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  • 251.
    Fant, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    En kvalitativ studie om utövares erfarenheter av Motiverande samtal på HVB2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Motiverande samtal är en pedagogisk metod som frekvent förekommer på Sveriges HVB. Det finns tidigare forskning som pekar på att metoden fungerar bra vid de flesta beteendeförändringar. Utövare har erfarenheter av att metoden fungerar bra i många sammanhang men också att metoden ibland kan ha brister. Denna studie syftar till att undersöka utövares upplevelser och erfarenheter av motiverande samtal (MI). Studien undersöker på vilket sätt MI kan vara ett stöd för patienten och vilka svårigheter det finns med metoden. Studien är avgränsad till att undersöka fyra utövare av motiverande samtal, som arbetar på hem för vård eller boende (HVB). Resultatet visade att MI kan vara ett stöd för patienter i många fall. MI har varit ett stöd för patienter till att ta steg mot ett bestämt mål, ta kontroll över sina tankar och stöd till att se positivt på framtiden. Det finns även brister och svårigheter med metoden. Denna undersökning har visat att MI inte är tillämpbart på alla patienter. MI kan vara en svår metod att lära sig och det finns en del brister i utbildningen.

  • 252.
    Fernström Halonen, Sabina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Larsson, Emelie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Exkludering och statusroller: Rolleken i förskolan2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is about exclusion and childrens role-play in Swedish preschools. 8 preschool teachers, in 4 different preschools, have been interviewed about exclusion and low and high rating roles in children's role-play. The interviews was recorded and then analyzed. Relevant research in this study was from Corsaro, Tellgren and Löfdahl amongst others, and the results of the interviews is what this study is based on. The study showed that one of the most common roles in childrens role-play is the role of mother and that the roles children play are based on social norms and values. Children wants the roles with the highest status, because they want the power that comes with that role. Other commons roles was father, child and pets, and characters from children movies, such as Spiderman and Anna and Elsa from Frozen. This study also includes researchers and preschool teachers views on childrens role-play and free play.

  • 253.
    Filipsson, Åsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Förskolepedagogers interaktion med barn vid frukostbordet: utifrån ett genusperspektiv2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I läroplan för förskolan (Skolverket, 2010) står att förskolan ska behandla alla barn som individer. Alla som arbetar inom förskola ska således arbeta med bland annat ur genusperspektiv. Genus är det socialt skapade könet (Svaleryd, 2002). Med det menas att vi formas av samhällets förväntningar på hur vi som kvinnor eller män ska vara.  Syftet med denna studie är att ur ett genusperspektiv se hur pedagogerna interagerar med barnen under förskolans frukost. Systematisk observation har skett vid frukosttid på två förskolor i en liten kommun i Mellansverige. Deltagarna i observationen är bland annat genuspedagog samt en förskollärare med uttalat intresse för genusarbete. Resultatet visar inte att pedagogerna använder flickor som hjälpfröknar eller stöttepelare för att lugna stökiga pojkar (Hedlin, 2006). Vid några situationer syns skillnad i förhållningssätt mot flickor respektive pojkar. I de flesta tillfällen får barnen ögonkontakt med pedagogerna. Övervägande är det pojkar vars ögonkontakt uteblir.

  • 254.
    Fisk, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Fritidshemmets digitalisering: Lärare i fritidshem och fritidspedagogers uppfattningar kring möjligheter och utmaningar gällande digitaliseringen2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I juli 2018 började den nya reviderade läroplanen med utökat fokus och nya krav på digitala kompetenser och digital utveckling för bland annat grundskolan och fritidshemmet gälla. Innan dess hade inte digitaliseringen varit lika definierad som uppdrag i läroplanen. Syftet med denna studie är att ta reda på vilka möjligheter och utmaningar utbildade lärare i fritidshem och fritidspedagoger i nuläget uppfattar gällande digitaliseringen utav fritidshem. Denna studie är en fenomenografisk studie som samlat data genom intervjuer med sex respondenter från fyra skolor i två städer belägna i Mellansverige. Databearbetningen har skett genom att respondenters uppfattningar sorterats in i beskrivningskategorier och tematiserats. Uppfattningarna har sedan även jämförts med tidigare forskning kring digitalisering, för att sätta dem i en forskningskontext.

     

    Studiens resultat visar att fritidshemmet delar vissa utmaningar med andra skolformer, såsom tekniska problem och resursbrist, samt att det även tycks finnas utmaningar som är mer specifika för fritidshemmen, såsom att finna en balans mellan digitala aktiviteter och icke-digitala. Resultaten indikerar vidare på att fritidshemmet har goda möjligheter till arbete med elevers sociala utveckling med hjälp av digitala verktyg. Fritidshem verkar dessutom utifrån sitt verksamhetsuppdrag vara väl anpassade för att arbeta elevutvecklande med digitalisering. Då det finns möjligheter för elevcentrerad, kreativ, kommunikativ, individanpassad och problemlösande undervisning genom fritidshemsaktiviteter, vilka tycks kunna komplettera skolans användning utav digitalisering.

  • 255.
    Fjärstedt, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Svedberg, Sara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    På resa genom Sverige: Ett brädspel om Sveriges natur2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    ”Förskolan ska sträva efter att varje barn utvecklar sin förståelse förnaturvetenskap och samband i naturen, liksom sitt kunnande om växter,djur samt enkla kemiska processer och fysikaliska fenomen”

    (Skolverket 2016)

    En väg till lärande är spel och liksom lekar kan spel motivera till lärande genom glädje (Hromek & Roffey, 2009). Detta arbete beskriver hur ett spel som främjar lärande genom glädje har utvecklats och utvärderats. Intresse för naturen har varit inspirationskälla till spelets innehåll och relevant forskning har varit till stöd i spelets utvecklingsprocess där Vygotskiljs teorier haft stort inflytande tillsammans med nyare tankar om kunskap som något subjektivt.

    Med den sociokulturella teorin som utgångspunkt växte brädspelet fram. Frågorna på frågekorten har formulerats med både öppna och slutna frågor. Målet med spelet var att främja diskussioner och samtal mellan barn och den tanken fick ligga till grund för frågornas utformning. Den traditionella iden om att ett spel ska vinnas av någon och lyckas bättre än andra valdes bort. Barnen spelar tillsammans och ska gemensamt bygga ett torn och vinna över spelet i stället för att de ska vinna över varandra. Efter att beslut tagits om spelets struktur och uppbyggnad skapades frågekategorier och frågekort. Djur och natur är ett övergripande tema och kategorierna är naturmiljöerna staden, ängen/jorden, havet, luften, sjöar/åar och skogen. En konstnär kontaktades för den fysiska utformningen av spelplanen. När spelet var färdigställt kontaktades fem förskolor för att testa spelet i sina respektive barngrupper. Efter två veckor svarade anställda på förskolorna på en enkät med frågor som berörde frågeställningar om barnssamtal, samarbete och lärande. Förskollärarna beskrev en upplevelse av att barnen diskuterar inte bara frågorna utan också spelplanen, tärningen och andra delar av spelet. De beskrev även en upplevelse av att barnen villigt samarbetar för att vinna över spelet när de förstod spelidén och att de under spelets gång lärde sig nya saker, både genom spelet och av varandra.7

    Baserat på de resultaten är slutsatsen att spelet kan användas som ett pedagogiskt verktyg för att främja samtal, samarbete och lärande. Förskollärarna på testförskolorna ser positiva utvecklingsmöjligheter hos barnen med spelets hjälp. Under arbetets gång utkristalliseras andra utvecklingsområden för spelet. Det var bland annat att digitalisera frågekorten, skapa en version där barnen kan diskutera mer själva utan vuxna samt versioner med andra ämnen än naturvetenskap.

