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  • 2401.
    Brännström, Margareta
    et al.
    Strategic Research Program in Health Care Sciences (SFO-V), Karolinska Institutet, and Department of Nursing, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Bodil
    Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Lund University and Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Ulrica
    School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Svedberg, Petra
    School of Social and Health Sciences, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Thylén, Ingela
    Division of Nursing Sciences, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, and Department of Cardiology UHL, County Council of Östergötland, Linköping, Sweden.
    Sexual knowledge in patients with a myocardial infarction and their partners2014In: Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 0889-4655, E-ISSN 1550-5049, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 332-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sexual health and sexual activity are important elements of an individual’s well-being. For couples, this topic is often affected after a myocardial infarction (MI). It has become increasingly clear that, after an MI, patients are insufficiently educated on how to resume normal sexual activity. However, sufficient data on the general knowledge that patients and partners have about sexual activity and MI are lacking.

    Objective: The aims of this study were to explore and compare patients’ and partners’ sexual knowledge 1 month after a first MI and 1 year after the event and to compare whether the individual knowledge had changed over time. A second aim was to investigate whether patients and their partners report receiving information about sexual health and sexual activity from healthcare professionals during the first year after the event and how this information was perceived.

    Subjects and Methods: This descriptive, comparative survey study enrolled participants from 13 Swedish hospitals in 2007-2009. A total of 115 patients with a first MI and their partners answered the Sex After MI Knowledge Test questionnaire 1 month after the MI and 1 year after the event. Correct responses generated a maximum score of 75.

    Results: Only 41% of patients and 31% of partners stated that they had received information on sex and relationships at the 1 year follow-up. The patients scored 51±10 on the Sex After MI Knowledge Test at inclusion into the study, compared with the 52±10 score for the partners. At the 1-year follow-up, the patients’ knowledge had significantly increased to a score of 55±7, but the partners’ knowledge did not significantly change (53±10).

    Conclusions: First MI patients and their partners reported receiving limited information about sexual issues during the cardiac rehabilitation and had limited knowledge about sexual health and sexual activity.

  • 2402.
    Bräuner, Maja
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för kultur- och religionsvetenskap.
    Alkemi och jungiansk psykologi2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This assignment is a venture into the use of the concept alchemy in the texts on analytical psychology written by Carl G. Jung. Originally the idea was to compare the blending of colours in art painting with the Jungian understanding of alchemy. In order to understand the many and it seems differentiated correlations to alchemy in the texts on analytical psychology written by C.G. Jung, I have found it necessary to investigate the history of alchemy in modern Europe and the Egyptian figure of Hermes Trismegistos. This helps shedding light on Jung’s manner of writing in his texts on analytical psychology.

    The assignment includes an understanding of colours as understood by Goethe as well as the aspect of alchemy in the Rosicrucian movement and the kabbalah. The Jungian aspects of world religions are in this context emphasized as well as the use of symbols and symbolic speech.

  • 2403. Bröchner, Jan
    et al.
    Sjöström, Christer
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Quality and coordination: Internationalizing Swedish building research2003In: Building Research & Information, ISSN 0961-3218, E-ISSN 1466-4321, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 479-484Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The structure of Swedish research finance was radically changed in 2001, and the present goals of research policy are that Sweden is to be a leading research nation, where research with a high scientific quality is conducted. However, the process of internationalizing Swedish building research leads to an issue of how international standards for scientific quality are applied and how Swedish researcher participation in industry initiatives and European framework programmes is supported. This issue is discussed against a background of a national system where research funding is indirectly and strongly linked to university teaching, which also means that research institutes are comparatively unimportant. International expansion of large firms in the construction industry has led to an increasing engagement with university research. However, the current process intended to guarantee high scientific quality in projects with national funding is inflexible and not fully compatible with what is required for industry and European research cooperation.

  • 2404.
    Brückmann, Karin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Krake, Susann
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Attracting Foreign Direct Investment: A Case Study on the Swedish Region of Gävleborg2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The research project discusses foreign direct investment as well as the attractiveness of the region of Gävleborg within this context. The researchers attempt to investigate why foreign direct investment is not yet common within the aforementioned region. Moreover, the aims of the master thesis are evaluating the region of Gävleborg and current strategies of enticing foreign investments, as well as detecting roadblocks that hinder the establishment. Lastly, generating an outline of how to improve foreign investment attraction ought to be investigated.

    Results & Conclusion: Gävleborg has a good infrastructure and accessibility, and is characterised by lower labour and living costs compared to other Swedish regions. Nonetheless, the number of inward investment is quite low. Main reasons for that are the lower level of education, high labour costs for low skilled jobs, missing financial incentives and a non-continuous work to attract inward investment. Therefore, the region may work on its attractiveness by increasing its awareness through attending trade fairs, and by collaborating with established companies and their partners.

  • 2405.
    BUCCARDO, ALDO
    University of Gävle, Center for RF Measurement Technologies. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    A SIGNAL DETECTOR FOR COGNITIVE RADIO SYSTEM2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The communication systems are changing. Cognitive Radio is an automatic adaptative system to improve the spectrum efficiency. It has intelligence to adapt itself to the environment to improve the transmission performancies. For this system, spectrum sensing function is very important so a signal detector is necessary. In this work a signal detector has been implemented in GNU Radio environment. GNU Radio is a platform that respects the Cognitive Radio aproach. It is flexible, software defined and cheap.

  • 2406.
    Buccoliere, Riccardo
    et al.
    Universita di Lecce.
    Sandberg, Mats
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Study of the effect of building density and overall shape of a city on pollutant dispersion by combination of wind tunnel experiments and CFD simulations2008In: Proc. 12th Int. Conf. on Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2407.
    Buccoliere, Riccardo
    et al.
    Universita di Lecce.
    Sandberg, Mats
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Building science - installation technology.
    Di Sabatino, Silvana
    Universita di lecce.
    An application of ventilation efficiency concepts to the analysis of building density effects on urban flow and pollutant concentration2011In: International Journal of Environment and Pollution, ISSN 0957-4352, E-ISSN 1741-5101, Vol. 47, no 1-4, p. 248-256Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2408.
    Buccoliere, Riccardo
    et al.
    Univ Salento, Dipartimento Sci Mat, Lecce, Italy, and Univ Ca Foscari Venezia, Dipartimento Informat, Venice, Italy.
    Sandberg, Mats
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Building science - installation technology.
    Di Sabatino, Silvana
    Univ Salento, Dipartimento Sci Mat, Lecce, Italy .
    City breathability and its link to pollutant concentration distribution within urban-like geometries2010In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 44, no 15, p. 1894-1903Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is devoted to the study of pollutant concentration distribution within urban-like geometries. By applying efficiency concepts originally developed for indoor environments, the term ventilation is used as a measure of city “breathability”. It can be applied to analyse pollutant removal within a city in operational contexts. This implies the evaluation of the bulk flow balance over the city and of the mean age of air. The influence of building packing density on flow and pollutant removal is, therefore, evaluated using those quantities. Idealized cities of regular cubical buildings were created with packing density ranging from 6.25% to 69% to represent configurations from urban sprawl to compact cities. The relative simplicity of these arrangements allowed us to apply the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) flow and dispersion simulations using the standard k turbulence model. Results show that city breathability within the urban canopy layer is strongly dependent from the building packing density. At the lower packing densities, the city responds to the wind as an agglomeration of obstacles, at larger densities (from about 44%) the city itself responds as a single obstacle. With the exception of the lowest packing density, airflow enters the array through lateral sides and leaves throughout the street top and flow out downstream. The air entering through lateral sides increases with increasing packing density.

