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  • 251.
    Ahmed, Mohamed
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Maxamed, Maxamed
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Modell för beslutsfattande avseende hållbar logistik: I både tjänsteföretag och tillverkningsföretag2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In any successful business, it is important to establish a dedicated management with the ability to make critical and sustainable decisions. Policy makers are a major and perhaps the biggest factor in a company and usually it is the managers who are also decision-makers. There are a number of aspects to keep in mind in order to make as appropriate decisions as possible, which can be anything from personality traits to how market analytic decision-maker is.

    The purpose of this thesis is to develop a model for decision-making on sustainable logistics, in both manufacturing companies and service companies in Sweden. Literature studies and interviews are conducted in order to answer the purpose. Through the literary study, significant factors can be found, for example crisis management and trust, prejudice and character traits.

    This work’s empirical material is based on interviews in four different organizations regarding their decision making and their approach to sustainable logistics. These organizations are both service and manufacturing companies, which gives the work a breadth and generalizability.

    The identified factors that are developed through the case studies include emotionality and rationality, trust, and transparency. Several factors in the literature are clearly consistent with the significant factors in the study result. The factors that both the service and manufacturing companies have in mind when making decisions regarding sustainable logistics are presented in the results. The conclusion of this study is a model that visualizes the factors one should keep in mind when making decisions regarding sustainable logistics. These factors are trust, supplier selection, unity, facts, transparency and empathy. Based on these factors, any company with a dedication and commitment to long-term decision-making processes can make wise and effective assessments.

  • 252.
    Ahmed, Motasim
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences. Radarbolaget AB.
    Single-Layer Metamaterial Absorber for Radar Application2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the radar systems, the crosstalk or antenna-to-antenna interference between the radar antennas is useful in some cases. However in some application the received signal is too weak such as wall crack detection and it might affect the accuracy of the radar system. The aim of this thesis is to design, fabricate and test a single layer metamaterial absorber operates from 1 GHz to 4 GHz. The metamaterial absorber can be used as a barrier between the antennas or even in the antenna housing in order to reduce or prevent the antenna-to-antenna interference.

    The method used to fulfill the goal is to shift the frequency response of a known structure by changing the dimension to the wanted band. The software HFSS used to design and simulate the proposed structure which made of L-shaped copper placed diagonally over a substrate separating it from a continuous copper plane. The simulation results exhibit a wideband absorption response of 2.42 GHz ranging from 1.9 GHz to 4.32 GHz. The structure has been simulated over the dimension variation to investigate the flexibility and sensitivity of the designed single layer structure.

    The fabricated metamaterial absorber measured over the direct incident waves. The structure reveals a wideband absorption response of 1.69 GHz ranging from 2.23 GHz up to 3.92 GHz with more than 90% absorptivity. The structure also exposed that the response of the structure starts to create two bands within the wanted band by increasing the angle of the incident waves. 10° polarization angle gives more than 80% absorptivity response. 

  • 253.
    Ahnberg Åsenius, Elisabeth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Lekmöjligheter och trafiksäkerhet för barn i stadsmiljöer: Fallstudie av centrala Falun2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Small children in the age around two to ten needs space to play and move around to be able to develop, and these needs should be considered in the spatial planning practice. Unfortunely there are signs that childrens need for places to play and move around have lost in priority in spatial planning practice in Sweden the last decades. For example research shows that childrens access to public places to play at in swedish citys is reduced. Also childrens possibilities to move around freely in swedish cities are continuously reduced due to increasing traffic. It has also been noted that fewer children walk or bicycle on there own to school and bicycling in the spare time has also been declining.   

    The aim of this study has been to exmine childrens possibilities to play and move around independently in urban environment. The study is restricted to a casestudy of the city-environment Falun-Centrum. That is an area of ca 2,5 km2 predefined by Falu kommun. It contains the city-center with shops, parks, roads, residential areas, kindergardens, schools etc. Information has been collected by a postal survey sent to guardians of 100 children (about 20 % of the total number in the area) that were older than one year and younger than eleven years during 2017 living in the casestudy-area.

    The results are based on 53 answers; 39 answers to the postal survey and 14 answers to additional interwievs over telephone. The answers show that in Falun-Centrum the respondents experience that their children have quite good access to places to play at in their vicinity. Field inventory of the places showed that many of the places were spacious enough to allow vast playing and had green and varied terrain, which is good. Though, the results about the safety aspects in traffic shows that there are a lot of traffic hazards that prevent the children to move around independently in the area.

    In summary it means that the children in general have good places to play at in there vicinity (although there are exeptions), but that they can not go there on their own due to traffic hazards. The lack of traffic safety also means that the conditions for them to go to, explore and get to know new places in their surroundings are severely limited. In the long run it limits the development of their geographichal imagination of their urban surroundings. It also limits their opporunities to meet, get to know and understand other persons in the city. In the long run it inhibits the urban social sustainability.

  • 254.
    Ahne, Ingemar
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för didaktik.
    Söderhäll, Bengt
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för didaktik.
    HiG har ännu inte nått fram2002In: Gefle Dagblad, ISSN 1103-9302, Vol. 28 oktoberArticle, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    HÖGSKOLEDEBATT

    Tisdagen den 21 oktober hade Gefle Dagblad förstasidesrubriken: "Lärarutbildningen som ett dagis" Vi tycker det är en mycket olycklig formulering. Rubriken och artikeln andas fördomar mot förskolan

  • 255.
    Ahnfeldt, Tomas
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    Geometry for CAD Toolbox2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 256.
    Aho, Emmy
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Johansson, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Personliga assistenters upplevelse av deras psykologiska kontrakt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The purpose of the study was to examine how personal assistants experience their psychological contract and how the psychological contract was fulfilled against their supervisor or manager.A qualitative method was used and seven interviews were conducted with personal care assistants from various workplaces. The interviews were analysed with thematic analysis and resulted in five main themes. Expectations, personal but not private, what really stands in the contract, how people look at the profession and fulfilment. In conclusion, the main result was that the personal care assistants experienced that the internal psychological contract consisted of the relation to the supervisor or manager and the accessibility to the employer. The personal care assistants felt that the contents of the external psychological contract consisted of the work duties, employment security, working hours and the attractiveness of the profession. The majority of the respondents felt that the internal and external psychological contract was fulfilled. None of the respondents considered that the internal and external psychological contract was not fulfilled at all.  

  • 257.
    Ahonen-Jonnarth, Ulla
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Dynamic web interface for metabolic pathways2002In: Promote IT 2002, 2002Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 258.
    Ahonen-Jonnarth, Ulla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Göransson, A
    Finlay, R
    Growth and nutrient uptake of ectomycorrhizal Pinus sylvestris seedlings treated with elevated Al concentrations and decreased levels of base cations2003In: Tree Physiology, ISSN 0829-318X, E-ISSN 1758-4469, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 157-167Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Models of the effects of elevated concentrations of aluminum (Al) on growth and nutrient uptake of forest trees frequently ignore the effects of mycorrhizal fungi. In this study, we present novel data indicating that ectomycorrhizal mycelia may prevent leaching of base cations and Al. Mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings were grown in sand obtained from the B-horizon of a local forest. In Experiment 1, non-mycorrhizal seedlings and seedlings inoculated with Hebeloma cf. longicaudum (Pers.: Fr.) Kumm. ss. Lange or Laccaria bicolor (Maire) Orton were provided with nutrient solution containing 2.5 mM Al. Aluminum did not affect growth of non-mycorrhizal seedlings or seedlings inoculated with L. bicolor. Seedlings colonized by H. cf. longicaudum had the highest biomass production of all seedlings grown without added Al, but the fungus did not tolerate Al. Shoots of seedlings colonized by L. bicolor had the lowest nitrogen (N) concentrations but the highest phosphorus (P) concentrations of all seedlings. The treatments had small but significant effects on shoot and root Al concentrations. In Experiment 2, inoculation with L. bicolor was factorially combined with the addition of a complete nutrient solution, or a solution lacking the base cations K, Ca and Mg, and solutions containing 0 or 0.74 mM Al. Seedling growth decreased in response to 0.74 mM Al, but the effect was significant only for non-mycorrhizal seedlings. Mycorrhizal seedlings generally had higher P concentrations than non-mycorrhizal seedlings. Aluminum reduced P uptake in non-mycorrhizal plants but had no effect on P uptake in mycorrhizal plants. Mycorrhizal colonization increased the pH of the soil solution by about 0.5 units and addition of Al decreased the pH by the same amount. We conclude that the presence of ectomycorrhizal mycelia decreased leaching of base cations and Al from the soil.

