHS group reported more symptoms than the MP group, both EMF-related and EMF-nonrelated. The MP group reported a high prevalence of somatosensory symptoms, whereas the EHS group reported more neurasthenic symptoms. As to self-reported personality traits and stress, the case groups differed only on somatization and listlessness in a direct comparison. In comparison with the reference groups, the MP group showed increased levels of exhaustion and depression but not of anxiety, somatization, and stress; the EHS group showed increased levels for all of the conditions except for stress. Conclusion: The findings support the idea of a difference between people with symptoms related to specific EMF sources and people with general EHS with respect to symptoms and anxiety, depression, somatization, exhaustion, and stress. The differences are likely to be important in the management of patients. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 226.
    Johansson, Elin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Lund Rasmussen, Charlotte
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Compositional analysis of sedentary behavior and physical activity during work and leisure among male and female office workers2019Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To determine the extent to which male and female office workers differ in their time-use composition of sitting behaviors (SB) and physical activity (PA) during work and leisure.

    Methods: SB and PA was measured using thigh-worn accelerometers for up to 8 full days in 77 male and 104 female office workers. Daily time-use compositions during work and leisure were described in four exhaustive categories, i.e. sitting in short (<30  min) and long (≥30 min) bouts, standing, and active behaviors. Following a compositional data analysis procedure, isometric log-ratios (ilr) were calculated to express time in sitting relative to non-sitting, short relative to long sitting bouts, and standing relative to active behaviors. Differences between sexes (men and women) and domains (work and leisure) were examined on the basis of these ilrs using ANOVA.

    Results: At work, time spent sitting in short bouts, long bouts, standing, and active was, on average, 34%, 36%, 22% and 8% among men and 31%, 37%, 24% and 8% among women. Corresponding proportions during leisure were 34%, 25%, 28% and 13% among men and 29%, 28%, 31% and 12% among women. Time spent sitting relative to non-sitting differed significantly between work and leisure (ilr sitting-vs-non-sitting, partial eta squared=0.09, p<0.01). During leisure, men used proportionally more time than women in short sitting bouts (ilr short-vs-long, partial eta squared=0.06, p<0.01) and spent more time in active behaviors relative to standing (ilr standing-vs-active, partial eta squared=0.04, p<0.01). No significant sex differences were observed during work (p>0.05).

    Conclusions:  The leisure behavior observed among men is probably more beneficial for health than that observed for women. However, both men and women spent a major proportion of their time sitting, both at and outside their office work, and they were, in general, only little active. Thus, both men and women could benefit from interventions to reduce SB and increase PA both at work and during leisure.

  • 227.
    Johansson, Elin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Lund Rasmussen, Charlotte
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Sedentary and physical activity behaviours during work and leisure among male and female office workers of different age: A compositional analysis2019Inngår i: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, ISSN 1479-5868, E-ISSN 1479-5868Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 228.
    Johansson, Emma
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Association between age and objectively measured sitting patterns at work in different office types2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Ageing has been associated to ill health due to sedentary behaviour. Limited knowledge exists about age and sedentary behaviour in the working population. Additionally, studies with objectively measured sitting time at work are needed. The current study aimed to investigate the association between age and sitting patterns (volume- and temporal patterns) at work in different office types. Method: Cross-sectional associations were investigated with measurements of sitting with accelerometers (ActiGraph GT3X+) on office-workers (n=101). Written diaries and questionnaires were used to collect information about working time, age and background factors. Main results: Weak associations were found between age and sitting patterns at work. Associations were found between age and short periods of sitting (β= -0.29, SE= 0.01, p<0.05). Office-type (cell-based office and open-plan office) did not modify the associations. No other associations were found after a change to activity-based offices. Conclusion: Overall, age was not associated to sitting patterns at work, except for short periods of sitting, indicating less variation in sitting time at work with higher age. Also, results indicate that office type do not influence the associations investigated in this study. Further research with larger sample sizes is needed to confirm these findings.

