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  • 2451.
    Yongli, Lu
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Chengcheng, Wang
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    How pressure ulcers can be prevented in intensive care unit (ICU) patients: A descriptive literature review2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2452.
    You, Junxin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Zheng, Guangjin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Nursing interventions in improving the postoperative recovery of patients with orthopedic hip andknee surgery: A descriptive literature review2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2453.
    Yuan, Hangjia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Zhang, Hui
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    The prevention of the Ventilator associated pneumonia from the view of registered nurses: A descriptive literature review2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2454.
    Yuqing, He
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Xudan, Mao
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Quality of life of end-of-life patients: An interview study2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2455.
    Zacarias, A. E.
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Macassa, Gloria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    Soares, J.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Women as Perpetrators of IPV: the Experience of Mozambique2012In: Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, ISSN 1759-6599, E-ISSN 2042-8715, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 5-27Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2456.
    Zafar, Hamayun
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nordh, E
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Umeå University Hospital, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Per Olof
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Impaired positioning of the gape in whiplash-associated disorders2006In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 9-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have previously introduced anew concept for natural jaw function suggesting that "functional jaw movements" are the result of coordinated jaw and neck muscle activation, leading to simultaneous movements in the temporomandibular, atlanto-occipital and cervical spine joints. Thus, jaw function requires a healthy state of both the jaw and the neck motor systems. The aim of this study was to examine the positioning of the gape in space during maximal jaw opening at fast and slow speed in healthy as well as whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) individuals. A wireless optoelectronic technique for three-dimensional movement recording was used. Subjects were seated in an upright position,with back support up to the mid-scapular level without headrest. The position of the gape in space was defined as the vertical midpoint position of the gape at maximal jaw opening (MP). In healthy, the MP generally coincided with the reference position at the start of jaw opening. In the WAD group, the MID was significantly lower than the reference position. No sex or speed related differences were found. The results suggest that both the width and orientation of the gape in space relies on coordinated jaw and neck muscle activation and mandibular and head-neck movements. This study also suggests an association between neck pain and dysfunction following trauma, and reduced width and impaired positioning of the gape in space. Finally, the MP seems to be a useful marker in evaluation of the functional state of the jaw-neck motor system.

  • 2457.
    Zborowsky, Terri
    et al.
    Ellerbe Becket Inc, Healthcare Educ & Res, Minneapolis, USA.
    Bunker-Hellmich, Lou
    Ellerbe Becket Inc, Healthcare Educ & Res, Minneapolis, USA.
    Morelli, Agneta
    University of Gävle.
    O'Neill, Mike
    Knoll Inc, Workpl Res, East Greenville, USA.
    Centralized vs. Decentralized Nursing Stations: Effects on Nurses' Functional Use of Space and Work Environment2010In: Health Environments Research & Design Journal, ISSN 1937-5867, E-ISSN 2167-5112, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 19-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Evidence-based findings of the effects of nursing station design on nurses' work environment and work behavior are essential to improve conditions and increase retention among these fundamental members of the healthcare delivery team. The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate how nursing station design (i.e., centralized and decentralized nursing station layouts) affected nurses' use of space, patient visibility, noise levels, and perceptions of the work environment. Background: Advances in information technology have enabled nurses to move away from traditional centralized paper-charting stations to smaller decentralized work stations and charting substations located closer to, or inside of, patient rooms. Improved understanding of the trade-offs presented by : centralized and decentralized nursing station design has the potential to provide useful information for future nursing station layouts. This information will be critical for understanding the nurse environment "fit." Methods: The study used an exploratory design with both qualitative and quantitative methods. Qualitative data regarding the effects of nursing station design on nurses' health and work environment were gathered by means of focus group interviews. Quantitative data-gathering techniques included, place- and person-centered space use observations, patient visibility assessments, sound level measurements, and an online questionnaire regarding perceptions of the work environment. Results: Nurses on all units were observed most frequently performing telephone, computer, and administrative duties. Time spent using telephones, computers, and performing other administrative duties was significantly higher in the centralized nursing stations. Consultations with medical staff and social interactions were significantly less frequent in decentralized nursing stations. There were no indications that either centralized or decentralized nursing station designs resulted in superior visibility. Sound levels measured in all nursing stations exceeded recommended levels during all shifts. No significant differences were identified in nurses' perceptions of work control-demand-support in centralized and decentralized nursing station designs. Conclusions: The "hybrid" nursing design model in which decentralized nursing stations are coupled with centralized meeting rooms for consultation between staff members may strike a balance between the increase in computer duties and the ongoing need for communication and consultation that addresses the conflicting demands of technology and direct patient care.

  • 2458.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Uppsala universitet, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    The impact of visually demanding near work on neck/shoulder discomfort and trapezius muscle activity: Laboratory studies2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Musculoskeletal discomfort in the neck and shoulders is common among workers performing visually demanding near work, e.g., on a computer screen, and sustained low-level muscle activity during such work can lead to work-related pain. The relationships between visual demands and muscle activity and discomfort in the neck/shoulder region are at present unclear. Aim: The aims of this thesis were to determine whether neck/shoulder discomfort and trapezius muscle activity increases during visually demanding experimental near work, and to investigate whether eye-lens accommodation is a mediating mechanism behind increased trapezius muscle activity. Methods: The four papers included are based on two experiments with different visually demanding near work tasks (duration 5 and 7 min). Trial lenses of different diopters were used to manipulate the visual demands (i.e., induce more or less accommodation) and thereby create different viewing conditions. Monocular viewing, which does not require active convergence, was used to examine the isolated effect of accommodation. Eye-lens accommodation and trapezius muscle activity were measured continuously during the visual tasks, and in one experiment the participants rated their eye and neck/shoulder discomfort at baseline and after each visual task. Results: Neck/shoulder discomfort and trapezius muscle activity increased during the visually demanding near work and participants experiencing a greater increase in eye discomfort (compared with baseline) also developed more neck/shoulder discomfort with time. There were no significant differences in muscle activity among the viewing conditions, and no effect of isolated accommodation response within the monocular viewing conditions. Conclusion: These findings indicate that accommodation per se is unlikely to mediate trapezius muscle activity. Instead, the increase in trapezius muscle activity observed here may be due to a combination of high visual attention and enhanced requirement for eye-neck (head) stabilisation. Since these results suggest that neck/shoulder discomfort may aggravate with time when the visual demands are high, it is important to provide good visual conditions in connection with visually demanding occupations.

