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  • 251.
    Fransson, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Teacher registration, the state and the teacher: Analyses of changing roles, relations, identities and positions2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Registration for teachers is to be introduced in Sweden July 1 2012 (SOU 2008:52). The reform includes: that newly qualified teachers must do a "probationary year” and be supported by a mentor. During this year the school leader are responsible for assessing whether the teacher is to be recommended being registered or not. The assessment is performed in relation to national standards developed by the Swedish National Agency for Education. The Teachers' Responsibility Board will be a new institution having the right to withdraw a teacher’s registration or to issue warnings. This reform changes a number of relational positions between teachers and a number of actors.  For instance, the relationship between the new teachers and the mentors is changing as the mentor can become involved in the formal assessment of the new teacher, a role mentors traditionally not has had neither in Sweden nor in other Nordic countries (Fransson, 2010; Fransson & Gustafsson, 2008). The relationship between teachers and parents are also change when parents are given the opportunity to formally report and question the teacher's registration, which can render the suspension of the registration or a warning. This could put teachers under pressure both to work harder and more in accordance with parents’ expectations, but also to protect him/herself, eg. a more extensive focus on documenting the educational activities to have the back free and also to adopt a more risk-free behavior (cf. Lindqvist & Nordänger, 2007). This way the reform can be a "tool” to discipline teachers and making them act within regimes of accountability and governmentality (cf. Devos, 2010). Such strategies appear in interviews with teachers who have been working for two years and were told to reflect over the hypothetical situation if it had existed a system with teacher registration, probation year and assessment when during their first year (Aspfors, Fransson & Heikkinen, forthcoming).

    The reform also implies that that ‘new teachers’ not any more will be regarded as fully qualified (albeit not yet very experienced) until they have reached the required standard and fulfilled the requirements of the probationary year. Thus, they are to be recognized as someone in-between a student teacher and a fully competent and qualified teacher and colleague, making “new teachers” being conceptualized and re-constructed in quite a different, changing identities, roles, relations and positions. In this paper this is discussed in relation to neo-liberal regimes of governance, accountability and governmentality.  

    Key words: Dilemmatic space, mentor, newly qualified teachers, positioning , teacher registration.

     Referenser:

    Aspfors, J., Fransson, G. & Heikkinen, H.L.T. (fortcoming). Mentoring as dialogue, collaboration and/or assessment?. In P. Tynjälä, M.-L. Stenström (eds.) “Nothing is Permanent but Change”. Transitions and Transformations in Learning and Education. Elsevier.

    Devos, A. (2010). New teachers, mentoring and the discursive formation of professional identity. Teaching and Teacher Education Vol. 26. 1219-223.

    Fransson, G. (2010). Mentors in dual roles, both to support and to assess? Analyses of opinions expressed in responses to a Swedish proposal on probationary year for new teachers. European Journal Teacher Education. 33(4), 371–386.

    Fransson, G. (2009). Knowledge input in responses to a government inquiry concerning probationary year for new teachers; the role of mentors and headmasters. Paper presented at European Conference of Educational Research (ECER) in Vienna, Austria, 28-30 september 2009. Presented 28 september.

    Fransson, G. & Gustafsson, C. (Eds.) 2008: Newly Qualified Teachers in Northern Europe. Comparative Perspectives on Promoting Professional Development. Teacher Education: Research Publications no 4. Gävle: Gävle University Press.

    Lindqvist, P. & Nordänger, U.K. (2007). Better safe than sorry? Risk and educational research. Educational Studies, Vol. 33, No. 1, March 2007, pp. 15–27.

    SOU. 2008:52. Legitimation och skärpta behörighetsregler [Swedish Government Official. Report 2008:52. Registration and stricter qualifying rules]. Ministry of Education and Research.

     

  • 252.
    Fransson, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Utveckling istället för ihopslagning/Det politiska sammanhanget2012In: Gävle Dagblad, no 13 septArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 253.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Aspfors, Jessica
    Universitetet i Nordland.
    Research on mentor education: an overview and meta-synthesis2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mentors are a common way worldwide to support newly qualified teachers (NQTs), but mentor education seems to have been scantily dealt with in research (Waterman & He, 2011). In order to receive an overview of the research field, the aim of this paper is to report a meta-synthesis (Sandelowski & Barroso, 2007) on research focusing mentor education for newly qualified teachers (NQTs). Systematic reviews were conducted focusing on “mentor“ education” OR “mentor“ training”; in: (a) databases concerning peer-reviewed articles (b) on-line programs for the 2011-2013 annual conferences of AERA, EERA and AARE; and (c) four peer-reviewed journals.

    The review showed that most research – giving recommendations for mentor education and the knowledge and skills mentors need – actually are focusing varying aspects of mentoring, not the mentor education. Thus, a very small number of research focus on the actual mentor education for NQTs; only six articles met the criteria for full inclusion in this meta-synthesis. Mentor education could be identified as formal courses; as action research projects or as more individualized initiatives for reflection and professional development via coaching of the mentor. Four of the six studies follow the teaching/learning process during the mentoring education and in all studies multiple methods are used.

  • 254.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Highly Committed Teachers: What Makes Them Tick?: A Study of Sustained Commitment from a Longitudinal Perspective2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on teacher commitment, and in particular teachers who display high levels of commitment throughout their long teaching careers (over 15 years). Graduates from one Teacher Education programme were interviewed on nine occasions via email about their working lives, which spanned from their graduation in 1993 to 2012. Out of the 69 who answered on all nine occasions, seven teachers stating high levels of commitment during all their years in the profession were selected. Factors contributing to their commitment were categorized into the types described by Day et al (2005): personal context, school context, system context and professional factors. For every new generation of teachers, understanding their commitment to increase teacher retention and efficiency is of great value.

  • 255.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Professional (Non-)Commitment?: Dilemmas in Teachers’ Task Perception in Relation to Documentation2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For over 30 years neo-liberal currents have had a far-reaching influence on the restructuring of educational systems. The managerial consequences of this have often taken the shape of New Public Management (Grimmet, Flemming & Trotter, 2009). Some of these consequences are marketisation, increased managerialism, an increased focus on effectiveness and international comparisons. These in turn lead to demands for grades at an earlier age and extensive student testing. In all, these developments have led to the documentation of students’ results becoming a larger part of teachers’ work. The aforementioned changes are often described as things that challenge and change teachers’ professional roles and positions, as well as their autonomy and commitment (Day et al., 2005). New kinds of dilemmas for teachers emerge when regimes of accountability are enforced.

    Altogether, these trends constitute changes in teachers’ working conditions, professional roles, tasks, obligations and commitment. However, the ways in which teachers deal with these changes depend on how they make sense of them, and, especially, how they make sense of their tasks as teachers (Kelchtermans, 1993).