  • 229.
    Johansson, Håkan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Belastningsskadecentrum.
    Windhorst, UweHögskolan i Gävle, Belastningsskadecentrum.Djupsjöbacka, MatsHögskolan i Gävle, Belastningsskadecentrum.Passatore, MagdaHögskolan i Gävle, Belastningsskadecentrum.
    Chronic Work-Related Myalgia: Neuromuscular Mechanisms behind Work-Related Chronic Muscle Pain Syndromes2003Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 230.
    Johansson, Håkan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Belastningsskadecentrum.
    Windhorst, Uwe
    Högskolan i Gävle, Belastningsskadecentrum.
    Djupsjöbacka, Mats
    Högskolan i Gävle, Belastningsskadecentrum.
    Passatore, Magda
    Högskolan i Gävle, Belastningsskadecentrum.
    Kronisk arbetsrelaterad muskelsmärta: Neuromuskulära mekanismer bakom arbetsrelaterade kroniska muskulära smärtsyndrom2004Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 231.
    Johansson, Martin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi.
    Ambulanssjuksköterskors syn på möjliga åtgärder för att minska arbetsrelaterad psykisk stress: En kvalitativ studie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Problemformulering: Upprepade traumatiska upplevelser, oförutsägbara situationer, oregelbundna arbetstimmar, tidspress samt otillräcklig tid för återhämtning är bara några få anledningar som bidrar till att ambulanssjuksköterskor lider av stor risk att drabbas av psykisk ohälsa. Långa sjukskrivningar kan bli resultatet av den psykiska ohälsan. I dagsläget används flera metoder för att minska den arbetsrelaterade psykiska stressen men ändå är det ett stort problem. Genom att låta ambulanssjuksköterskorna själva berätta om vad de anser kan vara en möjlig metod för stressreducering kan problemet minska. Metod: En kvalitativ metod användes för att få en djupare förståelse inom det aktuella ämnet. Sex ambulanssjuksköterskor intervjuades, med hjälp av semistrukturerade intervjuer, där de fick berätta om vilka möjliga åtgärder de ansåg kunde minska den arbetsrelaterade psykiska stressen. Intervjuerna transkriberades och analyserades därefter med hjälp av en kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Där togs teman fram som sedan användes i resultatet. Resultat: Respondenterna ansåg att det fanns flera områden där möjliga åtgärder kunde bidra till att minska den arbetsrelaterade psykiska stressen. Sociala relationer, bra ledarskap, kontroll över schema, utbildning, erfarenhet och fritid var de områden där respondenterna ansåg att det fanns möjlighet till potentiella åtgärder. I vissa fall var det nya åtgärder som kunde implementeras och i andra fall var det redan aktuella åtgärder som behövde förbättras eller användas mer frekvent. Slutsats: Det finns flera åtgärder som kan visa sig vara effektiva för att minska den arbetsrelaterade psykiska stressen. Ett bra ledarskap i samband med gemensamt ansvar är essentiellt för att skapa en bra arbetsmiljö. Möjligheten till att eliminera all psykisk stress från arbetet ses som väldigt svårt, men genom möjliga åtgärder kan den minskas eller hanteras. Mer kvalitativ forskning kring detta ämne kan leda till fler svar.

  • 232.
    Johansson, Sara
    et al.
    Department of Health Science, Luleå University of Technology.
    Rissén, Dag
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Centre for Research & Development, Uppsala University/Region of Gävleborg, Gävle, Sweden.
    Fjellman-Wiklund, Annchristine
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University.
    Paarup, Helene M
    Research Unit of Occupational & Environmental Medicine, Clinical Institute, University of Southern Denmark; Department of Occupational Medicine, Hospital of South-west Jutland, Esbjerg.
    Röijezon, Ulrik
    Department of Health Science, Luleå University of Technology.
    Musculoskeletal pain, work posture and physical activity among professional symphony and opera musicians in Sweden2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The objectives were to 1) investigate the point prevalence and the one year prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms among professional classical orchestra musicians, 2) estimate the work posture regarding standing vs. sitting, and the physical activity among the musicians, and 3) investigate associations between pain and gender, work posture, and physical activity.

    Methods: The study is part of an ongoing national survey investigating the health situation among Swedish professional orchestra musicians. The data were collected from two orchestras. Seventy-eight musicians (80%) participated, aged 45 ±9.6 years with 41% women.