  • 2459.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Forsman, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Richter, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Effects of visually demanding near work on trapezius muscle activity2013In: Journal of Electromyography & Kinesiology, ISSN 1050-6411, E-ISSN 1873-5711, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 1190-1198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poor visual ergonomics is associated with visual and neck/shoulder discomfort, but the relation between visual demands and neck/shoulder muscle activity is unclear. The aims of this study were to investigate whether trapezius muscle activity was affected by: (i) eye-lens accommodation; (ii) incongruence between accommodation and convergence; and (iii) presence of neck/shoulder discomfort. Sixty-six participants (33 controls and 33 with neck pain) performed visually demanding near work under four different trial-lens conditions. Results showed that eye-lens accommodation per se did not affect trapezius muscle activity significantly. However, when incongruence between accommodation and convergence was present, a significant positive relationship between eye-lens accommodation and trapezius muscle activity was found. There were no significant group-differences. It was concluded that incongruence between accommodation and convergence is an important factor in the relation between visually demanding near work and trapezius muscle activity. The relatively low demands on accommodation and convergence in the present study imply that visually demanding near work may contribute to increased muscle activity, and over time to the development of near work related neck/shoulder discomfort.

  • 2460.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Richter, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Undermålig synergonomi kan påverka muskelaktivitet och nacksmärta2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund och syfte:Det är väl dokumenterat att kroppen kompenserar undermåliga synergonomiska förhållanden med ogynnsamma arbetsställningar. Det är däremot inte klarlagt om ökad belastning av ögats muskler påverkar muskelaktivitet och smärta i nackens muskulatur. Syftet med studien var att experimentellt fastställa om ökad belastning på ögats fokuseringsmuskler vid simulerat bildskärmsarbete ger ökad aktivitet i m. trapezius och ökad upplevd nacksmärta.Metoder:Sextiosex forskningspersoner (20-47 år, 54 kvinnor, 12 män) utförde en synuppgift under tre olika randomiserade synförhållanden (binokulärt -3.5D, monokulärt -3.5D och ±0D). Uppgiften var att fokusera blicken på ett mönster på en bildskärm, placerad på 1.5 m avstånd, under 7 minuter. Förhållanden med -3.5D gjorde mönstret oskarpt och personen instruerades att viljemässigt fokusera bort oskärpan. Belastning på ögats fokuseringsmuskel mättes indirekt med en kamera (Plusoptix, Nürnberg, Tyskland). Muskelaktivitet i m. trapezius mättes med EMG. Före och efter experimentet skattade personen sin upplevda nacksmärta med Borgs CR10-skala. Under experimentet satt försökspersonen lätt tillbakalutad i en kontorsstol med nackstöd. Personerna instruerades att sitta bekvämt och avslappnat och att upprätthålla kontakt med nackstödet.Resultat:Resultatet visade att personer med en högre grad av fokusering i binokulärt förhållande (-3.5D), hade högre amplitud EMG i m. trapezius. De två monokulära förhållandena visade inget samband mellan grad av fokuserig och EMG amplitud. Detta tyder på ett positivt samband mellan ögats fokusering (ackommodation och konvergens) och aktivering i trapezius muskulaturen. Resultatet visar också att personer skattar högre nacksmärta efter experimentet jämfört med före. Konklusion:Vid simulerat bildskärmsarbete med undermåliga synförhållanden, kan förhöjd aktivitet i m. trapezius och ökad upplevd nacksmärta uppkomma efter kort tid, även om arbetsställningen är god.

  • 2461.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Uppsala universitet, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Institutet för miljömedicin, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Richter, Hans O.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Neck/shoulder discomfort due to visually demanding near work is influenced by previous neck pain, task duration, astigmatism, eye discomfort and accommodation2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 8, article id e0182439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Visually demanding near work can cause eye discomfort, and eye and neck/shoulder discomfort during, e.g., computer work are associated. Here, to investigate direct effects of experimental near work on eye and neck/shoulder discomfort, 33 individuals with chronic neck pain and 33 healthy control subjects performed four visual tasks, rating eye and neck/shoulder discomfort at baseline and after each task. The cumulative performance time (reflected in the temporal order of the tasks), astigmatism, concurrent eye discomfort, and extent of accommodation all aggravated neck/shoulder discomfort. There was an interaction effect between the temporal order and eye discomfort: participants with a greater mean increase in eye discomfort also developed more neck/shoulder discomfort with time. Since moderate musculoskeletal symptoms are a risk factor for more severe symptoms, it is important to ensure a good visual environment in occupations involving visually demanding near work.

  • 2462.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Heiden, Marina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lindberg, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Nylén, Per
    The Swedish Work Environment Authority, and The Royal Institute of Technology.
    Hemphälä, Hillevi
    Lund University.
    Intra-rater reliability of the Visual Ergonomics Risk Assessment Method (VERAM)2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Visually demanding near work can cause eye discomfort, and eye and neck/shoulder discomfort during, e.g., computer work are associated. Apart from visual demands and dryness a number of environmental factors including design of the work station, lighting, glare, and the quality of the computer screen might exert an impact on eye-related symptoms. To date, there is a lack of valid and reliable instruments assessing factors associated with eye- or visual symptoms. Therefore, a new method to assess visual ergonomics at workplaces was developed in Sweden between 2014 and 2016, the Visual Ergonomics Risk Assessment Method - VERAM. A first version of the method was drafted by the researchers mainly from existing checklists and instruments, and tested in the field by trained visual ergonomists. The method was then revised and used in the field to collect data for validity and reliability analyses. The final version of VERAM includes both a questionnaire for the employee, and an expert evaluation of the employee’s workplace. The questionnaire consists of subjective ratings in six domains: eye discomfort (frequency and intensity), musculoskeletal discomfort (frequency and intensity), ratings of visual symptoms (e.g. blurred and double vision) and ratings of the visual environment (e.g. illumination levels, glare and reflexes from a work object or a computer screen). The expert evaluation consists of both objective measurements and subjective assessments resulting in an overall expert risk assessment (no risk, low risk or high risk) of eight factors: daylight, lighting, illuminance, glare, flicker, work space, work object and work posture.

    Aim: At the IEA conference 2018 the new VERAM method will be presented together with results from intra-rater reliability analyses.

    Results: Intra-rater reliability was evaluated with a re-test interval of minimum two and maximum three weeks. 99 employees were included in the analyses and 32 visual ergonomists performed the corresponding expert evaluations. The Intraclass Correlations (ICC) were between 0.70 and 0.87 for the six subjective domains, and there were no significant systematic differences between the first and second rating for any of the subjective domains (rmANOVA, p > 0.05, α = 0.008). For the eight environmental factors the expert estimated the risk equally during the first and the second assessment in 69-92% of the cases, and, as seen for the subjective domains, there were no significant systematic differences for any of the eight factors (Wilcoxon sign rank test, p > 0.014, α = 0.006). To control for multiple comparisons the Bonferroni method was used.

    Conclusion: The Visual Ergonomics Risk Assessment Method – VERAM showed good intra-rater reliability, both for the subjective questionnaire for the employee, and for the expert evaluation of the employee’s workplace when performed by a trained visual ergonomist.

  • 2463.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Heiden, Marina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lindberg, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Nylén, Per
    Swedish Work Environment Authority, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hemphälä, Hillevi
    Division of Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology, Design Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Reliability of a new risk assessment method for visual ergonomics2019In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 72, p. 71-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    The Visual Ergonomics Risk Assessment Method (VERAM) is a newly developed and validated method to assess visual ergonomics at workplaces. VERAM consists of a questionnaire and an objective evaluation.