    In this paper we focus on the different ways in which teachers make sense of the increased amount of documentation and how this affects their commitment as teachers. By documentation we mean e.g. developing and documenting evaluation and grading criteria, documenting pupils’ progress and knowledge growth in various ways.  The theoretical framework of this study draws on the concepts of task perception and teacher commitment. Task perception is “the normative component of teachers’ self-understanding” (Kelchtermans, 2009, p. 262); i.e. how a teacher understands what the tasks and duties are and what he/she must do in order to do a good and “right” job (cf. Dall’Alba & Sandberg, 2006; Kelchtermans, 1993; 2009). It is important to acknowledge that sense-making processes could result in different task perceptions. Sandberg and Targama (2007) stress that “the same task can be understood in different ways and the more complex the task, the greater the number of possible ways of understanding it” (p. 11). For instance, the task of documentation can be understood differently when related to specific contexts, which means that the perception of the task emerges differently.

    Commitment involves an investment of time, energy, emotions, beliefs and attitudes and is a nested phenomenon that is not only located within the individual, but also in “the personal values, professional interests and micro-political, emotional, social and political context of their work” (Day et al, 2007, p. 215). In research on teacher commitment, four types of factors that either sustain or diminish commitment have been found (Day et al., 2005). Personal factors and school context were found to be the most significant for sustaining levels of commitment to teaching, while factors related to system context tended to diminish the commitment. Professional factors, such as opportunities for professional development or the introduction of teaching innovations (e.g. ICT), also affect teachers’ commitment.

  • 256.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    “You’re never finished”: Teachers on commitment, professional struggle and positioning during 15 years of change2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents some preliminary results from a study inquiring into factors that contribute to teacher retention and commitment. The data presented are part of a larger project financed by the Swedish National Science Council: "Crossroads - a longitudinal study of choices and values in teachers’ work trajectories". It builds from a unique material: 87 graduates from one Teacher Education program in Sweden were interviewed by mail at eight occasions regarding their work and lives, spanning from their graduation in 1993 through their careers until 2008. The purpose of the project is to describe, understand and explain the specific circumstances, attitudes and strategies that make teachers stay, leave or return to the teaching profession. The aim of this paper is to tentatively map key characteristics of teacher experiences during 15 years.

  • 257.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Exploring a conceptual framework for research on Induction and Mentoring: Combining Policy enactment, task perception, and agency2014In: AERA conference, digital database, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the research questions that are emerging from the current reforms with consequences for Induction and Mentoring in various countries. The implementation focus is on the interplay between the new triad formed as a consequence of a Teacher Registration Reform in Sweden: head teacher/mentor/mentee as situated in a larger context of policy development and development in/of practice. The objective of this paper is twofold; (a) to elaborate and discuss a conceptual framework based on an interplay between the theoretical contributions of policy enactment (Ball, Maguire & Braun, 2012), task perception (Kelchtermans, 2009) and agency (Priestley and Biesta); (b) to discuss its possibilities for research within the field of induction and mentoring, and (c) provide an example of how it could be implemented in a study on induction and mentoring.

  • 258.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Dilemmatic Spaces in Educational Contexts: Towards a conceptual framework for dilemmas in teachers work2013In: Teachers and Teaching: theory and practice, ISSN 1354-0602, E-ISSN 1470-1278, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 4-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the concept of introducing and analytically using the concept of dilemmatic space in an educational context offers a potential to elucidate and deepen the understanding of the complexity of teachers’ everyday practise in work. Traditional ways of looking upon dilemmas is that they are related to specific situations where people react to conflicting values, obligations or commitments, ending up in situations where there often is no right way to act. However, the idea of a dilemmatic space, introduced by Honig (1996), offers a more complex understanding of dilemmas and their positioning and relations. Instead of being considered as specific events or situations, dilemmas are regarded as ever-present in peoples’ living space, as in a dilemmatic space. As seen as a relational category wherein one object is related to another(s), the spatial dimensions of dilemmatic space highlight the dynamics of dilemmas and dilemmatic spaces. These dynamics are important to recognize, for instance in relations to changeable boundaries of the space or issues dealt with that conjure up the dilemmas both on an individual and social level. These changing conditions of values, decision, responsibility and authority change the rules for relations, negotiations, and positioning, and thus the boundaries for the dilemmatic space and the dilemmas. In this article, the theoretical base for the idea of dilemmatic space is elaborated and connected to conditions for teachers’ work. Some conclusions are that new concepts force us to challenge pre-conceptions and involve us in new kinds of sense making processes. As such, the idea of dilemmatic space offers a broad theoretical framework to conceptualise dilemmas as well as the complexity of the educational contexts.

  • 259.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Dilemmatic Spaces in Teachers Work: Towards a Conceptual Framework for Dilemmas in Teachers Work2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 260.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Mentors and mentoring in a dilemmatic space: Analysis of changed preconditions for mentoring due to a Teacher Registration Reforms2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this conceptual article, we argue that there is a need for a more elaborated theoretical perspective when discussing dilemmas in teachers’ work. Thus, we introduce the conceptual frame of dilemmatic space in educational settings and argue that introducing and analytically using the conceptual frame in an educational context offers a potential to elucidate and deepen the understanding of the complexity of teachers’ everyday work practices. Traditional ways of looking at dilemmas infer that they are related to specific situations in which people react to conflicting values, obligations or commitments and where there is often no right way to act. However, the idea of a dilemmatic space offers a more complex understanding of dilemmas and their positioning and relations. Instead of being regarded as specific events or situations, dilemmas are considered as ever-present in people’s living space, as in a dilemmatic space. As space is seen as a relational category wherein one object is related to another or others, the spatial dimensions of dilemmatic space highlight the dynamics of dilemmas and dilemmatic spaces. These dynamics are important to recognise, for instance, in relation to the changeable boundaries of the space or issues that conjure up the dilemmas at an individual and social level. These changing conditions of values, decisions, responsibilities and authority change the rules for relations, negotiations and positioning, and thereby the boundaries of the dilemmatic space and the dilemmas themselves. In this article, the theoretical base for the idea of dilemmatic space is elaborated on and connected to conditions for teachers’ work. Some conclusions are that new concepts force us to challenge pre-conceptions and involve us in new kinds of sense-making processes. As such, the conceptual frame of dilemmatic space offers a broad theoretical framework with which to conceptualise dilemmas and the complexity of educational contexts.

