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  • 2351.
    Wells, Richard
    et al.
    Kinesiology Department, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada; Institute for Work and Health, Toronto, Canada.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Medbo, Lars
    Department of Logistics and Transportation, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Winkel, Jörgen
    National Research Centre for Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark and Department of Work Science, Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Time - a key issue for musculoskeletal health and manufacturing2007In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 38, no 6, p. 733-744Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Time is a key issue for both ergonomists and engineers when they engage in production system interventions. While not their primary purpose, the actions of engineers have major effects on biomechanical exposure; possibly of much greater magnitude than many ergonomics interventions. This paper summarises the aims, actions and tools of engineers and ergonomists, emphasising time-related outcomes. Activities of the two groups when attempting to manipulate time aspects of work may be contradictory; engineers wishing to improve production and ergonomists aiming at better health as well as contributing to production. Consequently, tools developed by ergonomists for assessing time aspects of work describe rest patterns, movement velocities or daily duration of exposures, while engineering tools emphasise time-efficient production. The paper identifies measures that could be used to communicate time-relevant information between engineers and ergonomists. Further cooperation between these two stakeholders as well as research on the topic are needed to enable ergonomists to have a larger impact on the design of production systems.

  • 2352.
    Wendel, Ulrika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Effekten av att använda tryckavlastande hjälpmedel intraoperativt på uppkomsten av trycksår: En experimentell studie2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish studies show that the performance of pressure ulcer prevention has low priority among registered nurses and that registered nurses have poor knowledge regarding occurrence and risk factors for pressure ulcers. Pressure ulcer causes great suffer for the patient and high costs to society. The most dangerous risk factor for pressure ulcer is immobility. During an operation, the patient may not feel any discomfort and are not able to change their body position as a result of anesthesia. An operation is therefore a high risk factor for the occurrence of pressure ulcers.The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of using a pressure relief device in patients with operation time of 90 minutes or longer to prevent the formation of pressure ulcers.An experimental study with a consecutive selection of 89 participants was conducted in a surgical department in central Sweden. The participants were randomly assigned to experimental or control group, in which the experimental group received a pressure-reliving Leg pad to relieve the pressure of sacrum and heels. Statistical analyzes, descriptive and non-parametric, were used to analyze the data collected.The results showed a significant difference with lower incidence of pressure ulcers on heels to the use of pressure-relieving Leg pad. No significant difference existed when it came to the sacrum, nor in terms of pre- and intraoperative risk factors.This study shows that pressure relief devices should be used for all normal to slightly overweighed patients intraoperative to minimize the number of pressure ulcers on the heels during long operations.

  • 2353.
    Wenngren, Matilda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sofia, Andersson
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hur personer med schizofreni upplever att leva med sin sjukdom2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Schizophrenia is classified as a mental illness that contributes to a reformed perception of reality and which also provides impaired cognitive and social abilities. Schizophrenia belongs to the West's ten most disabling diseases. Previous research has shown that relatives have lack of knowledge about the disease and this lead, among other things, to insufficiency, and that they have difficulty knowing how much they should be involved in the lives of the individuals. Previous research has also shown that treatment based on the fact that people with schizophrenia have shared their experiences have led to positive aspects for both themselves, relatives and nursing staff.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe peoples experiences of living with schizophrenia.

    Method: A qualitative descriptive literature review containing 14 scientific articles.

    Main results: People with schizophrenia experienced shared feelings about relationships and employment. Positive feelings were that they experienced these as normalizing and beneficial when it came to self-esteem, a sense of belonging to society as well as socially beneficial. Negative feelings that were experienced were discrimination, impairment, mental abuse, but also that drugs, sleep and symptoms affected their ability to perform and day rhythm. Experiences of coping were that they often turned to religion, various self-supporting activities, and community with other people. However, some people with schizophrenia denied their condition because they did not feel sick. Many negative emotional moods occurred, and these led many times to suicidal thoughts and actions when it was thought to lead to freedom.

    Conclusion: People with schizophrenia experience difficulties through life and by talking about their experiences, it can contribute to an increased understanding of the disease for both the persons with schizophrenia, but also for relatives and nursing staff. This knowledge could be used to adapt different rehabilitation measures.

  • 2354.
    Wennman-Larsen, Agneta
    et al.
    Division of Nursing, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Persson, Carina
    Division of Nursing, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Ostlund, Ulrika
    Division of Nursing, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Wengström, Yvonne
    Division of Nursing, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, J Petter
    Division of Nursing, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Development in quality of relationship between the significant other and the lung cancer patient as perceived by the significant other2008In: European Journal of Oncology Nursing, ISSN 1462-3889, E-ISSN 1532-2122, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 430-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To prospectively explore the quality of the relationship between significant others and patients during lung cancer. based on the perceptions of the significant others. Method: In a sample of 91 significant others, longitudinal data were collected during the first year after diagnosis, and explored on group level and as individual patterns over time. Results: Relational quality was skewed towards high quality, although 30% of the significant others reported low levels close to diagnosis. Forty-eight percent reported stability in the quality of their relationship during the disease trajectory. Within this group, 36% reported low levels of relational quality. Fifty-two percent reported change in quality of relationship and four typical patterns of change were identified. Two showed approximate linear changes in either a positive direction (15%) or a negative direction (49%), and two showed non-linear changes with a temporary ascending curve (11%) or a descending curve (26%). This implies that a change towards low levels of relational quality was most common. Conclusion: The present results show that illness may be a trigger for change in relational quality, which may have implications for future family-centred practice and research, since previously high relational quality has been linked to improved emotional well-being.

  • 2355.
    Wennstig, Benita
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hjälp i hemmet i form av informations- och kommunikationsteknik för individer med kognitiva nedsättningar2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2356.
    Wenting, Feng
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Siyu, Wu
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Support interventions and effects of them on elderly with depression: A descriptive literaturereview2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2357.
    Wersäll, Minke
    et al.
    Swedish Work Environment Authority, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Jonsson, Christina
    Swedish Work Environment Authority, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lorén, Kerstin
    aSwedish Work Environment Authority, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjöstedt-Landén, Angelika
    Department of Social Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    A Symposium on gender perspectives on musculoskeletal health at work – a Swedish initiative2015In: Proceedings of the 19th Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, Melbourne 9-14 August 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2358.
    Westerberg Jacobson, Josefin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Talking with Children with Eating Disorders2014In: Listening to the Children, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2359.
    Westergren, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Medical science.
    Hematologiutbildning för sjuksköterskor2011In: Tidningen Cancervården, ISSN 1401-6583, no 4, p. 10-13Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2360.
    Westerholm, Ida
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Gravidas hälsovanor2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstract

     

    Westerholm, I. (2011). Gravidas hälsovanor. Hälsopedagogiska programmet. Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Högskolan i Gävle.

    This study aimed to investigate whether pregnant women change their health habits following recommendations and, if so, find out where they get this information from. Nineteen respondents participated in the study which was a non-random sample of pregnant women or women who were pregnant in the recent past, ranging from nine weeks of pregnancy to a mother who had her baby 17 months ago. Open-ended questions were answered and the results showed that counseling on health during pregnancy took place during the first visit to the maternal health care center. The main advice given regarded the foods women should avoid, to drink plenty of water and follow the plate model. Most respondents followed this advice carefully, more so if they were pregnant for the first time. Many participants searched more information about nutrition in pregnancy and this was mainly done through various internet sites but also through literature and acquaintances. To completely stop taking alcohol and tobacco when they found out they were pregnant was obvious to many respondents, however, there were some who felt that they could not completely resist the tobacco and went ahead anyway.