    Objective

    To evaluate reliability of VERAM by assessing test-retest reliability of the questionnaire, and intra- and inter-rater reliability of the objective evaluation.

    Methods

    Forty-eight trained evaluators used VERAM to evaluate visual ergonomics at 174 workstations. The time interval for test-retest and intra-rater evaluations was 2–3 weeks, and the time interval for inter-rater evaluations was 0–2 days. Test-retest reliability was assessed by intraclass correlation (ICC), the standard error of measurement (SEM) and the smallest detectable change (SDC). Intra- and inter-rater reliability were assessed with weighted kappa coefficients and absolute agreement. Systematic changes were analysed with repeated measures analyses of variance and Wilcoxon sign rank test.

    Results

    The ICC of the questionnaire indices ranged from 0.69 to 0.87, while SEM ranged from 7.21 to 10.19 on a scale from 1 to 100, and SDC from 14.42 to 20.37. Intra-rater reliability of objective evaluations ranged from 0.57 to 0.85 (kappa coefficients) and the agreement from 69 to 91%. Inter-rater reliability of objective evaluations ranged from 0.37 to 0.72 (kappa coefficients) and the agreement from 52 to 87%.

    Conclusion

    VERAM is a reliable instrument for assessing risks in visual work environments. However, the reliability might increase further by improving the quality of training for evaluators. Complementary evaluations of VERAM's sensitivity to changes in the visual environment are needed.

    Relevance to industry

    It is advantageous to set up a work environment for maximal visual comfort to avoid negative effects on work postures and movements and thus prevent visual- and musculoskeletal symptoms. This method, VERAM, satisfies the need of a valid and reliable tool for determining risks associated with the visual work environment.

  • 2464.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Medical Sciences, Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Hemphälä, Hillevi
    Ergonomics, Design Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Nylén, Per
    The Swedish Work Environment Authority, and The Royal Institute of Technology.
    Lighting, visual ergonomics and health implications : A workshop2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim of the workshop:

    Deficient visual ergonomics is a problem across many occupations. Poor viewingand lighting conditions is associated with both visual and neck/shoulder discomfort,and can also impact productivity. According to the provision from the Swedish WorkEnvironment Authority on prevention of musculoskeletal disorders (AFS 2012:02), riskassessment of the visual conditions are mandatory. The aim of this workshop is toincrease knowledge about visual ergonomics among practitioners working with riskassessment, and to allow participants hands-on practice in assessing the visual environment.

    Format of the workshop:

    The first part of the workshop will involve a brief presentation of the subject visualergonomics and its implications on health and performance. The impact of progressiveglasses, too small or blurred font letters, or blurred vision on posture at e.g. computerwork will be demonstrated together with advice how to proceed to improve the conditions.The second part of the workshop will allow participants some hands-on practicein for example; how to measure light (luminance and illuminance); how different lightconditions impact pupil size and visual comfort; how to measure and quantify amountof flicker, light modulation and colour rendering in different light sources. Several usefulmobile phone applications concerning light and vision will be demonstrated.

  • 2465.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hemphälä, Hillevi
    Lund University.
    Nylén, Per
    The Swedish Work Environment Authority, and The Royal Institute of Technology.
    Workshop in visual ergonomics2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased use of computers is common across many work sectors. Prolonged near work at a computer screen is associated with both visual discomfort and neck/shoulder discomfort and pain. Inadequate visual ergonomics at a computer workstation can also influence both visual and neck/shoulder discomfort. The new provision from the Swedish Work Environment Authority on prevention of musculoskeletal disorders includes risk assessment of occupational visual conditions. These assessments require practitioners to have knowledge of the topic, as well as experience with practical assessment tools.

    The first part of the workshop proposed here will involve a presentation of the theories underlying visual ergonomic practices and a discussion of the most important factors to assess at a computer workstation. These factors include contrast, font size, resolution, glare, reflexion, non-visual flicker, and edge sharpness. The second part of the workshop, will allow participants hands-on practice in measuring and evaluating visual ergonomics at a computer workstation.

  • 2466.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Medical Sciences, Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Richter, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Forsman, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Temporal co-variation between eye lens accommodation and trapezius muscle activity during a dynamic near-far visual task2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 5, article id e0126578Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Near work is associated with increased activity in the neck and shoulder muscles, but the underlying mechanism is still unknown. This study was designed to determine whether a dynamic change in focus, alternating between a nearby and a more distant visual target, produces a direct parallel change in trapezius muscle activity. Fourteen healthy controls and 12 patients with a history of visual and neck/shoulder symptoms performed a Near-Far visual task under three different viewing conditions; one neutral condition with no trial lenses, one condition with negative trial lenses to create increased accommodation, and one condition with positive trial lenses to create decreased accommodation. Eye lens accommodation and trapezius muscle activity were continuously recorded. The trapezius muscle activity was significantly higher during Near than during Far focusing periods for both groups within the neutral viewing condition, and there was a significant co-variation in time between accommodation and trapezius muscle activity within the neutral and positive viewing conditions for the control group. In conclusion, these results reveal a connection between Near focusing and increased muscle activity during dynamic changes in focus between a nearby and a far target. A direct link, from the accommodation/vergence system to the trapezius muscles cannot be ruled out, but the connection may also be explained by an increased need for eye-neck (head) stabilization when focusing on a nearby target as compared to a more distant target.

  • 2467.
    Zetterlund, Christina
    et al.
    Centre for Rehabilitation Research, Örebro University Hospital.
    Lundqvist, Lars-Olof
    Centre for Rehabilitation Research, Örebro University Hospital.
    Richter, Hans
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science.
    The relationship between low vision and musculoskeletal complaints: A case control study between age-related macular degeneration patients and age-matched controls with normal vision2009In: Journal of Optometry, ISSN 1888-4296, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 127-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) patients often describe complaints from neck and scapula area muscles and a decreased postural control. In clinical assessment, these complaints are considered to be due to old age. Purpose: This study focuses on low vision patients with AMD, compared to age matched controls, without eye disease, in order to evaluate if a linkage between self-rated visual and muskuloskeletal complaints are more prominent when low vision is present. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 24 AMD patients, aged 65-85 years, were compared to 24 controls of similar ages without visual problems. Visual acuity, the need for magnification plus other optical and visual data, were obtained. Visual, muskuloskeletal and balance/propriopceptive complaints were collected with a self-rating questionnaire. The Visual Functioning Questionnaire -Near Activities Subscale (VFQ-NAS) was used to evaluate visual function and related complaints. Results: The correlation coefficient between visual and musculoskeletal complaints yielded significant values when computed separately within each group as well as when calculated on the entire material (AMD ρ = 0.60, P = 0.002; control group ρ = 0.59, P = 0.004; both groups together ρ = 0.50 P < 0.001). Stepwise multiple regression analysis supported the hypothesized effect of vision (Visual complaints + Minimal readable typefaces) on musculoskeletal complaints, (R2 = 0.42, P < 0.05). Conclusions: The results in this study support the hypothesis of a relationship between visual and muskuloskeletal problems.