    Result: Ninety-one percent of the musicians reported pain during the last 12 months; 80% at more than one site. For both men and women the most frequently reported problem within the last year was neck pain (figure 1). While 96% of the musicians had a seated work posture all or most of the time in the orchestra, work posture was more diverse while practicing alone (figure 2). In total 73% (for females 67%; for males 77%) of the musicians fulfilled the Nordic recommendations for physical activity. Binominal logistic regressions including pain prevalence during last 12 months and gender, work posture, and physical activity were significant for hip pain (p=0.020) with gender (Odds ratio 4.9, p=0.007) as significant predictor, and knee pain (p=0.035) with work posture (Odds ratio 0.517, p=0.046) as significant predictor.

    Conclusion: In harmony with previous studies [1-2], the majority of the examined orchestra musicians experienced pain at some time point during a year. While almost all musicians play in a sitting position during orchestra rehearsals and concerts, playing posture varied more when practicing alone. Regression models including gender, work posture and physical activity revealed that 1) women were more prone to hip pain compared to men, 2) an association between knee pain and standing posture, while 3) no impact was found for physical activity in these preliminary results.

  • 233.
    Kaiser, Niclas
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Division of Psychiatry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sjölander, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Southern Lapland Research Department, Vilhelmina, Sweden.
    Liljegren, Annette Edin
    Southern Lapland Research Department, Vilhelmina, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Division of Psychiatry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Renberg, Ellinor Salander
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Division of Psychiatry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Depression and anxiety in the reindeer-herding Sami population of Sweden2010Inngår i: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 1239-9736, E-ISSN 2242-3982, Vol. 69, nr 4, s. 383-393Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. The objective of this study was to investigate symptoms and predicting factors of depression and anxiety among reindeer-herding Sami in Sweden. Study design. A total of 319 reindeer-herding Sami (168 men, 151 women) were compared with urban and rural reference populations comprising 1,393 persons (662 men, 731 women). Methods. A cross-sectional questionnaire study on mental health, which included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Data were analysed with regard to population, gender, age group, education and work-related stress. Results. The Sami population disclosed higher mean values for both depression and anxiety than the reference groups, with Sami men reporting the highest rates. Work-related stress was associated with anxiety and depression in the Sami group. Conclusions. By comparing Sami men and women with reference groups of men and women living in urban and rural areas in northern Sweden, this study identified that reindeer-herding Sami men require special attention with regard to mental health problems.

  • 234.
    Kalezic, Nebojsa
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Sports Medicine Unit, Umea University, Sweden.
    Noborisaka, Yuka
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Department of Psyichiatry, Matsubara Hospital, Japan.
    Nakata, Minori
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Department of Hygiene, Kanazawa Medical University, Japan.
    Crenshaw, Albert G.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    Biomedical Engineering and Informatics, University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF.
    Eriksson, Per-Olof
    Clinical Oral Physiology, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Cardiovascular and muscle activity during chewing in whiplash-associated disorders (WAD)2010Inngår i: Archives of Oral Biology, ISSN 0003-9969, E-ISSN 1879-1506, Vol. 55, nr 6, s. 447-453Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. The present study aimed to elucidate possible physiological mechanisms behind impaired endurance during chewing as previously reported in WAD. We tested the hypothesis of a stronger autonomic reaction in WAD than in healthy subjects in response to dynamic loading of the jaw-neck motor system. Design. Cardiovascular reactivity, muscle fatigue indicies of EMG, and perceptions of fatigue, exhaustion and pain were assessed during standardised chewing. Twenty-one WAD subjects and a gender/age matched control group participated. Baseline recordings were followed by two sessions of alternating unilateral chewing of a bolus of gum with each session followed by a rest period. Results. More than half of the WAD subjects terminated the test prematurely due to exhaustion and pain. In line with our hypothesis the chewing evoked an increased autonomic response in WAD exhibited as a higher increase in heart rate as compared to controls. Furthermore, we saw consistently higher values of arterial blood pressure for WAD than for controls across all stages of the experiment. Masseter EMG did not indicate muscle fatigue nor were there group differences in amplitude and mean power frequency. Pain in the WAD group increased during the first session and remained increased, whereas no pain was reported for the controls. Conclusion. More intense response to chewing in WAD might indicate pronounced vulnerability to dynamic loading of the jaw-neck motor system with increased autonomic reactivity to the test. Premature termination and autonomic involvement without EMG signs of muscle fatigue may indicate central mechanisms behind insufficient endurance during chewing.