  • 261.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Mentors, Mentoring and Dilemmatic Spaces: A contribution to theoretical renewal for understanding mentoring 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper contributes to theoretical renewal in mentoring research by using the conceptual framework of dilemmatic space to analyze and discuss how Swedish mentors’ roles, positions and relations change as a result of the Swedish government’s recent implementation of a teacher registration reform and a probation year for newly qualified teachers. The paper builds on an existing content analysis of the policy document concerning the teacher registration reform. The results of this study’s relational analysis show that mentoring emerges as tensions between central and local governments as policies construct boundaries that lead to political acts that become part of everyday practices through roles, negotiations and positioning, which ultimately have an effect on mentors and mentorship.

  • 262.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    New Regimes of Assessment, Grading and Accountability: Analysing Reform-based Dilemmas in Educational Settings2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is based on a meta-analysis of earlier research relating to how the last decade’s reforms in Sweden concerning national tests, earlier grading and an increased focus on criterion-referenced grading changes the prerequisites for teachers’ work and their professional development, identity and relations, and, more specifically, how such reforms lead to dilemmas that affect their everyday work. Ironically, rather than solving a certain kind of problem or dilemma, inconsiderate political proposals and “easy-fix” whims at policy level that are not always applicable to teachers’ work sometimes cause new dilemmas (cf. Biesta, 2007; Convery, 2009; Kubler LaBoskey, 2006; Norwich, 2010). The difference between a problem and a dilemma is that the former can be solved to satisfaction, whereas the latter cannot be satisfactorily solved but leaves some kind of reminder (Denicolo, 1996; Berlak & Berlak, 1981).

    The theoretical framework draws on the concept of dilemmatic space and aims to offer a more complex understanding of dilemmas and their positioning and relations (cf. Honig, 1996). Approaching educational settings through the lens of dilemmatic space implies always considering teachers’ work in relation to the dynamics of individual, social, political and contextual factors. Seen as a wider system, the concept of dilemmatic space analytically opens additional dimensions, such as possibilities to connect the dilemmas of teachers’ everyday work with the influences, constraints and considerations of the local community and with reforms, intentions or statements at different policy levels.

    We argue that dilemmas should not be regarded as specific events or situations, but as being ever present in people’s living “spaces”. That is, people do not just acknowledge dilemmas as specific situations to react to, but always “react” in relation to “dilemmatic spaces.” As a consequence, dilemmas are not “out there” per se, but are social constructions resulting from political decisions that underlie contextual conditions. The concept of dilemmatic space makes it possible to approach what individuals construe as dilemmatic. Such an analytical move also makes it possible to visualise how dilemmas emerge in a space between individuals and a specific context (Fransson & Grannäs, submitted). For teachers, it means that in their work they sometimes find themselves in dilemmatic situations that are characterised by micro-political manoeuvres and where their judgment forms the basis for relational work expressed e.g. through negotiations and the positioning of others (cf. Frelin, 2010).

    In this paper we analyse how the last decade’s reforms of national tests and earlier grading and an increased focus on criterion-referenced grading in a goal-oriented approach have changed the prerequisites for teachers’ work, professional development, identity and relations.

    The findings showed that educational reforms change boundaries and positions, e.g. between teachers, pupils, head teachers and parents. Criterion-referenced grading increases the power of pupils to scrutinise the grading, which then causes dilemmas for teachers as to how to find an appropriate balance between learning activities and administrative issues related to assessment and grading (Vetenskapsrådet, 2010). Furthermore, the emergence of “extremely credit-focused pupils” leads to conflicts between teachers, pupils and head teachers over non-graded school tasks (Fransson & Grannäs, forthcoming).

    National tests reveal some imbalance between the grading that teachers do and national test scores (Skolverket, 2009). This leads to teachers’ professionalism being questioned and the establishment of groups of national experts to re-examine teachers’ grading. Research indicates that politicians change the assessment system to demonstrate efficiency (Lundahl, 2006). Micro political negotiations also lead to aspects other than achievement influencing the grading process (Klapp Lekholm & Cliffordson, 2008) and external pressure like this can result in grade inflation (Wikström, 2006) – all of which results in a call for teachers’ professional development.

    Teachers and head teachers are thus expected to manoeuvre in dilemmatic space and deal with dilemmas like learning activities, assessment, grading, public reputation and professional autonomy.

  • 263.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Hammarström, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Swedish.
    Att få syn på sin egen praxis: en introduktion till boken och dess teman2012In: I mötet mellan vetenskap och lärande: 13 högskolepedagogiska utmaningar / [ed] Göran Fransson, Helena Hammarström, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2012, p. 7-18Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 264. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Hammarström, HelenaUniversity of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Swedish.
    I mötet mellan vetenskap och lärande: 13 högskolepedagogiska utmaningar2012Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 265.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Heikkinen, Hannu
    Finnish Institute of Educational Research, Jyväskylä.
    Jokinen, Hannu
    Finnish Institute of Educational Research, Jyväskylä.
    Newly Qualified Teachers in Northern Europe – Research and Development Network (Poster)2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 266.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Holmberg, Jörgen
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Developing digital literacy and digital competence in teacher education: Challenges, dilemmas and opportunities identified through self-study methodology2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Teachers have an important role in helping pupils achieve the skills needed to become digitally literate and digitally competent in today’s society. Consequently teacher education must help becoming teachers develop these skills and how to teach them. However, previous research indicates a lack of confidence among many teacher educators to do so (Enochsson & Rizza, 2009).

    To acquire a deeper understanding of the challenges and opportunities teacher educators and student teachers might encounter when working with, and learning about, ICT as a tool for learning, the authors of this paper carried out a self-study research project (cf. Loughran, 2007; Zeichner, 2007) which focused on our own experiences when planning and teaching a 7,5 ECTS course in initial teacher training. The focus of the course was the pedagogical use of web 2.0-resourses to create learning objects for use in (pre-)schools.  The course could be characterized as innovative since its focus, content and form of distribution, teaching and examination goes far beyond what’s common in initial teacher training inSweden(Enochsson, 2010; Ericsson & Löndahl, 2008). Lectures, seminars and student co-operation were mainly web-based and students were encouraged to take a very high degree of responsibility for their own learning. Web-based resources specifically created for the course were offered to compensate for the scarceness of face-to-face meetings.

    The fact that we both have rather different experiences of the content and the technology used in this course, and of being a teacher educator and researcher, was used as a methodological postulate for the self study project. After every seminar, lecture or examination the two of us reflected together. Sometimes non-scheduled student contacts also actuated further reflections. These reflections were recorded digitally and notes were taken. In total five hours of recordings were made at eight times. In between these collaborative reflections, personal reflections were noted and sometimes taped.

    Some of the key-findings discussed in the paper are: Insights in challenges and opportunities for both teachers and students to integrate (a) content knowledge; (b) pedagogical knowledge; and (c) technological knowledge; into (d) a Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge, TPACK (see Mishra & Koehler 2006, 2008, cf. Ferdig, 2006).