  • 2468.
    Zetterlund, Christina
    et al.
    School of Health and Medicine, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Lundqvist, Lars-Olov
    Centre for Rehabilitiation Research, Örebro County Council, Örebro, Sweden.
    Richter, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Visual, musculoskeletal and balance symptoms in individuals with visual impairment and with age-normal vision2019In: Clinical and experimental optometry, ISSN 0816-4622, E-ISSN 1444-0938, Vol. 102, no 1, p. 63-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Visual impairment is globally among the most prevalent disabilities. Research concerning the health consequences of visual deficits is challenged by confounding effects of age, because visual impairment becomes more prevalent with age. This study investigates the influence of visual deficits on visual, musculoskeletal and balance symptoms in adults with and without visual impairment, while controlling for age effects.

    METHODS:

    Thirty-nine patients with visual impairment, aged 18-72 years, were compared to 37 age-matched controls with normal vision, allocated to two age groups: < 45 and ≥ 45 years. Self-reported symptoms were measured using the Visual, Musculoskeletal and Balance Symptoms Questionnaire and compared with demographic and optometric variables.

    RESULTS:

    In total, patients with visual impairment reported more symptoms than age-matched normally sighted controls. Younger adults in the control group were almost free from symptoms, whereas younger adults with visual impairment reported levels of symptoms equal to older adults with visual impairment. Multiple logistic regression modelling identified use of eyeglasses, magnifying aids and presence of anisometropia to be the most influential risk factors for reporting visual, musculoskeletal and balance symptoms, with accentuated influence on balance symptoms.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    People with visual impairments and people with age-related normal visual deficits are both predisposed to report visual, musculoskeletal and balance symptoms relative to people without visual defects or need for eye-wear correction. Age-related variations in symptoms were observed in the control groups but not in the visual impairment groups, with younger visual impairment patients reporting as many symptoms as older visual impairment patients. These findings indicate a need for a wider interdisciplinary perspective on eye care concerning people with visual impairment and people with need for habitual daily use of eye wear correction.

  • 2469.
    Zetterlund, Christina
    et al.
    The Low Vision Centre, Region Örebro County, Örebro, Sweden; University Health Care Research Center, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Richter, Hans O.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lundqvist, Lars-Olov
    University Health Care Research Center, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Visual, Musculoskeletal, and Balance Complaints in AMD: A Follow-Up Study2016In: Journal of Ophthalmology, ISSN 2090-004X, E-ISSN 2090-0058, Vol. 2016, article id 2707102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. To investigate whether patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) run a potentially higher risk of developing visual, musculoskeletal, and balance complaints than age-matched controls with normal vision. Methods. Visual assessments, self-rated visual function, self-rated visual, musculoskeletal, and balance complaints, and perceived general health were obtained in 37 AMD patients and 18 controls, at baseline and after an average of 3.8 years later. Results. At follow-up both groups reported decreased visual acuity (VA) and visual function, but only AMD patients reported significantly increased visual, musculoskeletal, and balance complaints. Decreased VA, need for larger font size when reading, need for larger magnification, and decreased self-rated visual function were identified as risk markers for increased complaints in AMD patients. These complaints were also identified as risk markers for decreased health. For controls, decreased VA and self-reported visual function were associated with increased visual and balance complaints. Conclusions. Visual deterioration was a risk marker for increased visual, musculoskeletal, balance, and health complaints in AMD patients. Specifically, magnifying visual aids, such as CCTV, were a risk marker for increased complaints in AMD patients. This calls for early and coordinated actions to treat and prevent visual, musculoskeletal, balance, and health complaints in AMD patients.

  • 2470.
    Zetterlund, Hanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    "Alla ska få vara med på båten": En kvalitativ studie om hur föreningar arbetar med inkludering för att främja mångfald2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Mångfald är något som svenska idrottsföreningar strävar efter, eftersom det ger goda effekter på samhället och gemenskapen bland alla individer. Syftetmed denna studie är att undersöka hur idrottsföreningar arbetar med inkludering för att främja mångfald. Som metod i studien användes semistruktureradeintervjuer för att kunna undersöka hur föreningarna tänker och resonerar kring inkluderingsarbetetoch det gjordes med ett målstyrt urval där 6 föreningar deltog i studien. Resultatetsom visades var att alla föreningar arbetar med inkludering på ett eller annat sätt och att det finns olika hinder som varje förening handskas med. Slutsatsenman kan dra ifrån detta är att många föreningar vill och kan arbeta med inkludering i föreningar men att det finns olika problematik kring hur man kan göra det. Vissa har större problem med att få in flickor medan andra har mer problem med att rekrytera nyanlända. Detta arbete är en viktig grund för eventuell vidare forskning.

  • 2471.
    Zettlin, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Enberg, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Livskvalitet hos patienter med Diabetes typ 2: en litteraturstudie2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The aim of this review was to describe how quality of life is experienced among patients with diabetes type 2. Literature search was made in Medline and the keywords used were “diabetes mellitus type 2” and “quality of life”. Twenty studies were examined and categorized into four sections: Quality of life during complications due to diabetes type 2, quality of life during various treatments, quality of life during depression and quality of life and aspects in relation to the individual as well as social aspects. The designs of the studies were of a varying kind: randomized controlled studies, comparative studies, correlative studies and descriptive studies. The studies were published between the years of 2003-2007 and most frequently occurring were questionnaires. Validity and reliability of the instruments used in the studies were examined and valued. The number of participants in the samples varied between 49-5145 persons. The results showed that diabetes type 2-complications had a negative impact on quality of life, although different treatments and self-care support had the opposite effect. Other aspects of importance to quality of life were the support of family and relatives, age, sex, education, physical function, civil status and personal background.

  • 2472.
    Zhao, Jiaying
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Zhao, Yi
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    How to improve quality of life in patients with Alzheimer´s disease: A descriptive literature review2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2473.
    Zhao, Kexia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Lv, Xinxiao
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Nursing support for psychological care of patients with colorectal cancer: A descriptive literature review2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2474.
    Zhu, Weiling
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    Chen, Xiaolu
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    Nurses’ occupational stressors and their coping strategies: A descriptive review2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2475.
    Ädel, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Löfmark, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Pålsson, Ylva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Mårtensson, Gunilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Lindberg, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    The interaction of peers: promotive and hindering aspects for learning and well-being using peer-learning during clinical education2017In: Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2476.
    Äijö, Annika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Hälsosammare snabbmat – upplevda möjligheter och problem bland restauranger: En intervjuundersökning ur snabbmatsrestaurangers perspektiv2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Over the past 30 years the incidence of overweight and obesity has increased. Obesity is a risk factor for many diseases, for instance type 2 Diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, many types of cancer and musculoskeletal diseases. That ready available food today is so accessible can be a reason for the public health problems of overweight and obesity.