  • 235.
    Kalezic, Nebojsa
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Åsell, Malin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Vocational Reahabilitiation Center Rygginstitut in Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Kerschbaumer, Helmut
    Vocational Rehabilitation Center Rygginstitut in Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Physiological reactivity to functional tests in patients with chronic low back pain2007Inngår i: Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain, ISSN 1058-2452, E-ISSN 1540-7012, Vol. 15, nr 1, s. 29-40Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate autonomic regulation at rest and in response to functional laboratory tests in patients with chronic low back pain [CLBP], as well as its possible relations to different characteristics of the clinical picture. Methods: Ninety-three CLBP patients [47 females, 45 males; age 38 ± 7 years] and 32 healthy normal control subjects [15 females, 16 males; 36 ± 9 years] participated. Subjects were examined according to the McKenzie procedure, and filled in Short Form 36 and Oswestry Disability Questionnaires in addition to self-reports of pain. An electrocardiogram, finger plethysmogram, respiration, and skin conductance were recorded. Functional tests included the Stroop Color-Word test, orthostatic test, paced breathing, and handgrip. A five-minute baseline recording was followed by four counterbalanced functional tests, separated by twoto three-minute long pauses. Results: An analysis of variance revealed higher baseline heart rate [P = 0.011 in females only], low frequency spectral power [P = 0.001] and electrodermal activity [P = 0.048], and lower high frequency spectral power [P = 0.001]. Each functional test evoked a response, without any group differences in physiological reactivity. There were no significant differences with respect to physiological reactivity between subgroups formed on the basis of prior diagnoses, McKenzie evaluation, VAS pain estimates, Short Form 36, and Oswestry Disability Questionnaire data. The patients did not show high levels of individual response specificity. Conclusions: Presented data show that patients with CLBP exhibit increased sympathetic tonus in comparison with the control group, regardless of CLBP patients' level of pain, functional disability, or clinical status indices

  • 236.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Employees' and managers' perception of a healthy workplace - interviews from three medium-sized companies2015Inngår i: Proceedings 19th Triennial Congress of the IEA, Melbourne 9-14 August 2015, 2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In a recent review by van der Noordt et al. (2014), aimed at systematically summarize the literature on the health effects of employment, strong evidence was found for a protective effect of employment as such on depression and general mental health. Another review by Lindberg & Vingård (2012), aimed at systematically review the scientific literature and search for indicators of healthy working environments, defined as working environments that not just have a lack of detrimental factors at work but also yield a positive return in the form of rich job content, job satisfaction, social participation and personal development (Swedish Work Environment Authority 2010). The authors found 23 studies that either investigated employee´s views of what constitute a healthy workplace or were guidelines for how to create such a workplace. The most pronounced factors, considered as important for a healthy workplace were: collaboration/teamwork; growth and development of the individual; recognition; employee involvement; positive, accessible and fair leadership; autonomy and empowerment; appropriate staffing; skilled communication; and safe physical work (Lindberg and Vingård 2012).

    The knowledge in the field is still rather vague concerning what creates, promotes and sustains health and wellbeing at work among managers and employees and what factors might be the most important. In order to take action we need to further explore and understand these underlying factors, the “healthy work factors”. The aim of this study was therefore to explore how a sample of Swedish blue- and white collar workers describe healthy factors at work as well as understand the concept of wellbeing at work.

  • 237.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    God arbetsmiljö och välbefinnande på arbetet – en intervjustudie på tre medelstora företag2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 238.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    God arbetsmiljö och välbefinnande på arbetet: en intervjustudie på tre medelstora företag2013Inngår i: Arbetslivets föränderlighet: Individ-, organisations- och metodperspektiv / [ed] Sverke, Magnus, Stockholms universitets förlag, 2013, s. 17-17Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion

    Under de senaste decennierna har ett promotivt perspektiv vidgat arbetsmiljödiskursen i Sverige och internationellt. Främjande faktorer antas kunna bidra till såväl individers prestation, hälsa och välbefinnande, som till företags konkurrenskraft och lönsamhet. Den här studien har för avsikt att ur ett arbetstagarperspektiv stärka kunskapen om hälsofrämjande faktorer i arbetslivet.