    How our different skills and experiences gave us a better understanding of what might be difficult or unclear to students, thus making us able to give a better course and more valid student feedback. We also identified some of the mechanism that made us, as “expert” and/or “novice”, take certain things for granted (cf. Sandretto) which in turn might make us miss students’ proximal zone of development. When co-operating closely and complementing each other skills- and experience wise, this is less likely to happen. 

    Another insight was how our different proficiencies (i.e. our different understanding of technology, pedagogy and content) affected our assessment of the students’ multimodal presentations, what becomes focused, valued and assessed.

    Implications for teacher education, teacher educators’ professional development, student teachers, and for (pre)school are also discussed.

  • 267.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Holmberg, Jörgen
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Understanding the theoretical framework of technological pedagogical content knowledge: A collaborative self-study to understand teaching practice and aspects of knowledge2012In: Studying Teacher Education: journal of self-study of teacher education practices, ISSN 1742-5964, E-ISSN 1742-5972, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 193-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a self-study research project that focused on our experiences when planning, teaching and evaluating a course in initial teacher training. The focus of the course was the pedagogical use of web 2.0 resources to support learning in the preschool/school context. The potential of the different digital tools was mainly explored by situated use in the design and teaching of the course. The focus, content, form of distribution, teaching and assessment of the course went beyond what is common in initial teacher training in Sweden. The analysis highlighted the challenges and opportunities that teacher educators and student teachers might encounter when working with, and learning about, ICT to support learning. Some of the findings discussed are related to the identified challenges and opportunities for both teachers and students to integrate content knowledge (CK), pedagogical knowledge (PK) and technological knowledge (TK) into a technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK). For teacher educators this is especially challenging, since they need to develop TPACK themselves and understand what this means for different categories of teachers. Taken-for-granted organizational and institutional assumptions of teaching, learning and assessment in teacher education were identified in the study.

  • 268.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Jokinen, Hannu
    Institute for Educational Research, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Heikkinen, Hannu
    Institute for Educational Research, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Eisenschmidt, Eve
    Univeristy of Tallinn, Estland.
    Mentoring Formally or Informally? Dilemmas and Paradoxes of Mentoring and Education for Mentors.2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is based on a comparative study of mentoring systems of newly appointed teachers . The study draws upon a comparative data collected by an international project Supporting Newly Qualified Teachers through Collaborative Mentoring (NQT-COME), funded by Nordplus Horizontal program. The participants of the NQT-COME project represent nationally remarkable institutions for teacher education and educational research as well as some of the municipalities and teacher unions in Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Within the network, we have experiences of both the classical one-to-one mentoring and peer group solutions. Theoretically, we examine the issue within a model which views both mentoring and mentor training as examples of the ongoing formalization process of non-formal learning, whereas we may also detect nowadays some other opposite examples of informalisation of formal learning (Tuschling and Engelmann 2006). One of our main challenges is to establish mentoring as an integral part of teachers’ professional development. Whatever the model of mentoring is, the mentors also seem to need some education and support. We have consciously swifted our emphasis from defining the characteristics, skills and competencies of mentor candidates into their education.  One of the main aims of mentor education is to develop knowledge about teachers’ professional development and learning, how to support reflection of beginning teachers (Harrison, Dymoke, Pell 2006; Rippon, Martin 2006). One of our current on going studies is a comparative research of different national and local solutions for mentor education.

    Basically, mentoring has been regarded as informal learning. Traditionally, mentors have not been trained, just the opposite: mentoring has been regarded as transferring of tacit knowledge through informal discussions and practical guidance by an experienced colleague (Roberts 2000). Mentoring is often based on an interaction between an expert and a novice on a practical level which not necessarily includes theoretical or conceptual perspectives whereas formal education is focused on explicit, conceptual and theoretical knowledge.  Lately, mentoring has been more and more formalized as it has become a part of in-service teacher education and a purposeful professional development. The formalization process is culminated in the growing trend of accrediting of the mentor education modules. However, if teachers need to be educated for becoming  mentors of new teachers, the original idea of mentoring as an informal learning is being radically changed. The degree of formalisation, however, varies in the participant countries of NQT-COME project. In some counties the mentor education modules have even been accredited in ECTS credits whereas in some other countries we detect minor features of formalisation. In this presentation, we will introduce the national solutions of organizing mentor education in Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Norway and Sweden. We also reflect the paradoxes and dilemmas which we have met in locating mentoring between the traditional and modern understandings of mentoring. We will concentrate on the following research questions:

    - We will concentrate on the following research questions

    - What kind of theoretical thinking the mentor education programmes are based on?

    -How have the programmes been carried out?

    -What are the advantages and possible weaknesses of formalizing mentoring and mentor education?

    -What kind of theoretical thinking the mentor education programmes are based on?

  • 269.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Jokinen, Hannu
    Finnish Institute for Educational Research, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Klages, Wiebke
    University College of Oslo.
    Education of Mentors2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this presentation, we study various ways of organising education for mentors in Estonia, Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Norway. Our research questions are: (1.) How have the mentor training programmes been carried out? (2.) What is the degree of formalization of mentor’s education in the participant countries of NQT-COME? (3.) What are the advantages and disadvantages of formalizing mentoring and mentor education? Firstly, we will parallelly introduce a general description of the national solutions of education for mentors from seven viewpoints: (1.) by whom are the who mentors’ education organized (2.) what are the aims, contents and structures of mentor studies (3.) what is the level of accreditation of studies (4.) how is the mentors’ training financed (5.) how is it connected with initial and in-service teacher education (6.) how are the mentors recruited (7.) what are the current challenges and further plans in each of the aforementioned countries. Drawing from this, we will closer analyze the various national solutions within a continuum of formalization vs. in/nonformalization. As a conclusion, the most formalized system is one implemented in Estonia, whereas the least formalized practice architecture is found in Finland.

  • 270.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Lindberg, O.
    Policy and use of Digital Technologies: Two sides of a coin that never meets?2012Other (Refereed)
  • 271.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Lindberg, Ola
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    Umeå Universitet.
    Hauge, Trond Eiliv
    Oslo högskola.
    Förväntningar och realiteter: Om digitala teknologier i spänningsfältet mellan formulerings- och realiseringsarenor2012In: Små skritt eller store sprang?: om digitale tilstander i skolen / [ed] Trond Eiliv Hauge og Andreas Lund, Oslo: Cappelen Damm Akademisk , 2012, p. 274-298Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 272.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    McMahan, Sarah
    Texas Womens College.
    Exploring research on mentoring policies in education2013In: International Journal of Mentoring and Coaching in Education, ISSN 2046-6854, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 218-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose-This article expands the conversation about mentoring and policy and provides a detailed analysis of empirical research on mentoring polices in education, with a focus on adult mentoring in primary and secondary schools.