    At the street top of the windward side of compact building configurations, a large upward flow is observed. This vertical transport reduces over short distance to turn into a downward flow further downstream of the building array. These findings suggest a practical way of identifying city breathability. Even though the application of these results to real scenarios require further analyses the paper illustrates a practical framework to be adopted in the assessment of the optimum neighbourhood building layout to minimize pollution levels.

  • 2409.
    Buccolieri, R.
    et al.
    Dipartimento di Informatica, Università Ca' Foscari Venezia, Mestre-Venezia, Italy; Dipartimento di Scienza Dei Materiali, University of Salento, Lecce, Italy.
    Sartoretto, F.
    Dipartimento di Informatica, Università Ca' Foscari Venezia, Mestre-Venezia, Italy.
    Giacometti, A.
    Dipartimento di Scienza Dei Materiali, University of Salento, Lecce, Italy.
    Di Sabatino, S.
    Dipartimento di Scienza Dei Materiali, University of Salento, Lecce, Italy.
    Leo, L.
    Dipartimento di Scienza Dei Materiali, University of Salento, Lecce, Italy.
    Pulvirenti, B.
    Dipartimento di Ingegneria Energetica, Nucleare e Del Controllo Ambientale, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Sandberg, Mats
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Building science - installation technology.
    Wigö, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Building science - installation technology.
    Flow and pollutant dispersion within the Canal Grande channel in Venice (Italy) via CFD techniques2010In: HARMO 2010 - Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes / [ed] Albergel, A., 2010, p. 760-764Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper is aimed at the analysis of flow and pollutant dispersion in a portion of the Canal Grande (Grand Canal) in Venice (Italy) by means of both Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) FLUENT simulations and wind tunnel experiments performed at the University of Gävle (Sweden). For this application, Canal Grande can be viewed as a sort of street canyon where the bottom surface is water and bus boat emissions are the major source of pollution. Numerical investigations were made to assess the effect of the water surface on air flow and pollutant concentrations in the atmosphere. One of the challenges has been to deal with the interface between two immiscible fluids which requires ad-hoc treatment of the wall in terms of the numerical scheme adopted and the grid definition which needs to be much finer than in typical numerical airflow simulations in urban street canyons. Preliminary results have shown that the presence of water at the bottom of the street canyon modifies airflow and turbulence structure with direct consequences on concentration distribution within the domain.

  • 2410.
    Buccolieri, R.
    et al.
    Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche ed Ambientali, University of Salento, Lecce, Italy.
    Wigö, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Sandberg, Mats
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Sabatino, S. D.
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Bologna, Italy.
    On the drag force distribution over arrays of cubical buildings: Wind tunnel experiments2017In: HARMO 2017 - 18th International Conference on Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes, Proceedings, Hungarian Meteorological Service , 2017, p. 384-388Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we discuss the distribution of drag force along aligned arrays of cubes of different packing density. The distribution is evaluated via wind tunnel measurements performed on individual cubes located along the middle column of the array using a balance provided by a standard load cell. Results are compared with the drag force estimated by a pressure-derived method and clearly show a change of the distribution of the drag force. The force is uniform at low packing densities, while mostly acting on first rows of the arrays at large packing densities. This work leaves room for research tailored to a better parameterization of urban effects in dispersion models.

  • 2411.
    Buccolieri, Riccardo
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science. Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche ed Ambientali, University of Salento, Lecce, Italy.
    Sandberg, Mats
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Wigö, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Di Sabatino, Silvana
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    The drag force distribution within regular arrays of cubes and its relation to cross ventilation – Theoretical and experimental analyses2019In: Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, ISSN 0167-6105, E-ISSN 1872-8197, Vol. 189, p. 91-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel set of wind tunnel measurements of the drag force and its spatial distribution along aligned arrays of cubes of height H and planar area index λ p (air gap between cubes) equal to 0.028 (5H) to 0.69 (0.2H) is presented and analysed. Two different types of measurements are compared: one type where the drag force is obtained using the standard load cell method, another type where the drag force is estimated by measuring the pressure difference between windward and the leeward façades. Results show that the drag force is nearly uniformly distributed for lower λ p (0.028 and 0.0625), it decreases up to 50% at the second row for λ p = 0.11, and it sharply decreases for larger λ p (from 0.25 to 0.69) where the force mostly acts on the first row. It follows that for the lowest λ p the drag force typically formulated as a drag area corresponds to the total frontal area of the array, whereas for large λ p the drag area corresponds to the area of the first row. By assessing the driving pressure for ventilation from the drag force, the analysis is extended to estimate the cross ventilation as an example of application of this type of measurements. 

  • 2412.
    Buccolieri, Riccardo
    et al.
    Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche ed Ambientali, University of Salento, Lecce, Italy.
    Wigö, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Sandberg, Mats
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Di Sabatino, Silvana
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Direct measurements of the drag force over aligned arrays of cubes exposed to boundary-layer flows2017In: Environmental Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 1567-7419, E-ISSN 1573-1510, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 373-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wind tunnel measurements of the total drag force for aligned arrays of cubes exposed to two different boundary-layer flows at three flow velocities are discussed. The drag force for eight different building packing densities λp (from 0.028 to 1) is measured with a standard load cell generating a novel dataset. Different λp are reproduced by increasing the number of buildings on the same lot area; this represents a real situation that an urban planner is faced with when a lot area of a given (fixed) size is allocated to the development of new built areas. It is assumed that the surrounding terrain is uniform and there is a transition from a given roughness (smooth) to a new roughness (rough). The approaching flow will adjust itself over the new surface within a distance that in general may be larger than the horizontal length covered by the array. We investigate the region where the flow adjustment occurs. The wide range of packing densities allowed us to analyse in detail the evolution of the drag force. The drag force increases with increasing packing densities until it reaches a maximum at an intermediate packing density (λp = 0.25 in our case) followed by a slight decrease at larger packing densities. The value of the drag force depends on the flow adjustment along the array which is evaluated by introducing the parameter “drag area” to retrieve information about the drag distribution at different λp. Results clearly suggest a change of the distribution of the drag force, which is found to be relatively uniform at low packing densities, while most of the force acts on first rows of the arrays at large packing densities. The drag area constitutes the basis for the formulation of a new adjustment length scale defined as the ratio between the volume of the air within the array and the drag area. The proposed adjustment length scale automatically takes into account the change in drag distribution along the array for a better parameterization of urban effects in dispersion models. 