  • 256.
    Flink, Matilda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Förskollärares synsätt på barns lek i förskolan: Intervjustudie om förskollärares delaktighet i barns lek och förhållandet mellan lek och lärande2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I examensarbetet undersöks förskollärares synsätt på barns lek i förskolan. Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur förskollärare ser på barns lek och hur de ser på sitt eget deltagande i barns lek, även hur förskollärare ser på sitt deltagande i barns lek i förhållande till barns lärande. Metoden som har använts i studien är strukturerade intervjuer med 7 förskollärare som har mellan 1-40 års erfarenhet och som arbetar på 3 olika förskolor. Studiens resultat visar på att lek och lärande enligt förskollärarna hör ihop och att deras deltagande i leken har betydelse. Förskollärarna menar att de behöver vara närvarande och delta men att det kan ske på olika sätt. Ibland behöver förskolläraren ta en aktiv mer styrande roll i leken och andra gånger endast finnas närvarande på avstånd. Slutsatser som kan dras från studien är att förskollärarna anser att barn lär sig mer i leken om förskollärare är delaktiga och har ett syfte med deltagandet, men de anser även att barn behöver få prova på själva och lära av varandra.

  • 257.
    Florin, Katarina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Hedlund, Elisabet
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Åkerblom, Erika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Differentiation And Access to Higher Education2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Differentiation And Access To Higher Education

    Education can be used to create a transition from one status to another, a way to create opportunities for citizens and societies. In this paper our focus is on groups that are created for one reason or another as a burden. There are people in society who are regarded as an expense and something that must be taken care of. A collection of individuals that despite large individual variations are lumped together under a common concept - the group with intellectual disabilities. This group has traditionally been prevented from attend to higher education for many reasons. The most obvious is the notion of an inability to assimilate and utilize higher education although it is generally accepted that there is a large span regarding intellectual capacity in this constructed homogenous group. If we instead choose to view human as beings where intellectuals variations is a rule rather than an exception the obvious question should be: how do we find the fundamental values and sufficient funds to make education a form of transition to best serve all people in a community? Instead the educational systems are created in accordance to current discourses and notions about human beings capacity and abilities that means that the system automatically includes and excludes. The educational system in that sense is a practice, an act in which discursive power is staged (Beronius, M. 1986, Olsson, U. 1997). In Sweden the current educational system does not give pupils diagnosed with intellectual disabilities access to higher education. In a previous paper Florin, K., Hedlund, E. and Akerblom, E. (2014), studied subjects' constructions in a project at the University of Gävle. The project was an experiment in which 14 individuals diagnosed as persons with intellectual disabilities were given the possibility of a three-year education at the University. The project is now depleted and a final report is published. The term “project” itself shows that the education was a test or a trial and not something that initially was assumed to be given in higher education. In this paper our aim is through a discourse analysis study if and how the construction of “the other” legitimize the existent of the project.

    Method

    Methodologically the contribution is based on discourse analysis (Foucault, M. 2003; Foucault, M. 2006). We are interested in how the construction of “the other” legitimizes the existence of the above mentioned project. By using discourse analysis it is possible to visualize the power in words and language and how it is staged in practices (Foucault, M. 1993, 1971). The focus here is not on what the words mean, but what they do (Derrida, J. 1998; Foucault, M. 1993, 1971). Our starting point is that policy bills are an expression and a part of current discourse, that is, manifestations which are made possible in and through discourses, in this case by the construction and the notion of "the other". (Hajer, M.A., 1995; Arts, B. & Van Tatenhove, J., 2005)

    Expected Outcomes

    One expected outcome is that the constructions of the student in the project both legitimize the start and closure of the project. These students are constructed as being beyond what already is portrayed as "the other" e.g. students with dyslexia, cerebral pares, visual impairment, etc. The discourse does not allow the idea that people with intellectual disabilities are a natural part of higher education. Changes in education policy are a dynamic process in a context of interaction between agents and ideas, and in this, a number of problems, solutions and efforts are suggested. A contribution could be to see how different agents create the conditions in the current context that allows or prevents transitions in higher education. Another contribution could be to initiate a discussion about fundamental values and sufficient funds to make education a form of transition to best serve all people in a community.

    References

    Arts, B. & Van Tatenhove, J., (2004) Policy and power: A conceptual framework between the old and the ´new´ policy idioms. Policy Science (2004), 37:339-356. Beronius, M. (1986). Den disciplinära maktens organisering- Om makt och arbetsorganisation. Lund: Arkiv avhandlingsserie 23.  Derrida, J. (1998). Of grammatology. (Corrected ed). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Florin, K., Hedlund, E.& Åkerblom, E. (2014). Life long learning for all. (ed.) İbrahim Yalin. International conference on interdisciplinary research in education: New trends in interdisciplinary education. Milano: Icoine. Foucault, M. (1993, 1971). Diskursens ordning Installationsföreläsning vid College De France Översättning Rosengren, M. Stockholm: Brutus Östlings Förlag Symposium, Originalets titel: L’ordre du discours. Foucault, M. (2003). Regementalitet i Fronesis Lag och ordning 14-15 Göteborg: Tidskrift föreningen Fronesis. Foucault, M. (2006). Biopolitikens födelse i Wennerhag, M & Unsgaard (red.) (2006) Fronesis Liberalism  22-23 Göteborg: Tidsskriftsföreningen Fronesis Hajer, M.A., (1995). The politics of Environmental Ddiscourse: Ecological modernization and a Policy Process. Oxford: Oxford university press. Hälsoinspiratörsprojektet (2014) Utveckling av högskoleutbildning för studenter med utvecklingsstörning 2011-1014. Gävle: Institutet för inkludering och optimalt lärande samt Nationella samverkansgruppen för livslångt lärande och arbete för personer med utvecklingsstörning. Olsson, U. (1997). Folkhälsa som pedagogiskt projekt: bilden av hälsoupplysning i statens offentliga utredningar. Uppsala:Uppsala Studies in Education No 72.

  • 258.
    Florin, Katarina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Åkerblom, Erika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Hedlund, Elisabet
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Lifelong learning for all?2014In: International conference on interdisciplinary research in education: New trends in interdisciplinary education / [ed] İbrahim Yalin, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a story about lifelong learning in a Swedish context. The need for lifelong learning is a recurring issue in the political discussions and media reporting. According to Delors (1996), lifelong learning is a prerequisite for modern society. A common way to discuss lifelong learning is to make a difference between formal, informal and non-formal learning. According to Dunn (2003), non-formal learning is about skills, knowledge, attitudes and behaviors that people acquire in their daily lives. We on the other hand believe that all kinds of learning always include the above concepts and that the discussion of lifelong learning is about creating certain subject. Our aim is to visualize desirable subjects through discourse analyze (Foucault,1980). The empirical material consists of curricula and syllabi for a project at the University of Gävle in which individuals with intellectual disabilities are offered education at post-secondary level.

  • 259. Forsberg, Eva
    et al.
    Mikhaylova, Tatiana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Hallsén, Stina
    Melander Bowden, Helen
    Supplementary tutoring in Sweden and Russia: A safety net woven with numbers2019In: New Practices of Comparison, Quantification and Expertise in Education: Conducting Empirically Based Research / [ed] C. Elde Mølstad & D. Pettersson, London & New York: Routledge, 2019, p. 207-229Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 260.
    Forsberg, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Nihlfors, Elisabet
    Uppsala universitet.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Skott, Pia
    Stockholms universitet.
    Codification of present Swedish Curriculum Processes: Linking Educational Activities Over Time and Space2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 261.
    Forsberg, Eva
    et al.
    Department of Education, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nihlfors, Elisabet
    Department of Education, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education. Department of Education, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Skott, Pia
    Department of Education, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Codification of Present Swedish Curriculum Processes: Linking Educational Activities over Time and Space2017In: Bridging Educational Leadership, Curriculum Theory and Didaktik: Non-affirmative Theory of Education / [ed] Uljens, Michael & Ylimaki, Rose M., Cham: Springer, 2017, 1, p. 363-393Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this chapter is to explore the relationship between curriculum and leadership research with examples of three recently completed mixed methods studies of assessment cultures and leadership as interlinked activities of governance and school management. We employ curriculum theoretical concepts like e.g. codes and arenas to illustrate their usefulness as a point of departure to further theorize a changing educational landscape. In our study, we illustrate how curriculum and leadership research are historically linked. We put forward some concepts to address the increased complexity of the governance system, and we stress the need to strengthen how different ways of forming the steering system interplay with key curriculum questions. Leadership researchers have, to a large extent, studied school development on a municipality- and organizational level asking questions on how to manage and guide school development. In contrast, curriculum researchers have studied school development from a reform- and governmental perspective more asking questions on how to steer educational development through law, curricula and evaluation. We suggest that these research traditions ought to be further united in order to develop both traditions in less normative, and more, critical ways, and to answer crucial educational questions in glocal times (Marginson and Rhoades. Conceptualising global relations at the glonacal levels. Paper presented at the annual international forum of the Conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Richmond, VA, November 15–18, 2001). This chapter concludes with an argument for a new comparative curriculum code due to major shifts including curriculum practices, message systems, levels, arenas and number of curriculummakers engaged.