  • 259.
    Ahonen-Jonnarth, Ulla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Odelstad, Jan
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Evaluation of simulations with conflicting goals with application to cleaning of young forest stands2006In: Proceedings of ISC 2006 (Forth International Industrial Simulation Conference), 2006, p. 498-503Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 260.
    Ahonen-Jonnarth, Ulla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science.
    Odelstad, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science.
    Simulation as a tool for the evaluation of forest management treatments2010In: ESM'2010 - The 2010 European Simulation and Modelling Conference / [ed] Gerrit K. Janssens, Katrien Ramaekers and An Caris, Ghent: EUROSIS-ETI , 2010, p. 426-433Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cleaning of young forest stands is a multicriteria problem with conflicting goals. This kind of forest management treatment is performed by human beings but it is possible that this work may be performed by artificial agents in the future. The artificial agents need detailed information about how to clean a forest stand and/or what are the goals for cleaning. One problem in development of cleaning rules for artificial cleaning agents is that explicit knowledge about good cleaning results is not detailed. In this paper we present a tool for developing and testing rules and judging evaluation functions for cleaning. We illustrate this tool by presenting examples of some ways to clean forest stands in a computer environment and we present how the cleaning results can be evaluated. In order to obtain material for experiments it is also possible to simulate forest stands using this tool.

  • 261.
    Ahonen-Jonnarth, Ulla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Odelstad, Jan
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Simulation of cleaning of young forest stands2005Report (Other academic)
  • 262.
    Ahonen-Jonnarth, Ulla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Roitto, M
    Markkola, A M
    Ranta, H
    Neuvonen, S
    Effects of Nickel and Copper on Growth and Mycorrhiza of Scots Pine Seedlings Inoculated with Gremmeniella abietina2004In: Forest Pathology, ISSN 1437-4781, E-ISSN 1439-0329, Vol. 34, no 6, p. 337-348Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) seedlings were planted in soil originating from two localities with different background levels of nickel and copper. In addition, some of the seedlings were exposed to additional nickel (20.5 mg Ni/l of soil) or copper (63.5 mg Cu/l of soil), or a combination of both Ni and Cu, via soil without direct shoot exposure during their second growing period. The seedlings were either irrigated with spring water (pH 6) or got only natural rain during the whole field experiment. All seedlings were inoculated with conidia of a shoot-pathogen Gremmeniella abietina during their third growing season, and harvested the following spring. Lengths of shoots of different year-classes were used as growth estimates. In roots, the proportion of fungal (assumedly mycorrhizal) biomass was estimated by measuring ergosterol concentration. Guajacol peroxidase activity was measured. Short roots were classified into two groups according to their condition and the composition of the mycorrhizal community was expressed as a proportion of morphotypes in the roots. The seedlings exposed to additional Ni had higher shoot growth than the seedlings in the other treatments. The mean Ni concentration in the roots of seedlings exposed to additional Ni was 79 p.p.m. and in other seedlings 16 p.p.m. Additional Ni also decreased the frequency of clearly senescent short roots and the proportion of the mycorrhizal morphotype with the thinnest mantle. These results indicate that the Ni exposure levels used in this experiment had some positive effects on the seedlings. The relative fungal biomass was about 6% lower (p = 0.0981) in the fine roots of seedlings treated with additional Cu. The mean Cu concentration in the roots of seedlings exposed to additional Cu was 256 p.p.m. and in other seedlings 29 p.p.m. Peroxidase activity, which was used as a general stress indicator in this study, was not affected by any of the treatments. The shoot growth and the relative biomass of fungi in the fine roots were positively correlated in all seedlings, and this correlation was stronger in seedlings exposed to additional Ni that were not irrigated compared with seedlings not exposed to additional Ni that were irrigated. The frequency of asymptomatic infections of G. abietina was positively correlated with the proportion of senescent short roots in the irrigated seedlings but not in not-irrigated seedlings. The general condition of seedlings may be an important factor for infection by G. abietina when moisture is high enough for the fungi to infect seedlings by conidia.

  • 263.
    Ahrenby, Hanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Art education.
    Everything is possible!: - what can happen when the content in art education is equal to a visual culture that young people live in and take part of in their everyday life2014In: 34th World Congress of the International Society for Education through Art (InSEA ) :  Diversity through Art, Change, Continuity, Context: Abstracts : Pecha Kucha Presentations, 2014, p. 1-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the content of Art in lower secondary school education. What happens when the content is equal to a visual culture that young people live in and take part of in their everyday life? To be able to make a transition from traditional art education such as learning traditional art technics, to explore and work with contemporary visual culture that concerns young people to day, it is crucial to find out what kind of visual culture is relevant to teenagers to day. When I started working at the University of Gävle in Sweden I had the opportunity to look back at my own practise as an art teacher. In a project with pupils between the ages of 13 to 16 were asked to show in photographs and clarifying text, what they thought possibleto do technically in the art class classroom. The 13-year olds took photographs of objects that represented what they saw as possible to do in that classroom. After the pupils had taken, shown and commented on their photographs a discussion with the pupils about the content, possibilities and limitations that they experienced in that art class room followed. As a second part of the project pupils aged 16 were then invited to discuss the same questions. The forms of visual culture that turned out to be the most important to both groups were digital forms of pictures, such as film, photographs made with their mobile phones, and often published on social forums such as Facebook or Instagram, as well as computer games with there visually designed settings. In conclusion the photographs and the discussions following showed that when the pupils could work with a visual media that they meet in their everyday life it gave meaning to the art subject. Some even expressed that in the art class room “everything was possible”.

  • 264.
    Ahrenby, Hanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Art education.
    Får ungas visuella kultur plats i skolans bildsal?2014In: Visuella arenor och motsägelsefulla platser: Tio texter om transformativt lärande, identitet och kulturell förändring / [ed] Karlsson, Sten O, Göteborg: Daidalos, 2014, 1, p. 193-218Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 265.
    Ahrenby, Hanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Art education and Educational drama.
    Silfver, Birgitta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Art education and Educational drama.
    Aesthetic learning processes2015In: 25th EECERA Annual conference 'Innovation, experimentation and adventure in early childhood': Abstract Book, 2015, p. 271-271Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with our ongoing research is to find out what primary school teacher students (working with 6-8 year old pupils) thought of the meaning of aesthetics in teaching. What are the benefits of an aesthetic learning process? Previous research that we refer to is the dissertation of Tarja Häikö (2007). She investigates how aestethic learning processes are used in school and preschools. Boberg & Högberg (2015) have investigated how aestethic learning processes are used in schools and teacher education. Chemi (2012) has investigated the relationship between art, emotions and learning. Our framework is socio-cultural theory in accordance with Vygotsky (1995). The work of Gardner (2009), Hethland (2013) and Lindström (2010 & 2012) provides us with tools for analysis. The work has an hermeneutic phenomenologic research approach, using narratives (poetry as method). The participants were informed of the study and its aims. The confidentiality of the informants was secured. Consequences for informants were considered. A story can be a powerful way of reporting the results in research. How about using an even more condensed form, like a poem? We assume that the poetic language communicates with the reader in a more sensitive way than other research languages. Can the creation of the haiku in itself be a tool for discovery? We hope that the students will became aware of the usefulness and meaning of aesthetic learning. We also hope for increased use of aesthetic learning processes in schools. 