    Objective: The aim was to study what possibilities and barriers there are for fast-food restaurants to sell healthy food.

    Methods: Information was collected by seven telephone interviews and two respondents answered by e-mail. Nine persons that were in charge of the menu at different fast-food restaurant chains in Sweden participated in the study.

    Results: To have a large variety was considered to be a problem for selling healthy food, also because the sale of it was low in some of the fast-food chains. Some of the informants did not find any problems with selling healthy food and it was regarded as an opportunity to get more consumers.

    Conclusion: The demand for healthier food has increased, and the offer and sales of it has also escalated. Nevertheless traditional fast food is selling well and that is why most restaurants focus on that range of food rather than offering their costumers healthier options in their menu.

  • 2477.
    Ärlemar, Simone
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Larsson, Marie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Att belysa patienters erfarenheter av att vistas under tvång inom den psykiatrisk heldygnsvården: Litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Psykisk ohälsa är ett stort problem i samhället som många är drabbade av. Det är en livssituation som kan leda till att man tappar kontrollen över sitt liv och få förödande konsekvenser. Om individen nekar till vård så ger lagen om psykiatrisk tvångsvård rätten till ett omhändertagande. Syfte: Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att undersöka patienters erfarenheter av att ha varit inlagd på tvång inom den psykiatriska heldygnsvården, samt att beskriva urvalsgrupper inom de valda artiklarna. Metod: En deskriptiv litteraturstudie. Med hjälp av databasen Cinahl har 15 stycken kvalitativa vetenskapliga artiklar granskats objektivt och analyserats av författarna för att uppnå studiens syfte. Huvudresultat: Resultatet innehåller information om patienternas negativa och positiva erfarenheter som presenteras i följande kategorier: Hopp och återhämtning, relationer till vårdpersonal och stigmatisering, relationer till andra patienter, sjukdomsinsikt och information, isolering och livskvalitet, rutiner och regler, miljö.Slutsats: Att vara inlagd mot sin vilja kan upplevas på olika sätt. Sjuksköterskans arbete är viktigt för patientens tillfrisknande och hantering av vardagslivet. Information om kommande behandling samt ett gott bemötande och engagerad personal är betydelsefullt för att stärka patientens autonomi och livslust.

  • 2478.
    Åberg, Lina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Modig, Linda-Marie
    Anhörigas upplevelser att leva med en närstående med demenssjukdom och kommunikationen mellan dem: En litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2479.
    Åberg, Siri
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Hornegård, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter och upplevelser av att arbeta inom akutsjukvård: En beskrivande litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Emergency care is a versatile and complex setting which is performed at a high pace. Patients within the critical care units are often victims of trauma. Previous studies have shown that the sufferers of trauma are not only the injured person but also the people who witness the effects of these traumatic injuries. Nurses who work in the emergency care setting is faced with high demands and are expected to cope with all the aspects of their work.

     

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to describe nurses experience and perspective of working with emergency medical care and to describe the included articles test groups.

     

    Method

    This was a literature study with a descriptive design. The result was composed of twelve scientific reports. Of these were one of quantitative approach and one had a mixed method approach with both qualitative and quantitative design. Remaining articles had qualitative approaches.

     

    Main results

    Nurses who were stationed in the emergency care setting perceived their work as unpredictable and hectic. It was viewed as a rewarding but also challenging profession. The nurses felt that it required a lot of them and they also got emotionally affected by the traumatic injuries they encountered. To handle their work the nurses used different coping strategies.

     

    Conclusion

    By applying the right coping strategies, get support from others and access to different resources the workload which had a mental impact got easier to manage.

  • 2480.
    Ågren, Johanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Olsson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Livskvalitet hos kvinnor och män före och efter hjärtrehabilitering - en enkätstudie2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to compare how patients with coronary artery disease rated their quality of life before and after participating in a 12 month cardiac rehabilitation program and to compare how women and men rated their quality of life. The sample consisted of 117 patients (35 women and 82 men) who participated in a cardiac rehabilitations program at Hälsoinvest Högbo AB between the years 1996-2001. Quality of life was measured using the QLQ-AP questionnaire (Quality of Life Questionnaire - Angina Pectoris). QLQ-AP is a disease-specific instrument and the 22 questions are grouped into a global score and four different subscales: physical activity, somatic symptoms, emotional distress and life satisfaction. The study showed a significant improvement of quality of life among the participants (n=117) for the global score and the four subscales of the QLQ-AP following cardiac rehabilitation. No significant differences in rated quality of life were seen between women and men, neither before nor after attending the rehabilitation program. The women, however, only showed a significant improvement of quality of life for the subscale emotional distress while the men showed a significant improvement of quality of life for the global score as well as for the four subscales. Conclusion: In this study, the rated quality of life improved after attending a cardiac rehabilitation program. However, the men improved in more aspects than the women did.

  • 2481.
    Åhlstrand, Mathilda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Unga kvinnors upplevelser av hur sociala medier påverkar deras kroppsuppfattning: En kvalitativ innehållsanalys2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2482.
    Åhlund, Llinda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hajizadeh, Fariba
    Patienters erfarenheter av att leva med bensår: En litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2483.
    Åhrlin, Sofie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ekqvist, Anna-Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    HIV/AIDS: Kunskap och attityder hos sjuksköterskor2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To describe nurses knowledge and attitudes towards patients who are living with HIV or AIDS and to describe potential differences in knowledge and attitudes between younger and older nurses. Method: The present empirical study had a quantitative approach with a descriptive comparative design. The sampling method was a convenience sample in which a total of 63 nurses participated and questionnaires were sent to nine divisions in three different hospitals. Results: The majority of the nurses had good knowledge of HIV and AIDS, positive attitudes and a willingness to care for this group of patients. Some of the nurses, however, expressed a fear of contracting HIV, a need for more education and negative attitudes towards specific groups with the disease. There was a significant difference in attitudes between age groups, the younger nurses had a more positive attitude than the older nurses. Conclusion: Although the nurses had good knowledge, positive attitudes and a willingness to care for this group of patients, there was a fear of contracting HIV and therefore more education about HIV and AIDS is needed for nurses. Younger nurses had more positive attitudes than older nurses. Further research is also needed since just a few studies illustrate this in Sweden.

  • 2484.
    Ångström, Marie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lööf Lindqvist, Emanuel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Omvårdnadsåtgärder sjuksköterskan kan vidta i arbetet för att förebygga trycksår: en beskrivande litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Pressure sores occur as a complication of care, treatment and disease where these can occur already after 60 minutes. The incidence of pressure ulcers in 2016 at 13.4% averaged over the whole of Sweden, as compared to 2015 is a reduction of only 0.2%.