  • 2413.
    Bucher, Tina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Ledarskapets betydelse för förskollärares upplevda stress i arbetet.: Jämförelsestudie mellan en kommunal förskola ochen föräldrakooperativ förskola.2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Stress är ett vanligt problem inom näst intill alla yrken och arbeten men som ofta inte upptäcks i tid. På grund av psykiska besvär och sjukdomar har sjukskrivningar ökat påtagligt under följande år. Psykisk ohälsa och stress i arbetslivet har visat stor ökning generellt under 1990-talet. Vi behöver blicka framåt och tänka förebyggande och barnen är vår framtid. Förskollärare har en viktig roll i barnets utveckling och grund till livslångt lärande vilket gör det därför viktigt att identifiera vad som orsakar att de upplever stress i arbetslivet. Syftet i denna studie var att undersöka ledarskapets betydelse till förskollärares upplevelse av stress i sitt arbete. Jag ville ta reda på hur ledarskapet skiljer sig på en kommunal förskola och en föräldrakooperativ förskola och om det finns någon koppling mellan ledarskapet och de eventuella stressorerna. Som datainsamlingsstrategi användes intervjuer och studien baseras på åtta respondenter vilket gjordes av ett strategiskt urval. Resultatet visar att den totala stressupplevelsen på förskolorna gick upp och ned och pågick sällan under längre perioder. De centrala anledningarna till den upplevda stressen visade sig vara förhållande mellan kollegor, ”top-down” och frihet inom arbetet.

  • 2414.
    Buchert, Iva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Öman Olsson, Maja
    Anhörigvårdare till personer med Alzheimer; Upplevelser och copingstrategier: En litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2415.
    Bucht, Karolina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Roos, Ida
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Förskolans arbete kring modersmålsstöd: En studie om hur verksamma i förskolan kan påverka barns flerspråkiga utveckling2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med vår studie och undersökning är att studera hur verksamma inom förskolan arbetar och bemöter modersmålsstöd i förskolan. Vi vill även titta närmare på hur personalen i förskolan uppmärksammar barnens olika kulturer i verksamheten. Vi har arbetat fram tre frågeställningar: Hur ser verksamma inom förskolan på modersmålsstöd? hur arbetar förskolor med att alla barn ska få ta del av varandras språk och kulturer? och hur arbetar förskolor med dokumentation av språkutveckling? Vi har valt att genomföra en enkätstudie och lämnat ut enkäter till förskolechefer, förskollärare och barnskötare inom två olika kommuner. Vi har även genomfört en kvalitativ intervju tillsammans med en SVA lärare (svenska som andra språk). Av vår studie kan vi se att modersmålet har stor betydelse för barnets individuella utveckling och att förskollärarens förhållningssätt har stor betydelse för hur detta bemöts. Vi har också kunnat se att uppmärksamhet kring varandras kulturer och språk minskar känslan av att vara annorlunda, samt hur arbetet kring detta ser ut i de olika förskolorna vi undersökt. Vi har också sett hur viktigt det är att vi dokumenterar barns språkutveckling för att kunna erbjuda rätta metoder till barns språkutveckling och även hur det bemöts på förskolorna.

  • 2416.
    Buck, Sine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Determining the best location for a nature-like fishway in Gavle River, Sweden2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction of dams and hydro-power stations are some of the most common anthropogenic changes of watercourses and rivers. While being important to humans and society by providing electricity, these obstructions of watercourses can have severe consequences for the aquatic ecosystems. One consequence is that dams often hinder the important movement of migrating fish species between habitats. This can lead to decline and even extinction of important fish populations. To prevent these negative effects, a number of different fish passage systems, including nature-like fishways, have been developed. Nature-like fishways mimic natural streams in order to function as a natural corridor for a wide range of species. Planning and construction of a nature-like fishway is a complex task that often involves many different interests. In the present study a combination of multi-criteria decision analysis and least-cost path analysis is used for determining the best location for a nature-like fishway past Strömdalen dam in Gavleån, Sweden. An anisotropic least-cost path algorithm is applied on a friction-layer and a digital elevation model, and the least-cost path for a nature-like fishway is determined. The results show that the method is useful in areas of varying topography and steep slopes. However, because low slope is a very important factor when constructing a nature-like fishway, slope becomes the dominating factor in this analysis at the expense of e.g. distance to roads. Combining the methods with results from biological studies of fish behavior and detailed hydrological modelling would provide a very strong tool for the planning of nature-like fishways.

  • 2417.
    Budakci, Elif
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Gäfvert, Emilia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans roll för att främja egenvård och livsstilsförändringar hos personer med metabolt syndrom2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Metabolt syndrom är ett samlingsnamn för riskfaktorer som kan orsaka allvarliga komplikationer som hjärt- och kärlsjukdomar och diabetes typ 2. Tillståndet ökar kraftigt i världen och är ett globalt problem som är starkt associerat till hur personen lever sitt vardagliga liv. Därför är livsstilsförändringar avgörande för att främja hälsa hos personer med metabolt syndrom. Syfte: Litteraturstudiens syfte var att beskriva hur sjuksköterskan kan främja egenvården och livsstilsförändringar hos personer som har metabolt syndrom. Metod: Underlaget för litteraturstudien hämtades från databasen Medline via sökmotor Pubmed. Totalt 10 kvalitetsgranskade artiklar som besvarade litteraturstudiens syfte valdes för inkludering. Artiklarna innehöll både kvalitativa och kvantitativa ansatser. Huvudresultat: Insamlat material uppvisade att undervisning och rådgivning inom egenvård är viktiga aspekter för att verkställa livsstilsförändringar hos personer med metabolt syndrom. Att vara tillräckligt kompetent inom egenvårdsåtgärder är avgörande i sjuksköterskeprofessionen. Med hjälp av olika slag av underlag kan sjuksköterskan genomföra strukturerad undervisning, rådgivning samt uppföljning med personer som är i behov av att förändra levnadsvanor. Slutsats: Litteraturstudien visade att sjuksköterskan kan bidra till att främja genomförandet av egenvården hos personer med metabolt syndrom genom att vägleda till livsstilsförändringar. I och med att personerna upprätthåller sin egenvård bildas i längden en livsstilsförändring som förbättrar metabolt syndrom.