  • 266.
    Ahrenby, Hanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Art education and Educational drama.
    Silfver, Birgitta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Art education and Educational drama.
    Estetiska lärprocesser: vad ger det studenterna?2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 267.
    Ahrné, Karin
    et al.
    SLU.
    Bengtsson, Bengt Åke
    Björklund, Jan-Olof
    Cederberg, Björn
    Eliasson, Claes
    Hydén, Nils
    Jonasson, Jan
    Lindeborg, Mats
    Lst Kalmar Län.
    Ohlsson, Anders
    Palmqvist, Göran
    Ryrholm, Nils
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology.
    Rödlista över fjärilar Lepidoptera2015In: Rödlistade arter i Sverige 2015 / [ed] Westling, Anna, Uppsala: ArtDatabanken SLU , 2015, p. 98-112Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 268.
    Ahrreman, Jonna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Näsberg, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Inflytande och delaktighet i förskolan: en studie om yngre barns möjligheter och rättigheter2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate young children’s possibility to participation and influence in preschool settings. The specific questions were:  If and how do preschool teachers work with young children's influence and participation? In what way is the preschool teachers approach closely related to young children's opportunity to influence and participate? The results show that preschool teachers do work with young children’s influence and participation by keeping them involved in the preschool settings and considering their interest when planning the activities. The teachers also interpret the children’s ability to express their wishes and needs through nonvocal communication such as gestures and body language. The teacher's approach was shown as closely connected to the children opportunity to influence and participate in consideration to how close the teacher was to the child’s perspective and how they viewed the child. In summary this study concludes that the children’s ability to exert influence and participation will increase by endeavouring to come close to the child’s perspective and balancing the routines of the preschool settings as well as taking the child’s individuality into consideration.

  • 269.
    Aidehag, Marie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences.
    Bygga ett torn: en undersökning av gymnasieelevers upplevelse av ett lärande2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I svensk gymnasieskola genomfördes 2011 en omfattande reform som innehöll stora förändringar. En av dessa förändringar var ett minskat utrymme för estetiska kurser. Många gymnasieelever genomgår numera en hel utbildning utan att ha mött någon estetisk uttrycksform.

     

    I skolans styrdokument återkommer begrepp som kreativitet, förmåga att lösa problem och förmåga att ta initiativ. I ett modernt samhälle uttrycks en efterfrågan på ovanstående kompetenser. Skolans läroplaner beskriver elevers rätt till lärande genom flera olika uttrycksformer. I enlighet med dessa mål pågår en forskningsdiskurs kring ett designteoretiskt perspektiv och multimodala arbetsformer.

     

    Mot bakgrund ur detta har jag genomfört en undersökning där en grupp elever fått besvara frågor kring ett upplevt lärande i samband med ett genomfört bildprojekt. Arbetsuppgiften innehöll ett antal olika moment och arbetssätt. I uppgiften arbetade eleverna med traditionella tekniker för bild och form, men även med digitala verktyg och reflekterande texter kring process och innehåll. Undersökningen behandlar frågor kring vilken kunskap eleverna upplever att arbetet med det specifika projektet ger och vilka förmågor de upplever att de får möjlighet att utveckla och träna genom arbetet?

     

    Undersökningens huvudsyfte var att lyfta fram elevernas personliga upplevelser av ett lärande. Jag försökte dessutom att spegla arbetet ur en designteoretisk och multimodal diskurs, där läraren är en designer av lärandets förutsättningar och ger utrymme för ett lärande genom varierande uttryck och med olika verktyg. Undersökningen är genomförd i form av en enkät med tre frågor. Eleverna beskriver en personlig upplevelse med egna ord. Utsagorna har jag sedan bearbetat, klassificerat och analyserat.

     

    Undersökningen synliggör en varierad upplevelse av ett lärande, där vissa utsagor återkommer hos många informanter och vissa andra återfinns hos några enstaka. Den samlade bilden är mångfacetterad och komplex och visar på en bredd och en mångfald av upplevelser.

    Eleverna lyfter fram en hel del förväntade upplevelser av ett lärande, men även mer oväntade.

    Resultatet är intressant i relation till det teoretiska perspektiv som jag valt att knyta min undersökning till och till den aktuella samhällsdebatten kring kunskap och kompetens. Jag finner även resultatet viktigt och intressant med tanke på utvecklingen för estetiska ämnen i skolan och i synnerhet för ett framtida bildämne

  • 270.
    Aihie Lin, Zhouni
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Yan, Shiying
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Customer Loyalty of Amazon: how to build a long lasting relationship?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The purpose of the study is to do the research that under the e-commerce business model, the impact factors of customer loyalty in an online shopping environment, how to improve the customer loyalty and how to build a long lasting customer relationship.

    Design/Methodology/approach: Through to the questionnaire survey research, design and collect sample data, combine with the Amazon Company’s current operating mode and the theoretical, and also got the second data. In order to make the data become more and more reliable.

    Findings: The studying on improving customer loyalty under the B2C e-commerce model is significant for theory and practice. On the background of Amazon company,which is the biggest e-commerce company in America, according to the relevant literature and field surveys,the paper brings forward the importance of customer loyalty at the e-commerce business. It could come to the conclusion is how to improve the customer loyalty and then how to build the long lasting customer relationship.

    Contribution: The paper according to the characters of the online shopping and combine with the literature about the e-commerce and customer loyalty research, Put forward a certain hypothesis, through questionnaire survey on customers, and statistical analysis of the relationship between customer loyalty and its influence factors make an empirically evaluation. The paper gives contribution to the e-commerce business, how to build the long lasting customer relationship. 

  • 271.
    Ainasoja, Heidi
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Swedish upper secondary school teachers and their attitudes towards AmE, BrE, and Mid-Atlantic English.2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this essay is to investigate what English teachers’ attitudes are towards British English, American English and Mid-Atlantic English. What variety of English do teachers use in Swedish upper secondary schools today and what are their reasons for using that variety? Do upper secondary school teachers think it is important to expose students to several varieties of English and do they teach differences (e.g. vocabulary and spelling) between varieties? The material is based on a questionnaire, which 20 participating teachers from five different upper secondary schools in Gävleborg answered. The study showed that there is an even distribution between the varieties used and taught. British English was preferred by teachers working the longest time while both AmE and MAE seemed to be growing in popularity among the younger teachers. Of the 20 teachers, 18 considered teaching differences to students since it gives them a chance to communicate effectively with people from other English speaking countries.