  • 262.
    Forsberg, Eva
    et al.
    Department of Education, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nihlfors, Elisabet
    Department of Education, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science. Department of Education, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Skott, Pia
    Department of Education, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Curriculum Code, Arena, and Context: Curriculum and Leadership Research in Sweden2017In: Leadership and Policy in Schools, ISSN 1570-0763, E-ISSN 1744-5043, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 357-382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes the development of the Swedish curriculum-theory tradition with a focus on different curriculum practices, educational message systems, arenas, and curriculum makers. Attention has been paid to different places, spaces, and times in relation to the selection, ordering, and manifestation of knowledge, norms, and values, as well as the management and organization of education. Curriculum and leadership research and changes in Swedish education are described and we introduce the comparative curriculum code as a codification of the contemporary changes in the education system and their consequences for the selection and ordering of knowledge and students.

  • 263.
    Forsberg, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Nihlfors, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Skott, Pia
    Stockholm University.
    Commodification of Present Swedish Processes: Linking Educational Experiences Over Time and Space2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives or purpose. In Sweden and other Nordic countries the formation of educational systems has primarily been an issue for the national state in a rather homogenous society. Today, governance of education is embedded in global movements and a multicultural society influencing the role and function of the state. We will use two empirical cases, based in three recently completed research projects, to illuminate how curriculum and leadership research have worked in tandem to explain and develop both policy and practice. The cases focus on the assessment culture of the Swedish schools and implications of changes in governance for local educational leadership.

    Perspectives or theoretical framework. In the Swedish curriculum theory tradition, the curriculum has been analyzed as a pedagogical, a political, a practical and research problem. In order to analyze data and develop curriculum and leadership research the central concept of curriculum code (Lundgren 1977) is further elaborated. We pay attention to different levels, actors and contexts in an era dominated by governance, new public management, accountability and international comparative tests. With mass education from preschool to higher education, marketization and an increasing number of stakeholders the complexity of education governance has also increased and curriculum processes have taken new forms. Lundgren elaborated the concepts of steering group, codes and contexts. Codes relate to the purpose, content and method of a curriculum. He raised questions on how the frames were constituted, and identified historically developed curriculum codes manifested in the selection and organization of school knowledge (e.g. Lundgren, 1977). Shifts in codes were related to changed relations between production and reproduction (Lundgren, 1983); neither the purposes of education nor the subject content were taken for granted.

    Methods. In a recent empirical study, we used questionnaires, interviews and policy texts with analyses grounded in both curriculum theory and leadership research. The empirical base is Sweden from the late 1980s up until today, a highly reform intense period. Findings are presented, focusing especially on governance, leadership and assessment cultures. We include comparative studies and studies covering all 290 Swedish municipalities using both surveys and case studies.

    Results and/or substantiated conclusions. By using empirical findings from projects relating curriculum activities taking place on different levels with a focus on interlinked curriculum processes, we discuss these processes and further develop contemporary curriculum theory.  We address conceptual issues on curriculum making including educational leadership as practice and actors. By linking research on curriculum theory with leadership studies, it is possible to attend to these problems simultaneously.

    Scientific or scholarly significance. In conclusion, this paper is scanning new horizons for how to develop curriculum theory further as a relational practice appearing in various contexts. Specifically, we posit a new code to explain the contemporary situation for curriculum-leadership.

  • 264.
    Forsberg, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Nihlfors, Elisabeth
    Uppsala universitet.
    Skott, Pia
    Uppsala universitet.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Education.
    Codification of present Swedish curriculum processes: linking educational activities over time and space2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 265.
    Forsell, Johanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Wåhlin, Joanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Pojke eller flicka? Individ!: En kvantitativ enkätstudie om genus och könskränkningar i förskolan2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med studien är att synliggöra förskollärares uppfattning om och förståelse för begreppen genus och kränkningar, samt om examensåret har någon skiljaktig betydelse. Som en förlängning är syftet även att synliggöra förekomsten och utsträckningen av könsskillnader, skillnader i bemötande och könskränkningar i förskolan.

     

    Metod: Studien är av kvantitativ metod för att sammanställa en större andel förskollärares uppfattningar om och förståelser för begreppen samt för att ha möjligheten till en statistisk sammanställning av syftets förlängning. Studiens data samlades in genom en enkätundersökning i pappersformat som delades ut personligen. Urvalet gjordes genom mailkontakt med förskolechefer och vidare kontakt med förskollärare inom förskolechefernas förskoleområden. Urvalet bestod av 60 förskollärare. Efter sammanställning av enkäterna har materialet kategoriserats och/eller förts in i tabeller och diagram.

     

    Resultat: Syftets första del presenteras i tabeller med en del av respondenternas svar, i form av citat, indelade efter examensår och placerade under passande kategorier. Följande kategorier har analyserats fram inom genusbegreppet: socialt kön, biologiskt kön, jämställdhet, förhållningssätt, arbetssätt och förväntningar. I avsnittet om kränkningar har följande kategorier tagits fram: mottagaren avgör, särbehandling, auktoritet samt generella verbala och fysiska uttryck. Förlängningen av syftet presenteras i diagram som visar antalet förskollärare som anser att könsskillnader, skillnader i bemötande och könskränkningar förekommer i förskolan samt sammanställningar av följdfrågor som innefattar var, i vilka situationer, mellan vilka relationer och hur ofta dessa ageranden sker.

     

    Slutsats: Efter analys av och diskussioner om resultatet kan vi konstatera att uppfattningen om och förståelsen för begreppen genus och kränkningar skiljer sig individuellt mellan förskollärarna. Detta betyder att examensåret, i det stora hela, inte har någon betydelse för uppfattningen och förståelsen. Vi kan även konstatera att könsskillnader, skillnader i bemötande och könskränkningar förekommer i olika utsträckningar i förskolan. Hallen och den fria leken är den mest utsatta platsen och aktiviteten för dessa ageranden.

  • 266.
    Forslund, Rasmus
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Tabeshnia, Alexandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Förutsättningar för digitalt användande i fritidshem2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Barnen idag växer upp i ett digitaliserat samhälle, ett samhälle som ställer högre krav på individernas digitala kompetens. Tekniken utvecklas och förnyas ständigt och det är viktigt att skol och fritidsverksamheten hänger med i utvecklingen. Skolan och fritidshemmet har ett ansvar att utbilda eleverna i digitalt användande för att utveckla digital kompetens hos eleverna. Därför har vi i detta arbete valt att undersöka om fritidsverksamheten har de förutsättningarna som krävs för att uppnå målsättningarna gällande digitala verktyg som finns i styrdokumenten. Studien innefattar både en kvalitativ och kvantitativ metod där vi genomfört både enkäter och intervjuer. Resultatet av studien visar att fritidslärarna i vissa fall saknar kompetens för att bedriva digitala aktiviteter och att det saknas formell utbildning i digitalt användande hos fritidslärarna.

  • 267.
    Foss Lindblad, Rita
    et al.
    Borås University.
    Lindblad, Sverker
    University of Gothenburg.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Wärvik, Gun-Britt
    University of Gothenburg.
    Coproduction of Comparative Education Research and Welfare State Education Policy2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this study is the intimate relations between educational research and its social and political embeddings, seen through the lenses of international large-scale assessments (ILSA) such as the IEA TIMSS- and the OECD PISA-programs. While increasing influence of these assessments on educational policies is widely recognized (e.g. Ozga & Lingard, 2007) and the meta-theoretical rationality on which they are operating (Grek, 2009), the constitutive elements and dynamics involved in producing their success stand out as a more open question (e.g. Wagner, 1987, on national variations).