    Methodology-Articles in peer-reviewed journals were examined using a systematic content analysis. In total, 405 abstracts/articles were reviewed, and 37 articles were subjected to an indepth analysis.

    Findings -Although very few articles dealt specifically with mentoring policy in any substantial way, a major finding that emerged was that to be effective, policy development should include not only the stakeholders who have the power to create it, but also those who must implement it.

    Research limitations - Although the authors acknowledge that the systematic search process may not have captured all the relevant articles, and that other books or resources on this topic might not have been accessed in the search process, serious research on the topic of mentoring policy and its implications for primary and secondary school contexts nevertheless seems to be limited.

    Practical implications-The findings have implications for practice and future research, and point towards the need for a comprehensive research agenda on this topic.

  • 273.
    Frejd, Jeanette
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences.
    Det är upp till varje enskild lärare: Fyra lärare om att motverka intolerans och främja demokrati inom religionsämnet inom vuxenutbildningen2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka och beskriva fyra lärares upplevelser och erfarenheter av att möta och bemöta intolerans i religionsämnet inom vuxenutbildningen men också vilka strategier och arbetssätt de använder sig av och vilket stöd de finner i det arbetet. I uppsatsen finns tidigare forskningsresultat redovisade när det gäller begreppet intolerans, vilka typer av intolerans som identifierats på högstadiet och gymnasiet men också hur man kan motverka fenomenet.

     

    Jag har använt mig av kvalitativa intervjuer med fenomenologisk hermeneutisk teoretisk utgångspunkt och analysmetod, med det menar man att intervjufrågorna är utformade för att få tillgång till respondentens medvetande och för att få en uppfattning om den personens specifika upplevelser och erfarenheter. I analysen försöker jag sedan genom hermeneutisk analys söka efter eventuella upplevelser eller uppfattningar som inte är tydliga eller uppenbara i det direkt uttalade svaren och kontextualisera dem gentemot, bakgrund, tidigare forskning, syfte och frågeställningar.

     

    Resultatet visar att uppdraget inom vuxenutbildningen tenderar att hamna i bakgrunden och anledningen tycks vara tidsbrist, bristande intresse, kunskap och engagemang hos ledningen och organisatoriska svårigheter. Trots det visar resultatet i denna undersökning att uppdraget, i den mån det bedrivs, genomförs integrerat och genomsyrar undervisningen. Det är ett resultat som inte stämmer överens med tidigare forskning inom grundskolan och gymnasiet genomförd av skolinspektionen. Glädjande anser de tillfrågade i denna undersökning att de har metoder och kunskaper att hantera uppdraget men att det är ett arbete som vilar på varje enskild lärare att både skaffa sig kunskap och kompetens och att sedan genomföra det. Det stöd man har i arbetet är enligt undersökningen helt och hållet kollegiet, vilket i sig är ett nedslående resultat som påtalar en risk för uppdragets genomförande eftersom det ju pekar på nödvändigheten av ett engagerat och kompetent kollegium. Ett så övergripande uppdrag borde enligt min mening inte bero på enskilda engagerade och kompetenta pedagoger, eller på om det finns ett engagerat kollegium men tyvärr överensstämmer resultat i detta fall helt med Skolverkets sammanfattande rapport från 2012, att framgången i uppdraget fortfarande beror på enskilda lärares insatser och specialintresse för området. Detta resultat strider också mot det faktum att det är skolledningen som har det övergripande ansvaret att genom stöd och genom att ge de förutsättningar som krävs se till att pedagogerna kan utföra uppdraget på ett tillfredsställande sätt.

     

     

  • 274.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Att bygga undervisningsrelationer i gymnasieskolans introduktionsprogram2014In: Inkludering: möjligheter och utmaningar / [ed] Sandström, Margareta, Nilsson, Lena & Stier, Jonas, Lund, 2014, p. 91-106Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Om man vet att vuxna är såna som det inte går att lita på. Om man vet att det enda man är bra på i skolan, det är att misslyckas. Varför över huvud taget gå dit? Gunilla arbetar på det som nu har blivit gymnasieskolans introduktionsprogram, där hon dagligen möter ungdomar med de här tankarna. Hennes utmaning är att vända åratal av negativa erfarenheter till en positiv skolupplevelse för de här eleverna, vilket kräver ett stort mått av relationell professionalitet. Mycket av hennes arbete handlar om att bygga så kallade undervisningsrelationer, relationer som grundas i förtroende, medmänsklighet och omtanke om elevernas självbild. Gunillas praktik används som illustration till tankar kring professionellt relationsbyggande i en extra utmanande utbildningsmiljö. Här presenteras begrepp för att kunna diskutera och reflektera över den svårfångade lärarkunskapen som utövas i vardagen. Den som faktiskt – för en del elever – kan utgöra skillnaden mellan att hoppa av skolan eller slutföra en utbildning.

  • 275.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Att hantera läraryrkets komplexitet(er) – en grund för professionalitet?2013In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 7-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Few would argue the notion that teachers’ work is complex. The present article seeks to disentangle and illuminate how complexity is understood within teaching, in particular how and why it is complex, and to discuss it in relation to teacher professionality. Concepts from curriculum theory and research on professionality are used to this end. Complexity in teaching can, for analytical purposes, be divided into aspects such as complexity of meaning, complexity of content, complexity of means and complexity of purposes, which teachers are to deal with. Teacher professionality is conceived as the instantiation of teacher professionalism, which is enacted by a community of professionals. Professionalization and de-professionalization tendencies are apparent in the educational context today. In a sense, the ability to deal well with complexity can be viewed as a basis of teacher professionality. However, the context may or may not contribute to the possibility to act professionally. Hence the question of the relation between professionality and complexity is everything but straightforward. 

  • 276.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Auktoritet är inte att peka med hela handen2011In: Pedagogiska Magasinet, ISSN 1401-3320, no 1, p. 16-20Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Lärares auktoritet ska skapa arbetsro i skolan. Men en förenklad syn på auktoritet kan leda till att eleverna får betala ett högt pris i form av utslagning, skriver Anneli Frelin.