  • 272.
    Ainasoja, Heidi
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology.
    Pallin, Johan
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology.
    Elevers hälsokunskaper i idrott och hälsa: En enkätstudie om hur elever på tre olika gymnasieprogram värderar sina kunskaper i hälsa2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta examensarbete var att undersöka hur elever vid tre olika gymnasieprogram värderar sina kunskaper i ’hälsa’ utifrån en lokal tolkning av betygskriterier för kursen Idrott och hälsa A. En kvantitativ undersökning gjordes med hjälp av en enkätstudie och det insamlade datamaterialet behandlades sedan statistiskt via PASW (SPSS). Eleverna ansåg sig ha relativt mycket kunskap inom sju utvalda moment i hälsa, dock indikerades skillnader i kunskapsnivån mellan de olika gymnasieprogrammen. Elevernas uppskattade hälsokunskap stämde väl överens med elevernas uppskattade slutbetyg. Studien berörde även i vilken utsträckning elever använder sig av betygskriterierna för kursen och det framkom att hälften av deltagarna aldrig anser sig ha läst dessa. Bakgrundslitteraturen tyder på att lärare är osäkra kring vilka kunskaper som är viktiga i ämnet och att detta avspeglas på eleverna, vilket skulle kunna vara en orsak till elevernas ointresse för betygskriterier.

  • 273.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Eriksson, Urban
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    On the Disciplinary Affordances of Semiotic Resources2014In: IACS-2014 Book of abstracts, 2014, p. 54-55Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the late 70’s Gibson (1979) introduced the concept of affordance. Initially framed around the needs of an organism in its environment, over the years the term has been appropriated and debated at length by a number of researchers in various fields. Most famous, perhaps is the disagreement between Gibson and Norman (1988) about whether affordances are inherent properties of objects or are only present when they are perceived by an organism. More recently, affordance has been drawn on in the educational arena, particularly with respect to multimodality (see Linder (2013) for a recent example). Here, Kress et al. (2001) have claimed that different modes have different specialized affordances. Then, building on this idea, Airey and Linder (2009) suggested that there is a critical constellation of modes that students need to achieve fluency in before they can experience a concept in an appropriate disciplinary manner. Later, Airey (2009) nuanced this claim, shifting the focus from the modes themselves to a critical constellation of semiotic resources, thus acknowledging that different semiotic resources within a mode often have different affordances (e.g. two or more diagrams may form the critical constellation).

    In this theoretical paper the concept of disciplinary affordance (Fredlund et al., 2012) is suggested as a useful analytical tool for use in education. The concept makes a radical break with the views of both Gibson and Norman in that rather than focusing on the discernment of one individual, it refers to the disciplinary community as a whole. Put simply, the disciplinary affordances of a given semiotic resource are determined by those functions that the resource is expected to fulfil by the disciplinary community. Disciplinary affordances have thus been negotiated and developed within the discipline over time. As such, the question of whether these affordances are inherent or discerned becomes moot. Rather, from an educational perspective the issue is whether the meaning that a semiotic resource affords to an individual matches the disciplinary affordance assigned by the community. The power of the term for educational work is that learning can now be framed as coming to discern the disciplinary affordances of semiotic resources.

    In this paper we will briefly discuss the history of the term affordance, define the term disciplinary affordance and illustrate its usefulness in a number of educational settings.

  • 274.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Eriksson, Urban
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    The Concept of Disciplinary Affordance2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since its introduction by Gibson (1979) the concept of affordance has been discussed at length by a number of researchers. Most famous, perhaps is the disagreement between Gibson and Norman (1988) about whether affordances are inherent properties of objects or are only present when perceived by an organism. More recently, affordance has been drawn on in the educational arena, particularly with respect to multimodality (see Linder (2013) for a recent example). Here, Kress et al (2001) claim that different modes have different specialized affordances.

     

    In this theoretical paper the concept of disciplinary affordance (Fredlund et al., 2012) is suggested as a useful analytical educational tool. The concept makes a radical break with the views of both Gibson and Norman in that rather than focusing on the perception of an individual, it focuses on the disciplinary community as a whole. Put simply, the disciplinary affordances of a given semiotic resource are determined by the functions that it is expected to fulfil for the discipline. As such, the question of whether these affordances are inherent or perceived becomes moot. Rather, the issue is what a semiotic resource affords to an individual and whether this matches the disciplinary affordance. The power of the term is that learning can now be framed as coming to perceive the disciplinary affordances of semiotic resources.

     

    In this paper we will discuss the history of the term affordance, define the term disciplinary affordance and illustrate its usefulness in a number of educational settings.

     

    References

    Airey, J. (2009). Science, Language and Literacy. Case Studies of Learning in Swedish University Physics. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis. Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology 81. Uppsala  Retrieved 2009-04-27, from http://publications.uu.se/theses/abstract.xsql?dbid=9547

    Fredlund, T., Airey, J., & Linder, C. (2012). Exploring the role of physics representations: an illustrative example from students sharing knowledge about refraction. European Journal of Physics, 33, 657-666.

    Gibson, J. J. (1979). The theory of affordances The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception (pp. 127-143). Boston: Houghton Miffin.

    Kress, G., Jewitt, C., Ogborn, J., & Tsatsarelis, C. (2001). Multimodal teaching and learning: The rhetorics of the science classroom. London: Continuum.

    Linder, C. (2013). Disciplinary discourse, representation, and appresentation in the teaching and learning of science. European Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 1(2), 43-49.

    Norman, D. A. (1988). The psychology of everyday things. New York: Basic Books.

     

     

  • 275.
    Aittamaa, Christina
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    Inmätning av fastigheten Hållsta 2:3, Hudiksvall2007Student paper second term, 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta projekt har genomförts på mark- och mätningsavdelningen i Hudiksvalls kommun och projektets område är beläget norr om Hudiksvall, ca 6 km från centrala Hudiksvall vid norra infarten till E4:an.

    I området ligger en friskola, en gymnasieskola som heter ”Glada Hudik-skolan”. I skolans lokaler har det tidigare bedrivits hotellverksamhet i många år, f.d. Hammering Hotell. Hösten 2006 öppnade skolan sina portar och de räknar med att öka antalet elever varje läsår. I närheten av skolan finns den kända travbanan, Hagmyren.

    Syftet med arbetet var att göra en inmätning av fastigheten Hållsta 2:3, eftersom det inte fanns några inmätningar där tidigare. Stompunkter mättes in både i plan och höjd, därefter gjordes det detaljmätningar. Koordinatsystemet i plan i Hudiksvall är RTR10 2.5 gon V 0:- 15 och i höjd RH 70. Efter stom- och detaljmätningarna konstruerades en primärkarta i Geosecma som är ett kartprogram.

    I den här rapporten kommer mätmetoder, beräkningar, dokumentation och kartframställning att redovisas.

    Målet med projektet är att kommunen skall få nytta av inmätningarna i framtiden för olika projekteringar och att jag skall få mer erfarenhet av både mätning och kartframställning. Jag får även kunskaper om hur det går till på arbetsplatsen, tankegångar kring ett projekt och lärdomar av att arbeta självständigt.

  • 276.
    Ajax, Olivia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Brunila, Julia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Influencers påverkan på varumärkeslojalitet.: En kvantitativ studie på den svenska marknaden2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 277.
    Akam, Barbara
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Larsson, Svetlana
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Inegrations- och normaliseringsmål för personer med intellektuella funktionsnedsättningar: en studie av personalens upplevelser av daglig omsorgsverksamhet i Polen2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syftet med vår uppsats är att med en komparativ ansats studera hur integrerings- och

    normaliseringsmål uppnås för personer med intellektuella funktionsnedsättningar inom den

    dagliga verksamheten i Polen. Vi vill även se hur personalen upplever att de uppnår dessa

    mål. Huvudmetoden för studien var kvalitativ intervju. I vår analys har vi valt att använda oss

    av KASAM-teorin som kan förklara hur personalen på den dagliga verksamheten upplever att

    integrerings- och normaliseringsmålen uppnås. Vi använder oss av begrepp som

    empowerment, normalisering och integration. Vad som framkommer är att personalen

    upplever att deras integrerings- och normaliseringsmål i verksamheten uppnås, men att det

    finns brister som gör att man inte når ända fram. För att uppnå målen behövs mera resurser

    och en annan syn på människor med intellektuella funktionsnedsättningar.