    Our case is the transition of Swedish Welfare State (SWS) after WW2 and the development of international comparative research in education. With the specific ambition of not letting us fall into the pitfalls of science/politics dichotomies, we are addressing the dynamics of science/society coproduction (Nowotny et al, 2003; Jasanoff et al, 2001). This case is of significant interest: Firstly, the SWS had a recognized centralistic organization with high reliance on science (Fridjonsdottir, 1987). This organization restructured thoroughly in the 1990s with an increasing emphasis of ILSA (Lindblad, Pettersson & Popkewitz, 2015). Secondly, in the emergence of international assessments Swedish researchers played an important role (Husén & Postlethwaite, 1996). The specific time-space reveals uneven patterns in science/society coproduction where IEA is manifesting success as well as a breaking-point in a today highly weakened regime of how the relevance of international comparative education is to be secured, and what this means.

    Our study is based on a combination of policy documents from state commissions and parliamentary bills, research reports and evaluations of ongoing changes in policy and research as. We identified characteristic phases in the welfare state governance from expansion and centralistic governance over deregulation and decentralization and later into the introduction of a voucher system and governing by results. The analyses resulted in three major conclusions:

    − At the start comparative education research was rare and had a humanistic base in comprehending education in other contexts. The emerging ILSA was based in the social sciences where comparisons centered on differences in efficiency over national contexts.

    − During the first decades of ILSA there was little evidence of societal relevance, e.g. in use for policy decisions and reform initiatives. However, the societal relevance increased drastically, given the restructuring of the educational system and the increasing importance given to supranational organizations.

    − ILSA was from the beginning strongly contextualized and dependent on external resources. The making of the IIE opened up new possibilities for ILSA in Academia, but it is the more recent changes in governance and changes in methodology as well as technology that has allowed the success and dominance of ILSA in research and policy discourses.

    Given these conclusions ILSA turned out to be a successful but contested approach to educational research. For the coproduction of science/society the combination of a strong emphasis on ILSA in social and political discourses on education plus the closing down of the International Institute of Education and the transfer of PISA studies to Pearson is congenial to this development.

    References:

    Fridjonsdottir, K. (1987). Social Change, Trade Union Politics, and the Sociology of Work. In The Social Direction of the Public Sciences (pp. 249-276). Springer Netherlands.

    Grek, S. (2009). Governing by numbers: The PISA ‘effect’ in Europe. Journal of education policy, 24(1), 23-37.

    Husén, T., & Postlethwaite, T. N. (1996). A Brief History of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (TEA). Assessment in Education: principles, policy & practice, 3(2), 129-141.

    Jasanoff, S. Markle, G. E., Peterson, J. C., & Pinch, T. (Eds.). (2001). Handbook of science and technology studies. Sage publications.

    Lindblad, S., Pettersson, D., & Popkewitz, T. S. (2015). International comparisons of school results - A systematic review of research on Large Scale Assessment in education. Stockholm, Sweden: Swedish Research Council.

    Nowotny, H., Scott, P., & Gibbons, M. (2003). Introduction: Mode 2'Revisited: The New Production of Knowledge. Minerva, 41(3), 179-194.

    Ozga, J., & Lingard, B. (2007). Globalisation, education policy and politics. The RoutledgeFalmer reader in education policy and politics, 65-82.

    Wagner, P. (1987). Social sciences and political projects: reform coalitions between social scientists and policy-makers in France, Italy, and West Germany. In The Social Direction of the Public Sciences (pp. 277-306). Springer Netherlands.

  • 268.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Edling, Silvia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Can school leaders make a difference in the protection of children’s rights against violence? : A Critical Discourse Analysis of Different leadership strategies at boarding school in Sweden2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 269.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    et al.
    Department of Education, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Edling, Silvia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Children's rights and violence: A case analysis at a Swedish boarding school2017In: Childhood, ISSN 0907-5682, E-ISSN 1461-7013, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 51-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the article highlights various conceptions of violence at a Swedish boarding school and is based on a critical discourse analysis of different educational and media documents. The investigation indicates that ambitions to protect children from violence need to overcome the dichotomy of private and public in order to protect children affected by violence in the borderland between the private and public spheres.

  • 270.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Edling, Silvia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Neoliberal policy paradigm in Teacher Education in Argentina and Sweden : Strategy for increase quality and teacher profession status?2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 271.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Edling, Silvia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    When The Convention of The Rights of the Child is Not Enough: Civil Disobedience from a Research Perspective2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The weaker juridical nature of the Convention of the Rights of the Child (CRC) in relation of national laws is often an obstacle when it comes to implement the articles in European national contexts. For instance, Sweden has a national legal structure that gives priority to Swedish acts in favour of international conventions. Only National acts and ordinances as well as certain EU acts are binding sources of law. Therefore, except for certain EU acts, national acts always prevails before international jurisdiction, such as the Convention of the Rights of the Child (Schiratzki 2013).

    In addition, CRC stipulates several rights that are difficult to interpret on a national level (Schiratzki 2013). Several of the CRS rights, such as education, care and health, belong to the so-called second-generation human rights that require active action by the state to ensure their existence in practice.

    Unlike first-generation rights (also called freedoms or civic and political rights) that aimed to protect individuals from state interference, second-generation human rights (social, economic and cultural rights) are heavily dependent on the state's allocation of public resources. Consequently, there are often less strict implantations of second-generation rights in national contexts (Willems & Vernimmen 2017).

    Furthermore, previous research (Ahrnér 2006) shows that the CRC contains formulations that are ambiguous, diffuse and have different meanings in different contexts. Experience from Norway also (Schiratzki 2013) shows that incorporation of the CRC s in a national Act is not enough to defend childrens’ rights at national contexts. What is more, there is no international court that can punish a state that does not respect the convention. The UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (Child Rights Committee), located in Geneva, has the task of overseeing that States members implementation of CRC. However, the only possible sanctions that this UN committee can implement against a state that does not respect CRC are criticisms and pressures.(The Ombudsman for Children in Sweden 2015). 

    The weaker juridical nature of the CRC makes it interesting to investigate the existence of other strategies to guarantee Children’s rights within various national contexts that are not taken into consideration by national Acts. One of this strategy is civil disobedience.

    According to Brownlee (Fall 2017) “… on the most widely accepted account of civil disobedience, famously defended by John Rawls (1971), civil disobedience is a public, non-violent and conscientious breach of law undertaken with the aim of bringing about a change in laws or government policies. On this account, people who engage in civil disobedience are willing to accept the legal consequences of their actions, as this shows their fidelity to the rule of law. Civil disobedience, given its place at the boundary of fidelity to law, is said to fall between legal protest, on the one hand, and conscientious refusal, revolutionary action, militant protest and organised forcible resistance, on the other hand.” (Brownlee, Fall 2017)

    Starting from this most widely accepted account of civil disobedience (see Brownlee, Fall 2017) this contribution aims to introduce and discuss a research review about international research on civil disobedience as strategy to guarantee Childrens’ rights in education in national contexts. 

    Method

    Quantitative and qualitative thematic text analysis of peer review articles published in scientific journals found in ERIC (Education Resources Information Center), Web of Science Core Collection and Scopus, Legal Classic Library, Lexpress databases is used as methodology. The concepts “civil disobedience”, “children’s rights”, “Convention of the Rights of the Child” are used as keywords for the selection of the articles in these databases. Only articles in English, Swedish, Spanish, French and Hungarian published during the period 2010-2017 are selected. Starting from Hanna Arendts (1973, 2006) understanding of individual responsibility as theoretical stating point this research review focuses on the following research questions: • How is civil disobedience conceptualized in the selected articles? • Which theoretical starting points are used to study civil disobedience in relation to children’s rights in education in the selected articles? • In which extension is citizens’ individual responsability discussed in the analysis of civil obedience and children’s rights in education in the selected research articles? • Which research methodological starting points are used to study civil disobedience in relation to children’s rights in education in the selected articles? • Which ethical aspects are necesary to pay attention in the study of civil disobedience as strategy to guarantee childrens’ rights in education according to the selected articles? • What does international resesarch show about the reasons to use civil disobedience as strategy to guarantee children’s rights in education? • What does international research show about the impacts of civil disobendice on the implementation of children’s rights in education at national levels? This contribution will particularly pay attention in analysis of the research strategies used in the selected articles in order to deal with ethical aspects in the study on civil disobedience and children’s rights in education. Hanna Arendt (1973, 2006) understanding of individual responsibility is used as theoretical starting point to understand the reasons and the impacts of civil disobedience as a strategy to guarantee children’s right to education. 