    Aim: To describe the nursing care nurse can take in their work to prevent pressure sores and to report the selection method used in the selected articles.

    Method: Literature study with descriptive design that was based on thirteen articles from the databases CINAHL and Pubmed.

    Findings: The result of the above literature led four different themes: 1) Risk Assessment: By making a risk assessment of patients within 24 hours of hospitalization the risk of pressure sores was reduced. 2) Location Changes: Location Changes to the patients every two hours showed that the incidence of pressure ulcers decreased. Further, it has been shown that positions lying at 30 degrees is the method that provides the best output. 3) Pressure relief: Use of different pressure relieving agents have shown to reduce pressure sores in patients. The best method seen from differences in the control and intervention groups for pressure relief in this study is the use of a silicon border. 4) Collection of preventive care measures: The use of different protocols with several different care methods to reduce the occurrence of pressure sores have shown the best effect. Methodological aspect: 11 of the articles had a clear description of the sampling method, with the remaining two items missing description of how the selection had been made.

    Conclusion: The present literature review has shown that the above themes can be used by nurses in their daily work to reduce the risk of pressure ulcers in patients.

  • 2485.
    Åsblom, Lena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Distriktssköterskors och sjuksköterskors reflektioner av arbete med telefonrådgivning i primärvården: En intervjustudie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of the study was to describe the district nurse's and nurse's reflections on work in telephonenursing in primary care. Background: Telephonenursing today represents a major part of nurses' work in primary care. The classical patient visit has in part been replaced by telephonenursing, where nurses are expected to have broad medical and social skills, as well as educational skills. Working in telephonenursing can be complicated, challenging and stimulating. Method: The study used a qualitative approach with descriptive design. Nine telephone nurses from primary care participated in the study and were interviewed January-May 2017. Result: The results in this study showed that telephonenursing was experienced as stressful, demanding and complex with limited control capabilities. Timepressure at work, resource shortage in health care and disturbed work environment felt as strenuous circumstances that could lead to stress. Telephonenursing was also described as fun, varied, satisfying, evolving and problem solving was a prominent feature. Good conversations with patients, as well as support at work were described as important factors. Conclusion: The nurses in this study experienced that work in telephonenursing was complexed with high demands and strains. However, it was also a fun, varied and satisfying work. Continuous education and slightly reduced demands can lead to an improved work situation, where the risk of impaired health for nurses can be reduced and patient safety can be strengthened.

  • 2486.
    Åsell, Caroline
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelse av samarbete i detmultidisciplinära teamet vid akut omhändertagande av traumapatienter2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att beskriva hur intensivvårds- och akutmottagningssjuksköterskor upplevde samarbetet i traumateamet vid det akuta traumaomhändertagandet. Författaren till studien har valt att göra en intervjustudie medkvalitativ ansats. Fyra intensivvårdssjuksköterskor och sex akutmottagningssjuksköterskor vid ett medelstort sjukhus i östra Sverige deltog i studien. Data samlades in genom semistrukturerade intervjuer. Data analyserades med hjälp av kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Åtta kategorier framkom under analysarbetet: ’ledarskap’, ’organisation’, ’att inte hitta på akutrummet’, ’kompetens’, ’kommunikation inom traumateamet’, ’samarbete inom traumateamet’, ’stress och negativa känslor’ samt ’att känna omsorg’. Resultatet i föreliggande studie visade på betydelsen av ett gott ledarskap. Sjuksköterskorna uttryckte en önskan om att kirurgjour/traumaledare skulle ’ta kommandot’ och leda traumaomhändertagandet. Det visade också på vikten av att ha en bra organisation, som i det här fallet var ATLS-konceptet. Att inte hitta på akutrummet upplevdes som ett problem av sjuksköterskorna. Att ha erfarenhet och ha övat på traumaomhändertagande ansågs som viktigt av sjuksköterskorna. En god kommunikation inom traumateamet främjade enligt sjuksköterskorna samarbetet vid traumaomhändertagandet. Sjuksköterskorna upplevde att ett gott samarbete vid traumaomhändertagandet skapade teamkänsla. Stress upplevdes både som något negativt och något positivt av sjuksköterskorna. I studien lyfts både problem och positiva saker i traumaarbetet fram av sjuksköterskorna. Sjuksköterskorna var positivt inställda till samövningar, som de tror skulle förbättra samarbetet. Det framkom i studien att kommunikation, ledarskap, erfarenhet och en bra organisation kan förbättra samarbetet i det akuta traumaomhändertagandet. Stress, dålig kommunikation och otydliga roller kan försämra samarbetet. Till viss del anser författaren att detta skulle kunna förbättras genom ytterligare övningar, detta i likhet med föreliggande studies resultat.

  • 2487.
    Åsell, Malin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Svenska Rygginstitutet AB, Sundsvall, Sweden; Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sjölander, Per
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Southern Lapland Research Department, Vilhelmina, Sweden.
    Kerschbaumer, Helmut
    Svenska Rygginstitutet AB, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Djupsjöbacka, Mats
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Are lumbar repositioning errors larger among patients with chronic low back pain compared with asymptomatic subjects?2006In: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0003-9993, E-ISSN 1532-821X, Vol. 87, no 9, p. 1170-1176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To resolve the debate over whether lumbar repositioning acuity is reduced in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) by using a study design and methodology to minimize the effects of potential confounders. DESIGN: A single-blinded, controlled, multigroup comparative study.

    SETTING: Vocational rehabilitation center.

    PARTICIPANTS: Ninety-two patients with CLBP, divided into subgroups based on severity of symptoms and diagnostic characteristics. An age- and sex-matched group (n=31) of healthy subjects were the control. I

    NTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We measured repositioning errors (variable, constant) at 3 positions of the lumbar spine. Subjects were guided to a sitting target posture and asked to perform lumbar flexion before reproducing the target posture. Self-assessed pain, self-efficacy, and functional ability were addressed through questionnaires.

    RESULTS: There were no differences in repositioning errors between the patients with CLBP or the subgroups of patients and the control group. We found only weak correlations between the repositioning errors and the self-reported data on functional disability, self-efficacy, and pain.

    CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that sensorimotor dysfunctions in CLBP should be evaluated with methods other than repositioning tests in order to generate data relevant to the development of rational diagnostic methods and rehabilitation programs.

  • 2488.
    Åslin, Susanne
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Knutsson Fröjd, Linda
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Föräldrars uppfattning av kontakten med barnavårdscentralen2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Nearly 100% of all children born in Sweden get in contact with the Child Health Centre (BVC). The aim with the BVC´s activity is health supervise, counselling and to support parents in their parenting role. The purpose of this study was to describe how parents experience their contact with BVC. The study has a deskriptiv quantitative design and a qualitative part with analysis of the contents of the open questions. It was carried out in an area in the middle of Sweden. All parents who visited BVC one week in October 2006, was asked to participate in the study. Twenty-one BVC divided on 18 different Cities/Communities have participated in the study. A sum of total 524 questionnaires was handed out during this week. Out of these 402 questionnaires were returned completed. For the most part the parents were pleased with their contact with the BVC. The contact with the nurse at BVC and the oppertunity to ask “about anything” were things that the parents appreciated the most.