  • 278.
    Akander, Jan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system. Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linköping University.
    Assessing the Myths on Energy Efficiency When Retrofitting Multifamily Buildings in a Northern Region2017In: Sustainable High Rise Buildings in Urban Zones: Advantages, Challenges, and Global Case Studies / [ed] Ali Sayigh, Cham: Springer Publishing Company, 2017, 1, p. 139-161Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the light of EU’s requirements to achieve a major cut in energy use by 2050, Sweden has the same target. The built environment must by 2020 reduce energy use by 20 and 50 % by 2050. The size of the future building stock will naturally increase and regardless of how energy efficient future buildings will be, the energy performance of the old stock must be improved in order to reach those goals. In major renovation projects involving multifamily buildings in large residential areas in the cities, 50 % reduction can be achieved. This is cost-effective and profitable even if the rent is increased.

    Gävleborg is a sparse region in the North, with few cities. Multifamily buildings are generally much smaller than in large cities and owners are reluctant to impose changes that increase rents due to the housing situation in the region. In consequence, the Regional Council and the University of Gävle set out to assess the potential and feasibility of reducing energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in this region’s multifamily buildings. Eleven real buildings were investigated, each having various ownership forms, different technical attributes and heating sources. Energy audits and measurements were conducted to assess the condition of each building. Performances of the buildings and proposed improvements were simulated with building energy simulation programs, whilst life cycle cost analyses were conducted to study viability. Carbon dioxide emission (CO2) reductions were estimated for each improvement.

    Based on the results, a concluding discussion is made on whether or not some myths on energy use and retrofitting are true. The following is concluded: It is possible to reach a 50 % reduction, but it is not economical with the costs involved and with today’s energy prices and moderate price increase over time.

    Retrofitting or improvements made in the building’s services systems (HVAC) are more economical than actions taken to improve performance of building by constructions. HVAC improvements give about 20 % reduction in energy use. However, mechanical ventilation systems with heat recuperation are not economical, though these may or may not substantially reduce use of thermal energy.

    Solar energy is, despite the latitude of the region, economically viable—especially PV solar energy. Photovoltaic panels (PVs) are becoming viable—the combination of PVs and district heating is beneficial since saving electricity is more important than thermal energy in district-heated areas.

  • 279.
    Akander, Jan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Morberg, Åsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Sustainability of world heritage: who inherits the ownership of decorated farmhouses of Hälsingland?2017In: A Good Life for All: Essays on sustainability celebrating 60 years of making life better / [ed] Fagerström, Arne and Cunningham, Gary M., Mjölby: Atremi AB , 2017, 1, p. 139-161Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter discusses sustainability of Sweden’s most recent World Heritage (WH) site, the Decorated Farmhouses of Hälsingland. A general overview presents what WH is, why it is special and why it should be preserved for future generations. The views of WH farm owners on managing a WH site and how they feel about the task have been assessed. WH must be preserved for future generations and it is necessary for the farms to interact sustainably with their local communities. Most WH farms are privately owned and have been within the same family for centuries. Will this continue in the future or are there problems with succession?

  • 280.
    Akander, Jan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Stojanovic, Bojan
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Hallberg, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Simulated Long-term Thermal Performance of a Building That Utilizes a Heat Pump System and Borehole2008In: Durability of Building Materials & Components 11: Globality and Locality in Durability / [ed] A. Nil Türkeri, Özkan Sengül, Istanbul, Turkey: Istanbul Technical University, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decades, installation and use of heat pumps has grown rapidly in Sweden, to the extent that these mainly or partly heat roughly 25 % of the heated floor space in single-family houses. A majority are ground coupled where the heat exchanger is a borehole of 60-220 m depth. As the heat pump system operates, heat extraction will in time reduce borehole temperatures, rendering lowered efficiency of the heat pump system thus directly affecting its economical and environmental aspects. Within the building sector, durability and life performance dynamics of energy systems is often not reflected upon. System performance and efficiency is assumed to be static over time, changing only due to different operation scenarios. This paper serves to quantify the long-term thermal performance degradation of a component, in this case the borehole, and how the degradation of this component affects performance-over-time of an entire system, in this case the heating system of the building. A dynamic thermal simulation model is used to assess the long-term thermal performance of the borehole. The building, which the heat pump serves, is assumed to be a typical Swedish house with normal energy consumption. Simulation results show that the depth of the borehole is of great importance to limit over-time temperature drops. The efficiency of the heat pump system is directly dependent of temperatures in the borehole. How the overall system performance is affected by component performance degradation, is highlighted.

  • 281.
    Akander, Sara
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Eriksson, Ellinor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Hur personer som lever med HIV/AIDS upplever bemötandet inom vården: - En litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: HIV is a viral disease that is caused by a retro virus which damage the immune system. AIDS is the final stage of the disease and there are two types of HIV; type 1 and type 2. The carer and the patient are dependent on each other to make the medical care optimal. The meeting is an important part of patients’ experience of medical care, especially for people living with a contagious disease. Earlier research showed that healthcare professionals could have a potentially critical view on people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA). Knowledge about how PLHA experience the meeting when in contact with the healthcare sector today is missing, therefore the authors of this study wanted to examine this topic further. Aim: The aim was to describe how PLHA experience the meeting within the healthcare sector when seeking help because of the disease, and also to describe the sample used in the articles that were used in this study. Method: Descriptive literature review, nine articles both qualitative and quantitative where used. Key findings: : According to PLHA was a positive encounter important to the career-patient-relationship. Trough more information and increased knowledge about the disease in nurses and other healthcare personnel did PLHA describe that the encounter became more positive and the HIV-related stigma could be reduced. An individual education for PLHA were also an important factor to reduce the self-experienced stigma that often were based upon shame. That internal shame and the feeling that needing to hide something could lead to depression and negative feelings. A negative encounter could for example be lack of dedications and an un-welcoming attitude and furthermore reluctance in the healthcare personnel to treat and support PLHA both physically and psychological Conclusions: PLHA doesn't experience as much stigma or discrimination today as before, but there are still a certain degree of preconceptions. Further education of both healthcare personnel that doesn't encounter these kind of patients on a regular basis and information to the society could help reduce the preconceptions and the stigma that still exist around this disease.

  • 282.
    Akbar, Yusra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences. 0704965014.
    Är du glad på din arbetsplats?: En kvalitativ undersökning om faktorer av betydelse för trivseln på arbetsplatser2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att vara glad på arbetsplatsen är ett mål som vi anställda strävar efter inom arbetsmarknaden. Att trivas på arbetet kan bero på olika faktorer som kan hänga ihop med en god arbetsmiljö för de anställda. Anställda som trivs med sitt jobb visar bättre resultat och har en ökad prestation. Arbetsgivarna bör tänka strategiskt på detta område och investera både tid och resurser för positiv påverkan på verksamheten. Att mäta trivselgraden regelbundet i ett företag är nödvändigt i högsta grad för att ta reda på vad som fungerar bra och vilka områden som behöver förbättras.

    Uppsatsen bygger på en kvalitativ metod i form av halvstrukturerade intervjuer. Detta innebär intervjuer av ett antal anställda på företaget Bauhaus. Valet av företag bygger på bekvämlighetsprincipen. Intervjuerna riktade in sig på upplevd trivsel på arbetet samt vad som ökar trivseln.