  • 2418.
    Bueno, Cathrine
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    ADHD fenomenet, så konstrueras det inom skolans värld2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    ADHD framställs som ett dolt handikapp eftersom det inte är synbart på barnet. För många barn är ADHD en tydlig påfrestning och ett påtagligt handikapp. Många av dessa barn får det jobbigt under sin tid i skolan eftersom det ställs krav på att kunna koncentrera sig och sitta still. ADHD hos barn finns i varje klass och i varje skola och är ett vanligt förekommande handikapp. Kadesjö visar i sin avhandling att ADHD är en stor hälsoproblematik och måste tas på allvar. Det pågår diskussioner bland forskare om ADHD ska ses som ett biologiskt eller socialt uppkommet fenomen. Debatten är långt ifrån slutförd och det saknas fortfarande mycket forskning i detta. I min studie tar jag upp de två mest främsta diskussionerna för att visa på det nuvarande forskningsläget. Syftet med denna är att bidra med ett inslag i ADHD- debatten som jag anser saknas inom den tidigare forskningen. Fokus i studien är att studera hur lärarna talar om ADHD inom ramen för deras arbete, och hur de därmed också konstruerar ADHD som fenomen inom skolans värld. För att kunna studera detta har jag valt att intervjua sju respondenter, lärare. Studien är en diskursanalys där en kvalitativ intervjumetod har använts. I studien har det framkommit att det finns tre diskurser inom skolans värld, medicinsk diskurs, pedagogisk diskurs, biologisk diskurs. Det framkommit att den medicinska diskursen har dominans inom skolans kontext. Respondenterna anser att ADHD är medicinskt, men att den sociala miljön är betydelsefull. Gillberg är en av förespråkarna som talar för en medicinsk diskurs. Vidare dras slutsatsen att för att en skoldag för ett barn med ADHD ska fungera måste skoldagen genomsyras av struktur, tydliga instruktioner och regler.

  • 2419.
    Bueno Rosete, Isabel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Energy Audit of an industrial building in Sweden: Case study of a CNC processed components’ producer company2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The industrial sector accounts for almost 40 % of the Swedish energy use and in order to meet the EU’s 2020 targets, an efficient production of high quality and great finish goods are more and more in demand. Moreover, it is important to develop the activities with the lowest environmental impact possible. 

    The energy audit process is an effective tool to achieve it. Thus, in this document the energy audit of an industrial company, Automat Industrier in Gävle, Sweden, was carried out.

    The energy balance of the building and the potential energy efficiency measures were analyzed with the IDA ICE simulation.

    The proposed energy retrofitting was apropos of the building envelope, the lighting system, the ventilation system and the installation of a PV system on the roof of the building.

    The survey indicated that the potential energy savings of the company accounted for 62.5 % of the current electricity use and 48.8 % of the current DH use if all the proposed ameliorations were performed. The main promoter of the electricity savings is the installation of the PV system, with 85 % of influence. Almost 90 % of the DH savings are due to the measures in the ventilation system.

    Financially, these savings can reach the amounts of 531 597 SEK/year for electricity and 174 201 SEK/year for DH.

    Nevertheless, the ameliorations regarding the building envelope have very long payback periods. Thus, it was recommended to not pursue them. Fortunately, the energy efficiency measures providing the greatest savings’ payback periods are between 3.47 years and 10.22 years long. As they are independent from each other, the owner has the freedom to decide whether to apply them or not and when if so.

  • 2420.
    Bui, Tuyet T. A.
    et al.
    Laboratory of Fruit Breeding and Biotechnology, Department of Biosystems, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Falk, Anders B.
    Valthornsvagen, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Vanwalleghem, Tanja
    Department of Mycology, Proefcentrum Fruitteelt vzw, Sint-Truiden, Belgium.
    Van Hemelrijck, Wendy
    Department of Mycology, Proefcentrum Fruitteelt vzw, Sint-Truiden, Belgium.
    Hertog, Maarten L.A.T.M.
    Division of MeBioS, Department of Biosystems, Faculty of Bioscience Engineer-ing, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Keulemans, Johan
    Laboratory of Fruit Breeding and Biotechnology, Department of Biosystems, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Davey, Mark W.
    Laboratory of Fruit Breeding and Biotechnology, Department of Biosystems, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Botrytis cinerea differentially induces postharvest antioxidant responses in 'Braeburn' and 'Golden Delicious' apple fruit2019In: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, ISSN 0022-5142, E-ISSN 1097-0010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The fruit of two apple cultivars - 'Braeburn', which is susceptible to inoculation with Botrytis cinerea, and the less susceptible cv. 'Golden Delicious' - were investigated with respect to their response to inoculation with B. cinerea. Successful infection by B. cinerea leads to an oxidative burst and perturbation of plant redox homeostasis. To investigate the interaction between apple fruit and B. cinerea, antioxidant metabolism in fruit samples from sun-exposed and shaded sides of different tissue types was measured over time.

    RESULTS: The sun-exposed tissue of 'Braeburn' had higher initial levels of total vitamin C in the peel and phenolic compounds in the flesh than 'Golden Delicious', despite its greater susceptibility to gray mold. A substantial antioxidant response was recorded in diseased 'Braeburn' fruit 14 days after inoculation, which involved an elevated superoxide dismutase activity and ascorbate peroxidase activity, a progressive oxidation of total vitamin C, and a decrease in peroxidase activity and phenolic content. Disease development was slower on the sun-exposed sides than on the shaded sides.

    CONCLUSION: The two cultivars appeared to utilize different strategies to defend themselves against B. cinerea. 'Golden Delicious' almost entirely escaped infection. Preharvest exposure of apple fruit to high light / temperature stress appears to prepare them to better resist subsequent postharvest attack and disease. 

  • 2421. Buiter, S.
    et al.
    Schreurs, G.
    Albertz, M.
    Beaumont, C.
    Burberry, C.
    Callot, Jean-Paul
    Cavozzi, C.
    Cerca, M.
    Chen, J. H.
    Cristallini, E.
    Cruden, A.
    Cruz, L.
    Cooke, M.
    Daniel, J. M.
    Egholm, D.
    Ellis, S.
    Gerya, T.
    Hodkinson, L.
    Hofmann, F.
    Garcia, V. H.
    Gomes, C.
    Grall, C.
    Guillou, H.
    Guzmán, C.
    Nur Hidayah, T.
    Hilley, G.
    Kaus, B.
    Klinkmüller, M.
    Koyi, H.
    Uppsala universitet, Berggrundsgeologi.
    Lazor, Peter
    Uppsala universitet, Berggrundsgeologi.
    Lu, C. Y.
    Macauley, J.
    Maillot, B.
    Meriaux, C.
    Mishin, Y.
    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz
    Uppsala universitet, Berggrundsgeologi.
    Pan, C. C.
    Pascal, C.
    Pillot, D.
    Portillo, R.
    Rosenau, R.
    Schellart, W. P.
    Schlische, R.
    Soulomiac, P.
    Take, A.
    Vendeville, B.
    Vettori, M.
    Vergnaud, M.
    Wang, S. H.
    Withjack, M.
    Yagupsky, D.
    Yamada, Y.
    Benchmarking the Sandbox: Quantitative Comparisons of Numerical and Analogue Models of Brittle Wedge Dynamics2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2422.
    Bujosevic, Daniela
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    Renman, Madeleine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    Godstransporter längs ostkusten för en hållbar utveckling: En fallstudie på Yilport2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A large proportion of climate affecting emissions from Sweden is due to the transportation sector. Railway transportation accounts for less than one percent of the carbon dioxide emissions while road and truck transportation accounts for the largest part. This clearly shows that the choice of transportation has a significant effect in achieving environmental sustainability.