    Expected Outcomes

    Focusing on Hanna Arendt’s (1973, 2006) understanding of individual responsibility, this research review contributes with new insights on the reasons and the impacts of Civil obedience as strategy to guarantee children’s rights in education. It contributes even to develop new knowledge about theoretical, methodological and ethical aspects in the field of children’ rights with focus on civil disobedience as strategy to implement CRC.

    References

    Ahrnér, E. (2006) Barns inflytande i förskolan – Problem eller möjlighet för de vuxna? En studie av ett utvecklingsarbete och dess betydelse för att förändra pedagogers förhållningssätt till barns initiativ. Licentiatavhandlingar vid Pedagogiska institutionen. Örebro universitet 3. Orebro 2006.

    Arendt, H. (1973). The origins of totalitarianism. (New ed. with added prefaces). New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich

    Arendt, H. (2006). Eichmann in Jerusalem: a report on the banality of evil. New York, N.Y.: Penguin Books.

    Brownlee, K. (Fall 2017), "Civil Disobedience", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (, Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = .

    Schiratzki, J. (2013) Välfärdsrätt i Sverige Juridisk Tidskrift, Vol. 2012/13, nr 4, 796-805 s.

    The Ombudsman for Children in Sweden (2015). Barnkonsekvensanalyser - Uppnå kvalitet i beslut som rör barn och unga. Hämtad från https://www.barnombudsmannen.se/barnombudsmannen/publikationer/genomfora-barnkonventionen/barnkonsekvensanalyser-uppna-kvalitet-i-beslut-som-ror-barn-och-unga/ [2017-11-21]

    Willems, K. & Vernimmen, J. (2017 ) The fundamental human rights to education for refugees: some legal remarks. European Educational Research Journal. ISSN 14-74-9041

  • 272.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    et al.
    Mälardalen University.
    Edling, Silvia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Sund, Louise
    Mälardalen University.
    What does research tell us on the interrelation between justice, sustainability and teacher education?2018In: / [ed] Nordic Centre of Excellence ”Justice through Education in the Nordic Countries” (NCoE JustEd), 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Justice issues are highly crucial and should be taken into consideration in order to stimulate social sustainable development in society (McKenzie, 2004; Ketschau 2015). At the same time previous research indicates that institutions of teacher education are an important arena for preparing future educators to create deep understanding and help address justice issues in social sustainable development within every day practice and on structural levels (McDonald, 2005; Apple, 2011; Kaur, 2012).

    In order, to develop new knowledge about the interrelation between justice, sustainable development and teacher education this contribution introduces a research overview about how justice issues are understood in peer review articles on social sustainability in teacher education.

    Frasers’ three-dimensional conception of justice based on the interrelation between the redistribution economic resources, the recognition of cultural differences and the political representation of different groups in society (1995; 1997; 2000; 2010) is used as theoretical starting point for the study.

    Quantitative and qualitative thematic text analysis of peer review articles published in scientific journals in ERIC (Education Resources Information Center), Web of Science Core Collection and Scopus databases is used as methodology. The concepts “sustainability”, “sustainable development”, “justice” and “teacher education” are used as keywords for the selection of the articles in these databases. Only articles published in English, Swedish, Spanish or French during the period 2015-2017 are selected. Based on Fraser’s three justice dimensions, the reading of the data focuses on:

    • How justice issues are conceptualized in the selected articles?

    • Which research methodologies are used to study justice the selected articles?

    Focusing on Frazer’s’ theory of justice, the research review introduced in this paper contributes to develop new theoretical starting points for the study of sustainable development in teacher education. The findings contribute to new insights in how the relationship between following fields of research can be grasped: Sustainable development (SD); Education in Sustainable Education (ESD), Research on Justice in Education and Research on Teacher Education

    References

    Apple, W.M. (2011) Global Crises, Social Justice, and Teacher Education. Journal of Teacher Education62(2) 222–234.

    Fraser, N. (1995) From Redistribution to Recognition? Dilemmas of Justice in a 'Post Socialist' Age New Left review 1(212):68-93 · July 1995

    Fraser, N. (1997). Justice interruptus: critical reflections on the "postsocialist" condition. London: Routledge.

    Fraser, N. (2000). Rethinking Recognition. New Left review 3 May-June 2000-2 p. 107-120

    Fraser, N. (2010). Scales of Justice, edited by Nancy Fraser, Columbia University: Press.

    Kaur, B. (2012) Equity and social justice in teaching and teacher education. Teaching and Teacher Education 28 (2012) 485e492

    Ketschau, J. (2015). Social Justice as a Link between Sustainability and Educational Sciences. Sustainability 2015, 7, 15754 -15771.

    McDonald, M. (2005). The integration of Social Justice in Teacher Education. Dimensions of Prospective teacher’s opportunities to learn. Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 56, No. 5, November /December 2005 418-435

    McKenzie, S. (2004). Social sustainability: towards some definitions. Hawke Research Institute Working Paper Series N°27. South Australia: University of South Australia.

  • 273.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    et al.
    Department of Education, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Parker-Jenkins, Marie
    University of Limmerick, Limmerick, Republic of Ireland.
    Edling, Silvia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Developing education policy to support the rights of refugee Children to Education: Reflections from Sweden and the Republic of Ireland2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper draws on research designed to provide an understanding of the Convention of the Right of the Child and policy strategies targeted to assist newly arrived refugee children in Ireland and Sweden.  The study analyses the responses of these two  European welfare states and the use of political strategies to support new refugee children’s right to education at a time of increased social, ethnic and religious conflict in the world. .

    We utilise ‘Social Representations Theory’ as a useful theoretical starting point for understanding education policy processes targeting specific groups and communities. In line with Moscovici (2001), Chaib & Orfali (Eds.) (2000), Jodelet (2011, 2015), we argue that the analysis of social representations gives relevant knowledge about how groups and individuals construct, communicate and share different versions of the world. Social representations are values, norms and knowledge systems that enable individuals to orientate themselves in their social world (Moscovici, 1984, 2000, 2001). These rep­resentation systems function as common explanations of the real world constructed and shared by members of a social group and are communicated through words, media images, objects and behaviours. Social representations are socially shared practical knowledge that aims to inform  social behaviours and communications and help individuals everyday transactions in a complex social world (Jodelet, 1989, 2011;2015) and deal with contradictions in relation to policies targeted for vulnerable groups (Gilly 1989).

    Method

    Methodologically, key political documents regarding current national strategies implemented by Irish and Swedish national authorities were analysed. The documents were analysed by posing the following questions: • Which social representations of refugee children are present in the education policies/ suggested in these texts? • Which strategies to guaranteed refugee children’s ‘right to education’ are related to social representations? • What do the responses of Sweden and Ireland tell us about regarding the relationship between social representations and strategies? Further, in relation to these questions, the reading of the texts focused on a number of aspects, such as: Descriptions of newly arrived refugee children in the political texts; arguments to legitimise the introduction of strategies. The extent of education policy on education for refugee children is included in these arguments; the emphasis on ‘children’s rights’ and the underpinning of human rights law in the form of the European Convention on Human Rights to which both countries are a party; references to leading research on Children’s rights and on Newly arrived refugee children in these descriptions and arguments for strategies. The analysed documents are the following: • The European Convention on Human Rights, • The Convention of the Right of the Child • The European Union Charter of Fundamental Rights, • The European Social Charter and UN Human Rights Treaties • The Irish constitution (Ireland) • The Aliens Act 1935& The Aliens Order 1946 (Ireland) • The amended regulations implementing the EU Rights of Residence Directives (Ireland) • The Immigration Act 1999 (Ireland) • National Budget for Ireland and Sweden 2014-2016 • National School Acts and school regulation documents for Ireland and Sweden • Swedish School Inspectore report 2014:03 Education for newly arrived refugee pupils Quality Evaluation [Skolinspektionens rapport 2014:03 Utbildningen för nyanlända elever, Kvalitetsgranskning](Sweden) • The Swedish National Agency for Education documents target to newly arrived refugees pupils (Sweden)

    Expected Outcomes

    This on-going research study demonstrates how social representations of child refugees can be used by political actors in leading education policy processes as an interpretation system to manage immediate political needs and to reconcile with European treaty obligations. Finally, the paper shows how education research focused on Children Rights can be used in the development of leading education policies targeted to assist vulnerable groups in Europe at a time of significant of global conflicts.