    The possibility to reach the BVC by phone was a source of dissatisfaction.The nurse at BVC is a great support to new becomed parents. The relationship between the nurse and the parents is very important to fulfil the purpose of the child health centres activity.

  • 2489.
    Åslund, Sofie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Vallin Isaksen, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    En litteraturstudie om patienters erfarenheter av vården i samband med ECT2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2490.
    Åström, Ida
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Wiklund, Elin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Orsaker och preventiva åtgärder gällande fallolyckor hos äldre personer boende på vårdhem: En litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med föreliggande litteraturstudie var att beskriva vad som orsakar fallolyckor hos äldre inom vårdhem, beskriva preventionsåtgärder samt att granska de urvalsmetoder som de granskade artiklarna använde sig av.Metod: Artiklar söktes i databaserna PubMed, Medline samt Cinahl med publiceringsbegränsning mellan år 2008-2013. Totalt 16 artiklar inkluderades.                 Resultat: Föreliggande litteraturstudies resultat delades upp i två huvudkategorier med sex underrubriker varav fyra berörde orsaker till fallolyckor och två behandlade preventionsåtgärder. 1) Individuella faktorer; flera individuella faktorer såsom ålder, ostabil gång samt medicinsk bakgrund visade sig orsaka fallolyckor hos äldre boende på vårdhem. 2) Fysisk vårdmiljö; många aspekter av vårdhemmets miljö orsakade fallolyckor hos äldre boende på vårdhem, exempel på dessa aspekter var rummens utformning samt inredning. 3) Hjälpmedel; ett samband påvisades mellan fallolyckor och hjälpmedlet rullstol där antalet fallolyckor ökade vid användandet av rullstolar. Användandet av fysiska begränsningsåtgärder visade sig ha olika effekt på antalet fallolyckor. 4) Läkemedel; medicinering med centralverkande läkemedel orsakade en ökad risk att drabbas av fallolyckor medan icke-centralverkande läkemedel inte visades orsaka fallolyckor. 5) Fysiska preventionsåtgärder; interventionsprogram med fysiska preventionsåtgärder visade sig ha olika effekt på antalet fallolyckor. Det visade sig att olika undergrupper påverkades olika av preventionsåtgärder. 6) Preventionsåtgärder genom vårdpersonal; preventionsåtgärder genom vårdpersonal visade sig inte ha någon effekt på antalet fallolyckor. Metodologisk aspekt gällande urvalsmetod; av de granskade artiklarna framgick en tydlig beskrivning av urvalsmetod i åtta artiklar, i två artiklar beskrevs urvalsmetoden men ej utförligt och sex artiklar saknade helt beskrivning av urvalsmetod.Slutsats: Fallolyckor är ett världsomspännande folkhälsoproblem och förekomsten är stor hos äldre boende på vårdhem. Föreliggande litteraturstudie visade att ett flertal orsaker till fallolyckor hos äldre boende på vårdhem och fallolyckspreventionsåtgärder var belagt i vetenskapliga studier men att mer forskning krävs för att stärka bevisvärdet samt att förbättra preventionsarbetet. För att minska antalet fallolyckor hos äldre boende på vårdhem krävs det att sjuksköterskan ser till individen och arbetar förebyggande samt utvärderar de handlingar som utförs.  

  • 2491.
    Öberg, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Jämställdhet inom könsintegrerat yrke - ambulanssjuksköterskors uppfattningar: Semistrukturerad intervjustudie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Problemformulering: Tidigare studier tyder på att den svenska arbetsmarknaden är könssegregerad samt att det förekommer en könssegregering av arbetsuppgifter inom samma yrkestitel. Detta innebär att män och kvinnor utsätts för olika typer av mentala och fysiska belastningar. Eftersom arbetshälsovetenskapen delvis har till syfte att studera orsaker till arbetsrelaterade belastningar samt hur arbete kan organiseras för att minska belastningar inom arbetet är jämställdheten på arbetsmarknaden relevant ur ett arbetshälsovetenskapligt perspektiv. Syfte: Syftet med studien var att undersöka ambulanssjuksköterskors uppfattningar av jämställdhet inom yrket. Metod: Kvalitativ studie med fenomenografi som ansats. Semistrukturerade intervjuer med 10 ambulanssjuksköterskor. Huvudresultat: Intervjumaterialet utmynnade i tre kategorier relaterat till jämställdhet inom yrket: samma förutsättningar oavsett kön, kön inverkar på bemötande från patienter och anhöriga samt förändringar över tid. Resultatet tyder på att ambulanssjuksköterskorna i studien uppfattar yrket som jämställt utifrån att de har samma möjligheter till utbildning, arbetar under samma förutsättningar samt att de har samma rättigheter. Vidare uppfattade ambulanssjuksköterskorna i studien att manliga och kvinnliga ambulanssjuksköterskor behandlas olika från patienter och anhöriga. Ambulanssjuksköterskorna beskrev även uppfattningar om att jämställdheten inom yrket har förändrats över tid då yrket tidigare varit mansdominerat. Slutsats: Ambulanssjuksköterskorna uppfattade att män och kvinnor verkar under samma förutsättningar inom yrket. En tänkbar förklaring till detta kan vara den tydliga strukturen på arbetsplatsen. Vidare uppfattade ambulanssjuksköterskorna att kön inverkar på bemötande från patienter och anhöriga samt att jämställdheten inom yrket har förändrats över tid, då yrket tidigare varit mansdominerat. Framtida forskning bör därmed fokusera på strukturens betydelse för jämställdhet inom arbetslivet samt vilken betydelse genus kan komma att ha på arbetsmiljön.

  • 2492.
    Öberg, Peter
    Uppsala universitet.
    Bakom hotbilder och solskenshistorier: Våra attityder till åldrandet – i siffror2003In: Äldre i Centrum, ISSN 1401-5110, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 18-19Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 2493.
    Öberg, Peter
    Uppsala universitet.
    Äldres sexualitet - en del av det goda åldrandet2004In: Äldre i Centrum, ISSN 1401-5110, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 10-11Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2494.
    Öberg, Peter
    Uppsala universitet.
    Ålderism hos de äldre2001In: Äldre i Centrum, ISSN 1401-5110, Vol. 15, no 3Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 2495.
    Ödlund, Cecilia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Berg, Lotta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Omvårdnad vid höftfraktur2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund:

    Patienter med höftfraktur blir allt fler i takt med att medelåldern ökar. Det är en stor och resurskrävande patientgrupp. De har under en längre tid varit underprioriterade vilket har resulterat i långa väntetider till operation.

    Syfte:

    Syftet var att beskriva om det fanns några fördelar att arbeta med höftspår vid höftfrakturer samt att beskriva urvalet av de använda vetenskapliga artiklarna.