  • 277.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Auktoritet är inte att peka med hela handen2012In: Uppdrag lärare: En antologi om status, yrkesskicklighet och framtidsdrömmar / [ed] Mathiasson, Leif, Stockholm: Lärarförbundets förlag , 2012, p. 39-46Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 278.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Classroom Management in the Corridor: Teacher-Student Negotiations of an Educational Authority Relationship Outside of the Classroom Context2014In: Breaking the Mold of Classroom Management: What Educators Should Know and Do to Enable Student Success / [ed] Honigsfeld, Andrea & Cohan, Audrey, Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2014, p. 35-41Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 279.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Den relationella dimensionen av lärares arbete och professionalitet: i spänningsfältet mellan villkor och övertygelse2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Läraryrket är en bland flera så kallade interpersonella professioner (se Endres, 2007) men det utövas i en särskild kontext och med särskilda syften. Professionalitet är bland annat kopplat till att framgångsrikt uppfylla vissa syften och för lärares del så är den frågan inte helt enkel, då de befinner sig i flera spänningsfält och måste använda sitt omdöme. Kravet på att göra komplexa omdömen har av flera forskare t.o.m. framställts som ett kriterium för professionalitet (se ex Hargreaves & Goodson, 1996, Carr, 2000). I min avhandling (Frelin, 2010) diskuterar jag lärares uppdragsperception vilken har betydelse för de val lärare gör och vilket ansvar de tar. Jag menar att ett ensidigt fokus på kunskaper är otillräckligt för att fullt ut diskutera lärares professionalitet – en aldrig så stor kunskapsrepertoar kan inte kompensera för en ovilja att ta ansvar för viktiga relationella villkor i undervisningssituationen, varken ur ett moraliskt eller lärandeperspektiv. Specifikt kommer jag att diskutera den relationella dimensionen av lärarprofessionalitet, vilken tar sig uttryck i relationsarbete definierat som: handlingar i syfte att etablera, upprätthålla och/eller främja relationer som är positiva ur en utbildningssynpunkt, eller i syfte att motverka motsatsen: relationer som motverkar eller undergräver elevers förutsättningar för att ta till sig utbildning (Frelin, 2010, s. 6). Samtidigt så kan krav på effektivitet bidra till att uppdragsperceptionen snävas in hos lärare på ett sätt som gör att de riskerar att förlora kontakten med viktiga delar av sitt uppdrag, och således även med möjligheten för att lyckas uppfylla utbildningens syften. Detta utgör då en de-professionalisering.

  • 280.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    (De-)Professionalized?: Complexities of the Teaching Profession in Times of Globalized Educational Reform2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Few would argue the notion that teachers’ work is complex; however, most do not ask how or why it is complex. The present article seeks to disentangle and illuminate different aspects of complexity in teaching, along with the relation between complexity and teacher professionality. For this purpose I make use of curriculum theory and research on professionality. I ask, does a teacher who handles complexity well equal a professional teacher?

    In the conceptual analysis, complexity in teaching is, for analytical purposes, divided into aspects: complexity of meaning, complexity of content, complexity of means and complexity of purposes, which teachers are left to deal with. Teacher professionality is described as the instantiation of teacher professionalism, belonging to a community of professionals. The relation between the two is further discussed, as well as how teacher professionality was and is conceived in different and dynamic circumstances.

    In these times of globalized educational reform and neo-liberal educational agendas, the concept of teacher professionality is taking different shapes. Some suggest the rise of the new professional (cf Robertson 1996), an entrepreneur with eyes on the prize, loyal towards her or his employers, as opposed to the activist professional (Apple 2008;Groundwater-Smith & Sachs 2002) who considers wider human and societal aims. In conclusion, the ability to deal well with complexity can be viewed as a basis of teacher professionality. But can the teacher act professionally when possibilities for doing so are severely circumcised? And according to whom and towards which purposes are s/he supposed to act? The relation between professionality and complexity is everything but straightforward. 

  • 281.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Exploring Relational Professionalism in Schools2013Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How is it that some teachers have just "got it"? They walk into a room and the atmosphere changes. They get through to students in a way that no-one else can. The author has sought answers to this question by observing and interviewing teachers from preschool to upper secondary school levels.

    Having intensively studied the highly influential but underestimated relational dimension of teaching, her contention is that these teachers successfully use relational practices to build educational relationships with their students and educational communities among them. Moreover, she finds that what may come across as a teacher’s personal traits is actually a sensible professional approach. These teachers haven’t "got it" - they "get it".

    This book explains how teachers carry out their relational practices, and contains an abundance of everyday examples from all stages of education. The deep theoretical reasoning departs from these examples to create a compelling argument for a teacher’s relational professionality that is possible to learn and teach. New relational perspectives and concepts are introduced for the purpose of facilitating professional conversations about the profound dimension of relationships in education.

  • 282.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Fostering democratic relations: Comparing teacher practices from preschool to high school2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In democratic societies, an important goal of education is to foster democratic citizens, which includes experiences of democratic relations. How do teachers interpret and carry out this mission? Are there differences between the levels of schooling and if so which? In an explorative study, interviews with teachers from preschool to high school were conducted and analyzed eliciting practical arguments (Fenstermacher & Richardson, 1993). The informants described their mission as intertwined in everyday activities, teaching democracy “as a way of life” in the spirit of Dewey. Whereas e.g. empathy was only discussed by preschool teachers, balancing equal relationships was addressed by all informants from preschool to high school. Progression of democratic learning runs parallel to addressing ever-present relational issues of democratic character.

  • 283.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Lyhörda lärare: Professionellt relationsbyggande i förskola och skola2012 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 284.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Professionally present: highlighting the temporal aspect of teachers' professional judgment2014In: Teacher Development, ISSN 1366-4530, E-ISSN 1747-5120, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 264-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Novice teachers need to develop their professional judgment. Teaching isperformed in the face of imperfect, complex but above all continuously emergentsituations. These matters have not received adequate attention in theories relatingto professional judgment and professionality in teaching or in the contemporarydiscourse of education policy. The purpose of this conceptual article is thereforeto contribute to the understanding of teachers’ judgment.By discussing empirical examples that indicate how sensing and knowing guidejudgment, concepts are introduced that are intended to further the understanding of teachers’professional judgment; something that will hopefully benefit teacher education as well as practicing teachers.

  • 285.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Reclaiming teachers' professional judgment in an age of accountability2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 286.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Teacher Educators’ Teaching of Professional Judgment – Grounds for Discussion2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this contribution is to make some grounds for discussion regarding teacher educators’ task of helping their students to enhance their professional judgment in times when calls for evidence-based practice in education tend to steer focus away from it. The first part contains some conceptual remarks regarding judgment and its relation to evidence. The second touches upon the conditions in which teachers in many countries try to practice their judgment are addressed. Thirdly, the role of teacher educators is discussed in light of a model that visualizes conflicts regarding trust and importance of issues such as social justice. In the end questions of what teacher educators committed to social justice can or should do regarding professional judgment given the circumstances concludes the text.

  • 287.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Teachers’ situated professional judgment in an age of standards and measurement2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is first, to explore the role of situated judgment in emergent and recurrent situations in the classroom for teacher professionalism, and second, to contribute to the discussion of the applicability of management theories on education. Teachers’ professional judgments in the classroom are made in the face of imperfect, complex if not contradictory, but above all, continuously emergent situations, circumstances that make profound difference for the kinds of judgments that are, and can be, made. How can we further understand and discuss these as part of teacher professionalism, and how can we understand teachers’ possibilities for making professional judgments in relation the consequences of prevailing trends on policy levels in Europe today?