    This thesis is a case study with the aim of identifying barriers against using railways instead of road transportation for freight transport between a small port terminal and a nearby inland terminal. To answer the purpose, observation was conducted on the terminals and semi-structured interviews with three forwarding companies was performed. A theoretical framework was developed through literature studies and the information gathered was then put against the compiled empiricism in an analysis.

    The conclusion of this study implies that freight forwarders cannot influence the choice of transportation due to customer requirements. The customer always demands to have goods delivered at the lowest price possible and by that the environmental factors are not prioritized and that is an obstacle for using railway transport. Beyond the factor mentioned other factors that prevent the use of railways in relatively short distances are related to its lead time, flexibility and frequency.

  • 2423.
    Bulai, Lina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Stauffer, Bernhard
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Drama i relation till värdegrunden: En intervjustudie om värdegrund- och dramaarbete på förskolor i Sverige2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Alla förskolor i Sverige har en gemensam läroplan som beskriver en värdegrund som ska vara grund i den dagliga verksamheten men hur arbetet ska gå till benämns inte. Drama är en metod som har visat positiva effekter och kan därför vara ett sätt för det praktiska arbetet med värdegrunden (Szecsi, 2008). Syftet med uppsatsen är att belysa och problematisera åtta förskollärares praktiska arbete med drama på de förskolor där de arbetar i relation till förskolans värdegrundsmål i kapitel 2.1 (Skolverket, 2011). Genom sex intervjuer på ungefär en timme var samlas resultat för att besvara frågorna “Hur ser det praktiska dramaarbetet ut?”, “På vilket sätt relaterar dramaarbetet till de enskilda målen i läroplanen kapitel 2.1 (Skolverket, 2011)?” och “Hur förhåller sig förskolelärarnas dramaarbete till Deweys och Vygotskijs teorier?” Materialet analyseras i förhållande till Deweys tankar om bland annat lärarens inblandning i undervisningen och Vygotsikijs teori om fantasi och kreativitet och kopplas sedan till tidigare forskning kring estetiska läroprocesser och lärarens inblandning i barns utveckling gjorts. Resultatet visar att pedagogerna på flera sätt arbetade med målen. Femman, mini-forumspel, fantasi i vardagen, värdegrundsteater, årssaga, lekprojekt, barnens sagor och förstärkning är praktiska dramametoder som alla relaterar till värdegrunden.

  • 2424.
    Buller, Minna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology.
    Rono, Jamine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology.
    Exploring Gymnasielagen (New law on upper secondary education) from professionals’ perspective – A way to integrate or segregate?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish parliament in a bid to curb the large numbers of unaccompanied minors who are denied asylum status – came up with a law which is famously known as Gymnasielagen. The aim of the study was to explore how professionals in upper secondary schools setting and social services perceive the implementation of this law and how it contributes to integration of unaccompanied minors in Sweden concerning school environment.

     Through semi structured interviews, professionals in contact with unaccompanied minors (UAMs) expressed their perception on the Gymnasielagen and its impacts on the lives of UAMs. The advantages and disadvantages of the law together with its contribution to integration of UAMs were investigated.  The results showed that the law renewed hope for UAMs and gave them the chance to start life afresh after the long wait for asylum. There were however significant discrepancies in the law that makes it difficult for UAMs. The condition to get permanent employment after school completion does not seem achievable and puts pressure on them. They are forced to choose courses from a limited number of technical courses that would possibly get them permanent employment.  Integration was also found not to be optimum because of uncertainty among the UAMs.

  • 2425. Bullinger, M
    et al.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Evans, G W
    Meis, M
    von Mackensen, S
    The psychological cost of aircraft noise for children1999In: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 0934-8859, Vol. 202, no 2-4, p. 127-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychological effects of aircraft noise exposure on children have only recently been addressed in the References. The current study took advantage of a natural experiment caused by the opening of a major new airport, exposing children in a formerly quiet area to aircraft noise. In this prospective longitudinal investigation, which employed nan-exposed control groups, effects of aircraft noise prior to and subsequent to inauguration of the new airport as well as effects of chronic noise and its reduction at the old airport (6 and 18 month post relocation), were studied in 326 children aged 9 to 13 years. The psychological health of children was investigated with a standardized quality of life scale as well as with a motivational measure derived from the Glass and Singer stress aftereffects paradigm. In addition a self report noise annoyance scale was used. In the children studied at the two airports over three time points, results showed a significant decrease of total quality of life 18 month after aircraft noise exposure as well as a motivational deficits operationalized by fewer attempts to solve insoluble puzzles in the new airport area. Parallel shifts in children's attributions for failure were also noted. At the old airport parallel impairments were present before the airport relocation but subsided there after. These findings are in accord with reports of impaired psychological health after noise exposure and indicate the relevance of monitoring psychological parameters as a function of environmental stressors among children.

  • 2426.
    Bunne, Tobias
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Iversen, Per
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Avspecialisering som framgångskoncept för jämnare arbetsfördelning?2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The application of the LSS law and how the public organization (Municipality of Hudiksvall) later had to reform their organization to fit the new demands is the foundation to this master's thesis. An internal evaluation was performed due to this reorganisation process within the social care department (LSS unit). The aim was to investigate and evaluate if the reorganization resulted in a better working environment and if the work load (distribution of work) became more evenly divided between the different unit managing directors. The primary empirical information to this master's thesis is collected from that evaluation report. The main aim of this master’s thesis is to answer if the organisational choice between specialised or de-specialised working tasks has an effect (experienced and measured) on the level of stress among the unit managing directors. We have found that it is a question about moral stress rather than a question about stressed managing directors in general. In this thesis the definition of “moral stress” is the discrepancy between one persons ethical properties and the actions that person have to take due to appointed level of power and the responsibility that follows with this power. Our main recommendation is to find an organisational structure based on the premises of the LSS-law while at the same time attending to the problems of the more and more difficult working situation amongst the employees. This can be achieved by gaining approval for a new prioritizing order form the politicians, the clients, and the employees. Such a reformation process (Sw “omnormeringsprocess”) would imply less moral stress. If the managing directors have a basic employment as a generalist the working tasks will be more evenly divided amongst the employees. Teams of 5-7 employees that encompasses specially qualified generalist and that meets on a regular basis is essential to relieve pressure from colleagues. This is essential to be able to make the most out of the special knowledge of the directors. In the extension of this change the assistants should be included in the existing substitutes-pool and each assistant’s special competence should be clarified.

  • 2427.
    Burman, Agnes
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    "Löjligt, sjukt, perverst": en modern begreppshistorisk analys av perversion2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Perversion är ett negativt laddat begrepp som används för att beskriva personer eller företeelser som avviker från normen, oftast den sexuella. Jag undersöker vad, vem och vilka som kallas perversa i tidningen Expressen år 1966, 1986 och 2016, med syftet att synliggöra hur begreppets användningsområde har förändrats.