    Metod:

    Deskriptiv litteraturstudie med tretton vetenskapliga artiklar med kvalitativ och kvantitativ ansats. Likheter och olikheter i artiklarnas resultat har kategoriserats och sammanställts till fem olika teman.

    Huvudresultat:

    Resultatet visade att det fanns fördelar med att arbeta med omhändertagande via höftspår, detta resulterade i kortare väntetid till operation samt färre komplikationer. Dessa patienter som omhändertogs via höftspår hade även en kortare vårdtid. Risken för mortalitet påverkades inte nämnvärt vid höftspår kontra konventionell vård vid höftfraktur.

    Slutsats:

    I kategorien förkortad tid till operation samt kortare vårdtid kan man se stora positiva skillnader efter införandet av höftspår, i minskade postoperativa komplikationer en viss förbättring. I kategorin minskad risk för dödlighet ses ingen statistisktsignifikant skillnad. Riktlinjerna kring detta höftspår har påverkat omvårdnaden i en positiv riktning. Dessa patienter omhändertas nu med en snabbare och bättre rutin. Det har inte upptäckts några nackdelar med att arbeta med höftspår.

  • 2496.
    Öhlund, Lennart S
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Grönbladh, Leif
    Uppsala universitet.
    Patterns of deviance career in the history of female methadone clients: an exploratory study2009In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 95-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to describe the drug career of 71 severely opioid-dependent women who had a history of selling sex and were enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, from medical records and reports from social agencies and correctional institutions. The sequential pattern could be described in the following order: initiation of the first drug of abuse, opioid onset, initiation of selling sex, first non-methadone treatment episode, first sentence and, finally, methadone maintenance treatment. There were significant age differences and correlations between most of the events. The main correlation (r = 0.70) was the one between debut of opioid use and selling sex, which was confirmed in a stepwise multiple regression analysis. In addition, a history of running away from home advanced the age at which the women started selling sex for those with an onset of opioid use at an older age than the mean of 18.4 years.

  • 2497.
    Öhlund, Lennart S.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    Gunne, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Uppsala, Sweden.
    The treatment goal in maintenance treatment of heroin addiction ought to be more than retention2013In: Heroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problems, ISSN 1592-1638, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 53-56Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2498.
    Öhman, Jessica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    Jogin, Jennie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans omvårdnadserfarenheter av patienter med en strokediagnos2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund Stroke tillhör en av våra största folksjukdomar och förblir en av de sjukdomar som kräver de högsta dödsantalen och ger allvarliga följder med omfattande funktionsnedsättningar. Följderna efter en stroke varierar beroende av vart och med vilken omfattning skadan orsakat, vilket ger en varierande symptombild med olika grader av funktionsnedsättningar. Detta gör omvårdnaden av en strokepatient till komplex som ställer höga krav på en individuellt anpassad vårdplan med anpassade professioner som omger patienten.

     

    Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att undersöka sjuksköterskans erfarenheter av att vårda patienter med en strokediagnos. 

     

    Metod En beskrivande litteraturstudie som baserats på resultatet av 10 kvalitativa och 3 kvantitativa artiklar.

     

    Huvudresultat Det framkommer att sjuksköterskan har en viktig uppgift i att arbeta kliniskt och nära patienten men att det på grund av brist på resurser och utbildning är svårt att ge en tillfredställande omvårdnad. Sjuksköterskans position bland andra professioner upplevs inte heller som självklar och behöver vara väldefinierad för att kunna säkerställa att patientens vård är av hög kvalitet. Det framkommer även att sjuksköterskan i sin omvårdnad behöver involvera patienten mer i kommunikationen genom att lära känna personen bakom patienten för att på så vis förbättra återhämtningen efter en stroke.

     

    Slutsats Sjuksköterskan utgör en nyckelroll vid omvårdnaden av strokepatienten. Studier visar dock att det saknas kunskap, utbildning och förståelse från både organisation och sjuksköterskor vilket på flera sätt sänker patientens vårdkvalitet.

  • 2499.
    Öhman, Louisa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hur sjuksköterskor kan bidra till följsamhet av basala hygienrutiner inom kommunal vård och omsorg2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Basic hygiene is an important measure to prevent healthcare associated infections, save patients’ lives, and reduce economic costs for health care. Healthcare associated infections are a threat to patient safety. In community care persons who are the care takers are a risk group and nurses must make sure that basic hygiene procedures are followed.

    Method: Literature studies with descriptive design, article search in databases Cinahl and PubMed. The results found are based on twelve chosen articles.

    Aim: To describe factors related to adherence to basic hygiene and how nurses in community care can help to improve compliance with these procedures.

    Results: In the nursing staff and leadership in health care interest in and the understanding of basic hygiene is described as being of most importance. Lack of knowledge of the meaning of patient care cleanliness, negative attitudes and non-existing availability of necessary tools and heavy workload had a negative impact. Intensified education and making sure that equipment is available as well as the application of standardized methods, were found to be prerequisite for adherence to basic hygiene routines.

    Conclusion: Nurses can contribute to improved adherence to basic hygiene routines by promoting education, positive attitudes, a positive adaption of the physical environment, strategic structuring of the workload, and standardized methods, applying basic hygiene routines, being part of and promoting increased interaction in nursing care. Suggestions for future studies is to implement web-based courses, updating courses and training in basic hygiene routines in the workplace. That may increase knowledge, understanding and awareness of the application of basic hygiene routines hence leading to improved nursing care and enhancing patient safety.

  • 2500.
    Öhman, Michaela
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Östergrens, Lisa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av att möta patienter med psykossjukdom inom den somatiska vården: En beskrivande litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Every year approximately 2000 people in Sweden fall ill to some kind of psychotic disorder. Psychotic disorders are often associated with prejudice and stigma. Research has shown a connection between the expected external stigma, internal stigma and the recovery of patients with a psychotic disorder. It has also been described that patients with a psychotic disorder has received insufficient care due to their psychiatric illness.    

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe how nurses experience the encounter with patients that are suffering from a psychotic disorder within the somatic inpatient and outpatient care.

    Method: A descriptive literature study based on 5 qualitative and 5 quantitative scientific articles. The databases that was used to obtain articles was PubMed and Cinahl.   

    Main result: It appeared that there is a substantial lack of knowledge regarding psychotic disorders within the somatic care. Nurses often experienced feelings of fear, tension and insecurity, which made the encounter with these patients problematic. Limitations such as time constraints contributed to unfavourable conditions in the care of patients with a psychotic disorder.   

    Conclusion: Stigma, lack of knowledge and deficiencies in the care environment could make the care that patients with a psychotic disorder receive inadequate. Therefore, it is important that nurses in the somatic inpatient and outpatient care become aware of their own preconceptions and attitudes towards these patients, and that nurses get access to additional knowledge on this topic. The somatic units should also try to make improvements in the care environment.

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