     

    Keywords: pregnant women, health, recommendations.

  • 2361.
    Wetterskog, Annika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Sjuksköterskans hinder och möjligheter till att använda forskningsresultat i sitt arbete på särskilt boende: En enkätstudie2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background. The nurse/specialist nurse has the responsibility that nursing is based on research results and proven experience. A number of studies show that it is beneficial for the patient when research results are used in nursing care. Nurses, however, have difficulty using research results even if they realize the importance of the use. Aim. To see what obstacles and opportunities there are for nurses, working in nursing homes, to use research results in their work. Method. Descriptive and comparative design with quantitative approach. Main results. This study shows that the biggest obstacle, for nurses working in nursing homes, in the use of research results, is the lack of time. The smallest obstacles were that the nurse considers that research is relevant to their work and that nurses see the value of research for the clinical activity. A significant difference can be seen depending on age how big barriers you experience in the use of research results, where younger nurses estimate higher barriers. Facilitating factors were an interested and positive management, colleagues to discuss research, and that research articles should be clear and easy to understand. Conclusion. In order to give nurses greater opportunity to use research results in their work, they should be given time to do this.

  • 2362.
    Widahl, Kerstin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Bergström, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Hur barn förbereds inför undersökningar och behandlingar samt hur det påverkar barnen: En litteraturstudie2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Utsättas för det okända kan vara skrämmande för varje mänsklig varelse. När ett barn måste genomgå en undersökning eller behandling kan en sådan situation representera det okända och det hotfulla. Barn i alla åldrar behöver förberedas inför alla situationer. Syftet med litteraturstudien var att beskriva hur barn, i samband med sjukhusvistelse, förbereds inför undersökningar och behandlingar samt hur förberedelserna påverkar barnen. Vetenskapliga artiklar söktes i databaserna Medline via Pubmed och Academic Search Elite

    Resultatet, baserat på 15 kvantitativa vetenskapliga artiklar, visade att barn som förutom verbal information fick ett utökat förberedelseprogram i form av terapeutisk lek, audiovisuell information eller kognitiv beteendemetod, uppvisade lägre oro och stressnivåer i samband med undersökningar och behandlingar.

  • 2363.
    Widerström, Mathilda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Utmattningssyndrom bland högskolestudenter: En intervjustudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study is to increase understanding how chronic fatigue syndrome affects university students' lifes.

    Method: The study used a qualitative method where five interviews were conducted on college students aged 19-25 years, which at some time during their life had chronic fatigue syndrome. The data was processed through content analysis.

    Results: The results showed that chronic fatigue syndrome affected students’ life situation. They needed treatment and were on sick-leave during certain periods and had problems with memory, concentration and focus.

    Conclusion: Symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome can manifest in terms of headaches, stomach pain, weight loss, weight gain and insomnia. The factors that influence if a college student develops fatigue syndrome is a heavy workload from work and studies, high demands and no time for recovery. However further research is needed on the relationship between being a student and chronic fatigue syndrome to clarify causal factors.

  • 2364.
    Widfeldt, Marie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Hälsoinspiratörer på arbetsplatsen - en undersökning om chefens inställning2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     

     

     

     

    ABSTRACT

    Widfeldt, M. (2011). Health motivators in the workplace – a study on the manager’s attitude. Public Health Science C: Theory and method with application and examination paper. Faculty of Health and Working Life: University of Gävle.

    Within the Swedish Post office, health promotion is actively being carried out. In order to reach out with health promotion to all employees, health motivators have an important role. In order to succeed in achieving good results from this work, managers’ attitudes are seen as an important prerequisite. The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes to health motivators among managers in the Swedish Post office. The study was based on a qualitative design and involved 16 managers, of whom eight managers worked with health motivators and eight managers did not. The collected interviews were analyzed using a content analysis and the results showed that managers had a positive attitude towards working with health motivators. Managers with health motivators noticed positive effects in the form of healthier employees, reduced absenteeism, and an improved working environment. Managers without health motivators noted time constraints and lack of interest among employees as the main reasons for not working with them. In conclusion, this study has shown that managers have a positive attitude towards working with health motivators, but that the time and the interests among employees are required to work in this way.

    Key words:

    health motivator, managers, attitudes, effects

  • 2365.
    Wiesinger, Birgitta
    et al.
    Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Research and Development, Umeå University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Häggman-Henrikson, Birgitta
    Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Orofacial Pain and Jaw Function, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Hellström, Fredrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Englund, Erling
    Department of Research and Development, Umeå University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Wänman, Anders
    Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Does induced masseter muscle pain affect integrated jaw-neck movements similarly in men and women?2016In: European Journal of Oral Sciences, ISSN 0909-8836, E-ISSN 1600-0722, Vol. 124, no 6, p. 546-553Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Normal jaw opening-closing involves simultaneous jaw and head-neck movements. We previously showed that, in men, integrated jaw-neck movements during jaw function are altered by induced masseter muscle pain. The aim of this study was to investigate possible sex-related differences in integrated jaw-neck movements following experimental masseter muscle pain. We evaluated head-neck and jaw movements in 22 healthy women and 16 healthy men in a jaw opening-closing task. The participants performed one control trial and one trial with masseter muscle pain induced by injection of hypertonic saline. Jaw and head movements were registered using a three-dimensional optoelectronic recording system. There were no significant sex-related differences in jaw and head movement amplitudes. Head movement amplitudes were significantly greater in the pain trials for both men and women. The proportional involvement of the neck motor system during jaw movements increased in pain trials for 13 of 16 men and for 18 of 22 women. Thus, acute pain may alter integrated jaw-neck movements, although, given the similarities between men and women, this interaction between acute pain and motor behaviour does not explain sex differences in musculoskeletal pain in the jaw and neck regions.

  • 2366. Wiholm, Clairy
    et al.
    Richter, Hans O.
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Toomingas, Allan
    Associations between eyestrain and neck-shoulder symptoms among call centre operators2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, ISSN 0356-6528, no Suppl. 3, p. 54-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Few if any studies have investigated if eyestrain and shoulder-neck symptoms are correlated, although functional links could be expected on the basis of neurophysiological evidence. The present cross sectional study assessed correlations between self-reported eye strain and shoulder-neck symptoms among call centre workers, controlling for possible confounders for these ailments. A questionnaire concerning socioeconomic background, work conditions and symptoms was mailed to 1531 employees at 28 different call centers during the years 2001- 2003. Twenty-one percent of responding subjects (N = 1162) reported both eyestrain and neck shoulder symptoms, 46% reported neck/shoulder and 6 % eye symptoms. 46% were free from symptoms in these regions. A significant positive association was found between eyestrain and neck/shoulder symptoms. Significant covariates for shoulder-neck disorders were eyestrain (OR = 1.6 p = 0.007), gender (to be female) (OR 1.9, p < 0.001, irritation index (OR 1.2, p =0.03), and feeling stressed (OR 1.2, p = 0.001. In a multi-nominal regression analysis gender (female) (OR = 1.9, p = 0.002), feeling stressed (OR 1.3, p = 0.002), feelings of distress (OR = 1.7, p < 0.001), computer problems (OR 1.3, p = 0.002)) and social support (OR 0.6, p = 0.003) remained in the model for the eye/neck symptoms. The results from this study support an association between self-reported combined eyestrain and shoulder-neck symptoms. However no causal relations can be derived due to the cross-sectional design.