    Uppsatsen utgår från en studie av Angelöw (2015) som visar att Sverige ligger på 9:e plats på världskartan när det gäller trivsel i arbetet, efter bland annat Mexiko, Indien och Norge. Resultaten av denna studie visar exempel på faktorer som kan ligga bakom trivseln i arbetet. Undersökningen kan därför vara en grund till att öka förståelse och insyn i vad som kan vara en trivsam arbetsplats och vad som kan påverka arbetsmiljötrivsel.

  • 283.
    Akello, Juliana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Trendigt: En undersökning av värdeord i reklam för skönhetsprodukter2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med undersökningen är att granska modern reklam och dess spegling av genus i vårt samhälle. Språk är ett verktyg som påverkar alla individer och i reklam kan språket ofta användas manipulativt. Att analysera hur skönhetsreklam handskas med konsumentens föreställning av manlighet och kvinnlighet gör en iakttagelse av vad språket i en viss typ av reklamannonser innebär. Syftet utformades efter en målgrupp, millenials, och de normbrytande tankar kring kön och samhälle som figurerar bland dem som konsumenter. Med strukturell analys för brukstexter undersöktes de värdeord, attityder, ramar och språkhandlingar som förekommer i skönhetsreklam. Resultatavsnittet knyter teori och forskning till de värdeord och stereotyper annonserna använder sig av och belyser olika strategier reklamen brukar för att påverka konsumentens attityd till kön och konsumtion. Genom att studera ordvalen och innehållet i annonserna kunde frågeställningar besvaras,  exempelvis de om värdeord som finns i annonserna och vilka stereotyper de framställer. I diskussionsavsnittet förs resonemang kring kundens positiva och negativa inställning till erbjudanden i skönhetsreklam och de ordval som gjorts i annonserna. Slutsatsen är att den manlighet och kvinnlighet som visas i den här kontexten är omodern och har i viss mån konstruerats för att vara normbrytande men bara för att öka attraktionsvärdet hos den produkt som marknadsförs. 

  • 284.
    Akin-Tepede, Oladipupo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Impediments to Adopting Sustainable Transportation in Developing Countries – TheCase of Tricycles in Nigeria: MBA-thesis in marketing2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the impediments to adopting sustainabletransportation in developing countries using tricycles in Nigeria as a case study.Two Executives of Chongqing Beyond Company in China, Marketing Managerof Kayemel Tricycle in India, Brand Manager of keke POeT, the chairman ofTricycle Association, Idewu Routes, the chairman of Tricycle Association,Liverpool Routes and a member of Transport Committee, Obafemi AwolowoUniversity (OAU) were interviewed. Data was also gathered throughquestionnaires for a total of fifteen drivers of different tricycle types on differentroute and a total of twenty passengers picked at random from Idewu Route,Liverpool Route and OAU campus.It was discovered under the lenses of relevant Green Marketing literature thatthe data supports some theoretical findings in their respective fields but alsocounters some other theoretic findings. It came to the conclusion that concept ofdominant demand, commercial stakeholders’ cooperation and effective qualityprogram advocated by some of the green marketing literature are very effectivemarketing tactics in the success of green tricycles adoption in Nigeria.

  • 285.
    Aktan, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences.
    Dynamic hair effects2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Creating three dimensional hair is still one of the hardest elements when creating characters. Problems occur because of the constant changes in the software every few years. A major goal is to create as realistic hair as possible in Autodesk Maya and to supply this detailed information on to other 3D artist. Techniques are researched and reviewed on how different hair systems are created, as well as how dynamic effects react on the moving hair.

  • 286.
    Akter, Ruzlin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Rathnayaka, Shashiprabha
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    The Impact of Organizational Culture and Leadership on Organizational Innovation2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Title: The Impact of Organizational Culture and Leadership on Organizational Innovation

    Level: Final assignment for Master Degree in Business Administration

    Authors: Ruzlin Akter and Shashiprabha Rathnayaka

    Supervisor: Zahra Ahmadi, PhD

    Examiner: Maria Fregidou-Malama, PhD

    Date: 2019 – January

    Aim: The aim of the study is to explore the impact of organizational culture and leadership in the development of organizational innovation.

    Method: The study is based on twelve qualitative interviews from six different organizations. The organizations have been selected randomly but with consideration of innovativeness. Two of the organizations have been selected from Sri Lanka and four organizations from Sweden. This study has been conducted by following an inductive qualitative research method using structured and semi-structured interview. Inductive approach has been followed to analyze the data.

    Result & Conclusion: Organization culture and leadership together have an influence for developing innovation. The findings of the study suggest that process and job oriented culture, and transactional leadership has both positive and negative impact in developing innovation. Our findings suggest that result oriented culture, employee oriented culture, pragmatic culture, open system and transformational leadership are more effective than process oriented, job oriented, normative culture and transactional leadership for developing innovation.

    Suggestion for Future Research: Though this study has used six organizations, the numbers of participants is low for each organization. This study has not focused on any specific industry and national culture. Therefore the suggestion for further study is to use more participants and to be industry specific. Researcher can also go in depth to identify which factors are particularly the reasons for the failure and success of innovativeness to this particular industry through comparing the national culture.

    Contribution: This study has made a theoretical contribution by connecting organizational culture and leadership with innovation and provides a new reflection regarding the impact of ii process oriented culture and job oriented culture. This study contributes to the implication to managers where managers can serve best for the culture while knowing about the influential result of the culture and leadership on innovation. With the help of this study, organizations will be able to identify the factors that may help them to be innovative and competitive in market. Ultimately the organization will be able contribute to the national economy of its country.

    Key words: Organizational Innovation, Leadership, Organizational Culture.

  • 287.
    Al Abdalla, Yazan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Sju & de abrahamitiska religionerna: Ett heligt tal?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

     

    Purpose: The study focuses on the number seven in Judaism, Christianity and Islam. The purpose of this essay was to find out where in the Holy Scriptures and traditions the number seven can be found and also to understand what purpose the number have in these religions.

     

    Method: In order to answer the purpose of the work, various literature studies were used with previous research on the subject. The studies used gave a deeper understanding of the historical background of the number seven. In addition to literature studies, the religious scriptures, the Bible and the Qur'an were used.

     

    Theory: The theory used in the work is intertextuality. Intertextuality is based on the fact that most texts are based on other texts. Given that the religious scriptures were studied in the paper, this theory was very helpful.

     

    Result: The survey of the religious texts revealed that the number seven addresses the moderation of the creation myth which made the characters in the biblical story use the number seven as a symbol of moderation.

     

    The analysis part led to the second result which is based on intertextuality. This theory tells us that religious scriptures are part of an intertextual chain, for example, the Quran incorporates certain elements from previous writings. The same applies to, for example, the Bible. The result of this is that the religious texts are based on each other which means that the number seven may have been mentioned in early texts as a sacred element and texts that came later on incorporated that theory.

  • 288.
    Al Amin, A.
    et al.
    Department of EEE, Uttara University, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Islam, M.
    Department of EEE, Uttara University, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Masud, M. A.
    Department of EEE, Uttara University, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Khan, N. H.
    Department of EEE, Uttara University, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Zavala, J. W. A.
    Characterization Engineer, Radio Semiconductor Corporation, Netherlands.
    Minhaz-Ul-Islam, Mohammed
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Design and performance analysis of 3.4 ghz rectangular microstrip patch antenna for wireless communication systems2017In: International Journal on Communications Antenna and Propagation, ISSN 2039-5086, E-ISSN 2039-5094, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 80-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless communication provides low-cost, high-speed and flexible communication in present days. Hence antenna plays a vital role in the wireless communication sector. The main concern of this paper is therefore to design a 3.4 GHz rectangular Microstrip patch antenna. Moreover, the feed probe based rectangular patch antenna will be designed. The performance of the designed rectangular patch antenna will be evaluated by analysing the major parameters of the simulation results. Hence the radiation pattern, gain, impedance matching and reflection coefficient or return loss calculation will be executed by the HFSS software to evaluate the performance of the antenna. 

