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  • 2201.
    Boman, Amanda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Solfeldt, Josefin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Finns det ett samband mellan andel kvinnor i bolagsstyrelser och bolags lönsamhet?: En kvantitativ studie på svenska börsnoterade bolag.2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Studien genomförs i syfte att undersöka om det föreligger ett samband mellan förändring av könsfördelning i bolagsstyrelser och förändring av lönsamhet i svenska börsnoterade bolag samt hur sambandet ser ut.

    Metod: Studien utgår från en kvantitativ forskningsmetod med en positivistisk utgångspunkt och deduktiv ansats. Studiens forskningspopulation inriktas på Nasdaq OMX Stockholm i segmenten för Large, Mid och Small Cap. Totalt undersöks 136 bolag för år 2013 och år 2018. Data har insamlats från bolagens årsredovisningar och via databasen Retriever och därefter analyserats i statistikprogrammet SPSS genom en korrelations- och regressionsanalys.

    Resultat och Slutsats: Studiens resultat visar att det inte finns något statistiskt signifikant samband mellan förändring av könsfördelning i bolagsstyrelser och förändring av lönsamhet i svenska börsnoterade bolag. Slutsatser som studien framställer är att det inte är motiverat att endast tillsätta kvinnor i bolagsstyrelser för att öka bolags lönsamhet men att de däremot kan bidra med andra positiva effekter.

    Examensarbetets bidrag: Studien bidrar till vidare kunskap kring sambandet mellan kvinnor i bolagsstyrelser och bolags lönsamhet på den svenska marknaden för Large, Mid och Small Cap-bolag.

    Förslag till vidare forskning: Framtida forskning föreslås att inkludera fler lönsamhetsmått, fler undersökningsår samt andra faktorer inom bolagsstyrelser som kan påverka bolags lönsamhet såsom ålder, etnicitet och utbildning. Ytterligare ett förslag till vidare forskning är att undersöka kön på verkställande direktörer eller ledning eftersom de är närmare styrningen av bolagen än bolagsstyrelsen.

  • 2202.
    Boman, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Karlsson, Emma
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Änglar och Demoner göms under samma påföljd: - Ett nytt påföljdssystem måste utvecklas.2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim:

    Our aim is to analyze the Swedish penalties and their consequences on real estate agents. The focus of this essay is to discuss how the current system could be changed so that a more fair assessment of each real estate agents conduct could be given.

    Method:      

    The empirical data was based on interviews with various people in the industry, such as Information officers, consumers, and estate agents themselves. We have also analyzed the Estate Agents Board’s yearbooks from 2007 to 2009. Furthermore, we have enhanced our analysis by comparing the system of estate agent penalties to the lawyers system of penalties. We have also used essential literature and legislation for example Estate Agents Act.

    Result & Conclusions:     

    Our conclusions of this essay show that the industry is in need of a development of the current system for real estate agents. This is to discourage and also act as a moral formation to the public. Mainly it’s about giving the estate agents a fair assessment when they are being convicted. We think the most important reason why the penalties should reflect the crime is because that is good justice. Estate agents nowadays have more coverage in the media and therefore we think it is extremely important that the persons whom sees this understand what lies behind the notification.

    Suggestions for future research:

    We can see that previous research about the system of penalties is limited and we truly think the industry is in need of continued studies about this subject. There are still many questions and directions about this that have not been reviewed before. This essay could be complemented in further studies if the measure will be adopted in 2011. Then it would be interesting if you analyze which case will get an admonitory remark or otherwise a warning and which criteria are required for each penalty.

  • 2203. Boman, CarlAxel
    et al.
    Holmberg, Jan
    Stymne, Hans
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Monitoring of Air Infiltration in Museums, Case study: The National Museum of Fine Arts, Stockholm, Sweden2004In: The 6th Indoor Air Quality Meeting: Padova, Italy, 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes tracer gas measurements at the National Museum of Fine Arts in Stockholm. The building was erected 1850-1860 and the architect was Friedrich August Stüler. He created several museums of Fine Arts, among them Neues Museum in Berlin. The museum building in Stockholm has a volume of almost 90 000 m3 and the number of registered objects of art is well over 600 000. The collection includes one of the world’s most prestigious collections of drawings and graphical prints. In this case study the aim was to determine the infiltration through the main entrance and stairwell, through windows and outside walls. The measurement technique used was the Homogeneous Emission Technique added with a 2-zone set up, by using two different tracer gases. Several interesting results were obtained. One result was that more airtight entrance doors would decrease the infiltration into the main stairwell with 40 %. Another result of interest was that the very dry outdoor air was mixed with the indoor air quickly, and that the

    mechanical ventilation system with filters and humidifying units has to be upgraded to compensate for the outdoor air infiltration.

  • 2204.
    Boman, Eva
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Noise in the school environment: Memory and Annoyance2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives.The general objectives of this dissertationwere to examine the effects of acute exposure to meaningfulirrelevant speech and road traffic noise on memory performance,and to explore annoyance responses to noise exposure in theschool environment for pupils and teachers in different agegroups.

    Methods. The thesis comprises seven papers, representingdifferent methodological approaches: experiments, surveystudies and interviews. In the experiments, reported in PapersI-V, 288 pupils and teachers participated in the age groups,13-14 years (n=96), 18-20 years (n=96), 35-45 years (n=48) and55-65 years (n=48). The subjects were randomly assigned to oneof three conditions: (a) meaningful irrelevant speech, (b) roadtraffic noise, and (c) silence. The equivalent sound level inthe noise conditions was set to 66 dB(A). A test batteryreflecting episodic and semantic memory were used. The surveystudies, reported in Paper VI and VII, included 207 pupils(M=13.5) and 166 teachers (M=45.9). Two separate questionnairesmainly comprising items about annoyance, noise sensitivity andstress symptoms were administered. Paper VI presents results offocus group interviews (n=16) treating the main topics:disturbing sounds, emotions, ongoing activity, and suggestionsconcerning future changes. Results. The overall findings showedthat both noise sources affected episodic and semantic memoryto the same degree for all age groups. The results indicatedthat the similarity of semantic content between noise and thetask at hand was not the only suitable explanation model, sincea non-speech noise impaired memory as much as speech.

    Resultsalso indicated that attention effects did notmediate the obtained noise effects and that the noise effectsdid not differ between age groups. Therefore, it seemedunlikely that different memory and attentional capacities stoodout as explanatory factors of the memory effects. Sinceperformances of both episodic and semantic memory tasks wereimpaired, the explanation based on level of access to long-termmemory was also ruled out. However, the episodic memory task,reading comprehension, stood out to be most impaired by noise,suggesting that complexity of the task to perform was ofimportance. For reading comprehension there was also adifferent noise pattern obtained. Participants performance wasin this task, more impaired by meaningful irrelevant speechthan by road traffic noise. This effect indicated thatmeaningful irrelevant speech might reduce the availablecognitive resources necessary for learning the text. Theannoyance models derived from the survey studies indicated thatsensitivity acted as a mediator between hearing status andannoyance, with stress symptoms as an outcome. Whetherannoyance arises or not was also determined by control andpredictability of the noise. In the interviews a differentannoyance pattern was found, in that stress symptoms appearedto be a determinant of annoyance. To be involved, respected,take own responsibility and respect others were suggestions onhow to change the environment to become more silent.