    Min metod har sina rötter i den begreppshistoriska teorin och är utvecklad av Reinhart Koselleck. Genom synkrona och diakrona analyser granskar man politisk-sociala begrepp och sammanhangen de brukas inom.

    Resultatet visar att bruket av begreppet som ett icke-sexuellt, värdeladdat ord har varit konstant. Det har också åsyftat ett varierande antal sexuella läggningar och uttryck, varav några finns närvarande under alla årtal. Min slutsats blir att det perversa inte nödvändigtvis förblir perverst: ibland brukas begreppet impulsivt, som en reaktion mot det vi inte är vana vid. Begreppets associationer med det förbjudna och tabubelagda förblir dock beständiga.

  • 2428.
    Burman, Elin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science.
    Är det inne med utomhuspedagogik?: En enkätundersökning om lärares inställningar till utomhuspedagogik2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med arbetet var att undersöka lärares inställningar till utomhuspedagogik. Genom att belysa möjligheter och redogöra för hinder för utomhuspedagogisk verksamhet kan arbetet inspirera och motivera lärare och lärarstudenter till att använda sig av utomhuspedagogik, samt skapa diskussion. Den datainsamlingsmetod som använts i detta arbete är en webbaserad enkätundersökning som distribuerats via mejl till skolor i Stockholm. Resultatet visar att samtliga lärare som svarade ser möjligheter med utomhuspedagogik där ökad förståelse, möjligheten att upptäcka och uppleva naturen samt hälsofrämjande aspekter är de mest framträdande. Resultatet visar att det största hindret är bristen på personal. Resultatet visar även att lärare på skolor i innerstaden, upplever närmiljön som ett större hinder än lärare på skolor utanför innerstaden. Min undersökning visar på flera möjligheter med utomhuspedagogisk verksamhet.

  • 2429.
    Burman, Joseph
    et al.
    Department of Plant Protection Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden; Ecology Research Group, Canterbury Christ Church University, Canterbury, Kent, United Kingdom .
    Westerberg, Lars
    IFM Biology, Conservation Ecology Group, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Ostrow, Suzanne
    IFM Biology, Conservation Ecology Group, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Ryrholm, Nils
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology.
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    IFM Biology, Conservation Ecology Group, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Winde, Inis
    Department of Plant Protection Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden; Department of Biology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden .
    Nyabuga, Franklin N.
    Department of Plant Protection Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden; Department of Biology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden .
    Larsson, Mattias C.
    Department of Plant Protection Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Milberg, Per
    IFM Biology, Conservation Ecology Group, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Revealing hidden species distribution with pheromones: the case of Synanthedonvespiformis (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) in Sweden2016In: Journal of Insect Conservation, ISSN 1366-638X, E-ISSN 1572-9753, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 11-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Synanthedonvespiformis L. (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) is considered a rare insect in Sweden, discovered in 1860, with only a few observations recorded until a sex pheromone attractant became available recently. This study details a national survey conducted using pheromones as a sampling method for this species. Through pheromone trapping we captured 439 specimens in Southern Sweden at 77 sites, almost tripling the number of previously reported records for this species. The results suggest that S. vespiformis is truly a rare species with a genuinely scattered distribution, but can be locally abundant. Habitat analyses were conducted in order to test the relationship between habitat quality and the number of individuals caught. In Sweden, S. vespiformis is thought to be associated with oak hosts, but our attempts to predict its occurrence by the abundance of oaks yielded no significant relationships. We therefore suggest that sampling bias and limited knowledge on distribution may have led to the assumption that this species is primarily reliant on oaks in the northern part of its range, whereas it may in fact be polyphagous, similar to S. vespiformis found as an agricultural pest in Central and Southern Europe. We conclude that pheromones can massively enhance sampling potential for this and other rare lepidopteran species. Large-scale pheromone-based surveys provide a snapshot of true presences and absences across a considerable part of a species national distribution range, and thus for the first time provide a viable means of systematically assessing changes in distribution over time with high spatiotemporal resolution.

  • 2430.
    Burman, Sophia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Elfsberg, Joa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Att uppleva Washington Capitals: ett framgångsrikt företag inom upplevelseekonomin2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Our objective of the thesis is to investigate how the Washington Capitals strategically works to create experiences in the context of hockey games and the surrounding events.

    • How does the Washington Capitals create experiences?
    • Is there anything to learn from the Washington Capitals experience strategy?
    • Can their way of work be linked to theories about the experience economy?

     

    Method: Secondary data such as printed sources and books, previous studies and articles.We conducted a qualitative field study in Washington D.C. We interviewed people at the organization of Washington Capitals and carried out participant and non-participant observations at headquarters and in the arena at game events.

     

    Results & Conclusions: Washington Capitals are definitely working with experience economy, this is something that others could learn from. Washington Capitals are not working by any experience economy theories, they had never heard the term previously. However, their way of work is in line with the experience economy theories.

     

    Suggestions for future research: The presentation of this study is limited since it is difficult to highlight events that create impression by writing. A similar study could favourably be presented by a movie. To obtain a better understanding of why the audience attend hockey games further studies could be done about the audience's motivation factors, both in Sweden and in the U.S.. Further studies could also be done in collaboration with a Swedish sports club to test the theoretical methods in reality. 

     

    Contribution of the thesis: The essay can provide concrete examples of how a sports organization can work to create experiences in the context of their sporting events.

  • 2431.
    Burman, Sophia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi. University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Elfsberg, Joa
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi. University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Bruksanvisning eller Screw it do it: Elitkortet när dröm ska bli verklighet2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Girls generally have poorer economic conditions in sports, in comparison with boys, something we have experienced ourselves since we’ve been active in high level for a long time. Angelica Lorsell told us about a business idea, which could benefit the elite athlete girls. The idea is to convey a membership card, "Elitkortet", where different partners offering targeted discounts that would make life easier for elite athlete girls. Angelica wished for comments and helps to successfully implement this concept. Our purpose in this essay is to make the dream of starting a business activity Elitkortet and what is required of us as entrepreneurs to make this come true. The literature describes certain traits that an entrepreneur should have in order to succeed, performance requirements, risk appetite and control needs. It’s important to write down the business concept to help set goals to strive for. If the entrepreneur has previous experience in the industry the new company will work within and it counts as a big advantage. There is no necessity to have a new product, by developing an "old" product or aiming a new target group you can succeed anyways. We started with various theories about business plans and have decided to create our own, Elitkortet business plan, which includes; business idea, product, manufacturing and technology, marketing plan, financing and financial spreadsheets, owners and organization, and risk analysis. In our empirical study we have gathered information about a possible start-up of the Elitkortet, and drafted a business plan for the Elitkortet. We have sought the information over the Internet, telephone, email, interviews, and went to counselling and on a start-up your own business course. To get a better picture about entrepreneurship, we have chosen to interview two entrepreneurs who started their businesses under different conditions. We’ve also described our feelings generated in the meetings with various instances and the people we’ve met. We have found that we could make our dream come true and start our company today. It is possible, both technically and organizationally, however, we don’t know if we are sufficiently risk-prone and willing to spend the time and effort required of us.