  • 289.
    Al hamdany, Yarub
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Simulering och energieffektivisering för en kontorsbyggnad iForsmark2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The society changes rapidly and is heavily dependent on energy. The Energy usage in buildings account for about 40% of total Sweden's energy usage, where energy is used by buildings for electricity, cooling and heating. Therefore, energy is an important issue in today's society from an energy use approach to stop the global warming. In this work, a survey was carried out by an office building in Forsmark Kraftgrupp AB to find out about energy use and create a basis for energy-saving measures. The IDA ICE 4.7.1 program was used to simulate the building's energy use by creating a base model of the building. After that, the base model has been compared with different energy efficiency measures to check where the biggest and least energy saving potentials occur. The result shows that the total energy use in the office building is 198 125 kWh / year. The simulations show that energy efficiency measures could reduce energy use in the building by 81 962 kWh / year, which corresponds to 41.4% of the total energy use. Time control of ventilation systems gives the largest energy savings of 51, 2 kWh / m2, year.

  • 290.
    AL Hareere, Rafeh Ibraheem Taleb
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Bekic, Kenan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    The relationship between leadership and organizational culture: Handelsbanken in Sweden2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Title: The Relationship between Leadership and Organizational Culture

    Level: Master Degree in Business Administration 

    Authors: Al Hareere, Rafeh and Bekic, Kenan

    Supervisor: Maria Fregidou- Malama 

    Examiner: Ehsanul Huda Chowdhury

    Date: 2018-10-10

    Aim: The aim of the study is to explore the relationship between leadership and organizational culture in a financial organization. The study has been conducted in Handelsbanken, Sweden.

    Method: The study is based on ten qualitative interviews with managers and employees in Handelsbanken, Mid-Sweden offices. We used inductive approach by comparing findings with existing theory.

    Result & Conclusions: Leadership depends mostly on corporate values and individuals´ personalities within SHB.  We noticed predominantly notion of transformational leadership, consisting of democratic, empowering and participative leadership. SHB´s corporate culture is strong and cohesive, resembling mostly guided missile type of culture. We argue that leadership and corporate culture affect each other, in case of Swedish Handelsbanken through employee motivation and empowerment and internal recruitment and development of future managers.

    Suggestions for future research: We suggest a study where the possible existence of transactional and laissez faire leadership could be proven within a financial organization as well as studies on other types of corporate culture and conducting similar studies within financial organizations to make comparisons between the organizations.

    Contribution of the thesis: This study contributes to theoretical knowledge development about leadership and corporate culture and the interconnection between them within a financial organization, as presented in case of Handelsbanken, Mid-Sweden offices.

    Key words: Leadership, corporate culture, transformational leadership; democratic, empowering, participative leadership; guided missile corporate culture, financial organization

  • 291.
    Al Tanany, Ahmed
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    A Study of Switched Mode Power Amplifiers using LDMOS2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This work focuses on different kinds of Switch Mode Power Amplifiers (SMPAs) using LDMOS technologies. It involves a literature study of different SMPA concepts. Choosing the suitable class that achieves the high efficiency was the base stone of this

    work. A push-pull class J power amplifier (PA) was designed with an integrated LC resonator inside the package using the bondwires and die capacitances. Analysis and motivation of the chosen class is included. Designing the suitable Input/Output printed circuit board (PCB) external circuits (i.e.; BALUN circuit, Matching network and DC

    bias network) was part of the work. This work is done by ADS simulation and showed a simulated result of about 70% drain efficiency for 34 W output power and 16 dB gain at 2.14 GHz. Study of the losses in each part of the design elements is also included.

    Another design at lower frequency (i.e.; at 0.94 GHz) was also simulated and compared to the previous design. The drain efficiency was 83% for 32 W output power and 15.4 dB Gain.

  • 292.
    Alade, Kudirat Toyin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Managing Conflicts in Relationships and Networks: A case study of IT-Firms in Nigeria and Uganda2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    Title: Managing Conflicts in Relationships and Networks. A case study of IT-firms in Nigeria and Uganda.

    Level: Master thesis in Business administration.

    Author: Kudirat Toyin Alade.

    Supervisor: Dr. Sarah Philipson.

    Examiner: Dr. Maria Fregidou-Malama.

    Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate on how the information technology (IT) firms in Nigeria and Uganda manage conflicts, to understand how conflicts among employees can be minimized with the help of managerial training, and to also understand how improved performance of their employees can influence the network performance.

    Method: This study uses a qualitative method, the data was collected through interviews with top employees from AfriLabs (Nigeria), Hive Colab (Uganda), and Wennovation Hub (Nigeria). The interviews were conducted through Skype, respondents were selected using purposive sampling technique. The analysis was done with the help of a grounded theory.

    Result & Conclusions: The findings from this study are that Managerial training can help minimize conflicts among employees, if the training is been administered properly. Conflicts among organizations in business relationships and networks are properly managed through negotiations, and by signing a valid contract with their members with whom they have formed relationships and networks. The study also reveals that, when employees put in too much effort in accomplishing a task, or too few or too many employees are chosen for task, this will affect the network performance.

    Suggestions for future research: Future studies should delve more on managerial training to minimize issues of conflicts, as there are few established theories on this. It may be interesting to use different countries in Africa, to test the results of this study.

    Contribution: This study provides business managers with strategies to minimize issues of conflicts among employees. It also provides ways in which they can manage conflicts in organizational relationships and networks.

     

    Keywords: Business Relationships, Business Networks, Conflicts, Managerial training,  Performance.

  • 293.
    Alam, Faysal
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Butt, Mansoor Ul Hasan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Motives and Challenges of Offshoring2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

     

    Aim: The aim of this study is to explore offshoring in terms of different motives, challenges, advantages and disadvantages a company face.

     

    Method: Qualitative research method is adopted to conduct the study. The data was collected from interview questions from 11 personnel of M&F Associates with relative offshoring experience. Theories from peer-reviewed journal articles and relevant books were consulted throughout the study.

     

    Results and Conclusion: The findings suggest that major motives and advantages of offshoring strategy are cost efficiency. Contingency plan and development of consultants and services in home country also emerged as a major motive for companies to choose offshoring strategy. Further, the findings suggest challenges faced by the organization while implementing offshoring strategy like ‘language barrier’, ‘cultural differences’, ‘competency’ and setting deadlines.

    There are different challenges identified which are faced by an organization on continuous bases while implementing the offshoring strategy like ‘language barrier’, ‘cultural differences’, ‘competency’ and setting deadlines. Further, the finding suggests better margin is key for an organization and considered as a major advantage. As far as disadvantages go, the findings from the study reveal weak control and knowledge could be regarded as a disadvantage.

     

    This study also concludes that one of the evolving motives for organizations to adopt offshoring to make capacity for customer relations as well as organization face difficulty to communicate their offshoring strategy with its customers.

     

    Limitations: The study is based on the perspective of only one organization and with a limited number of interviews. Results of this study cannot be generalised.