    Conclusions.For both pupils and teachers acute exposureto meaningful irrelevant speech and road traffic noiseinfluenced both the achieving and providing of knowledge. Acommon annoyance pattern was also found for pupils andteachers, where individual and situational factors were ofimportance. To achieve a more silent school environment in thefuture, the pupils pointed out that the interaction betweenthemselves and their teachers was of importance.

    Key words:Noise, meaningful irrelevant speech, roadtraffic noise, memory, age groups, school environment, pupils,teachers

  • 2205.
    Boman, Eva
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    The effects of noise and gender on children’s episodic and semantic memory.2004In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 407-416Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objectives in the present study were to examine meaningful irrelevant speech and road traffic noise effects on episodic and semantic memory, and to evaluate whether gender differences in memory performance interact with noise. A total of 96 subjects, aged 13–14 years (n= 16 boys and 16 girls in each of three groups), were randomly assigned to a silent or two noise conditions. Noise effects found were restricted to impairments from meaningful irrelevant speech on recognition and cued recall of a text in episodic memory and of word comprehension in semantic memory. The obtained noise effect suggests that the meaning of the speech were processed semantically by the pupils, which reduced their ability to comprehend a text that also involved processing of meaning. Meaningful irrelevant speech was also assumed to cause a poorer access to the knowledge base in semantic memory. Girls outperformed boys in episodic and semantic memory materials, but these differences did not interact with noise.

  • 2206.
    Boman, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Ballgren, Peter
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Svedberg, Pia
    Karolinska Inst, CNS, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Is health related quality of life among school children associated with level of semantic memory?2010In: Quality of Life Research, ISSN 0962-9343, E-ISSN 1573-2649, Vol. 19, p. 107-107, article id 194/1380Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2207.
    Boman, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Factors affecting pupils’ noise annoyance in schools: The building and testing of models2004In: Environment and Behavior, ISSN 0013-9165, E-ISSN 1552-390X, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 207-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports two studies intended to develop and assess conceptual models of how different factors mediate and moderate the annoyance reaction in school environments. In the first, a survey of 207 pupils was conducted where assumptions about mediators and moderators were formulated and tested. In the best model, general sensitivity and adaptation led to a higher degree of annoyance causing stress symptoms. In the second study, focus group interviews with 16 pupils were performed to set up a model of mediating and moderating factors from pupils' statements in the formation of annoyance. The objective was also to get their opinions about ways to improve the sound environment in school. The interviews indicated a serial arrangement in which stress symptoms and distraction mediated between chatter and disturbance. Thus, the two studies suggested different models for the prediction of the annoyance reaction. The pupils' views about how to improve the school sound environment are discussed in the framework of an empowerment model.

  • 2208.
    Boman, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Noise and age effects on reading comprehension (Poster)2004In: XXVII International Congress of Psychology, 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2209.
    Boman, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Strength of noise effects on memory as a function of noise source and age.2005In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 7, no 27, p. 11-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives in this paper were to analyse noise effects on episodic and semantic memory performance in different age groups, and to see whether age interacted with noise in their effects on memory. Data were taken from three separate previous experiments, that were performed with the same design, procedure and dependent measures with participants from four age groups (13-14, 18-20, 35-45 and 55-65 years). Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (a) meaningful irrelevant speech, (b) road traffic noise, and (c) quiet. The results showed effects of both noise sources on a majority of the dependent measures, both when taken alone and aggregated according to the nature of the material to be memorised. However, the noise effects for episodic memory tasks were stronger than for semantic memory tasks. Further, in the reading comprehension task, cued recall and recognition were more impaired by meaningful irrelevant speech than by road traffic noise. Contrary to predictions, there was no interaction between noise and age group, indicating that the obtained noise effects were not related to the capacity to perform the task. The results from the three experiments taken together throw more light on the relative effects of road traffic noise and meaningful irrelevant speech on memory performance in different age groups.

  • 2210.
    Boman, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology. Univ Gavle, Gavle, Sweden..
    Eriksson, Mårten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology. Univ Gavle, Gavle, Sweden..
    Svedberg, Pia
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Is perceived autonomy associated with health-related quality of life among adolescents?2016In: Quality of Life Research, ISSN 0962-9343, E-ISSN 1573-2649, Vol. 25, p. 85-85Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2211.
    Boman, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Svedberg, Pia
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Can psychosomatic symptoms explain gender and age differences in health related quality of life among Swedish schoolchildren?2012In: Quality of Life Research, ISSN 0962-9343, E-ISSN 1573-2649, Vol. 21, p. 77-78Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2212.
    Boman, Josefin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Lindström, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Lönar sig socialt ansvarstagande?: En kvantitativ studie på 211 företag noterade på Stockholmsbörsen2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The Swedish ministry of justice has submitted a legislative proposal that could require about 2000 Swedish companies to report Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), something that today is voluntary. The main purpose of the study is to investigate whether there is any relationship between reported CSR and corporate financial performance. In this area of research, Corporate Social Performance (CSP) has been used to quantify reported CSR. The relationship is studied partly based on an aggregate measure of CSP, but also from the two dimensions environment and human rights.

    Method: The study is based in positivist research philosophy and adopts a hypothetical-deductive approach. The strategy adopted is quantitative, using a cross-sectional design and secondary data only. The study's sample amounts to 211 companies listed on Nasdaq OMX Stockholm. The data used as a measure of CSP is taken from Folksam’s index for corporate responsibility for 2013. The measures of financial performance is taken from the annual reports for the financial year of 2013, obtained through the database Retriever and the companies' own websites. Furthermore, all data is processed in SPSS where it was analyzed using multiple regression analysis.

    Results & conclusions: The study showed that there was a positive relationship between CSP and corporate financial performance. The study provided further support for a relationship both from the overall dimension of CSP and the environmental dimension. CSR-related work can therefore be regarded as a value-creating strategy in terms of the company's financial performance, particularly in terms of environment-related work.

    Suggestions for further research: This study has a cross-sectional design, which is sometimes criticized for being insufficient when the relationship between CSP and financial performance is studied. One suggestion we leave for further studies is to do a similar study over time to identify changes. Furthermore, some researchers believe that it’s not enough to measure the company's financial performance only through accounting-based measures. Therefore, another suggestion is to investigate the relationship including market-based measures. In chapter 5.4 more suggestions for further research are presented.

    Contributions of the thesis: This study contributes more knowledge to the varying results of the relationship between companies CSP and financial performance. Furthermore, the study's practical contribution is to give a better understanding of how CSP affects financial performance of companies in a Swedish context. 