     

    Syfte

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur en grupp svenska arbetstagare tolkar och beskriver begreppet god arbetsmiljö, vad de anser ger välbefinnande på arbetet samt hur de upplever sin egen arbetsmiljö.

     

    Metod

    På tre medelstora energiföretag genomfördes fokusgrupper med medarbetarna och individuella intervjuer med chefer. Därutöver fick deltagarna svara på en kort enkät rörande demografiska data. Rekrytering till fokusgrupperna gjordes i samarbete med cheferna för de avdelningar forskarna utsett genom strategiskt urval.  Cheferna ombads att rekrytera sex fokusgruppsdeltagare med, så långt det var möjligt, olika arbetsfunktion, kön, ålder, anställningslängd och etniskt ursprung. Tre huvudteman diskuterades vid intervjuerna: 1. Vad är en god arbetsmiljö? 2. Vad ger välbefinnande på arbetet? och 3. Upplevelser av den egna arbetsmiljön. Individual- och fokusgruppsintervjuerna utfördes av försteförfattaren, vid fokusgrupperna assisterad av andreförfattaren med uppgift att ta anteckningar och ställa kompletterande frågor.

     

    Resultat

    Efter 11 fokusgrupper med 3-6 medarbetare per grupp och 10 individualintervjuer med chefer ansågs datamättnad uppnådd. Demografiska data visade att deltagarna (n=62) till 84 % bestod av män, att 58 % fanns i åldersspannet 31-49 år och att 42 % hade en anställningstid av 11 år eller mer. Vid intervjuerna beskrevs visserligen fysiska faktorer (t.ex. lokaler och utrustning) som en fundamental grund i arbetsmiljön, men att psykosociala faktorer (t.ex. kamratskap och arbetsglädje) och organisatoriska faktorer (t.ex. kommunikation, delaktighet och ledarskap) var av större vikt för att skapa en god arbetsmiljö och välbefinnande på arbetet. Ett gott kamratskap var den faktor som, i de flesta fokusgrupper, spontant nämndes först som beskrivning av en god arbetsmiljö. Den egna arbetsmiljön upplevdes generellt som god, dock med en varierande grad av förbättringsbehov.

     

    Slutsatser

    En god arbetsmiljö antas inneha en stor potential för både individer och företag. Den här studien indikerar att psykosociala och organisatoriska faktorer är av stor vikt för att skapa en god arbetsmiljö. Resultatet kan fungera vägledande i företags strävan mot en hälsofrämjande arbetsplats samt i framtida arbetsmiljöforskning.

  • 239.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Berntson, Erik
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Wellbeing at work and the development of a questionnaire2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Improved employee wellbeing has been suggested to contribute to individual motivation and health, as well as to corporate competitiveness (Grawitch et al, 2006). However, in order to reach these potential benefits, we need to better understand the underlying factors that create wellbeing at work and healthy work environments.

    Aim. The aim of the study is to explore how a sample of Swedish blue- and white collar workers interprets the concepts of healthy work environments and workplace wellbeing, as a basis for the development of a questionnaire. In addition, a second aim is to investigate the psychometric properties of the subsequent questionnaire.

    Method. Interviews focusing on healthy work environments and workplace wellbeing were undertaken with managers and employees (n=62) at three medium-sized companies. All interviews were verbatim transcribed and analyzed in order to identify factors reported as important for healthy work environments and workplace wellbeing. The interview findings, together with factors identified in a systematic review about indicators of healthy work environments (Lindberg & Vingård, 2012) were used to develop items for a questionnaire aimed at measuring underlying factors for workplace wellbeing. The questionnaire, including newly constructed “workplace wellbeing items” as well as well-established questions for employee health, working conditions, and organizational factors was distributed to all employees at the three companies, where 74 % (n=303) responded. A retest survey was distributed to a subsample of the participants. 86 % (n=107) responded. 