    Research on professions commonly use criteria for professions such as that they provide an important public service, involve a theoretically as well as practically grounded expertise and have a distinct ethical dimension which calls for expression in a code of practice (see e.g. Carr, 2000). However, some attempts to be viewed as a profession actually decrease the possibilities for acting professionally. For example, the attempt to standardize and raise status of practice in education through developing competency standards (building on the notion that complex judgments are possible to standardize), has been criticized by Carr and Skinner (2009) as a key problem that erodes or discourages more integrated perspectives on educational practice (see also Ball, 2009). Moreover, the increased relational complexity brought about by the intensification of teachers’ work may decrease the space possible for professional judgment, in several ways. This development is a reality in many Western countries of today, where the educational sector is reformed in order to mirror the private sector, as a consequence of the influence of actors such as the OECD and the World Bank (Ball, 2003). In combination with shrinking public finances this leads to an intensification of teachers’ work (e.g. Apple, 2007; Goodson & Norrie, 2005; Hargreaves, 2000). A market logic and a ‘language of learning’ (see Biesta, 2006) treats as insignificant certain complexities of teachers’ work. The ‘blame and shame’ tactics and high stakes testing produces risk management strategies where teachers may even ask for rules in order to avoid blame (Lindqvist & Nordänger, 2006). All these developments contribute to reducing the space for professional judgment. Ball (2009) even deems professionalism as an ethical-cultural practice as having no future or place in the present regime of performativity and managerialism.

    In this context, in order to contribute to the discussion on teachers’ professional judgment, I draw here on theories of complexity (Osberg & Biesta, 2010) and practical knowledge (Beckett, 1996; Beckett & Hager, 2002) in an analysis of examples of teachers’ judgments. More specifically, through a combination of theoretical elements from complexity, and the notion of hot action; action that is performed without time for reflection, I illuminate and draw attention to the significance of the present in teachers’ professional judgment. 

    Method

    A phenomenological analysis of two examples of teacher judgment illustrates the significance of the corporeal, present moment in teacher judgment. The examples were collected as part of a past qualitative study (Frelin, 2010) where 11 teachers’ experience of teaching was explored in-depth, from 22 one hour interviews. During these interviews the teachers were asked to elaborate on their practical arguments (Fenstermacher & Richardson, 1993). Some of the informants were particularly elaborate about their judgments while teaching. The accounts from two teachers, one pre-school teacher, and one secondary school Mathematics and Science teacher, both male, was re-analyzed using phenomenological methodology. The teachers’ stories about their experiences of teaching were interpreted with special attention to lived space, body, time and human relation (Van Manen, 1990). More specifically the role of the corporeal experience in the present moment, making judgments in relation to a student, was brought to the fore.

    Expected Outcomes

    The results show that the teachers draw on both their past knowledge and on their embodied presence in the present when making judgments regarding how to act in relation to a student. For example, a distinction emerged between knowing and sensing, where the first regards what is brought to the moment and the second what emerges in the moment, was shown to be of importance. The results empirically underline the situated and complex nature of teacher professionality. They also indicate what professionalism as an ethical-cultural practice (Ball, 2009) may look like. In educational policy today, education has increasingly been conceived as a preset exchange of knowledge for grades. In the discussion I bring up how one consequence of this economical view is that the present becomes bereaved of significance for professional judgment. However, teachers’ professional judgment cannot be reduced to gathering up information and making a calculation – it is about interaction between human subjects where knowing and sensing come together.

  • 288.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Edling, Silvia
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Do I make your life better?: Exploring implications for the scope of teacher responsibility2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of education can broadly be understood as an intervention into the lives of the students for the sake of their well-being, and for the continuation of society. Teachers are given a responsibility for educating the young, a responsibility being expressed in various policy documents on different levels. However, as these documents are in constant need of interpretation, and sometimes are vague and even contradict each other, teachers are left to interpret what their responsibility entails in everyday situations.

     

    The empirical material consists of teacher interviews. These accounts of teachers’ felt responsibility for promoting their students’ well-being, are compared to teacher responsibility as expressed in contemporary research on social and moral responsibility within education. A central approach in this paper is the assumption that the ways people speak about their experiences, has the potential for widening the understanding of teachers’ work in relation to value issues.

     

    The results answers questions about the possibilities for understanding the notion of teacher responsibility without overlooking the dynamics expressed in teachers’ descriptions of responsibility in everyday work situations.

  • 289.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Gershon, Walter S
    Kent State University, Ohio, USA.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Marknadsstyrning skapar oönskade elever2014In: Pedagogiska Magasinet, ISSN 1401-3320, Vol. 2Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    När skolor drivs som företag, börjar de också göra riskanalyser enligt samma ekonomiska principer. Resultatet blir att vissa elever ses som ekonomiska risker och därmed blir oönskade eller i värsta fall bortvalda.

  • 290.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Direct and Indirect Educational Relationships: the Varying Significance of Content in School Relationships2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 291.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Navigating Middle Ground: A Spatial Perspective on the Borderlands of Teacher-Student Relationships in Secondary School2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Positive teacher-student relationships are important for student learning. One factor that promotes such relationship is closeness. Yet, the teacher-student relationship is a professional one and there are limits to how close teachers and students can get without crossing this professional boundary. The purpose of this paper is to use spatial theories in order to explore how teachers and students in secondary education view and navigate border territories of positive and professional teacher-student relationships. Data is drawn from a combined case study where teachers and students were interviewed. Spatial theory aids the analysis, where we ask: Where, when and how are positive teacher-student relationships negotiated in schools, how do teachers and students reason regarding the borderlands of teacher-student relationships, and how do they navigate them? Preliminary results include instances when teachers intentionally work at attaining closeness, and when they back off to distance themselves in order to keep a professional distance. Students, although they appreciate closeness, are very sensitive to teachers trying to overstep the boundary. Both teachers and students point to informal situations and places in schools as significant for building positive relationships. The scientific significance includes the novel use of spatial theory that is fruitful for shedding new light on interpersonal processes in schools, and the results are of value for teachers as well as for future research on understanding and improving professional teacher-student relationships. 