  • 2213.
    Boman, Malin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Biokol i stadsträdens växtbäddar: med fokus på Stockholm stad2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The ground is an important factor to consider in today's tough climate for our urban trees. Especially for the trees that shall live in the most vulnerable parts of the city, such as the square, along heavily trafficked roads or surrounded by only paved surfaces. One solution is structured soils which is used in many cities in Sweden but also in other countries. An interesting new development of structured soils where AMA-soil has been replaced with biochar is now being tested in a project in Stockholm. The focus in this paper will therefore be on how biochar is used practically in the tree plant beds and the effects this has on the trees' development.

     

    The purpose of this paper is to get an insight on how biochar in urban tree plant beds are used with examples from Stockholm Biochar Project. And also to examine the parameters used to measure the effect biochar have on tree growth, and to assess the impact of biochar has on the trees.

     

    The work of this paper was carried out as an interview study and was then also combined with research in scientific books and articles. The interviewee is active in the area and works as a tree specialist at the traffic office,Stockholm city and complicit in Stockholm Biochar Project. Researched have been done in various databases where the keywords biokol, biochar, terra preta, urban city trees and tree inventory have been used.

     

    The construction of the plant bed with biochar in Stockholm city has proved to be similar to the old model, but it differs in that the AMA-soil has been exchanged for biochar and also in that the dimensions of the macadam instructured soil is changed.

     

    The parameters used in the Stockholm city to measure tree growth are stem circumference. But there are also other parameters that could be used to measure growth and these could also be applied to assess effect of the biochar on the tree.

     

    In a comparison of tree growth, where tree of the same species had grown in similar conditions but in three different types of plant beds, the results showed that the trees planted in biochar did not have the best growth.

  • 2214.
    Boman, My
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Ryderdahl, Angelica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Vilken betydelse har ett arbete för psykiskt funktionsnedsattas välbefinnande?: En kartläggning av Gävle kommuns arbetsmarknadspolitiska program2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2215.
    Boman, Sara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    ”Jag kan ju mer än jag får lov att visa på lektionerna”: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om unga reumatikers upplevelser och erfarenheter av skolidrotten2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studies syfte är att undersöka hur unga med funktionsnedsättning på grund av reumatisk sjukdom upplever skolidrotten. Detta genom att undersöka vilket lärarstöd eleverna upplevt samt hur de upplever att lektioner anpassats till dem och hur de upplever att betygen påverkats av deras funktionsnedsättning. Metoden som använts är en kvalitativ metod med semistrukturerade intervjuer. Totalt intervjuades sju ungdomar med reumatisk diagnos. Intervjuerna transkriberades och tematiserades genom tematisk analys. Vidare analyserades det transkriberade materialet med Antonovskys teori om KASAM. Resultatet visar att unga med reumatisk sjukdom ofta behöver extra stöd från lärare och anpassad lektion för att kunna delta i idrottslektionerna. Lärarstödet är viktigt för att eleverna ska känna sig motiverade att delta i undervisningen samt för att de ska känna att de har chans till ett rättvist betyg. 

  • 2216.
    Boman, Tomas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för socialt arbete.
    Danermark, Berth
    Örebro Universitet IHV.
    Bolling, Jamie
    Örebro Universitet IHV.
    Report on the employment of disabled people in European countries2007Report (Other academic)
  • 2217.
    Boman, Tomas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work. Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Örebro University.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Danermark, Berth
    Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Boman, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Can people with disabilities gain from education?: Similarities and differences between occupational attainment among persons with and without disabilities2014In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 193-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: More knowledge is needed ofoccupational attainment of persons with disabilities, i.e. the relationship between their educational level and their profession, and factors of importance for this relationship.

    Objective: To compare occupational attainment among persons with and without a disability.

    Method: 3 396 informants with disabilities and 19 004 non-disabled informants participated (control group) in a survey study by Statistics Sweden.The informants with disabilities were divided into six groups.

    Results: Occupational attainment did not differ between the disability groups, neither between persons with and without a disability. Follow-up analysis showed that men with disabilities with primary or secondary school had an occupation above their educational level to a significantlylarger extent than women with disabilities. This pattern was even clearer in comparison with the control group. Persons without disabilities, with secondary or higher education, were more successful in the labor market than persons with disabilities. Occupational attainment increased with age in both groups.

    Conclusions: Young women with disabilities who only have primary or secondary education run a higher risk of having a job that is below their educational level than men at the same educational level. This indicates discriminating mechanisms in the society related to gender and ability.

  • 2218.
    Boman, Tomas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work. Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Danermark, Berth
    Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Boman, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Employment opportunities for persons with different types of disability2015In: Alter;European Journal of Disability Research ;Journal Europeen de Recherche Sur le Handicap, ISSN 1875-0672, E-ISSN 1875-0680, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 116-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The employment status of groups with different disabilities wasanalysed as were potentially important moderating factors (workability, structural and individual factors). A secondary analy-sis was performed on 4359 respondents with disabilities fromStatistics Sweden's Labour Market Investigation. The respondentswere divided into six disability groups (communicative-hearing,communicative-speech-reading, communicative-vision, psycho-logical disability, medical disability, physical disability). Logisticregression analyses showed that the probability of being employedwas highest among respondents with hearing disabilities andrespondents with psychological disabilities were least likely tobe employed. Being a woman (very young or old) with onlyprimary education and with partially or very impaired workability, reduced employment opportunities. Higher education didnot increase employment opportunities for respondents withimpaired work ability. In summary, the type of disability is essentialfor employment opportunities, and differences between disabil-ity groups cannot be explained by differences in other variables. 

  • 2219.
    Boman, Tomas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för socialt arbete.
    Nilsson, Åsa
    Studenters upplevelser av att studera vid universitet och högskola1998Report (Other academic)
  • 2220.
    Bomark, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Berg, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    En marknadsjämförelse mellan logistik och andra industrifastigheter2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this dissertation is to do a market comparison between logistic and other industrial property from the perspective of investment risk, mortgage rate, yield, leases and the importance of location. Interviews were carried out with representatives from six segments which are logistic property owning logistic companies/investors, companies owning property of industrial- warehouse or production, assessment institutes/banks, property brokers, logistic companies and logistic development organization/property developers. The interviews were conducted between the 17 of April and the 8 of May 2015. Logistic property is in general seen as a better and safer investment than other industrial property in the banks point of view. Other industrial property can be many other kinds of property such as tire storage, sawmill, industrial production which can be high risk investment and have worse alternative usage than logistic property, although logistic property and industrial warehouses does not differ very much compared to industrial production property. The mortgage rate is lower for industrial property than it is for logistic property and the yield is higher which suggests that the general risk is higher for industrial property compared to logistic property. The general opinion of companies who own property for industrial warehouses and production and property brokers is that the banks have high requirements on equity. The banks do not want to mortgage more than 60 % of the property value and often not more than 50 %. The banks do not mortgage to same mortgage rate that they used to do for 7-8 years ago. The market for logistic property is otherwise hot and there are many players who want to enter the market and get logistic property in good locations. Logistic property are now being built on speculation, which combined with low interest rates making it advantageous to invest in property that may lead to increased competition. Due to logistic property is being built on speculation there is a risk of too high rate of establishment in some places in Sweden. The most value-influencing factors of logistics property is location, the lease, and cash flow.