    Preliminary results. The interview data suggested a broad spectrum of factors to be significant for establishing healthy work environments and workplace wellbeing. These factors represented six categories: Psychosocial climate; Physical working conditions; Communication; Management; Autonomy & Competence; and Values. The survey data showed that the single most important statement for workplace wellbeing was “that work- and family life can be combined in a good way”. Further psychometric properties, including reliability and factor analysis, are being conducted and will be presented at the conference.

    Conclusion. A healthy work environment is believed to hold great potential for both individuals and companies. With a mixed method approach this study test a set of questions measuring factors for a healthy work environment and wellbeing at work.

     

    References

    Grawitch MJ, Gottschalk M, Munz DC. (2006)The path to a healthy workplace: A critical review linking healthy workplace practices, employee well-being, and organizational improvements. Consulting Psychology Journal,58(3):129-47

    Lindberg P & Vingård E. (2012). Indicators of healthy work environments – a systematic review. Work, 41(0), 3032-3038.

  • 240.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Nordlöf, Hasse
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Wijk, Katarina
    Samhällsmedicin Gävleborg, Landstinget i Gävleborg.
    Företagsledares uppfattningar om arbetsmiljöprioritering och dess samband med framgång2012Inngår i: Makt, Myter och Motstridigheter: Utmaningar i dagens arbetsliv, Karlstad: Karlstad Universitet , 2012, s. 19-19Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att nå potentiella fördelar av en god arbetsmiljö är arbetsmiljöarbetet och prioriteringen av olika arbetsmiljöområden avgörande. Företagsledare från framgångsrika, mikro- och småföretag besvarade en enkät där de angav företagets prioritering av sju olika arbetsmiljöområden samt angav i vilken utsträckning de uppfattar ett samband mellan god arbetsmiljö och framgång. Resultatet visade att Kommunikation & Interaktion uppfattades som det högst prioriterade arbetsmiljöområdet, samt att företagsledarna uppfattade ett samband mellan god arbetsmiljö och framgång.

  • 241.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Nordlöf, Hasse
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Wijk, Katarina
    Samhällsmedicin Gävleborg, Landstinget i Gävleborg.
    Manager perceptions of work environment prioritization and its relation to success2012Inngår i: Proceedings NES2012: Ergonomics for sustainability and growth / [ed] Ann-Beth Antonsson, Göran M Hägg, Stockholm, Sweden: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Technology and Health, Division of Ergonomics , 2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The management and prioritization of the work environment is crucial to the achievement of any potential benefits resulting from a good work environment. Managers from successful, micro- or small-sized companies responded to a questionnaire in which they rated the prioritization of seven work environment areas, ranked six company interests, and rated to what extent they perceived that a relationship exists between a good work environment and corporate success. The results showed that Communication & Interaction was perceived as the highest prioritized area, that Profitability was the highest ranked company interest, and that the mangers perceived a relationship between a good work environment and corporate success.

  • 242. Kazmierczak, K
    et al.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Neumann, P
    Winkel, J
    Observer reliability of industrial activity analysis based on video recordings2006Inngår i: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 36, nr 3, s. 275-282Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to assess the agreement between observers analyzing activity patterns during truck engine assembly work based on video recordings. Two observers observed the recordings of nine workers, on the average 2.2 hours long, assigning activities to four activity categories. For each activity category data were obtained on the mean duration of uninterrupted sequences of activities and their relative time proportion in the job. This data was analyzed with 2-way crossed ANOVA algorithms to derive the components of variance attributed to disagreement between observers, to differences between filmed subjects, and to residual “unexplained” variance. The latter was interpreted as an estimate of within-observer variability and possible interactions between subject and observer. While the observers disagreed about the overall time proportions for the four activity categories by no more than 3.7% of time, their second-to-second classification disagreed for 13% of the total analysis time. The between-observer variance was small as compared to within-observer variance and the variance between subjects performing the same job. Simulations based on the variance components showed that a group mean of the proportion of direct work could be determined with a standard deviation within 5% of the mean by having two observers analyzing one two-hour video recording once, each.