  • 2367.
    Wiitavaara, Birgitta
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Balancing intrusive illness: the experiences of people with musculoskeletal problems2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of the present thesis was to explore and describe the health experiences of men and women with musculoskeletal problems. The specific aims of the four papers were: (I) to explore the experience of illness and wellness among ambulance personnel with musculoskeletal symptoms; (II) to explore the experience of illness and wellness among female health care personnel with musculoskeletal symptoms; (III) to explore the experience of bodily illness among people with musculoskeletal problems in the neck-shoulder region, and; (IV) to investigate the symptoms described by people with non-specific neck-shoulder problems, to investigate the method of development of neck-shoulder questionnaires that assesses pain and other symptoms, to analyse the content and items of these questionnaires, and to compare the findings.

    The overall findings show that the occupationally active men and women with MSDs were “striving for balance” (I-II), that the disease course of chronic neck-shoulder disorders was characterised by “uncontrollable fluctuations” (III), and that most neck-shoulder questionnaires had a low correspondence to the variety of symptoms experienced during this course (IV). In the process of striving for balance (I-II), the informants’ health experiences were not a state of either wellness or illness, but of both, in varying degrees at different times. The balancing started when illness became too intrusive, and was a process of minimising the impact of illness by accepting and handling it, while attaining and maintaining wellness to feel well enough. When striving for balance, the interviewees kept on working to continue being nurtured at the same time as they made different efforts directed at minimising the impact of their illness. For both men and women, illness was characterised by disembodiment, vulnerability, and exhaustion. The illness experiences were counterbalanced by wellness, where some differences could be recognised between the men and the women. Study III further explored the experiences of bodily illness, focusing on people with chronic musculoskeletal disorders in the neck-shoulder region. The course of the disorder was described as characterised by uncontrollable fluctuations, and it usually developed from insidious symptoms to a state of constant discomfort. The participants experienced calmer periods during the course, but intermittent events of increasing illness were always lying in wait, with periodic moments of consuming intensity. In the interviews included in study IV a variety of symptoms were expressed, which indicated a bodily, mental, and emotional engagement, which included more general and more severe symptoms than are usually related to neck-shoulder disorders. Few of the questionnaires were developed using the experiences of the affected. Taken as a whole, did the questionnaires cover many of the symptoms of the interviewees, but each individual questionnaire only included a few. The fluctuations and nuances of symptoms were rarely considered. The correspondence between individual questionnaires and the experiences of those affected was most often low. This thesis reveals other aspects of health than just bodily experiences as important among occupationally active people with MSDs. It also provides a description of the disease course, and an indication of possibilities for improvement of neck-shoulder questionnaires

  • 2368.
    Wiitavaara, Birgitta
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Health as balance: illness and wellness among persons with musculoskeletal disorders2006In: 5th Global Conference Making Sense Of: Health, Illness and Disease, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Musculoskeletal disorders is a condition mostly approached from an out-side perspective and with quantitative methodology. This paper presents health experiences of men with musculoskeletal problems, explored through narrative interviews and constant comparative analysis. As there is a need for further research concerning people with early musculoskeletal symptoms, we turned to persons still active in working life. Ten men working as ambulance personnel were interviewed about their health experiences.

    The analysis revealed a process of striving for balance between experiences of illness and wellness. The informants’ health experiences were not a state of either wellness or illness but both, in varying degrees at different times. The process of striving for balance started when the illness experience became too intrusive, and was a process of both minimising the impact of illness by accepting and handling it and attaining and maintaining enough wellness to strike a balance. The state of balance was the experience of feeling “well enough”.

    Illness was characterised by disembodiment, vulnerability, and exhaustion, as the illness experiences incorporated feelings of that the previously silent body made it self heard, of being vulnerable when suffering gets too close and of getting worn out. Those experiences were counterbalanced by wellness, which was nurtured by experiences of relatedness, usefulness, being some one, and by excitement, challenge, and freedom.

  • 2369.
    Wiitavaara, Birgitta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Well but ill: Lay perspectives on health among people with musculoskeletal disorders.2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study departs from questions arisen in previous interview studies of health experiences with people with musculoskeletal disorders. During data collection about health experiences in this group a common comment to the question –“How do you experience your health”? was –“Well, but”…  This awoke our interest to further explore this topic. Thus the aim of present study was to investigate lay perspectives on health among people with musculoskeletal disorders. Semi-structured interviews were performed with 68 women and men with long term (>3 months) musculoskeletal disorders in neck, shoulder and/or low back. All informants were recruited as participants in previous studies on health experiences among people with MSDs (Wiitavaara et al., 2007a, b, 2008, 2009). The informants (39 women and 29 men), were 18-64 years old and most of them were occupationally active in a variety of different occupations. Analysis was performed using qualitative content analysis (Graneheim & Lundman, 2003). The lay perspective on health in this group of people with musculoskeletal problems was perceived as “Having resources and possibilities to lead the life one want”. This theme incorporated three main categories as the informants perceived health to include “A good enough physical and psychological functioning and balance”; “Freedom of action”; and “A positive state of emotion and an enriching social life”. The informants expressed a holistic view of health, encompassing physical, psychological, emotional, as well as social aspects, which can be interpreted from an action theoretical perspective (Nordenfelt, 2007).

  • 2370.
    Wiitavaara, Birgitta
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Nursing, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Barnekow-Bergkvist, Margareta
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Brulin, Christine
    Department of Nursing, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Striving for balance: a grounded theory study of health experiences of nurses with musculoskeletal problems.2007In: International Journal of Nursing Studies, ISSN 0020-7489, E-ISSN 1873-491X, Vol. 44, no 8, p. 1379-1390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are one of the major causes of the high levels of long-term sickleave and early retirement, and healthcare personnel are among the occupational groups most affected. Only limited research in the area has focused on the experiences of those affected, and to increase the understanding of MSD, all dimensions of the health experiences need to be taken into consideration. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper was to explore the experiences of illness and wellness among female healthcare personnel with musculoskeletal symptoms. DESIGN: A qualitative grounded theory approach guided the study in data collection and analysis. SETTINGS: Medical and surgical ward units at three hospitals; one university hospital and two minor hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: Eight women, registered nurses and nursing aides, with neck, shoulder and/or back problems in early stages. METHODS: A grounded theory approach was used with narrative thematic interviews and parallel data analysis with constant comparisons. RESULTS: The analysis revealed a process of striving to reach a balance between illness and wellness, through accepting and handling illness. Illness appeared as a threat and an experience, while experiences of wellness were simultaneously nurtured. The informants were striving for balance through an inner reasoning leading to acceptance and by handling illness in various ways depending on the character of the illness. CONCLUSION: This paper indicates the diversity of the illness experience, the parallel importance of wellness, and the process of balancing these two in order to feel well enough. As previous research has shown that MSD has a multifactorial cause, a holistic view of health promotion, prevention and rehabilitation may provide a more effective tool than the bodily physical focus most frequently used today.