  • 2221.
    Bombardi, C.
    et al.
    Department of Veterinary Morphophysiology and Animal Productions, University of Bologna, Ozzano dell'Emilia, Italy.
    Grandis, A.
    Department of Veterinary Morphophysiology and Animal Productions, University of Bologna, Ozzano dell'Emilia, Italy.
    Chiocchetti, R.
    Department of Veterinary Morphophysiology and Animal Productions, University of Bologna, Ozzano dell'Emilia, Italy.
    Bortolami, R.
    Department of Veterinary Morphophysiology and Animal Productions, University of Bologna, Ozzano dell'Emilia, Italy.
    Johansson, Håkan
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lucchi, M. L.
    Department of Veterinary Morphophysiology and Animal Productions, University of Bologna, Ozzano dell'Emilia, Italy.
    Immunohistochemical localization of alpha(1a)-adrenoreceptors in muscle spindles of rabbit masseter muscle2006In: Tissue & Cell, ISSN 0040-8166, E-ISSN 1532-3072, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 121-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The expression of alpha(1a)-adrenoreceptors (alpha(1a)-ARs) within the muscle spindles of rabbit masseter muscle was investigated. The alpha(1a)-ARs were detected by immunohistochemical fluorescent method and examined along the entire length of 109 cross serially sectioned spindles. The sympathetic fibers were visualized by the immunofluorescent labeling of the noradrenaline synthesizing enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH). In order to recognize the intrafusal muscle fiber types, antibodies for different myosin heavy chain isoforms (MyHCI) were used. TH and DBH immunolabeled nerve fibers have been observed within the capsule lamellar layers, in the periaxial fluid space and close to intrafusal muscle fibers. The alpha(1a)-ARs were detected on the smooth muscle cells of the blood vessels coursing in the muscle and in the capsule lamellar layers or within the periaxial fluid space of the spindles. Moreover, at the polar regions of a high percentage (88.1%) of muscle spindles a strong alpha(1a)-ARs immunoreactivity was present on the intrafusal muscle fibers. In double immunostained sections for alpha(1a)-ARs and MyHCI it was evidenced that both bag, and nuclear chain fibers express alpha(1a)-ARs. The receptors that we have detected by immunofluorescence may support a direct control by adrenergic fibers on muscle spindle.

  • 2222. Bommarco, Riccardo
    et al.
    Lönn, Mikael
    Södertörns högskola, Miljövetenskap.
    Danzer, Ulrika
    Pålsson, Karl-Johan
    Torstensson, Peter
    Genetic and phenotypic differences between thistle populations in response to habitat and weed management practices2010In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, ISSN 0024-4066, E-ISSN 1095-8312, Vol. 99, no 4, p. 797-807Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid evolutionary change is increasingly being recognized as commonplace, but the evolutionary consequences for species and ecosystems under human-induced selection regimes have not been explored in detail, although many species occur in such environments. In a common garden experiment and with amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, we examined whether genetic differentiation has taken place between spatially intermixed populations of creeping thistles Cirsium arvense (Asteraceae) collected from a natural habitat (maritime shores), a semi-natural habitat (road verges) and arable fields under two management regimes: conventional and organic farming. Populations of C. arvense have altered genetically and locally adapted their growth patterns with changed land use. Although plants from different habitats showed similar total biomass production, shoot and root production was higher for maritime populations, suggesting selection for increased competitive ability. Competitive ability then declined in the order semi-natural, conventional farms and organic farms. Thistles in arable fields may be more selected for tolerance against disturbances from herbicides and mechanical weed control. In addition, early shoot sprouting and genetic analysis showed differentiation between plants originating from conventional farms and farms that were converted to organic 9–30 years ago, suggesting some adaptation to altered crop cultivation practices

  • 2223.
    Bond, Lisa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Effekt av höj- och sänkbara skrivbord efter arbetstid: Påverkas fysisk aktivitet samt skattning av fysiska besvär efter arbetstid hos kontorsanställda som använt ett höj och sänkbart skrivbord2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Several studies show that sedentary is harmful to humans. Despite this, the degree of sedentary increases and 75% of the total time of sedentary is at the workplace. A common way to reduce sedentary is to introduce sit-stand workstations. Studies show that this gives good effects during working hours but few have studied what those providing for effects after working hours. Objective: Study office workers to see if there is a difference in the frequency and duration of physical activity and estimation of physical problems after a working day if they were sedentary or varied its working position by using a sit-stand workstation.

    Method: 20 office workers measured the frequency and duration of physical activity and estimated physical problems through a diary and a questionnaire after work.

    Results: No significant differences were detected.

    Conclusions: It is not possible to draw any general conclusions from this study as the sample is small and measurement methods are only subjective. More studies are needed where you look at what happens after working hours in the future to ensure the pros and cons of sit-stand worskstations.

  • 2224.
    Bondesson, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Dockor, LEGO och pinnar: en jämförelse av genus i barns lek inomhus och utomhus2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med min studie var att undersöka om skogsleken var mindre könsstereotyp äninomhusleken. Jag undersökte vad barn leker, vilka de leker med och vilka redskap deanvänder i leken samt jämförde inomhusleken med skogsleken. Undersökningen genomfördesmed hjälp av löpande observationer. Resultatet visade att inomhus lekte barnen oftastkonstruktionslekar och rollekar. Utomhus var rörelselekarna vanligast. Barnen lekte helst medandra barn av samma kön som de själva. Inomhus lekte barnen oftast i små grupper medan deutomhus oftare lekte i större grupper. De redskap de använde var inomhus oftastfärdigkonstruerade och användes på det sätt som förväntades. Utomhus användes oftastpinnar, på många olika sätt, som redskap.Min undersökning visade, precis som tidigare forskning, att inomhusleken följer detraditionella genusmönster som finns och att skogsleken till viss del bryter dem. Detta är dockinget som sker per automatik, utan något man ständigt måste arbeta med.

  • 2225.
    Bondsman, Benjamin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Al, Barzan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Hedlund, Felix
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Dimensionering av höga balkar enligt fackverksanalogi: -En parametrisk studie2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2226.
    Bonnevier, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Backström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Den nya regleringen av Goodwill - dess påverkan på företagen2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this final assignment is to find out how the old and the new regulations about Goodwill affect the Swedish companies, how their results and value of Goodwill changed since the regulation from IFRS took place. We will attempt to find out if the companies are better of with a yearly write-off or an impairment test every year to see if a write-down is necessary.

  • 2227.
    Book, Jonathan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Söderström, Cecilia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Digitaliseringens betydelse för hoten gällande revisorernas oberoende: - En fråga för framtiden2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Title: The importance of digitalization regarding the threats upon the auditors’ independence - A question for the future.

    Level: Student thesis, final assignment for Bachelor Degree in Business Administration

    Author: Jonathan Book and Cecilia Söderström

    Supervisor: Tomas Källquist and Pär Vilhelmsson

    Date: 2019 – june

    Aim: Previous research shows a number of threats that may affect the auditors’ independence. There was a lack in the previous research, more specifically regarding the importance of digitalization upon these threats. The aim is thus to give an increased understanding of the significance of digitalization on the auditors’ independence with a focus on friendship threat, self-audit threat and IT-competence threat.