     

    Suggestions for further research: Our recommendation for future study is to consider customer’s perspective on the issue. Both managerial perspective, as well as the customer's perspective should be taken into  consideration for better result. Another suggestion, is to look into the relationship between offshoring and customer relation. Since, lack of studies been found in this area, further research can be explored for the benefit of organizations. A quantitative study with a wider selection of samples gathered from different parts of the world with specific industries could enrich the study even more.

     

    The contribution of the study: This study contributes to the general knowledge and understanding of why companies use offshoring strategy to expand business while discussing its motives, challenges, advantages, and disadvantages.

    Keywords:  Offshoring, outsourcing, Uppsala model, customer relations.

  • 294.
    Alam, Md Mahbub
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    The impact of national culture on the organizational culture: Multinational companies doing businesses in developing countries2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Title: The impact of national culture on the organizational culture: Multinational companies doing businesses in developing countries

    Level: Final assignment for Master Degree in Business Administration (MBA)

    Author: Md. Mahbub Alam

    Supervisor: Dr. Ehsanul Huda Chowdhury

    Examiner: Dr. Maria Fregidou-Malama

    Day: 2017- May

    Aim: The aim of the study is to understand how national culture of Bangladesh is affecting the organizational culture of the multinational firms operating in Bangladesh. To understand the issue, Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions are regarded as benchmark for analysis.

    Method: Qualitative study has been conducted whereby both primary and secondary data are used. Hereby, primary data have been gathered from ten employees of Grameen Phone a multinational working in Bangladesh. To collect data, face to face interviews has been conducted using Skype.

    Results & Conclusions:  Finding of the study is the MNCs integration with national culture with the view to sustainable business operation. It has been demonstrated that national culture affects the organizational culture in the form of employee participation, collective working environment, collaborative work efforts, and knowledge sharing through continuous communication.

    Suggestions for future research: Further investigations on national culture’s impact on organizational culture can be undertaken by making a comparison between MNC and a purely local firm. Additionally, an analysis on a large number of MNCs operating in host country can add value for further researches.

    Contribution of the thesis: To the theoretical model, this study makes contribution on the ground of understanding how MNC adapt their business with local culture where cultural sensitiveness is high.

    Managerial implications: MNCs can ensure collaboration, support, and teamwork among employees as part of their attempt to integrate with local culture. This study reveals that local employees can be used as means of cultural carriers by managers which can promptly address the cultural differences to be mitigated.

    Keywords: Multi-national Corporations (MNCs), National Culture, Organizational Culture, Uncertainty Avoidance, Individualism vs. Collectivism, Power Distance

     

  • 295.
    Alarik, Therese
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Olofsson, Marie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Manliga sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av yrket: en beskrivande litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Bakgrund Historiskt sett har sjuksköterskeyrket ansetts ha låg status och varit dominerat av kvinnor. Yrkesrollen har associerats till det kvinnliga och att vara omhändertagande, varm och moderlig. Denna stereotyp finns kvar ännu idag. I Sverige antog inte sjuksköterskeutbildningen män förrän under 1950-talet, och viss forskning har visat att patienter och kvinnliga kollegor varit skeptiska till män i yrkesrollen.

    Syfte Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att beskriva manliga sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av att vara man i yrket.

    Metod En beskrivande litteraturstudie. Databaserna Medline via Pubmed och Cinahl användes för att finna 13 artiklar, dessa analyserades genom en innehållsanalys. 

    Huvudresultat Studien presenterar manliga sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av yrket i fem kategorier: Upplevelsen av marginalisering och exkludering, Förväntningar på män i yrket, Manliga sjuksköterskors syn på yrket, I mötet med patienten samt Fördomar om manliga sjuksköterskors sexuella läggning.

    Slutsats Manliga sjuksköterskor har upplevt motstånd i sitt yrke och begränsats av fördomar om att män inte platsar i yrkesrollen. De upplevde sig exkluderade och marginaliserade kopplat till mansrollen, samt att de förväntades utföra tungt och tekniskt arbete. Trots sin minoritetsställning upplevde de ändå patriarkaliska fördelar. I samhället finns en uppfattning om att manliga sjuksköterskor är homosexuella. Resultatet vittnar om att könsroller och genusstrukturer påverkar arbetet, vilket kan relateras till Raewyn Connells maskulinitetsteori.

  • 296.
    Al-Asad, Zahir
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Implementation of NURBS Objects in a Ray TracingCode for RCS Simulation2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 297.
    Al-Asadi, Hind
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences.
    Hur elever med matematiksvårigheter kan få stöd genom alternativa undervisningsmetoder: En studie gjorde med hjälp av dataprogrammet GeoGebra i ett sociokulturellt sammanhang2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 298.
    Al-Asadi, Hind
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies.
    Speciallärares undervisning för elever i matematiksvårigheter på högstadiet2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 299.
    Al-asadi, Ronza Halla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Hanna, Jessika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Effektiva samverkansprocesser?: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om socialarbetarens upplevelser av samverkan i arbetet med ensamkommande flyktingbarn2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom denna studie har vi intervjuat socialarbetare kring deras upplevelser av samverkan mellan myndigheter och involverade personer i arbetet med ensamkommande flyktingbarn. Studien genomfördes genom semistrukturerade kvalitativa intervjuer, där verksamma socialarbetare inom barn- och ungdomsenheten med specialisering på ensamkommande flyktingbarn intervjuades kring deras upplevelse av samverkansprocesser. Utifrån teoretiska perspektiv som KASAM och human relationsskolan har vi analyserat studiens datamaterial. Redovisning av tidigare forskning, studiens metodologiska utgångspunkter och tillvägagångssätt ges ingående. Resultatet av studien redovisas och analyseras. Slutligen förs en kritisk diskussion där även möjliga tolkningar av resultat diskuteras. Av studiens resultat har vi identifierat socialarbetares upplevelser av hinder för en effektiv samverkan vilket utgörs av fyra faktorer. Studiens resultat visade att samverkan möjliggör för socialarbetaren att skapa ett starkt nätverk för barnet samt ändra barnets negativa syn av myndigheter och vuxna. Samverkan möjliggör även ökad effektivitet och kvalitet i socialarbetarens handläggning där även behovsbedömningen underlättas.

  • 300.
    Alayón Glazunov, Andrés
    et al.
    Division of Electromagnetic Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Prasad, Sathyaveer
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. Signal Processing Lab, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Händel, Peter
    ACCESS Linnaeus Centre; Signal Processing Lab, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Experimental Characterization of the Propagation Channel along aVery Large Virtual Array in a Reverberation Chamber2014In: Progress in Electromagnetics Research B, ISSN 1937-6472, E-ISSN 1937-6472, Vol. 59, p. 205-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We show that the combined use of radio frequency absorbers and directive antennas can produce significant changes of the radio propagation channel properties along the positions of a virtual array inside a reverberation chamber. A multidimensional characterization of the channel was performed at 40 antenna positions with spacing of 0:233λ at 1 GHz. The average power, the Ricean K-factor, the coherence bandwidth, the r.m.s. delay spread, the mean delay, the beamforming power angle spectrum and array antenna correlation have been studied for different arrangements in the reverberation chamber. The analysis shows that the joint average over time and frequency channel behavior is, as expected, rather homogeneous along the very large array. However, individual realizations of the channel present a pronounced selective behavior in space, time and frequency with parameters varying along the positions of the virtual array suggesting that a heterogeneous behavior of the radio channels can be emulated in reverberation chambers. An important application of the presented study comprises testing of antenna array designs and algorithms in multipath environments. Further development may lead to Over The Air testing of Multiple Input Multiple Output antenna systems of various sizes, i.e., from small to very large arrays.

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