  • 2371.
    Wiitavaara, Birgitta
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bengs, Carita
    Sociologiska institutionen, Umeå universitet.
    Brulin, Christine
    Institutionen för omvårdnad, Umeå universitet.
    Lekmannaperspektiv på hälsa bland personer med muskuloskeletala besvär2015In: Best Practice : Smärta, Vol. 4, no 10, p. 20-23Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2372.
    Wiitavaara, Birgitta
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bengs, Carita
    Sociologiska institutionen, Umeå universitet.
    Brulin, Christine
    Institutionen för omvårdnad, Umeå universitet.
    Well, I'm healthy, but...: lay perspectives on health among people with musculoskeletal disorders2016In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 71-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    urpose: The purpose was to investigate lay perspectives on health among people with musculoskeletal disorders. Method: Semi-structured interviews were performed with 39 women and 30 men, (aged 22–63 years) with long-term, non-specific musculoskeletal disorders in the neck, shoulder and/or low back. Data was analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results: These people experienced health as “having resources and opportunities to lead the life one wants”. Three categories, “a good enough physical and psychological functioning, freedom of action, and a positive state of emotion and an enriching life”, illustrate the different resources and opportunities that the informants described as important for them to perceive themselves as healthy. The informants also reflected on “being ill” and “being well” and what makes the difference. Five aspects influenced the dynamics of their health experiences: “body and soul, prognosis, character of symptoms, physical and social activity, and emotional state”. Consequently, the informants expressed a holistic view of health, where the focus lies on the opportunity and the ability to lead their lives the way they want. Conclusions: This study points at the value of taking lay perspectives on health into account, as it might increase the opportunity to design effective, personalized rehabilitation strategies.

  • 2373.
    Wiitavaara, Birgitta
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Nursing, Ume̊ University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Björklund, Martin
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Alfta Research Foundation, Alfta, Sweden.
    Brulin, Christine
    Department of Nursing, Ume̊ University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Djupsjöbacka, Mats
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    How well do questionnaires on symptoms in neck-shoulder disorders capture the experiences of those who suffer from the disorders?: A content analysis of questionnaires and interviews2009In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Previous research has indicated neck-shoulder disorders to have a fluctuating course incorporating a variety of symptoms. These findings awoke our interest to make a comparison between symptoms experienced by people affected with the disorder and the content of questionnaires that assess pain and other symptoms in neck-shoulder disorders. Thus the aims of this study were: -to explore the symptoms experienced by people with non-specific neck-shoulder problems, as well as experiences of nuances and temporal variations (fluctuations) of symptoms; -to investigate which sources were used in the development of ten questionnaires for assessing pain and other symptoms in the neck-shoulder; -to analyse the item content of the questionnaires; -to analyse the correspondence between the item content of the questionnaires and the symptoms described by the informants. METHODS: Content analysis of interviews with 40 people with non-specific neck-shoulder pain, and 10 questionnaires used to assess pain and other symptoms in neck-shoulder disorders. RESULTS: The interviews revealed a variety of symptoms indicating a bodily, mental/cognitive, and emotional engagement, and more general and severe symptoms than are usually considered in neck-shoulder questionnaires. Taking all questionnaires together many of the symptoms were considered, but most questionnaires only included a few of them. The informants were able to distinguish fluctuation of symptoms, and a variety of different qualities which were not usually considered in the questionnaires. Only two questionnaires had made use of the opinions of affected people in the development. CONCLUSIONS: Few of the questionnaires had made use of the experiences of affected people in the development. The correspondence between the symptoms expressed by the affected and the content of the questionnaires was low. A variety of symptoms were expressed by the interviewees, and the participants were also able to distinguish nuances and fluctuations of symptoms. The present study points to the importance of other aspects than just pain and physical functioning as clinical trial outcome measures related to neck-shoulder disorders. To develop a condition-specific questionnaire, it is important to decide on the specific symptoms for the condition. Using the experiences of those affected, in combination with relevant research and professional knowledge, can enhance the validity of the questionnaires.

  • 2374.
    Wiitavaara, Birgitta
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF.
    Björklund, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF.
    Djupsjöbacka, Mats
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF.
    Nilsson, Annika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Can internationally recommended outcome domains capture aspects that are prominent for the health experiences of women with neck- and shoulder pain?: A factor analysis. (Poster)2010In: Proceedings of the Premus 2010 conference (Seventh International Conference on Prevention of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders) August 29-September 2, Angers, France, 2010, p. 283-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2375.
    Wiitavaara, Birgitta
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Nursing, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Brulin, Christine
    Department of Nursing, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Barnekow Bergqvist, Margareta
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    When the body makes itself heard: the experience of bodily illness among people with neck-shoulder problems2008In: Advances in Physiotherapy, ISSN 1403-8196, E-ISSN 1651-1948, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 85-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore the experience of bodily illness among people with musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in the neck/shoulder region. The study had a grounded theory approach, with constant comparisons and simultaneous data collection and analysis. Initially, parts of interviews about health experiences related to MSDs previously performed among men and women with musculoskeletal symptoms in the neck/shoulder and/or back were analysed. Next, complementary semi-structured interviews among men and women with neck/shoulder problems were performed, focusing on the experience of bodily illness, until saturation was reached. The results describe the experiences of bodily illness among people with MSDs in the neck/shoulder region as being characterized by uncontrollable fluctuations. The experiences are presented as a model of the disease course as experienced by the affected. The process usually developed from a beginning with insidious symptoms to a state of constant discomfort. Along the line of this development, periods of intermittent events of increasing illness occurred with peaks of consuming intensity. A variety of different symptoms was present during the process, which are presented in this paper. An increased knowledge of the disease course can be useful in prevention and treatment as communication about the disorder can be more specific.

  • 2376.
    Wiitavaara, Birgitta
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Fahlström, Martin
    Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Umeå universitet.
    Djupsjöbacka, Mats
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Prevalence, diagnostics, and management of musculoskeletal disorders in primary health care in Sweden: an investigation of 2000 randomly selected patient records2017In: Journal of Evaluation In Clinical Practice, ISSN 1356-1294, E-ISSN 1365-2753, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 325-332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. To improve the care of patients suffering from musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) further knowledge regarding the prevalence, diagnostics and management of different MSD in primary care is required. Thus the aims of this study were: -to investigate the prevalence of patients seeking care due to different MSD at primary health care centres (PHCs); -to chart different factors as symptoms, diagnosis, and actions prescribed for patients that visited the PHCs due to MSD; and -to make comparisons regarding differences due to gender, age, and rural or urban PHC.

    Methods. 2000 patient records for patients in working age were randomly selected equally distributed on one rural and one urban PHC. A 3-year period was reviewed retrospectively. For all patient records age, sex, occupation, occupational activity, date of visit, if it was a new or re-visit, cause to the visit, and diagnosis related to the visit were registered. For visits due to MSD the location of the patients symptoms, which symptoms were described in the patient record, the type of those symptoms, which actions were prescribed to resolve the patients problems, and also sickleave prior to and after the visit, were registered. Data was analysed using cross tabulation, multidimensional Chi-square (Pearson), and a probability level of p < .05.

    Results. The prevalence of MSD was high, almost 60 % of the patients had some sort of MSD symptoms, either at the day for visit or the reviewed 3 year period, and a bit higher among women than men. Upper and lower limb problems were most common. Symptoms were most prevalent in the young and middle age-groups. The patients got a variety of different diagnoses, and between 13-35 % of the patients did not receive a MSD-diagnose despite having MSD-symptoms. There was a great variation in how the cases were handled. Medication and sick leave certificates were most common while work-related rehabilitation was less common. Conclusion. The present study points out some weaknesses regarding diagnostics and management of MSD in primary care. Further studies to compare the results regarding diagnoses for musculoskeletal symptoms and measures taken to solve the patients’ problems would be of interest.