    Method: Our study is based on a social constructivist and hermeneutic approach, we have also used a qualitative method since our intention was to increase the understanding of the reader. Our theoretical framework is based on previous research and the empirical material of the study was collected through ten semi-structured interviews with auditors from two different audit firms. In order to analyze theoretical framework and empirical material, a thematization was made.

    Result & Conclusions: The study shows that digitalization has a significant impact on all of our chosen threats upon the auditors’ independence, our study also shows that the self-audit threat is the most topical one. There are also signs that the IT-competence threat is not a threat to auditors’ independence, but more likely a threat upon the audit risks.

    Contribution of the thesis: We have examined three threats against the independence of the auditors through prior research: friendship threat, self-audit threat and IT-competence threat. From a theoretical view we found that the threats increase due to digitalization. We saw new communication tools as a contributing factor to the increase of friendship threat, as for the self-audit threat could we see in both prior research and the empirical material that consulting and advisory services increases due to digitalization. Regarding the IT-competence threat we saw an increasement along with digitalization, but we see a difference in prior research and our empirical material where as it is a threat against the independence or if it is a threat upon audit risk.

    Suggestions for future research: There is a need to continue to study the competence threat against the independence of the auditors as the black box remains unsolved due to the different opinions between our theoretical framework and our empirical material. We suggest that future research can continue where we left off and more extensive examine the threat with different angles such as opinions of norm-making bodies on the threat.

    Key words: Audit, Digitalization, Independence, Friendship threat, Self-audit threat, IT-competence threat

  • 2228.
    Bora, Gabor
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för medier, kommunikation och film (upphört 080911).
    Postscript to a future2007In: Documenta Magazines Online JournalArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2229.
    Borbos, Carolina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Wedin, Nadja
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Konkurrensbeteenden på hälsomarknaden i Gävle2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Health and exercise are issues that more and more people have become aware of. Today the impact of exercise on our health has been documented scientifically – regular physical activities improve our health and leads to an increased wellbeing. The companies have also acknowledged this, for example by introducing a so called exercise subvention.

    A competition analysis of health companies (organizations, associations) in the Gävle area is a topic that we consider timely. This topic is also of current interest as the University of Gävle is introducing the health profile “Health promoting working life”, which is one of the research profiles that the University of Gävle will be developing within three to five years. This health profile will include research and education focused on different health aspects in the working life.

    The aim of our study is to describe and analyze what the competitive situation is like for four health companies on the Gävle market. We will conduct a competitive analysis based on the conditions of the market.

    We will use qualitative data to go over what the competitive situation looks like. This will be conducted by interviews with the different companies. For secondary data we have used various literature within the subject of marketing.

    Vi kommer med hjälp av kvalitativ data undersöka hur konkurrenssituationen ser ut. Detta kommer vi att göra genom intervjuer med de olika företagen. Angående sekundärdata har vi använts oss av olika böcker inom ämnet marknadsföring.

    The organizations that we have chosen for our competition analysis are World Class, Korpen, Friskis&Svettis and Valbo Sportcentrum. Our comparison of the different companies will be based on the marketing mix. In the latter part of the study we are going to analyze the companies using Porter’s model about the components of competition analysis as well as the marketing mix.

    The result that we have reached from this study was that the companies share some similarities but also have a number of differences as regards their marketing and the different components that leads to a successful company. We are of the opinion that the companies should focus their marketing on emphasising their unique selections, in comparison with the other companies.

    This study can not, however, be said to represent all health companies in the Gävle area, as we have only chosen four of them.

    Finally, the conclusions that we have come to, once empiricism, theory and analysis have all been put together, are described. Furthermore, we have answered our queries, tried to give tangible proposals, and accounted for our own thoughts and reflections.

  • 2230.
    Bordes Roca, Adria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science.
    Impacts of implementation of electric scooters in daily transport: case study in Gavle2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2231.
    Borg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Professionella som byter bransch: Hur vill de bli styrda?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to extend the understanding of how professionals in modern organisations want to be managed. We especially investigate professionals changing industries to describe if, and how, aprofessional in this situation is becoming a professional again after the change. This to find connections between intrinsic motivation and attitudes towards professionalism on one side, and applicable managerial methodson the other. Best practice in managing professionals is traditionally considered to be non-invasive methodologies such as indoctrination and training. Beyond that, operational-level management is usually considered to be bound to fail.

    The analysis suggests the following: A professional changing industry will become professional again. The driving force for becoming professional again is the strive for horisontal specialization, induced by higher education. Management of professionals needs to account for the integrity of the horizontal specialization of the professional. Relational management and intellectual discussions are central.

  • 2232.
    Borg, Caroline
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Varaktiga effekter av coaching: En intervjustudie om upplevda effekter av coaching2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att söka svar på hur individer upplever varaktiga effekter av coaching samt hur coachingen påverkat deras välbefinnande. De tre respondenterna i studien hade fått en blandning av ledarskapscoaching och livscoaching hos samma coach. En kvalitativ metod med semistrukturerade intervjuer användes för att få en djupgående förståelse för de tidigare klienternas upplevelser av coaching och därefter analyserades datan med hjälp av tematisk analys. Resultatet visade att samtliga upplevt ett ökat och varaktigt välbefinnande. Ytterligare effekter, som hos vissa av deltagarna även var bestående var: en större trygghet i sig själv och/eller i yrkesrollen, ett större mod, självkännedom och förändring genom ökad reflektion, medvetenhet och insikt samt utökade färdigheter/förmågor. Slutsatsen som kan dras av studien är att de effekter som tidigare klienter upplevt av coaching bidragit till personlig utveckling och ett ökat varaktigt välbefinnande.

  • 2233.
    Borg, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Mantling, Ulf
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Syntetiska Instrument2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to investigate SAAB AB´s possibilities to use synthetic instruments in their test systems. The reason for this is reducing costs and the risk of obsolescence which is common when test systems operate for several decades.

    The market around synthetic instruments has been explored in the search for suitable hardware and software. Software has been developed in LabVIEW and synthetic instruments have been created with the help of IVI-drivers. The hardware consisted of PXI-instruments (Waveform generator and Digitizer), connected to a computer using a fiber optic link and PXI-chassi. The created instruments was then compared to common instruments used today, and the comparison turned out well. Advantages, disadvantages and the theory surrounding synthetic instruments is also covered. This thesis is only an introduction and further work will be necessary to implement synthetic instruments at SAAB.

    The thesis also purposes suitable hardware and further development based on the test systems used today, and how it is possible to solve the layer structure.