  • 2432.
    Burmeister, Fredrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Perceptions of physical activity among ethnic minority women in Sweden.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2433.
    Burström, Bo
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Öberg, Lisa
    Södertörns högskola.
    Bernhardt, Eva
    Stockholm universitet.
    Smedman, Lars
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Barnadödlighet, fattigdom och sanitära reformer2003In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 80, no 3, p. 209-215Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2434.
    Burström, Bo
    et al.
    Centre of Health Equity Studies, Stockholm University/Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Centre of Health Equity Studies, Stockholm University/Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Öberg, Lisa
    Centre of Health Equity Studies, Stockholm University/Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Bernhardt, Eva
    Centre of Health Equity Studies, Stockholm University/Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Smedman, Lars
    Centre of Health Equity Studies, Stockholm University/Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Equitable Child Health Interventions: The Impact of Improved Water and Sanitation on Inequalities in Child Mortality in Stockholm, 1878 to 19252005In: American Journal of Public Health, ISSN 0090-0036, E-ISSN 1541-0048, Vol. 95, no 2, p. 208-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, many of the 10 million childhood deaths each year are caused by diseases of poverty—diarrhea and pneumonia, for example, which were previously major causes of childhood death in many European countries. Specific analyses of the historical decline of child mortality may shed light on the potential equity impact of interventions to reduce child mortality.

    In our study of the impact of improved water and sanitation in Stockholm from 1878 to 1925, we examined the decline in overall and diarrhea mortality among children, both in general and by socioeconomic group. We report a decline in overall mortality and of diarrhea mortality and a leveling out of socioeconomic differences in child mortality due to diarrheal diseases, but not of overall mortality. The contribution of general and targeted policies is discussed.

     

  • 2435.
    Burström, Lage
    et al.
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Work and the Physical Environment, National Institute for Working Life, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lundström, Ronnie
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Biomedical Engineering and Informatics, University Hospital of Northern Sweden, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sjödin, Fredrik
    Department of Work and the Physical Environment, National Institute for Working Life, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lindmark, Asta
    Department of Work and the Physical Environment, National Institute for Working Life, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lindkvist, Markus
    Department of Biomedical Engineering and Informatics, University Hospital of Northern Sweden, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hagberg, Mats
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Thor
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sundsvall Hospital, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Acute effects of vibration on thermal perception thresholds2008In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 81, no 5, p. 603-611Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective This study focuses on the acute effects of vibration and how vibrations influence the measures of the thermal perception thresholds during different vibration magnitudes, frequencies, and durations.

    Methods The fingers of ten healthy subjects, five males and five females, were exposed to vibration under 16 conditions with a combination of different frequency, intensity and exposure time. The vibration frequency was 31.5 and 125 Hz and exposure lasted between 2 and 16 min. The energy-equivalent frequency weighted acceleration, according to ISO 5349-1, for the experimental time of 16 min was 2.5 or 5.0 m/s(2) (r.m.s.), corresponding to a 8-h equivalent acceleration, A(8) of 0.46 and 0.92 m/s(2), respectively. A measure of the thermal perception of cold and warmth was conducted before the different exposures to vibration. Immediately after the vibration exposure the acute effect was measured continuously on the exposed index finger for the first 75 s, followed by 30 s of measures at every minute for a maximum of 10 min. If the subject's thermal thresholds had not recovered, the measures continued for a maximum of 30 min with measurements taken every 5 min.

    Results For all experimental conditions and 30 s after exposure, the mean changes of the thresholds compared with the pre-test were found to be 0.05 and -0.67C for the warmth and cold thresholds, respectively. The effect of the vibration exposure was only significant on the cold threshold and only for the first minute after exposure when the threshold was decreased. The warmth threshold was not significantly affected at all. The frequency and the exposure time of the vibration stimuli had no significant influence on the perception thresholds for the sensation of cold or warmth. Increased equivalent frequency weighted acceleration resulted in a significant decrease of the subjects' cold threshold, not the warmth. The thresholds were unaffected when changes in the vibration magnitude were expressed as the frequency weighted acceleration or the unweighted acceleration.

    Conclusion When testing for the thermotactile thresholds, exposure to vibration on the day of a test might influence the results. Until further knowledge is obtained the previous praxis of 2 h avoidance of vibration exposure before assessment is recommended.

  • 2436.
    Burström, Lage
    et al.
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Work and the Physical Environment, National Institute for Working Life, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lundström, Ronnie
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Biomedical Engineering and Informatics, University Hospital of Northern Sweden, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sjödin, Fredrik
    Department of Work and the Physical Environment, National Institute for Working Life, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lindmark, Asta
    Department of Work and the Physical Environment, National Institute for Working Life, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lindkvist, Markus
    Department of Biomedical Engineering and Informatics, University Hospital of Northern Sweden, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hagberg, Mats
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Thor
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sundsvall Hospital, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Acute effects of vibration on thermal perception thresholds2006In: Diagnosis of injuries caused by hand-transmitted vibration - 2nd International workshop, Göteborg, 2006, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective This study focuses on the acute effects of vibration and how vibrations influence the measures of the thermal perception thresholds during different vibration magnitudes, frequencies, and durations.

    Methods The fingers of ten healthy subjects, five males and five females, were exposed to vibration under 16 conditions with a combination of different frequency, intensity and exposure time. The vibration frequency was 31.5 and 125 Hz and exposure lasted between 2 and 16 min. The energy-equivalent frequency weighted acceleration, according to ISO 5349-1, for the experimental time of 16 min was 2.5 or 5.0 m/s(2) (r.m.s.), corresponding to a 8-h equivalent acceleration, A(8) of 0.46 and 0.92 m/s(2), respectively. A measure of the thermal perception of cold and warmth was conducted before the different exposures to vibration. Immediately after the vibration exposure the acute effect was measured continuously on the exposed index finger for the first 75 s, followed by 30 s of measures at every minute for a maximum of 10 min. If the subject's thermal thresholds had not recovered, the measures continued for a maximum of 30 min with measurements taken every 5 min.

    Results For all experimental conditions and 30 s after exposure, the mean changes of the thresholds compared with the pre-test were found to be 0.05 and -0.67C for the warmth and cold thresholds, respectively. The effect of the vibration exposure was only significant on the cold threshold and only for the first minute after exposure when the threshold was decreased. The warmth threshold was not significantly affected at all. The frequency and the exposure time of the vibration stimuli had no significant influence on the perception thresholds for the sensation of cold or warmth. Increased equivalent frequency weighted acceleration resulted in a significant decrease of the subjects' cold threshold, not the warmth. The thresholds were unaffected when changes in the vibration magnitude were expressed as the frequency weighted acceleration or the unweighted acceleration.