  • 2377.
    Wiitavaara, Birgitta
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Heiden, Marina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Content and psychometric evaluations of questionnaires for assessing physical function in people with low back disorders: a systematic review of the literature2018In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose was to investigate how physical function is assessed in people with musculoskeletal disorders in the low back. Specifically:

    • Which questionnaires are used to assess physical function in people with musculoskeletal disorders in the low back?
    • What aspects of physical function do those questionnaires measure?
    • What are the measurement properties of the questionnaires?

    Materials and methods: A systematic review was performed to identify questionnaires and psychometric evaluations of them. The content of the questionnaires was categorised according to the International Classification of Function, Disability and Health, and the psychometric evaluations were categorised using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) checklist.

    Results: The questionnaires measured disability or ability to cope in everyday life, rather than physical function as such. Different aspects of a person’s mobility and ability to attend to one’s personal care were most often included regarding activity and participation. For body functions, items about sleep and pain were most often included. The Oswestry Disability Index and the Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale showed adequate psychometric properties in most evaluations.

    Conclusions: The extent of psychometric evaluations differed substantially, as did the items included. Focus of measurement was predominantly on activities in daily life.

    • Implications for rehabilitation
    • Valid and reliable instruments that measure relevant aspects of low back disorders are needed to provide early diagnostics and effective treatment.
    • Most questionnaires need more psychometric evaluations to establish the quality.
    • The Oswestry Disability Index and the Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale showed adequate psychometric properties in most evaluations.
    • The results may be useful when making decisions about which measurement instruments to use when evaluating low back disorders.
  • 2378.
    Wiitavaara, Birgitta
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Heiden, Marina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Content and psychometric evaluations of questionnaires for assessing physical function in people with neck disorders –  A systematic review of the literature2018In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 40, no 19, p. 2227-2235Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose was to investigate how physical function is assessed in people with musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) in the neck. Specifically, we aimed to determine: (1) Which questionnaires are used to assess physical function in people with MSD in the neck? (2) What do those questionnaires measure? (3) What are the measurement properties of the questionnaires?

    Materials and methods: A systematic review was performed to identify questionnaires and psychometric evaluations. The content of the questionnaires was categorized according to the International Classification of Function, Disability and Health, and the psychometric properties were quality-rated using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments checklist.

    Results: Ten questionnaires and 32 articles evaluating measurement properties were analyzed. Most questionnaires covered only the components body functions and activity and participation, more often activity participation than body function. Internal consistency was adequate in most questionnaires, whereas responsiveness was generally low. Neck Disability Index was most evaluated, but the evaluations of all questionnaires tended to cover most properties in the checklist.

    Conclusions: The questionnaires differed substantially in items and extent to which their psychometric properties had been evaluated. Focus of measurement was on activities in daily life rather than physical function as such.

    • Implications for Rehabilitation
    • To provide early diagnostics and effective treatment for patients with neck disorders, valid and reliable instruments that measure relevant aspects of the disorders are needed.

    • This paper presents an overview of content and quality of questionnaires used to assess physical function in neck disorders, which may facilitate informed decisions about which measurement instruments to use when evaluating the course of neck disorders.

    • Most of the questionnaires need more testing to judge the quality, however the NDI was the most frequently tested questionnaire.

    • The COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments checklist is a useful tool in relation to psychometric testing of questionnaires, but clear definitions of interpretation of the quality criteria in each study would enhance comparability of results.

  • 2379.
    Wiitavaara, Birgitta
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Heiden, Marina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Content and quality of questionnaires for assessment of physical functioning in neck disorders – A systematic review of the literature2017In: Joy at Work, NES, 2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Valid and reliable instruments are required in order to determine effective interventions in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD). Today, there is a lack of consistency in use of self-report outcome measures in research and practice, which makes it difficult or impossible to compare treatment effects. The questionnaires differ widely, in content as well as quality. The focus of present study was on assessment of physical functioning among people with MSD in the neck. The aim was to investigate how physical function is assessed in people with MSD in the neck. Specifically we wanted to determine: - Which questionnaires are used to assess physical function in people with musculoskeletal disorders in the neck? - What do those questionnaires measure? - What are the measurement properties of the questionnaires?

    The study was performed as a systematic literature review in order to identify articles presenting the questionnaires and psychometric tests of them. Items included in the questionnaires were classified according to the "International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health", ICF. Thereafter, all psychometric tests of the different questionnaires were analysed with respect to relevant quality indicators using the "Cosmin checklist".

    Included in the final analysis were 10 questionnaires and 32 articles presenting psychometric tests of them. The analysis revealed that questionnaires for measuring physical functioning in neck disorders differ substantially in items and extent to which their psychometric properties have been evaluated. Most questionnaires contained only the ICF-components body functions and activity and participation, more often activity and participation. The most psychometrically tested questionnaire was Neck Disability Index. Remaining questionnaires were tested in fewer studies and only some of the properties in the Cosmin checklist were tested for most of them.

    Questionnaires for assessment of physical function in people with neck disorders tend to focus more on the ability to engage in activities of daily life than on physical function as such. Furthermore, the measurement properties of the questionnaires have usually been evaluated in few studies. It is vital to measure aspects that are of importance for the individual wellbeing and ability to function in work and daily life when evaluating neck disorders. However, to increase the validity of the results in clinical and research studies, it is also important to include the most relevant aspects of physical function. We recommend more psychometric testing of the questionnaires, especially those that cover important aspects of the ICF categories. To ensure coverage of important aspects, validation of the questionnaires against patients and practitioners is needed.

    A review and analysis of this kind makes it easier for researchers and clinicians to select the most suitable questionnaire for their own purpose, based on the content and quality of the questionnaire.

  • 2380.
    Wiitavaara, Birgitta
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Heiden, Marina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    What do questionnaires for assessment of physical functioning in neck disorders really measure?: A systematic review of the literature2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. In order to determine which interventions are effective in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders, valid and reliable instruments are required. However, there is a lack of consistency in the use of outcome measures, both in research and in treatment, that makes comparisons difficult or impossible; the content and quality varies widely be-tween questionnaires. This study focuses on the measurements of the physical function-ing of people with MSDs. The aim of this systematic review is to investigate how physical function is measured in people with musculoskeletal disorders or chronic pain. Specifically we want to determine: (1) What instruments are used to measure physical function in people with musculoskeletal disorders or chronic pain? (2) What do those instruments measure? (3) What is the methodological quality of these instruments?

    Method. The study was performed as a systematic literature review in the data bases PubMed, Cinahl, Web of Science, and Scopus, using the same set of keywords and Bool-ean operators. The selection of relevant articles was performed by reviewing the title and abstract first, and the article text thereafter. Selected articles were classified according to the “ICF Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health.” Subsequently, articles will be examined with respect to relevant quality indicators using the “Cosmin checklist.”

    Results. 69 relevant questionnaires were found and were sorted into groups according to focus. As a first step, neck and arm-shoulder-hand questionnaires were analyzed. The ICF-classification revealed that the included items belonged to the components “body func-tions” and “activity/participation,” and the included domains varied significantly between the questionnaires. The quality of the instruments will be determined in the next step.

    Discussion. A review and analysis of this kind makes it possible for researchers and clini-cians to more easily select the most suitable questionnaire for their purpose based on the content and quality of the questionnaire.