  • 2234.
    Borg, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies.
    Lindblom, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies.
    Från barn och fosterhem: två kvinnors livsberättelser om sin tid på barnhem och fosterhem2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Barn som bott i fosterhem eller på barnhem kan uppleva en viss påverkan av sin tid på boendet. En del barn skapar symtom som härstammar ur deras barndom och uppväxt. Alla barn behöver inte påverkas av att bo på barn eller fosterhem, men en del kan komma att göra det. De kan bland annat drabbas av sömn- och koncentrationssvårigheter samt en del beteendeproblem. En del vuxna som bott på barnhem eller fosterhem i barndomen kan bära med sig upplevelser från sin tid på boendet och än idag uppleva en sorts påverkan. Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka hur två vuxna kvinnor upplevde sin tid på barnhem alternativt fosterhem samt hur de anser sig ha påverkats av det i vuxen ålder.Två livsberättelseintervjuer genomfördes med två kvinnor. Den ena kvinnan har bott på barnhem och den andra på fosterhem. Undersökningen visar att det finns en påverkan för de båda kvinnorna, både psykiska och fysiska, som de bär med sig även i vuxen ålder. Båda två upplever ett uteblivet stöd i barndomen. De upplevelser som de båda kvinnorna varit med om samt bär med sig i vuxen ålder har genom den här studien visat sig ha en viss påverkan.

  • 2235.
    Borg, Helene
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Naturvetenskapligt labbkompendium: En Studieguide för integrerad undervisning2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The problematic situation in Secondary Schools education regarding motivation and stimulation in scientific subjects has not yet been solved. Theories of didactic skills have developed throughout the last centuries, but to achieve sustainable learning methods teacher need to improve their creativity and enthusiasm by leaving the comfort zone. Implementation of scientific knowledge has to undergo many steps before students accept the facts and can use the information in another scenario. Though, lots of attempt to establish good and healthy atmosphere in the classroom has occurred by optimize student learning process. Therefore, it is of great importance that all courses regarding science topics work together by integrate the issues, theories, discussions and skills. The different disciplines such as biology, chemistry and environmental courses are all dependent on laboratory experience to anchor long lasting memory bank. By anchor the experiments in the reality students motivation increased by their eagerness to discover the unknown. Mathematics has the privilege of being the overall discipline that can quantify and examine the laws of science in an experiential manner. The advantage of measuring different situation and calculate the significance helps student to understand environmental phenomena occurring on our planet. The purpose of making a

    Study Guide was to improve laboratory exercise by stimulating inventiveness, increasing adjustments toward the reality and expanding participation of all different scientific disciplines such as biology, chemistry and mathematics. The Study Guide

    was design to consist of defined protocols to self-exploring experiments. Problem-Based Learning (PBL) has the advantage of putting the solving process in the center. Thereby, it can generate a platform of self-regulated education making the student taking charge of its own progress. The eagerness of improved wisdom can be transform into a cascade of reactions and outcomes that will lead into new inventions. Since the students often pay more attention to what the teacher does than what the teacher says, the teacher’s leadership has to have the same philosophy as the mathematic prospective of solving a problem. If all our senses were activated during an event profound understanding of the circumstance will occur. The athletic coaching skills normally have a philosophy involving PBL strategy. Taking into account how different sports adjust their training sessions to suit each individual capacity and to strengthen their weakness, is something many teachers can learn from. Coaching has entered the education corridor, but still many teacher lack the knowledge how coaching should be performed. Synchronizing suitable chemistry and biology theories and experiments in time established long lasting awareness. By using tools the student are well familiar with, such as www.youtube.se, increased their ability to search for reliable scientific information elsewhere. The guarantee can never be ensured, since there are so many factors that influence the outcome of the lesson. To prepare for the unknown is what scientific research is all about, which a teacher has to embrace and use as a self-reflecting process to ensure quality of learning than quantity of studying. The group dynamic varies enormously, but those who know the usefulness of education have the motivation to continue the path of science.

  • 2236.
    Borg, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Dabhilkar, Mandar
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    An empirical examination of Bessant’s evolutionary model of continuous improvement behaviour2006In: Proceedings of the 7th CINet conference: Continuous Innovation and Sustainability – Defining the Road Ahead, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2237.
    Borg, Julia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Gustafsson, Madeleine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Arbetsrelaterad identitet och motivation hos chefer och medarbetare2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine if there are any differences in work-related identity and work motivation depending on gender, age (employees) and type of employment (executive vs. employee) where three types of identity (professional identity, organizational identity and workgroup identity) and two types of motivation, inner and external motivation (inner=challenge and entertainment, external=compensation and recognition) were examined. The result showed significant differences in organizational identity and professional identity between executives and employees, where executives identified more with the organization and had a higher level of professional identity. Among the employees, there was a significant gender difference: men identified more with the organization and the work group than women. 

  • 2238.
    Borg, Kristian
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Blåvitt begär: Postkoloniala läsningar av finskhet, klass och genus i svensk film2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsens huvudsyfte är att studera finska representationer i svensk spelfilm ur ett postkolonialt perspektiv. Med en diskursanalytisk ansats och med stöd i psykoanalys, postkolonial och feministisk teori diskuteras hur finsk etnicitet konstrueras, omförhandlas och samverkar med kategorier som genus, sexualitet och klass i svensk spelfilm från 1980 till 2010. Författaren vill visa på vilka sätt representationerna kan kopplas till en postkolonial relation mellan Sverige och Finland. Ett annat syfte är att ge exempel på hur postkolonial teori kan tillämpas i en svensk-finsk kontext.

    Fyra filmer analyseras: Två killar och en tjej, Seppan, Populärmusik från Vittula och Kid Svensk. Varje filmanalys utgår från ett tema: 1) hur etnicitet kan kopplas till olika rum eller miljöer; 2) hur kategorier som sexualitet, klass, genus och etnicitet samverkar; 3) hur etnicitetsbegreppet kan töjas samt 4) hur olika motståndsstrategier kan se ut.

    En central slutsats är att representationerna av finnar i svensk film ingår i en kolonial diskurs. Filmiska representationer är en del i denna diskurs. När den etniska kategorin finskhet är närvarande i svensk film aktiveras olika maktordningar som vilar på historiska stereotyper och sociala och materiella förhållanden. Men även motståndsstrategier blir synliga. Finnar och finskhet framstår och konstrueras ofta som något exotiskt och skrämmande men samtidigt begärligt i en svensk kontext.

  • 2239.
    Borg, Lovisa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Ramström, Frida
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Språk- och kommunikationsstöd i förskolan: En undersökning om hur barn stöttas i sin språk- och kommunikationsutveckling i förskolan2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka vad några verksamma inom förskolan har för åsikter, vetskap och erfarenheter om hur språk och kommunikationsstöd används i förskolan. I studien undersöks också vilka tillvägagångssätt som används för att stödja barn i deras språkutveckling och om de intervjuade anser att det finns några fördelar och nackdelar med språkstöd. För att samla in material gjordes intervjuer med verksamma inom fem olika förskolor och tre olika områden, vilket var förskollärare, talpedagog och specialpedagog. Data samlades in genom ljudupptagning samt anteckningar som sedan transkriberades och delades upp i sex kategorier. Utifrån studien fick vi i resultatet fram att språk och kommunikationsstöd är något som gynnar alla barn, oavsett svårigheter. Det framkom att bild- och teckenstöd är den vanligaste metoden men också att pedagogernas relation till barnen är en av de viktigaste faktorerna för att det ska kunna bli ett stimulerande lärande. Resultatet visar också att en nackdel med språkstöd är tidsbrist och brist på kunskap och intresse hos pedagoger. 