  • 292.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    Department of Curriculum Studies, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Negotiations left behind: in-between spaces of teacher-student negotiation and their significance for education2010In: Journal of Curriculum Studies, ISSN 0022-0272, E-ISSN 1366-5839, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 353-369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper argues against a view of curriculum as a means for moulding students into, and making teachers accountable for, something pre-determined and singularly governed by qualification demands of the labour market. It makes a case for the value of inter-subjective teacher–student relationships in education and addresses the significance of negotiations and their open-endedness. This paper draws its empirical material from case studies for which interviews were the main source for gathering data. The data analyses were made using the AtlasTi software designed for qualitative analysis. In the empirical material were found instances of negotiations in which inter-subjective relationships are established and maintained; negotiations that are rendered obscured or even invisible from a qualification purpose but that influence the educational processes. The results show that teachers and students creatively use potentials within contextual conditions to attain relationships which sometimes constitute a precondition for education.

  • 293.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Questioning the modern conception of time: The politics of complexity reduction in education2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 294.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Results and accountability: Marginalization of the educational interpersonal space2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 295.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Studying relational spaces in secondary school: applying a spatial framework for the study of borderlands and relational work in school improvement processes2014In: Improving Schools, ISSN 1365-4802, E-ISSN 1475-7583, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 135-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article introduces a theoretical framework for studying school improvement processes such as making school environments safer. Using concepts from spatial theory, in which distinctions between mental, social and physical space are applied, makes for a multidimensional analysis of processes of change. In a multi-level case study, these were combined with task perception analysis, where all categories of personnel and management in the school were studied. The results indicated the significance of borderlands in the school for helping students, of organizational transgressions aimed at “making things work” and of social spaces created in the borderlands that contributed to the necessary social glue in the school. This theoretical framework offers alternative and fruitful lenses which can enrich studies of school improvement processes. The use of multiple data sources allows for triangulation, which in turn improves the validity and reliability of the results.

  • 296.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    The production of present and absent presences in education2013In: Journal of Pedagogy, ISSN 1338-1563, E-ISSN 1338-2144, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 139-161Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on the distinction between absent and present presences, this article contributes to our understanding of how new managerial and performative discourses are played out in a secondary school context in Sweden. The consequences of numerous educational reforms during the last 20 years include a surge of new independent schools and increased segregation between students due to individual school choice. Following international trends, a yearly national municipal school ranking is published, drawing much attention both in the media and on the policy level, intensifying pressure for results at the municipal level. A case study was conducted in one bottom-ranked Swedish secondary school over the 2012-13 school year, focusing on how relationships between students and staff were negotiated in informal spaces and places. The results illustrate how absent presences and present presences are produced in the practice of schooling. The present presences were publication of results, raising merit scores and grading pressure, and the absent presences were the role of the media in the self-image of schools, increased workload for teachers, the misuse of statistical data and demoralization and determination. The results contribute to the understanding of a) the challenges that teachers and schools are faced with as a consequence of the new managerial and performative discourses in educational settings, and b) the means they draw on to face and resist them in their everyday practices.

  • 297.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Mbugua, Tata
    University of Scranton, Scranton, PA, USA.
    Rice, Janice
    Lynchburg College, Lynchburg, VA, USA.
    Awareness, Appreciation and Attitude change: Teaching Global Citizenship and Intercultural Competence2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Teaching students to embrace the idea of global citizenship involves raising awareness, appreciating differences and changing attitudes. Sometimes it is understood in terms of intercultural competence (Cushner, 2009, 2012). This process entails de-centering from one’s comfort zone and perspectives to the world, which can be challenging and raise resistance. The purpose of this presentation is to use Multiple Perspectives or Perspective Consciousness paradigm (Merrifield, 2003) to bring new insights to teaching global citizenship and intercultural competence. Barbara Thayer-Bacon’s (2008) work on pluralism frames our discussion. Participants will engage in hands-on and minds-on activities to deepen their experiential and conceptual understanding. 

  • 298.
    Frelin, Anneli
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Nordänger, Ulla-Karin
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Fransson, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Lessons learned – changing times: 87 former teacher graduates on their careers during 15 years2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 299.
    Frykmo, Tor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences.
    Hedqvist, Jonna-Li
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences.
    Fritidspedagogen och barn med koncentrationssvårigheter i fritidshemmet: En intervjustudie om fyra fritidspedagogers reflektioner om arbetet med barn med koncentrationssvårigheter i fritidshemmet2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka fritidspedagogers reflektioner om bemötandet av barn med koncentrationssvårigheter på fritidshemmet. Då fritidshemmen har förändrats, barn­grupperna har blivit större och personaltätheten minskat uppstår frågan om alla barns behov i fritidshemmet kan tillfredställas. Barn med koncentrationssvårigheter är en grupp som påver­kas av dessa omständigheter. Det är viktigt för fritidspedagogen att bemöta alla barn efter deras individuella behov.

    Genom en intervjustudie, där fyra fritidspedagoger deltog, undersöktes deras reflektioner om fritidspedagogernas bemötande av barn med koncentrationssvårigheter. Användandet av öppna frågor, i en så kallad ostrukturerad intervju, gav oss svar på studiens frågeställningar.

    Resultatet som är intervjupersonernas reflektioner kring studiens frågeställningar, visar bland annat att kunskap har visat sig vara viktig i arbetet med barn med koncentrations­svårigheter. De stora barngrupperna och personalbristen påverkar barn med koncentrations­svårigheter negativt. Barn med koncentrationssvårigheter påverkar fritidshemsverksamheten mer negativt än positivt.

    Genom att använda sig av den kunskap som finns kan fritidspedagogen strukturera upp fritids­hemsverksamheten och hitta strategier som underlättar vistelsen på fritidshemmet för barn med koncentrationssvårigheter.

  • 300.
    Fällgren, Åsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences.
    Lera ett material i bildundervisningen: en komparativ studie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete är gjort i syftet att synliggöra det som många lärare, elever och studenter jag kommit i kontakt med uttryckt: en sorts fascination över möjligheterna det erbjuder tillsammans med svårigheterna som följer i användandet av materialet i klassrumsmiljö. Många av de bildlärarkollegor jag samtalat med berättar att de ofta använder lera i sin undervisning för 3-dimensionell gestaltning även om keramik inte varit en del av deras bildlärarutbildning. Arbetets undersökande del innehåller två olika delar: del ett där undersökningen sammanställer några elevers uttryckta tankar om sin erfarenhet av lera som skapande material och keramik och del två där åsikter uttryckta av bildlärare om materialet lera och deras syn på hur det bidrar till lärandet i skapande processer. I resultatet finns en jämförelse mellan lärares och elevers åsikter.  Resultatet visar att det finns stora fördelar med lera som material som uttrycks av både lärare och elever men även en del nackdelar. Fördelarna handlar om att materialet inte har några begränsningar i formandet då det inte har någon given struktur. Exempelvis handikappade kan arbeta med lera. Nackdelarna handlar om att det blir mycket arbete runt omkring leran och hanteringen av materialet.

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