  • 2381.
    Wiitavaara, Birgitta
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Nursing, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lundman, B.
    Department of Nursing, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Barnekow-Bergkvist, Margaretha
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Brulin, C.
    Department of Nursing, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Striking a balance - health experiences of male ambulance personnel with musculoskeletal symptoms: a grounded theory2007In: International Journal of Nursing Studies, ISSN 0020-7489, E-ISSN 1873-491X, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 770-779Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are a dominant cause to long-term sick leave and early retirement. Some occupational groups are more affected than others and ambulance personnel are among them. Despite a vast amount of research, only a small part focuses the experiences of the affected.

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to explore the experience of illness and wellness in ambulance personnel with musculoskeletal symptoms.

    Design: An emerging design was used in accordance with Grounded Theory.

    Participants: Informants in the study were ten men with musculoskeletal symptoms, working as ambulance personnel at an ambulance station located in a mid-sized city in Sweden.

    Methods: Narrative interviews were performed, parallel to a constant comparative analysis.

    Results: The study resulted in a model, which describes the experience of illness and wellness as characterised by an effort to strike a balance. Wellness through nurturing appeared parallel to encountering illness as an experience and a threat. Accepting and handling illness was of importance to maintaining wellness, and wellness through nurturing was the motivation for accepting and handling illness.

    Conclusions: Enhancing the understanding of wellness and illness makes it possible to avoid undermining the meaningfulness that support accepting and handling illness, and by understanding different aspects of illness prevention can become facilitated. This is of importance as other aspects than solely physical have shown to be similarly important in the development of MSD.

  • 2382.
    Wijk, Katarina
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för pedagogik.
    Constructing Risk-Taking Youth: Extrapolating Theories of Health Education and Constructed Determinants of Risk-Taking among Youth in Preventive Sexual Health Education Interventions2002Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 2383.
    Wijk, Katarina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Work values among male and female students2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to provide an overview of the different values that make for an ideal work situation for people currently studying at different educational levels in Sweden, and between males and females (n=190). A questionnaire measuring eight Index of work values were used. Results show that social relations was the index having the highest mean rating for both males and females, followed by work and health, and working conditions. Significant difference between genders could be seen in the Index social relations, work and health, working conditions, and altruism. The single question that received the highest mean score was; to have a fair and understanding boss. The results can contribute to an understanding of how to design workplaces that attract young people and, thus, optimize well-being.

  • 2384.
    Wijk, Katarina
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Work values among male and female students2009In: Proceedings of the 17th World Congress on Ergonomics, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2385.
    Wijk, Katarina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för pedagogik.
    Gävert, Malin
    Hälsofrämjande verksamhet på arbetsplats: en formativ utvärdering av implementeringsfasen2005Report (Other academic)
  • 2386.
    Wijk, Katarina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för pedagogik.
    Halling, Bengt
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för pedagogik.
    Att väcka den björn som sover: reflektion över planering och implementering av en hälsointervention på en arbetsplats2006Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Artikeln problematiserar planering och implementering av pedagogisk hälsointervention på arbetsplats, utifrån en fallstudie på en arbetsplats. Handhavanden och motsättningar i interventionsarbetet reflekteras. Interventionen var teoretiskt förankrad i Social Learning Theory, varvid miljö, beteende och personella faktorer beaktades vid planering och implementering. Syftet med artikeln är att illustrera en formativ process genom att reflektera över praktik och teori i interventionsarbetet. Konkreta exempel på hur emperi från arbetsplatsen har väglett val av strategier i interventionsarbetet, presenteras.

  • 2387. Wijk, Katarina
    et al.
    Lindberg, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Divergences in descriptions of the internal work environment management, between employees and the management, a case study2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the case study was to critically compare the descriptions of employees and managers of how the work environment is prioritised in a medium-sized Swedish retailer belonging to an international group. The study is based upon a questionnaire study of employees (n=55), and on interviews with people in leading positions with partial responsibility for the work environment at the company (n=6) as well as with the local safety delegate (n=1). The results show that the driving forces behind the work environment are, according to respondents, finances, legislation, trademarks and the attitudes of the upper management. The on-going work environment management is described differently in terms of its form and content by employees and persons in leading positions.

  • 2388.
    Wiker, Beatrice
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Rehabilitering av äldre inom slutenvård: Vad händer sedan?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Idag är 20 procent av Sveriges befolkning över 65 år. Många av dessa lider av fysisk, psykisk eller social ohälsa, samtidigt som vård och omsorg inte kan bemöta deras behov. Med stigande ålder förändras kroppens sammansättning och kroppens funktioner försämras. Äldres ohälsa blir ett ännu större problem vid sjukhusvistelse då äldre människor generellt sett är mer inaktiva och muskelstyrkan minskar. För att motverka försämrad hälsa efter utskrivning har fysisk aktivitet visat sig vara en möjlig behandlingsform. Men hur stor betydelse har den fysiska aktiviteten efter utskrivning från slutenvården?

     

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka vilken betydelse fortsatt rehabilitering genom fysisk aktivitet har för äldre personers hälsa efter utskrivning från slutenvård.

     

    Metod: En deskriptiv litteraturstudie genomfördes och vid litteratursökningen användes de akademiska databaserna PubMed och Cinahl. Samtlig litteratur bestod av vetenskapligt granskade artiklar publicerade i fulltext och tillgängliga från Högskolan i Gävle.

    Resultat: Samtliga 14 studier beskrev förbättringar på fysisk hälsa genom fortsatt fysisk aktivitet efter utskrivning från slutenvården hos äldre. Gällande psykisk och social hälsa var resultaten dock inte lika tydliga vilket påvisade att mer forskning behövs. Regelbundna motivationshöjande insatser genom återkopplingar påvisades vara viktiga All fysisk aktivitet förbättrade hälsan. Högintensiv träning påvisades dock vara mest effektiv på vissa parametrar. Aktivitet i hemmiljö visade sig vara minst lika effektiv som aktivitet inom vården samtidigt som studierna dock visade att andelen olycksfall var något högre vid obevakad aktivitet i hemmiljö än inom den bevakade slutenvården.   

     

    Slutsatser: Fortsatt fysisk aktivitet är viktigt för äldres fortsatta fysiska, psykiska och sociala hälsa. Fysisk aktivitet bör därför implementeras i de äldres vardag efter utskrivning. Regelbundenhet gällande den fysiska aktiviteten för äldre efter utskrivning är viktigt för bibehållen god hälsa och ett hälsosamt liv. Kunskap finns till viss del på området men mer forskning behövs.

  • 2389.
    Wiklund, Hannah
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Vallin, Sara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Användande av sociala träningsapplikationer och dess påverkan på motivation till träning: En kvantitativ studie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den fysiska inaktiviteten är något som ständigt ökar bland människor världen över. Därför har många nya innovationer tagits fram, bland annat mobila applikationer i syfte att främja hälsa och fysisk aktivitet genom att uppmuntra människor till rörelse. Syftet med studien var att öka förståelsen för varför personer från 18 år och uppåt väljer att använda sig av sociala träningsapplikationer i samband med konditionsträning, samt hur de upplever att användandet påverkar deras motivation till träning.

    Studien genomfördes med en kvantitativ metod, där datainsamlingen skedde genom en webbaserad enkät för att finna ytlig kunskap från en större population. Enkäten besvarades av 103 respondenter som uppfyllde inklusionskriterierna och nåddes av den genom delning via författarnas privata Facebook-profiler eller i en forumtråd på hemsidan Jogg.se.