  • 2240.
    Borg, Tina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Björklund, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi..
    Djupsjöbacka, Mats
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Wänman, Anders
    Hellström, Fredrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Perceived muscular tension in healthy subjects: a cross-sectional study2016In: PREMUS2016: Book of abstracts, 2016, p. 411-411Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Perceived muscular tension (PMT) has been suggested to predict development of neck/shoulder pain. It has been hypothesized to be an early sign of musculoskeletal disorder and a possible mediator of stress on symptoms. However, the content of the concept of PMT is not clear. This study examined the association between PMT and physical and psychosocial factors and physical activity in a group of healthy students.

    Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted on the baseline measurements of an ongoing longitudinal case-control study. A total of 63 healthy university students without complaints of neck/shoulder pain were included (21 males, 42 females, mean age 24 years). PMT was measured by asking the question “Have you, during the past month, experienced muscular tension (for example, wrinkled your forehead, ground your teeth, raised your shoulders)?” with the following response options: never, a few times, a few times per week, or one or several times per day. Self-reports on symptoms in the neck, anxiety, depression, stress, mental health, physical health, sleep and physical activity were collected with questionnaires, as well as by tenderness on palpation of neck muscles and trapezius pressure pain threshold. This produced a total of 15 variables. The relationship between these variables and PMT were analyzed using Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient.

    Results. Positive correlations were found between PMT and temporomandibular complaints (rho= .34, p < .001), neck crepitus (rho= .33, p < .001), anxiety (rho= .33, p < .001), depression (rho= .31, p < .05), tenderness on palpation (rho= .25, p < .05). There was a negative correlation between PMT and mental health (rho= -.26, p < .05). Frequent experience of PMT had weak to moderate correlations with frequency of symptoms and higher psychosocial strain, but not with stress. This suggests some covariance between PMT and both physical and psychosocial factors.

  • 2241.
    Borg, Tomas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Marianne
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Larsson, Sune
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Questionnaire to assess treatment outcomes of acetabular fractures2012In: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery, ISSN 1022-5536, E-ISSN 2309-4990, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 55-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To construct a questionnaire to assess outcomes in patients who underwent internal fixation for acetabular fractures.

    METHODS: 27 female and 100 male consecutive patients (mean age, 50 years) who underwent internal fixation for acetabular fractures were included. Patients were asked to report their outcomes at months 6, 12, and 24 using a questionnaire. The initial questionnaire was constructed by an expert group. There were 11 closed questions, each came with 6 responses from ?no discomfort? to ?very severe discomfort?. Three open questions were added to cover topics that were not included. The content validity and relevance of the 11 closed questions was determined using factor analysis to determine the number of factors involved. Factorability of the correlation matrix was measured via the Bartlett test of sphericity and Kaiser-Meyer- Olkin (KMO) measure of sampling sufficiency. Factor loadings of <0.50 were considered acceptable for factor representation. Reliability in terms of internal consistency was expressed as Cronbach alpha coefficients. The responses to the 3 open questions were analysed and categorised by a single assessor.

    RESULTS: 120 (94%) of the patients completed at least one questionnaire, and 92 (72%) completed all 3 questionnaires during the follow-up period. Based on responses to the 6-month questionnaire, responses to the 11 closed questions were significantly intercorrelated (Spearman 0.17-0.80). After factor analysis and analysis of responses to open questions, the number of questions was reduced to 6 and included questions related to pain, walking, hip motion, leg numbness, sexual life, and operation scar. Reliability of the questionnaire was estimated to alpha=0.89. Criterion validity was adequate with a high correlation with the Short Form 36 (r=0.56-0.80).

    CONCLUSION: Patients treated with acetabular fractures can be adequately assessed using the 6-item questionnaire and one global question concerning impact on activities of daily living.

  • 2242.
    Borg, Tommy
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Utvärdering av Wordpress: Design och Säkerhet2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Wordpress har använts länge för att bygga webbsidor, från början mest webbsidor där bloggen stod i centrum, men på senare tid även för att bygga mer avancerade webbsidor. Detta är skrivet i första hand för att få ett grepp om vilka fördelar och nackdelar det finns med Wordpress som webbplattform. Dokumentet ska kunna fungera som visst informationsunderlag vid utvecklandet av en Wordpresswebbsida. Dokumentet pekar på problematiken med att ge en kund viss begränsad möjlighet att lägga upp eget material, och ändå försöka säkerställa webbsidans grundkonstruktion och design. Det som gjordes är en Wordpresswebbsida och mall i Wordpress som ska kunna ligga till grund vid utvecklande av nya webbsidor i Wordpress, bägge med en mängd relevanta inlagda plugin, allt för att webbsidan ska ha vissa funktioner som video, bildgallerier, medlemshantering med mera, och en utvärdering om säkerheten i Wordpress.

  • 2243.
    Borgenback, Rickard
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Mötet mellan själavård och psykoterapi: ur ett själavårdsperspektiv2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats har behandlat skillnaderna mellan själavård och psykoterapi. Den har klargjort vad som kännetecknar de båda människostödjande insatserna, kristen själavård och profan psykoterapi. Den övergripande frågeställningen har varit om själavården kan utvecklas och berikas i mötet med psykoterapin samt om de båda professionerna ömsesidigt kan berika varandra? Är ett ökat samarbete mellan själavård och psykoterapi önskvärt? Vilka möjliga vägar syns i så fall för ett samarbete mellan dessa två? För att söka svar på min frågeställning har jag genomfört djupintervjuer enligt kvalitativ metod av fyra företrädare för själavården och fyra företrädare för psykoterapin. Svaren visade att det finns ett ömsesidigt intresse och öppenhet för varandras arbetsfält och kompetens. Trots att en del av svaren pekade på vissa risker med en ökad korsbefruktning mellan själavård och psykoterapi, så verkade fördelarna med ett ökat samarbete överväga. Min slutsats är att de intervjuade anser att psykoterapin har berikat och kommer att fortsätta berika själavården, bland annat genom vidareutveckling av olika former av pastoral psykoterapi. Det förefaller också finnas goda förutsättningar för att själavården ska kunna berika psykoterapin, främst då inom sorg, kris och katastrofarbete, arbete mot barn och ungdom samt arbete runt de existentiella frågorna i psykoterapin.

  • 2244.
    Borghero, Cecilia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Feasibility study of dam deformation monitoring in northern Sweden using Sentinel1 SAR interferometry2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Dams are man-made structures that in order to keep functioning and to be considered structurally healthy need constant monitoring. Assessing the deformation of dams can be time consuming and economically costly.

    Recently, the technique of Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) has proved its potential to measure ground and structural deformation. This geodetic method represents a cost-effective way to monitor millimetre-level displacements and can be used as supplemental analysis to detect movements in the structure and its surroundings.