    References

    Capps R., Newland K., Fratzke S., Groves S., Fix M., McHugh M., and Auclair G. (2015) The Integration Outcomes of U.S. Refugees: Successes and Challenges. . Brussels: Migration Policy Institute Europe http://www.migrationpolicy.org/research/integration-outcomes-us-refugees-successes-and-challenges. Chaib, M. & Orfali, B. (2000) (Eds). Social Representations and Communicative Processes. Jönköping:Jönköping University Press. Gilly, M. (1989). Les représentations sociales dans le champ éducatif. In D. Jodelet (ed). Les représentations sociales.(363-386). Paris: Presses Universitaires de France. Jodelet, D. (1989) Représentations sociales: un domaine en expansion. In D. Jodelet, D. (ed). Les représentations sociales.(31-60). Paris: Presses Universitaires de France. Jodelet, D. (2011) Aportes del enfoque de las representaciones sociales al campo de la educación [Contributions from the Social Representations Approach to the Field of Education] Espacios en Blanco - Serie indagaciones - Nº 21 - Junio 2011 (133-154)http://www.scielo.org.ar/pdf/eb/v21n1/v21n1a06.pdf Jodelet, D, (2015) Représentations sociales et mondes de vie. Textes édités par Nikos Kalampalikis. Collection Psycologie du Social. Paris, Éditions des Archives Contemporaines. Kumin J. (2015) Kumin J. (2015) Welcoming Engagement: How Private Sponsorship Can Strengthen Refugee Resettlement in the European Union. Brussels: Migration Policy Institute Europe. http://www.migrationpolicy.org/research/welcoming-engagement-how-private-sponsorship-can-strengthen-refugee-resettlement-european McHugh M. and Sugarman J. (2015) Transatlantic Symposium Report: Improving Instruction for Immigrant and Refugee Students in Secondary Schools Brussels: Migration Policy Institute Europe. http://www.migrationpolicy.org/research/transatlantic-symposium-report-improving-instruction-immigrant-and-refugee-students Moscovici, S. (1984). Social representations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Moscovici, S. (2000). Social representations. Explorations in Social Psychology. Oxford: Black¬well. Moscovici, S. (2001). Why a Theory of Social Representations. In K. Deaux & G.Philogène (eds.). Representations of the Social. 8-35. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. Papademetriou D.G. (2015) Beyond Asylum: Rethinking Protection Policies to Meet Sharply Escalating Needs (Transatlantic Council Statement) Brussels: Migration Policy Institute Europe http://www.migrationpolicy.org/research/beyond-asylum-rethinking-protection-policies-meet-sharply-escalating-needs-transatlantic

  • 274.
    Fransson, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    A Culture of Trust or an Ideology of Distrust?: Comparing Finnish and Swedish Educational Culture and the Impact on National Mentoring Approaches2015In: Uncovering the Cultural Dynamics in Mentoring Programs and Relationships: Enhancing Practice and Research / [ed] F. Kochan, A. Kent & A. Green, Charlotte, N. Carolina, USA: Information Age Publishing, 2015, p. 253-271Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 275.
    Fransson, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    A theoretical contribution to research on ‘teacher induction policies’ and ‘mentoring policy’2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Mentoring is a global phenomenon. Even though the concept of ‘mentoring’ exists in different national and cultural contexts and is performed in a variety of ways, it is nevertheless a contested practice (Kemmis et al., 2014). The incoherent way of naming, framing and defining ‘mentoring’ has been discussed in the literature, in that different concepts, such as mentoring, coaching, supervision etc., have been used to describe the same phenomenon (cf. Gold, 1996; Sundli, 2007; Mullen, 2012;). For instance, Mullen (2012) writes that: “While some theorists think of coaching as a type of mentoring, others see the exact reverse – that is, mentoring as a type of coaching” (p. 9). Further, in the educational field a clear line is seldom drawn between ‘mentoring’ practiced in  initial teacher training and the ‘mentoring’ of newly qualified teachers. This may mean that the same phenomenon is described in different ways, or that different descriptions are applied to the same phenomenon.

    The purpose of this conceptual paper is to problematize how the concept of ‘mentoring’ is used in the literature to address the ‘phenomenon of mentoring’.

    Perspective(s) or theoretical frame­work

    In this study, a sensemaking perspective is used to acknowledge the processes of sensemaking and negotiation of meanings. According to Weick (1995), sensemaking involves three specific elements: a frame of past moments and understandings, cues of the present moment of experience and a connection in-between, Accordingly, ‘the content of sensemaking is to be found in the frames and categories’ (p. 111) that summarize past experiences. Thus, how the concept of ‘mentoring’ or the ‘phenomenon of mentoring’ is made sense of in individual or specific contexts is a result of negotiations of meanings.

    Methods and data

    The data for this conceptual paper comes from strategically chosen journal articles as examples of how the concept of ‘mentoring’ is used in different national and cultural educational contexts. A content analysis is performed to identify the various meanings of mentoring and the contexts in which it is used (Miles, Huberman & Saldaña, 2014).

    Arguments and con­clusions

    The analysis shows that major challenges in (accurate) sensemaking can be due to:

    (a)   language transformation (notions and concepts from one language are transformed into another language, most often into English, which can result in a change of meaning)

    (b)  context transformation (sensemaking of context specific circumstances may be difficult)

    (c)   context insensitivity (mixing up different ‘mentoring contexts’)

    (d)  phenomenon insensitivity (mixing up different phenomena, e.g. ‘coaching’, ‘mentoring’, etc.

    In certain contexts, some of these issues may be of minor relevance, whilst in others they may be vital for achieving (accurate) sensemaking.

    The paper draws attention to the importance of acknowledging linguistic, conceptual and contextual dimensions of ‘mentoring’ in the sense-making process in order to achieve stringency and coherence in research, for instance when research overviews are conducted to frame own research.

    References:

    Kemmis, S., Heikkinen, H., Fransson, G., Aspfors, J. & Edwards-Groves, C. (2014).  Mentoring of new teachers as a contested practice: Supervision, support and collaborative self-development. Teaching and Teacher Education. Vol. 43, 154–164

    Miles, M.B., Huberman, A.M. & Saldaña, J. (2014). Qualitative data analysis: a methods sourcebook. (3. ed.) Los Angeles: Sage.

    Mullen, C.A. (2012). Mentoring: An Overview. In S.J. Fletcher & C.A. Mullen (Eds.), The SAGE Handbook of Mentoring and Coaching in Education (pp. 7–23). London: SAGE.

    Sundli, L. (2007): Mentoring – A new mantra for education? Teaching and Teacher Edu­cation. 23(2). pp. 201–214.

    Weick, K. (1995): Sensemaking in Organisations. Thousand Oaks. California: Sage Pub­lications.

  • 276.
    Fransson, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Conceptual and contextual confusion? Making Sense of the Concept of “Mentoring” and the Accurate “Context”2018In: AERA-conference-deposit, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mentoring is a global phenomenon. Even though the concept of ‘mentoring’ exists in different national and cultural contexts, and is performed in a variety of ways, it is nevertheless a contested practice (Kemmis et al., 2014). The incoherent way of naming, framing and defining ‘mentoring’ has been discussed in the literature, in that different concepts, such as mentoring, coaching, supervision etc., have been used to describe the same phenomenon (cf. Gold, 1996; Sundli, 2007; Mullen, 2012).

    The purpose of this conceptual paper is to problematise how the concept of ‘mentoring’ is used in the literature to address the ‘phenomenon of mentoring’. I first discuss how the concept of mentoring can be used in different contexts and then conduct an in-depth analysis of how the results from one specific article (Aspfors & Fransson, 2015) are used by others. More precisely, I analyse how this article is cited and quoted by other scholars.

  • 277.
    Fransson, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Digital Dilemmas in Dilemmatic Space(s): Analysis of a Digitalized Society2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to critically analyse digital society from the perspective of dilemmatic space. The theoretical frame offers new ways of making sense of the digital society, and may provide new perspectives on how to manoeuvre (or not) in it. The theoretical framework is applied in relation to three themes of digitalised society: (a) the blogosphere and social networking communities (SNC), (b) file sharing, network control and surveillance; and (c) educational school context. These themes have been chosen in order to illustrate the different aspects of a digital society and to show how the theoretical framework operates when different aspects of these themes are placed in the foreground or background, i.e. emphasised or downplayed.