    Conclusion When testing for the thermotactile thresholds, exposure to vibration on the day of a test might influence the results. Until further knowledge is obtained the previous praxis of 2 h avoidance of vibration exposure before assessment is recommended.

  • 2437.
    Burénius, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Eriksson, Caroline
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Små fastighetsägares strategival2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfter är att kartlägga hur fastighetsägare som har uthyrningsverksamhet enligt begreppet mikroföretag, använder sig av strategiskt tänkande och vilka strategiska val de gör.

  • 2438.
    Buske, Elias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Fuktegenskaper hos Quartzene impregnerat med salter2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Svenska Aerogel AB has developed the material Quartzene® which is of the typeprecipitated silica and contains calcium - magnesium silicate ((Ca, Mg) SiO3). Thematerial is used for molecular filtration of contaminated air. Qartzene™, which is inpellet form, is porous and has a high internal surface which is a requirement for themolecular filtration. With the use of various impregnations, filtration can affect thedesired outcome. As an example Quartzene® can be impregnated with Potassiumhydroxide and clear the air of Sulfur dioxide, SO2 (Svenska Aerogel AB, n.d).Svenska Aerogel AB has developed Quartzene® further and new areas of application hasarosee, one of these areas is how the material function within dehumidification. Thepurpose of this study is to research and analyze how different impregnation salts effecthow Quartzene® function in terms of moisture absorption and moisture desorption.Quartzene® is a hygroscopic material, which is a material that easily absorbs and exudatesmoisture from the air. Materials with high porosity absorb moisture by adsorption andcapillary condensation. A hygroscopic material strives for equilibrium with ambientenvironment which is illustrated in a sorption curve where moisture absorption is set inrelation to relative humidity. In this study the jar method is used to measure moistureabsorption, this is shown with the use of sorption curves. The jar method uses saturatesalt solutions to create environments whit a set relative humidity. Quartzene® – pellets areplaced in jars and weighed at regular intervals to determine the moisture absorption.The results of this study indicate that impregnations affect the way that Quartzene®function in terms of moisture absorption and moisture desorption. Some of theimpregnations affect the material to absorb more moisture than Quartzene® that has notbeen impregnated, while others affect the material to absorb less moisture. The resultsalso show that sodium – based impregnation gives similar results as Quartzene® that hasnot been impregnated.

  • 2439.
    Bustad, Johnny
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    An X-ray emission spectroscopy study of CO adsorbed on Ni(100) and Cu(100)1996Report (Other academic)
  • 2440.
    Bustad, Johnny
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    C1s and O1s gas phase shake-up spectra from Mo(CO)61993Report (Other academic)
  • 2441.
    Bustad, Johnny
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    CO adsorption on Cu(100) systems: A theoretical shake-up study1996Report (Other academic)
  • 2442.
    Bustad, Johnny
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    CO Adsorption on Cu(l00) Systems: A Theoretical Shake-Up Study1996Report (Other academic)
  • 2443.
    Bustad, Johnny
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences. Natur.
    Computational studies of core level XPS satellites in transition metal systems: Department of Quantum Chemistry, Uppsala University1995Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Upon core ionization of a free molecule or a molecule adsorbed on a metal surface, higher binding energy satellites are observed, so called "shake-up" satellites, which can be viewed as valence excitations simultaneously to the creation of the core hole. In this thesis, theoretical studies of such core level XPS satellites in transition metal systems are presented, as well as cluster calculations of XES spectra, using the quantum mechanical INDO method. The main motivation of these studies is to get a more detailed understanding of the bonding between the adsorbed molecules and the metal and the screening process accompanying the creation of the core hole. This interest is motivated by fundamental questions about the adsorbate-substrate interaction as well as technical applications, such as catalysis.

    It has been found that many aspects of extended adsorbate systems, where CO is coordinated to metal atoms, can be modelled by transition metal carbonyls such as Mo(CO)6, Cr(CO)6 and Ni(CO)4. The bonding between the core ionized CO group and the transition metal, consists of an interaction between, on the one hand, the sigma lone pair of the ligand and, on the other hand, the metal d-orbitals and the CO antibonding pi-star orbital of the CO-group, i.e. a sigma donation from the ligand and pi donation from the metal. It is the changes in this bonding which are responsible for the dominant features of the shake-up spectra in the studied model molecules. The main conclusion of the three abovementioned case studies is that new excitations involving charge transfer from the metal to the ionized ligand occur with significant probability in the metal carbonyls, in addition to the internal excitations present also in free CO.

    In extending the model towards larger systems, calculations of CO/Ni(100), N2//Ni(100), CO/Cu(100) and benzene/Cu(100) were undertaken, where the metal surface was modelled by clusters of 1-12 metal atoms. Many of the features from the metal carbonyls are found also in these systems. The most important added feature is the presence of high-intensity metal-metal excitations, which mainly affect the shape of the main line.

    Ground state cluster calculations were performed to explain the XES spectra of CO adsorbed on Ni(100) and Cu(100) surfaces. It was found that the calculations reproduce the important characteristics of the experimental spectra, and were used as a support for the assignments of the involved states.

  • 2444.
    Bustad, Johnny
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Review of : A first course in computational physics: by PL DeVries, Wiley1995In: Elementa : tidskrift för matematik, fysik och kemi, ISSN 0013-5933, Vol. 78, p. 105-Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2445.
    Bustad, Johnny
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Review of : Physics by computer. Programming of physical problems using Mathematica and C: by CW Kinzel/G Reents, Springer-Verlag1999In: Elementa : tidskrift för matematik, fysik och kemi, ISSN 0013-5933, Vol. 82, p. 100-Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2446.
    Bustad, Johnny
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Review of : Physics experiments using PC's: by Ed H Staudenmaier, Springer-Verlag1995In: Elementa : tidskrift för matematik, fysik och kemi, ISSN 0013-5933, Vol. 78, p. 105-Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2447.
    Bustad, Johnny
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Review of : Physics with answers, 500 problems and solutions: by AR King/O Regev, Cambridge Univ. Press1999In: Elementa : tidskrift för matematik, fysik och kemi, ISSN 0013-5933, Vol. 82, p. 97-Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2448.
    Bustad, Johnny
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Review of : Problems in Quantum Mechanics: by GL Squires, Cambridge Univ. Press1996In: Elementa : tidskrift för matematik, fysik och kemi, ISSN 0013-5933, Vol. 79, p. 168-Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2449.
    Bustad, Johnny
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Review of : Quantum mechanics on the personal computer: by Brandt/ HD Dahmen, Springer-Verlag1989In: Elementa : tidskrift för matematik, fysik och kemi, ISSN 0013-5933, Vol. 75, p. 33-Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2450.
    Bustad, Johnny
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Review of : Second quantized approach to quantum mechanics: by PR Surjan, Springer-Verlag 19891989In: Elementa : tidskrift för matematik, fysik och kemi, ISSN 0013-5933, Vol. 75, p. 40-Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
46474849505152 2401 - 2450 of 18894
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