    The objective of this work is to assess the practicality of the method through the analysis of the surface deformation of the Ajaure dam located in northern Sweden, in the period 2014-2017, using the freely available Sentinel-1A images. The scenes, 51 in ascending and 47 in descending mode, were processed exploiting the Persistent Scatterer (PS) technique and deformation trends, and time series were produced.

    Built in the 60’s, the Ajaure embankment dam is considered as high consequence, meaning that a failure would cause socio-economic damages to the communities involved and, for this reason, the dam needs constant attention. So far, a program of automatic measurements in situ has been collecting data, which have been used partly to compare with InSAR results.

    Results of the multi temporal analysis of the limited PS points on/around the dam show that the dam has been subsiding more intensely toward the centre, where maximum values are of approximately 5 ± 1.25 mm/year (descending) and 2 ± 1.27 mm/year (ascending) at different locations (separated of approximately 70 m). Outermost points instead show values within -0.7 and 0.9 mm/year, describing a stable behaviour. The decomposition of the rate has furthermore revealed that the crest in the observation period has laterally moved toward the reservoir.

    It has been observed that the operation of loading and unloading the reservoir influence the dam behaviour. The movements recorded by the PS points on the dam also correlate with the air temperature (i.e. seasonal cycle).

    The research revealed that the snow cover and the vegetation could have interfered with the signal, that resulted in a relative low correlation. Therefore, the number of PS points on and around the dam is limited, and comparison with the geodetic data is only based on a few points. The comparison shows general agreement, showing the capacities of the InSAR method.

    The study constitutes a starting point for further improvements, for example observation in longer period when more Sentinel1 images of the study area are collected. Installation of corner reflectors at the dam site and/or by use of high resolution SAR data is also suggested.

  • 2245.
    Borgljung, Hanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies.
    Läslust och läslist: om litteraturundervisning i demokratins tjänst2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2246.
    Borgljung, Hanna
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Samtal pågår: en belysning av den kristna bönen2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här uppsatsen syftar till att belysa den kristna bönen ur ett inifrånperspektiv, d.v.s. utifrån de troendes egen syn på bönen – dess innersta väsen och gestaltning. Genom studium av andlig litteratur samt genom kvalitativ analys av en enkätundersökning har jag funnit att synen på bönen, ytligt sett inte har förändrats mycket sedan bibelns tid, man talar om bönen i samma termer nu som då, men dess innebörd har fått en fokusförskjutning från gud till människan.

  • 2247.
    Borglund, Therese
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    I did not get a Background. Do you think I could have a Future?: A qualitative study on caretakers presumptions of the future regarding the children living in orphanages in Poland2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2248.
    Borgqvist, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Lövgren, Emma
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Fysisk aktivitet på fritidshemmet: En studie om 51 verksamma lärares syn angående fysisk aktivitet på fritidshemmet samt deras samarbete med lokala idrottsföreningar.2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie handlar om hur fritidshemmet arbetar för att främja barns fysiska aktivitet. Syftet var att ta reda på hur fritidshemmet arbetar i sitt dagliga arbete för att främja fysisk aktivitet samt vad fritidspedagoger har för tankar angående ett samarbete med föreningslivet. För att få svar på undersökningens frågeställningar användes en semistrukturerad enkät som besvarades av verksamma fritidspedagoger. Resultatet visar att fritidshemmen använder utelek för att uppnå daglig fysisk aktivitet. I studien framgår det också att de flesta respondenterna menar att idrottshallen kommer till användning för att ge barnen möjlighet till att röra på sig. Resultatet visar även att fritidspedagoger tror att ett samarbete mellan fritidshem och föreningslivet kan leda till att barnen får ett mer hälsosamt liv. En viktig aspekt för att ett samarbete ska kunna ske mellan parterna är att de båda har en enad syn angående syftet till samarbetet. 

  • 2249.
    Borgström, Björn
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Eriksson, Viktor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Valutariskhantering - Spelar storleken någon roll?: Fallstudier på Sandvik och CardGroup2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Currency risk management can be crucial to reach success in an international environment. The aim of this thesis is to examine currency exposure in exporting companies and to see how they handle currency risk. The thesis consists of one large multinational company and one small local business. Differences in risk approach, internal and external management are examined.

    Method: The study has a qualitative approach applied by interviews with representative employees in both companies. A hermeneutic approach is used for the interviews and then also to a large extent throughout the essay. In addition to interviews, reliable secondary data where used when appropriate.

    Result & Conclusions: Internal currency risk management is different depending on the company’s size. Sandvik have great resources in managing currency risk internally while CardGroup have less knowledge and resources to do so. The companies approach to risk is different but the difference is not due to size but rather the perception of how business is done. The external methods of managing currency risk are similar between the companies. The same derivatives are used with exception for how the companies apply them through various methods.

    Suggestions for future research: An interesting approach for further studies in this field of finance would be to use a quantitative approach to receive general conclusions. Operating and translation exposure can also be focus for future studies.

    Contribution of the thesis: The thesis has contributed to increased knowledge of which instruments companies use and why companies apply certain methods. In addition the essay examines how this differs between a large and a small company.

  • 2250.
    Borgström, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hur blir man nöjd och hittar kraft på jobbet?: Hur sjuksköterskor inom äldreomsorgen skattar sin arbetssituation utifrån strukturell empowerment, psykologisk empowerment, chefs- och ledarskap, arbetstillfredsställelse, vårdkvalitet samt upplevd hälsa.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att beskriva hur sjuksköterskor inom äldreomsorgen skattar sin arbetssituation utifrån strukturell- och psykologisk empowerment, arbetstillfredsställelse, upplevd hälsa, vårdkvalitet samt chefs- och ledarskap. Vidare var syftet att studera skillnader och samband mellan ovan nämnda faktorer utifrån subgruppers (ålder, yrkesverksamma år, heltid/deltidsarbete och uttag av kompetensutvecklingsdagar) skattningar. Under 2011 – 2012 besvarades fyra standardiserade frågeformulär av 79 äldrevårdssjuksköterskor i fem kommuner i Mellansverige. Resultatet visade att sjuksköterskor som var 50 år eller yngre upplevde att de fick mer kritik än äldre sjuksköterskor. Deltidsarbetande sjuksköterskor skattade sig ha lägre grad av informell makt samt lägre grad av stress än heltidsarbetande sjuksköterskor. Sjuksköterskor inom äldreomsorgen som hade arbetat 12 år eller kortare ansåg sig besitta högre grad av möjligheter, global empowerment, personlig utveckling och samarbetsförmåga. Uttag av kompetensutvecklingsdagar visade sig ge ökad upplevelse av psykologisk empowerment, strukturell empowerment, arbetstillfredsställelse och LaMI. Positiva samband identifierades mellan upplevelsen av arbetstillfredsställelse och skalorna total LaMI, total CWEQ och total psykologisk empowement, samt mellan total CWEQ och skalorna total LaMI och total psykologisk empowerment.

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