    Sammanställningen av resultatet visade att användandet av sociala träningsapplikationer huvudsakligen grundade sig i att användarna loggar och för statistik över sin träning samt håller bättre koll på hur mycket de rör sig. Att logga sin träning var också den fördel som flest respondenter upplevde följt av att kunna tävla mot sig själv. Förekomsten av upplevda nackdelar var få, men bland de som upplevde nackdelar handlade det om att respondenterna kände sig stressade eller dåliga när de presterade sämre än tidigare eller när andra presterade bättre. Avslutningsvis visade resultatet att majoriteten upplever att deras motivation till träning har påverkats av användandet av sociala träningsapplikationer, där merparten av dessa har svarat att motivationen mer eller mindre har ökat.

    Av detta har slutsatsen dragits att de sociala aspekterna av applikationsanvändandet är mindre viktigt. Det skulle också kunna dras paralleller mellan att logga sin träning och att behålla eller öka sin motivation till träning. Vilket på sikt skulle kunna hjälpa personer att motivera sig till rörelse, hålla igång med sin träning eller att sätta upp utmanande målsättningar.

  • 2390.
    Wikman, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Criminology.
    Unga mår allt sämre - eller?: Kunskapsöversikt om ungas psykiska hälsa i Sverige 20182018Report (Other academic)
  • 2391.
    Wikman, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Criminology.
    Unga mår allt sämre - eller? Kunskapsöversikt om ungas psykiska hälsa i Sverige 2018: Kortversion2018Report (Other academic)
  • 2392.
    Wiksten, Kristina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Oswaldson, Marie
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Föräldrars upplevelser av vårdtiden då deras barn vårdades för Respiratoriskt Syncytievirus2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

     

    Syftet med studien var att beskriva hur föräldrar upplevde vårdtiden samt att få en förståelse för vilka faktorer som påverkade dem när deras barn vårdades på en barnavdelning för Respiratoriskt syncytievirus (RSV) infektion. Författarna gjorde tio intervjuer som analyserades med innehållsanalys. Intervjuerna presenteras i två teman: betryggande men kravfullt samt frustrerande med otydligheter och brister. Föräldrarna kände sig avlastade och upplevde lättnad i sin oro för barnet när de och barnet blev omhändertagna på barnkliniken. Sjukvårdspersonalen ingav förtroende och hade ett bra bemötande men upplevdes ha bristande kunskaper när det gällde små barn, amning, mjölkhantering och sondmatning. När det gällde organisationen upplevde föräldrarna oklara rutiner och riktlinjer vilket ledde till otrygghet och förvirring. Föräldrarna beskrev betydelsen av att få vara delaktiga i vården samt att tas på allvar. De uttryckte att det fanns begränsningar i lokaler och utrustning vilket bidrog till att de kände sig bundna till rummet och utlämnade med stort ansvar över barnet. Föräldrarnas upplevelser under deras barns vårdtid för RSV infektion påverkades av sjukdomens specifika egenskaper och sjukvårdsorganisationen. Detta gör att sjukvårdspersonalens bemötande är extra betydelsefullt.

  • 2393.
    Wilger, Sophia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Niemeijer, Ingela
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Vårdpersonals attityder till personer med psykisk sjukdom: en litteraturstudie2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this descriptive literature review was to describe the attitudes of health personnel towards people with mental illness. The literature was gathered through the databases Medline and PsycINFO and a total of 15 scientific articles were chosen. The result was divided into two main categories: attitudes to mental illness and differences in attitudes. The result showed that health personnel in general had a negative view of people with mental illness and they regarded them as dangerous, unpredictable and violent. The personnel tried to avoid unnecessary conflicts with them and thought of them to be hard to communicate with. The attitudes varied depending on what psychiatric illness the person suffered from. A person with schizophrenia was believed to be more dangerous than a person with depression and the latter was believed to have a higher chance to recover. Nurses and doctors were positive to mental health services in residential neighbourhoods but didn't want to live next door to a person with a mental illness. Nurses seemed to have a more positive attitude than doctors to people with mental illness and personnel working in psychiatric care had a more positive view than personnel working in somatic care. Any unequivocal differences between men and women have not been found, but young health personnel seemed to be more negative than elder.

  • 2394.
    Wilhelmus Johannes Andreas, G.
    et al.
    Karolinska Insitutet, Department of Neurobiology, Caring Sciences and Society, División of Physical Therapy, Sweden.
    Johansson, Elin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Observational Methods for Assessing Ergonomic Risks for Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders: A Scoping Review2018In: Revista Ciencias de la Salud, ISSN 1692-7273, Vol. 16, no Special Issue, p. 8-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (wrmsds) are one of the most common causes of absence from work. Exposures in the work environment can cause or aggravate the impact of these musculoskeletal disorders and the identification of ergonomic exposures are essential in risk assessment. It is important to assess all three key indicators of these exposures (intensity, frequency and duration) for being able to estimate the risk level for the development of wrmsds. Aim: This paper aims to give an overview of some of the observational methods that can be used for assessment of ergonomic risks at the workplace. Methods: This study was conducted as a scoping review of the medical and ergonomic literature and official governmental webpages in Sweden, U.S.A. and the Netherlands. Results: In total, 19 different observational methods were identified. We summarize our findings based on the body parts that were studied and what key indicators were assessed: 1) intensity of the work load (posture and force production), 2) frequency of the work load (e.g. repetitive movements), and 3) the duration of the work load (e.g. static work). In an appendix we include a brief presentation of these methods together with the work sheet (if available) and the source reference of the observational method. Conclusion: For ergonomists that perform risk assessments, there is a large number of observational assessment tools available and it is important to understand that different methods can be used simultaneously to be able to estimate the objective risk levels for wrmsds. © 2018, Universidad del Rosario. All rights reserved.

  • 2395.
    Willmes, Emma
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Björklund, Vera
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Hur personer med Hiv upplever hälsa i vardagslivet2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: HIV is one of the world's largest public health problems, in 2017 the

    World Health Organization stated that about 37 million people worldwide are living

    with HIV. In Sweden, approximately 6,500 people are living with HIV and every year

    between 400-500 new cases of HIV are reported in Sweden. Despite good knowledge of

    HIV does prejudices, fears and a negative attitude towards people with HIV still exists

    within the healthcare sector. The understanding of an individual's everyday life is an

    important basis for the nurse's work because the understanding controls the actions the

    nurse can insert to ease the experience of health in everyday life. A better understanding

    of an individual's everyday life can also improve the relationship between the nurse and

    the patient and can facilitate the person's participation in their own care.

    Purpose: Describe how people with HIV experience health in their everyday life.

    Method: A literature review with descriptive design based on 12 qualitative articles.

    Findings: The result indicate that people with HIV experience difficulties regarding

    medication, stigmatization and discrimination as obstacles to health in their everyday

    life. While social support from family, friends, faith and healthcare staff can facilitate

    the experience of health in everyday life.

    Conclusion: People with HIV experience difficulties regarding medication,

    stigmatization and discrimination as obstacles to health in everyday life while social

    support from family, friends, faith and healthcare staff can facilitate the experience of

    health in everyday life. It is important to understand how the individual experiences his

    everyday life and what influences the experience of everyday life, this because an

    individual’s everyday life has to work in order for them to experience health.

    Keyword: Everyday life, Experience, Health, HIV.