  • 278.
    Fransson, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Manoeuvring in a digital dilemmatic space: making sense of a digitised society2016In: Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, ISSN 1891-943X, E-ISSN 1891-943X, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 185-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although an increasingly digitised society offers a variety of options, it also implies challenges, risks and dilemmas for citizens, organisations and corporations. The purpose of this article is to critically analyse digital society from the perspective of dilemmatic space. The theoretical frame offers new ways of making sense of the digital society, and may provide new perspectives on how to manoeuvre (or not) in it. By taking dilemmas as the starting point, aspects such as uncertainty, plurality, options, challenges and decision making are in focus, as are processes of power, negotiation, identity formation, positioning and manoeuvring.The theoretical framework is applied and exemplified in relation to three digitised society themes: (a) the blogosphere and social networking communities (SNC), (b) file sharing, network control and surveillance, and (c) education. These themes have been chosen in order to illustrate the different aspects of a digital society and to show how the theoretical framework operates when different aspects of these themes are placed in the foreground or background, i.e. emphasised or downplayed. This implies that the unknown and unexpected must be taken into account, and that this involves having to manoeuvre in new, changing and ever present dilemmatic spaces.

  • 279.
    Fransson, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Mentoring in Sweden: A Narrative of Agreements and Fading Aways2019In: Abstract book, NERA 2019, 2019, p. 963-964Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Swedish society, mentoring is an issue which involves many stakeholders,including (a) the two teachers unions, as defenders of teachers rights, (b) school owners andmunicipals, as locally responsible for the schools and teachers and thus for mentoring, (c) TheSwedish National Agency for Education as a supporting authority and as responsible for theimplementation of standards the newly qualified teachers are evaluated against. Universities andteacher education institutions are not generally regarded as stakeholders even though they havedelivered some education for mentors. However, like in the other Nordic countries, teacherinduction is a complex ecosystem with different intentions and interests.In Sweden there have been some important milestones when comes to the formal implementation ofmentoring. In 1995, a national agreement was reached between the Swedish Association of LocalAuthorities and the two teachers’ unions (the Nation-al Union of Teachers in Sweden and theSwed-ish Teachers’ Union) emphasising school development. One component in this agreement wasthat it gave new teach-ers the right to be supported by a mentor and to participate in an inductionprogramme. However, it took some years until the issue of mentoring became more widespreadaround the millennium-shift, partly due to a feared lack of teachers, but after some years the issue ofmentoring started to lose momentum (Fransson, 2012). A second milestone was the 2008government proposal of a national mandatory induction system, with mentoring, a probationary yearand the registration of teachers as central components (SOU, 2008:52, Government bill, 2010). Inthe system, newly qualified teachers were expected to have a mentor and at the same time beingevaluated by the principal who decided whether or not the teacher was suitable enough to berecommended to earn the Teacher Registration. The reform, implemented in 2010 -2012 putmentoring in the foreground through legislation and boosted mentoring for NQTs. However, in mid2014 the principals’ evaluation of the NQTs was abolished and the teacher registration was earnedwhen graduation from teacher education. This lead to mentoring became less prioritized, even964though there are still obvious needs for it.The most actual challenge at the moment is to prove why mentoring should be put higher on the listof preferences of the educational challenges among a number of many issues calling for attention.Another issue which must be highlighted is the need and importance of education of mentors. As aconclusion, I suggest that the issue of mentoring has lately buried under other ‘more important’issues to a great extent, and the ecological niche for mentoring, so to speak, seems to have fadedaway even though the legislation is in place.

  • 280.
    Fransson, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Mentoring in Sweden: The rise, fall and present state of the actual2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this presentation the background, development and state of the actual regarding support to newly qualified teachers (NQT) and teacher induction system in Sweden will be outlined. The issue supporting NQTs became high on the educational agenda 2006 when an Official Investigation was launced and in 2008 proposed a national system national mandatory induction system, with mentoring, a probationary year and the registration of teachers as central components (SOU, 2008:52). This was implemented in 2010-2011 but severe challenges regarding the registration occurred leading to recurrent changes in the legislation regarding the legislation. Further, in mid 2014 the principals’ evaluation of the NQTs was abolished and the teacher registration was earned when graduation from teacher education. This lead to mentoring became less prioritized, even though there are still obvious needs for i. It is concluded that the issue of mentoring to a great extent since than has been buried under other ‘more important’ issues, and seems to have faded away even though the legislation regarding mentoring is in place.

    Implementing mentoring for NQTs may imply the implementation of education for the mentors. However, in Sweden it was just five out of 18 surveyed universities and university colleagues that gave an mentor education of 7,5 ECTS (five week of studies). In this presentations the present state of the actual in this matter for autumn 2019 will be presented as a summary of challenges to overcome if (agin) putting mentoring of NQTs higher on the educational agenda in Sweden

  • 281.
    Fransson, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Online (Web-based) Education for Mentors of Newly Qualified Teachers: Challenges and Opportunities2016In: International Journal of Mentoring and Coaching in Education, ISSN 2046-6854, E-ISSN 2046-6862, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 111-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report on a research project concerning a web-based (online) course for mentors of newly qualified teachers (NQTs). 

    Design/methodology/approach – A mixed-method approach with questionnaires and interviews was used to collect the data.

    Findings – Positive attitudes towards online education were discerned and initial concerns about the use of technical tools were dissipated during the course. It was found that the mentoring related content of the online course could be mediated. The most significant difference in the participants’ meaning making and ability to ‘connect theory and practice’ with ‘concrete knowledge’ was between those with experience of mentorship before or during the course and those without.

    Research limitations/implications – The study focuses on one cohort of mentor participants (n=18) attending one mentor education course.

    Practical implications – The paper contributes to the value of online education for mentors of NQTs and includes some practical recommendations for mentor education providers.

    Originality/value – This paper reports on an under-researched area. Research on professional development programmes for mentors in general is limited, and even more so when it comes to online education for mentors.

  • 282.
    Fransson, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Skilda världar för nya lärare2016In: Svenskläraren, Vol. 2, no 20, p. 20-22Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    De första åren som lärare är viktiga för viljan att stanna kvar och utvecklas i yrket. Men eftesom arbetsvillkor och kollegial stöttning skiljer sig åt kraftigt mellan skolor ges nya lärare skilda förutsättningar.

  • 283.
    Fransson, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Studieteknik och studentkompetens2016In: Pedagogik för högskolelärare / [ed] Tomas Hansson, Stockholm: Gidlunds förlag, 2016, 1, p. 42-69Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 284.
    Fransson, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Symposium Practices of Mentoring (Part III): ICT Mentoring Practices and the Potential Impact of Teacher Standards2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This symposium is the third part of a triple symposium, entitled “Practices of Mentoring”. In part 1, practices of mentoring in Australia, Finland, Norway and Hungary are studied within the theory of practice architecture. Part 2 introduces innovative practices for teacher induction which have been developed in the European PAEDIEA project.  In part 3, chaired by Göran Fransson, the focus is shifted to using ICT in mentoring and problematizing the impact of teacher standards on mentoring practices.

     

    The aim of the symposium is to contribute to a discussion of novice teachers’ professional development with the added dimension of mentoring in ICT-rich environments and the potential impact of teacher standards on those mentoring practices. This aim will be achieved by addressing the issue from different perspectives to get a broad picture of the challenges and opportunities. Questions that arise from the presentation include: What are the benefits of ICT as a medium to facilitate mentoring or learning to be a mentor? How does ICT as the learning object shape the mentoring practices? What is the potential risk of teacher standards fostering coaching rather than mentoring?

     

    The symposium consists of four presentations. The first presentation focuses on mentoring teachers in Scotland who are inexperienced in ICT, and are implementing iPads into the classroom. The second paper examines a Norwegian mentor’s experiences of providing professional development using ICT (i.e. Facebook) as the medium to facilitate the mentoring practice. The third paper presents ICT as the mentoring medium in a mentoring course for the mentors of NQTs in Sweden. The final paper concludes with a comparative analysis of standards for the registration of teachers in Australia, Scotland and Sweden. A word frequency and contextual analysis problematise the teaching standards and their potential to promote coaching rather than mentoring.