    Relevance to industry

    The results of this study may support decision making when designing a reliable video based analysis of industrial work. Thus, the study helps production engineers, ergonomics practitioners and researchers allocate resources between data collection and data analysis, based on their preferences for precision and power of a particular study.

  • 243.
    Kelson, Denean M.
    et al.
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, USA.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, USA.
    Trapezius muscle activity variation during computer work performed by individuals with and without shoulder-neck pain2019Inngår i: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 81, artikkel-id 102908Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed at determining the extent to which individuals with neck-shoulder pain and non-symptomatic individuals differ in muscle activation patterns, when performing computer work, as quantified by exposure variation analysis (EVA). As a secondary aim, we also aimed to quantify the day-to-day reliability of EVA variables describing trapezius muscle activation in a non-symptomatic control group. Thirteen touch-typing computer users (pain: n=5, non-symptomatic: n=8) completed three pre-selected computer tasks in the laboratory.

    Upper trapezius muscle activity was recorded using electromyography and analyzed using EVA with five amplitude and five duration categories. Individuals with neck-shoulder pain spent less time at low amplitudes and exhibited longer uninterrupted periods of muscle activation compared to their non-symptomatic counterparts. Thus, non-symptomatic workers tended to switch between exposure levels more often than individuals with pain. For a majority of EVA variables, ICCs ranged from 0.6 to 0.9, and between-days coefficients of variation were between 0.4 and 2.2.

  • 244.
    Kelson, Denean
    et al.
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg VA, USA.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg VA, USA.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Differences in trapezius muscle activation patterns in office workers with and without chronic neck-shoulder pain, as quantified through exposure variation analysis2018Inngår i: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Sage Publications, 2018, Vol. 2, s. 962-966Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to quantify upper-trapezius muscle activation patterns using exposure variation analysis (EVA) in healthy computer workers and those with chronic neck-shoulder pain. Eight healthy and five chronic pain participants were asked to complete three computer-based tasks (TYPE, CLICK, and FORM) in two pacing conditions (self-paced and control-paced). EVA was used to quantify variation using five amplitude classes and five duration classes. Performance in each task was also quantified. Healthy workers and those with chronic pain did not differ in performance, and they both exhibited similarly low levels of muscle activation amplitude. Pain participants, however, were found to spend less time in lower duration classes across tasks and conditions. These results indicate that individuals with chronic neck-shoulder pain utilize movement strategies involving sustained durations of continuous muscle activation. This may be suggestive of decreased temporal variation in muscle activation patterns in those with chronic pain.

  • 245.
    Kelson, Denean
    et al.
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg VA.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg VA.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Trapezius Muscle Activity Variation during computer work performed by individuals with andwithout chronic neck shoulder pain2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 246.
    Keus van de Poll, Marijke
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöpsykologi.
    Disruption of writing by background speech2018Inngår i: FALF KONFERENS 2018 Arbetet – problem eller potential för en hållbar livsmiljö?   10-12 juni 2018 Gävle: Program och abstracts / [ed] Lindberg, Per, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2018, s. 49-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this contribution is to review parts of the knowledge gathered so far about the effects of background speech on writing performance and to discuss the implications for open-plan offices.

    Background

    Irrelevant background speech is amongst the most often mentioned sources of annoyance at work and it can impair writing performance. Thus, performance and health are challenged when working in open-plan offices wherein background sound is commonplace. To investigate the effects of irrelevant background speech on writing in a more detailed way, five studies were done. Study one investigated whether the semantic properties of the irrelevant background speech contribute to disruption of writing processes. A follow-up study investigated the relationship between Speech Transmission Index and writing fluency. In study three, Experiment 1 explored the appreciation and effectiveness of several ways of masking background speech. Experiment 2 studied whether background speech from simultaneous talkers (i.e. 3, 5 and 7 talkers compared to 1 single talker) lead to distraction. Study four investigated the combined effects of task interruptions caused by task shifting and task interruptions caused by background speech. The fifth study investigated whether sound source location and inattention could modulate the relation between background speech and writing fluency.

    Methods

    All studies had experimental within-subject designs. Participants wrote stories while they were exposed to different sound conditions.