  • 2396.
    Wilén, Jonna
    et al.
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå, Sweden.
    Johansson, Amanda
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå, Sweden.
    Kalezic, Nebojsa
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Sandström, Monica
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå, Sweden.
    Psychophysiological tests and provocation of subjects with mobile phone related symptoms2006In: Bioelectromagnetics, ISSN 0197-8462, E-ISSN 1521-186X, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 204-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of exposure to a mobile phone-like radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field on persons experiencing subjective symptoms when using mobile phones (MP). Twenty subjects with MP-related symptoms were recruited and matched with 20 controls without MP-related symptoms. Each subject participated in two experimental sessions, one with true exposure and one with sham exposure, in random order. In the true exposure condition, the test subjects were exposed for 30 min to an RF field generating a maximum SAR(1g) in the head of 1 W/kg through an indoor base station antenna attached to a 900 MHz GSM MP. The following physiological and cognitive parameters were measured during the experiment: heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV), respiration, local blood flow, electrodermal activity, critical flicker fusion threshold (CFFT), short-term memory, and reaction time. No significant differences related to RF exposure conditions were detected. Also no differences in baseline data were found between subject groups, except for the reaction time, which was significantly longer among the cases than among the controls the first time the test was performed. This difference disappeared when the test was repeated. However, the cases differed significantly from the controls with respect to HRV as measured in the frequency domain. The cases displayed a shift in low/high frequency ratio towards a sympathetic dominance in the autonomous nervous system during the CFFT and memory tests, regardless of exposure condition. This might be interpreted as a sign of differences in the autonomous nervous system regulation between persons with MP related subjective symptoms and persons with no such symptoms.

  • 2397.
    Winnersjö, Rocio
    et al.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, and Division of Public Health Sciences, Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Ponce de Leon, Antonio
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, and Departmento de Epidemiologia, Universidade do Estado de Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Soares, Joaquim F
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, and Division of Public Health Sciences, Mid-Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Macassa, Gloria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    Violence and self-reported health: does individual socioeconomic position matter?2012In: Journal of Injury and Violence Research, ISSN 2008-2053, E-ISSN 2008-4072, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 87-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Violence is a major public health problem. Both clinical and population based studies shows that violence against men and women has physical and psychological health consequences. However, elsewhere and in Sweden little is known of the effect of individual socioeconomic position (SEP) on the relation between violence and health outcomes. Objective: This study aimed to assess the effect of individual SEP on the relation between violence and three health outcomes (general health, pain and anxiety) among women in Stockholm County.

    METHODS: The study used data from the Stockholm Public Health Survey, a cross-sectional survey carried out in 2006 for the Stockholm County Council by Statistic Sweden. 34 704 respondents answered the survey, the response rate was sixty one percent. Analyses were carried out using descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis in SPSS v.17.0.

    RESULTS: Individual SEP increased the odds of reporting poor health outcomes among victimized women in Stockholm County. Regarding self-reported health women in low-SEP who reported victimization in the past twelve months had odds of 2,36 (95% CI 1.48-3.77) for the age group 18-29 years and 3.78 (95% CI 2.53-5.64) for the age group 30-44 years compared with women in high-SEP and non-victim. For pain the odds was 2,41 (95% CI 1,56-3,73) for the age group 18-29 years and 2,98 (95% CI 1,99-4,46) for women aged 30-44 years. Regarding anxiety the age group 18-29 years had odds of 2,53 (95% CI 1,58-4,03) and for the age group 30-44 years had odds of 3,87 (95% CI 2,55-5,87).

    CONCLUSIONS: Results showed that individual SEP (measured by occupation) matters to the relationship between violence and health outcomes such as general self-reported health, pain and anxiety. Women in lower SEP who experienced victimization in the past twelve months had increased odds of reporting poorer self-rated health, pain and anxiety compared to those in higher SEP with no experience of victimization. However, further exploration of the relationship between poverty, individual SEP is needed using other Swedish population samples.

  • 2398.
    Winters, A Marian
    et al.
    Izala Klinieken Zwolle.
    Lindberg, Magnus
    Uppsala University.
    Sol, Berna G M
    University of Applied Sciences Utrecht.
    Validation of a Dutch self-efficacy scale for adherence to fluid allowance among patients on haemodialysis2013In: Journal of Renal Care, ISSN 1755-6686, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 31-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many haemodialysis patients have problems limiting their fluid intake, and this might be influenced by their self-efficacy. Thus interventions to improve patients' self-efficacy might lead to an improvement in their adherence to fluid restriction. The fluid intake appraisal inventory (FIAI) evaluates patients' self-efficacy with regard to fluid intake. The aim of this study was to translate and validate the FIAI for use in the Netherlands. Four translators, seven experts, and four haemodialysis patients participated in the translation part of the study. Thirty-three patients from one dialysis centre in the Netherlands completed the Dutch FIAI. The instrument had good content validity (interdialytic weight gain was found to be negatively correlated with self-efficacy), internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.982), and stability (Spearman's rho = 0.823). These findings indicate that the Dutch FIAI can be used in clinical practice as a self-efficacy screening instrument for adult haemodialysis patients on fluid restriction.

  • 2399.
    Winther, Emmah
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Skiftarbetande individers upplevelser av skiftarbetets fysiska och psykiska effekter samt effekter på mattider och matvanor.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to learn about how shift workers experience how the shiftwork affect them both physically and psychologically and to study if they experience that their mealtimes and eating habits are affected by the shift work. The method used was a qualitative semi-structured interview. Content analysis was used to analyze the interviews. The results showed that the informants were affected by working shift both physically and psychologically. Physical symptoms reported were fatigue and insomnia. Reported psychological symptoms were fatigue, stress and low mood. All informants reported that both their mealtimes and eating habits were affected. The results showed that mealtimes were affected by sleep deprivation and variable schedule. The eating habits were reported to be unhealthier when the informants were working evening or night shift. The results showed that there are unhealthy impacts from shiftwork on individuals who are working shift, which motivates further research on risk factors and preventive measures.

  • 2400.
    Wissing, Ulla E.
    et al.
    Department of Medicine and Care, Division of Nursing Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Lennernäs, Maria A.-C.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition Unit, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Ek, Anna-Christina
    Department of Medicine and Care, Division of Nursing Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Unosson, Mitra
    Department of Medicine and Care, Division of Nursing Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Meal patterns and meal quality in patients with leg ulcers2000In: Journal of human nutrition and dietetics (Print), ISSN 0952-3871, E-ISSN 1365-277X, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 3-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Wound healing is a complex process, which requires adequate energy sources, proteins, and specific minerals and vitamins. If an individual is unable to get or to eat the nutrients required, the wound healing process might be disrupted. The aim of this study was to investigate food-related factors, meal patterns and meal quality in relation to nutritional status in elderly out-patients with leg ulcers. Methods. Nutritional status was assessed by use of the Mini Nutritional Assessment in 70 patients living in their own homes. Fifty-six of the patients recorded actual meals and snacks over four consecutive days. Meal patterns and meal quality were evaluated with the help of a qualitative classification system, the Food Based Concept for Classification of Eating Episodes. Results. Thirty-six patients were classified as well-nourished, 32 were at risk of malnutrition and two were malnourished. More patients in the risk group for malnutrition did not buy their own food, and usually ate alone. Incomplete Meals and Low Quality Snacks were the most common eating types. The patients at risk of malnutrition had significantly fewer prepared Complete Meals than the well-nourished patients. Conclusion. The results show a diet and meal quality which hardly meets the requirements for nutrients that are important in wound healing, especially for those patients assessed at risk of malnutrition.

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