    Results

    Study one revealed that meaningful speech disrupted writing performance compared to meaningless rotated speech and quiet. Study two showed that disruption kicks in with relatively low speech intelligibility. In Experiment 1 in study three, the most effective and appreciated way of masking background speech was with multiple voices and Experiment 2 revealed that performance was worst with 1 background voice and best with 7 voices. Study four showed that it took 10-15 seconds to reach the same writing speed after an interruption as before. In study five, results showed that high inattentive individuals might profit from low intelligible background speech located behind them. Self-reports revealed that speech coming from the front was perceived as more distracting compared to speech coming from behind.

    Conclusions

    The most important result is that writing fluency is highly sensitive to the intelligibility of background speech. This suggests that the designs of noisy work environments should be adjusted for the tasks that have to be executed. Writing should be done in a quiet environment with minimal risks for task interruptions.

  • 247.
    Keus van de Poll, Marijke
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap. Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Intervention and Implementation Research in Worker Health.
    Nybergh, L
    Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Intervention and Implementation Research in Worker Health.
    Lornudd, C
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics (LIME).
    Kwak, L
    Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Intervention and Implementation Research in Worker Health.
    Lohela Karlsson, M
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Science.
    Hagberg, J
    Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Intervention and Implementation Research in Worker Health.
    Torgén, M
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Science.
    Jensen, I
    Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Intervention and Implementation Research in Worker Health.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Intervention and Implementation Research in Worker Health.
    Preventing sickness absenteeism among employees with common mental disorders or stress-related symptoms at work: A cluster RCT conducted at the occupational health services2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 248.
    Keus van de Poll, Marijke
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för byggnadsteknik, energisystem och miljövetenskap, Miljövetenskap. Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Intervention and Implementation Research in Worker Health.
    Nybergh, L
    Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Intervention and Implementation Research in Worker Health.
    Lornudd, C
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics (LIME).
    Kwak, L
    Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Intervention and Implementation Research in Worker Health.
    Lohela Karlsson, M
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Science.
    Hagberg, J
    Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Intervention and Implementation Research in Worker Health.
    Torgén, M
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Science.
    Jensen, I
    Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Intervention and Implementation Research in Worker Health.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Intervention and Implementation Research in Worker Health.
    Preventing sickness absenteeism among employees with common mental disorders or stress-related symptoms at work: A cluster RCT conducted at the occupational health services2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 249.
    Kietrys, David
    et al.
    School of Health Related Professions, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey.
    Gerg, Michael
    Occupational Therapy Assistant Program, Harcum College; Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Temple University .
    Dropkin, Jonathan
    Department of Occupational Medicine, Epidemiology, and Prevention, Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine.
    Gold, Judith
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Public Health, Temple University.
    Mobile input device type, texting style and screen size influence upper extremity and trapezius muscle activity, and cervical posture while texting2015Inngår i: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 50, s. 98-104Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The study aim was to determine the effects of input device type, texting style, and screen size on upper extremity muscle activity and neck and wrist posture during a short texting task in college students. Users of a physical keypad produced greater thumb and wrist extensor muscle force than when texting with a touch screen; using a touch screen required greater wrist extension. Texting on either device produced greater finger flexor and wrist extensor muscle force and greater radial deviation when 1 hand/thumb was used, compared to both hands/thumbs. As touch screen size increased, more participants held the device on their lap, and there was a trend for greater muscle force in finger flexors, wrist extensors, and trapezius, and greater wrist extension, ulnar deviation, and cervical spine flexion. Future research can help inform whether the ergonomic stressors observed during texting are associated with the risk of musculoskeletal disorders.

  • 250.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Ljung, Robert
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Recall of words heard in noise2008Inngår i: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 22, nr 8, s. 1088-1098Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to explore if recall of words and recognition of sentences orally presented was affected by a background noise. A further aim was to investigate the role of working memory capacity in performance in these conditions. Thirty-two subjects performed a word recall and a sentence recognition test. They repeated each word to ensure that they had heard them. A reading span test measured their working memory capacity. Performance on the word recall task was impaired by the background noise. A high reading span score was associated with a smaller noise effect, especially on recall of the last part of the word list.

2345678 201 - 250 of 533
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