     

    These four papers contribute to the mentoring debates that focus on: the use of ICT, teaching ICT skills and the role of the teacher.Mentoring for newly qualified teachers is a common phenomenon in many countries and research on mentoring has been from a variety of perspectives. Considering the manifold of technological resources and social networking sites (SNS) currently available, an apparently under-researched topic is ICT in the mentoring of novice teachers – both as the content and as a medium for mentoring or mentor training.

     

    The use of modern technologies to overcome distances in communication and mentoring has given rise to terms such as e-mentoring and online mentoring (Butler, Whiteman & Crow, 2012). Technology-enhanced mentoring can be used as a complement to face-to-face-mentoring but can also be used as the main communication source with its pros and cons for interaction (Butler et al., 2012). However, challenges to the mentoring practice are equally recognised: ICT changing the learning process (Alvarez, Guasch & Espasa, 2009; Helleve, 2007); and the impact of paralinguistic cues in body language being absent (Price, Richardson & Jelfs, 2007). Another issue presented for consideration is how mentoring takes place when the learning object is ICT. This kind of question has to been seen against the backdrop that an increasing number of researchers in recent years have stressed the importance of including subject-matter issues in the research of mentoring novice teachers (Ulvik, Smith & Helleve, 2009; Donna & Roehrig, 2011). It remains important to analyse how: the mentoring of novice teachers is facilitated by ICT; the practices of mentoring are enacted to teach ICT skills; and the potential influence teaching standards have in redefining mentoring into a coaching endeavour.

     

    This project comprises examples from Australia, Scotland, Sweden and Norway, but it is also of key significance for many other countries where ICT and the mentoring of novice teachers may be used as a tool for professional development.

    References

    Alvarez, I., T. Guasch and A. Espasa. 2009. University teacher roles and competencies in online learning environments: a theoretical analysis of teaching and learning practices, European Journal of Teacher Education, 32(3), 321–336. Butler, A. J., Whiteman, R. S. & Crow, G. M. (2012). Technology’s role in fostering transformational educator mentoring. International Journal of Mentoring and Coaching in Education 2( 3), 233-248. Donna, J.D. & Roehrig, G. (2011). Taxonomy of Beginning Science Teacher Challange: The Importance of Context-Specific Induction. Paper presented at The American Educational Research Association (AERA) annual conference, April 8 – April 12, New Orleans, USA. Helleve, I. 2007. In an ICT‐based teacher‐education context: why was our group ‘the magic group’?, European Journal of Teacher Education, 30:3, 267-284. Price, L., Richardson, J. T. & Jelfs, A. (2007). Face-to-face versus online tutoring support in distance education. Studies in Higher Education, 32(1), 1–20. Ulvik, M., Smith, K. & Helleve, I. (2009). Novice in secondary school – the coin has two sides. Teaching and Teacher Education 25 (2009) 835–842.

  • 285.
    Fransson, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Så kan osäkerheten vändas2018In: Pedagogiska Magasinet, ISSN 1401-3320, Vol. -, no 3, p. 56-60Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 286.
    Fransson, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Understanding Morality and Ethics: Maneuvering Ethical Dilemmas in Digital Educational Contexts2017In: Teacher education for ethical professional practice in the 21st century / [ed] O. Dreon & D. Polly, Hershey: IGI Global, 2017, p. 72-97Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter provides a theoretical base for the understanding of moral and ethical issues in teaching. It outlines how teaching can be regarded as a social, relational and moral endeavor and discusses the moral and ethical dimensions of teaching and learning. Classical ethical frames, such as consequentialism, deontology and virtue ethics, are described and problematized as guiding frames for the process of moral decision-making. Bauman’s ideas about ethics in postmodern society are presented, including the notion of moral uncertainty and ambivalence in present-day society. Habermas’ (1996) discourse ethics, emphasizing communicative actions, are also introduced. The theoretical frame of dilemmatic space is proposed as an additional means of understanding and maneuvering through the complexities of modern everyday life, where varying norms and values and moral and political positions are taken into account. Conflicting views of how morality develops are presented and challenges for teaching morality and ethics outlined.

  • 287.
    Fransson, Göran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Web-based Education for Mentors of Newly Qualified Teachers: Challenges and Opportunities2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to report on a research project concerning a web-based (online) course for mentors of newly qualified teachers (NQTs). Research on mentor education in general is actually quite sparse (cf. Iucu & Stingu, 2013; Wang & Odell, 2002). In an overview of mentor education for mentors of NQTs (Aspfors & Fransson, re-submitted), it was found that only ten articles had been published on the subject in peer-reviewed scientific journals and that only two of them focused on mentor education facilitated by web-based software, technologies and pedagogies (McCrary & Mazur’, 2008; Sinclair, 2003). In this study, a mixed-method approach of questionnaires and interviews was used to collect the data. The major benefits of the web-based mentor course were found to be that it (a) facilitates distance studies, (b) allows people to study at their own pace, (c) makes it possible to listen to the recorded web-based lectures more than once, and (d) facilitates reflection. The initial technical concerns and discomfort with web-based interaction was mainly overcome during the course. The conclusions are that mentor-related content can be mediated in web-based form, that the teaching of such a course requires competence in mentoring and in the design and facilitation of online learning and the ability to deal with technical challenges that arise.

    References

    Aspfors, J. & Fransson, G. (Re-submit). [details removed for peer review] Article re-submitted to international peer-reviewed journal. Iucu, R. & Sting, M. 2013. Training Induction Mentors: alternative policy scenarios of Romanian educational system. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 76, 931–934. McCrary, N.E. & Mazur, J.M. (2010). Conceptualizing a narrative simulation to promote dialogic reflection: using a multiple outcome design to engage teacher mentors. Educational Technology Research and Development, 58(3), 325–342. Sinclair, C. (2003). Mentoring Online about Mentoring: possibilities and practice. Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning 11(1), 79–94. Wang, J. and S. J. Odell. 2002. Mentored Learning to Teach According to Standards-Based Reform: A Critical Review. Review of Educational Research, 72(3), 481–546.

  • 288.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Highly committed teachers: what makes them tick?: A study of sustained commitment2016In: Teachers and Teaching: theory and practice, ISSN 1354-0602, E-ISSN 1470-1278, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 896-912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on teacher commitment, and particularly on teachers displaying sustained high levels of commitment throughout their teaching careers (over 15 years). Graduates from one Teacher Education programme responded to an open-ended questionnaire conducted on 10 occasions concerning their work as teachers, from graduation in 1993 to 2013. Out of the 72 who responded on all nine occasions, eight teachers stating high levels of commitment throughout their careers were selected for additional interviews. A framework containing four commitment factors was used as the point of departure. Content analyses of the interview and selected questionnaire data then resulted in a revised framework of five factors: personal, teaching, school context, system context and professional development. Accounts from eight teachers with sustained high commitment illustrate the framework. The article offers an extended framework for understanding and categorising the factors that contribute to teacher commitment.

  • 289.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Exploring a conceptual framework to understand how principals balance the partly contradictory tasks of evaluating and supporting newly qualified teachers2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many countries it is argued that the “quality of teachers” is the most important school-related factor in pupils’ learning (Hattie, 2009; 2012). Teacher quality has become a key argument for teachers’ professional development. When it comes to newly qualified teachers (NQTs), in many countries the call for “teacher quality” has either led to reforms that support NQTs or reforms requiring an evaluation of their competence. In some countries these approaches are combined, with induction systems and mentoring that support NQTs and an evaluation of their skills to ensure quality. However, some research suggests that if the same person performs both roles it is more difficult to create and maintain a relationship based on confidence, openness and mutual trust that promotes risk-free learning (Author 1, 201*, Jones 2009). In some countries or states mentors perform both these roles (cf. Yusko & Feiman Nemser, 2008), whereas in others these two roles are separated so that mentors support and principals evaluate.

    The latter kind of system was introduced in Sweden in 2011, with mentors supporting NQTs and principals performing the evaluation (Government Bill, 2010/11). However, previous research shows that when the Swedish principals performed the assessment they also supported the NQTs (Author 1, Author 2, Author 3, 201*) in that they partly applied an instructional leadership (cf. REF) and gave post-observation feedback. However, being both an evaluator and supervisor can be challenging. For instance, Hinchey (2010) claims that teachers only improve their practice in relatively non-threatening contexts and that the assessment may challenge this (cf. Author 1, 201*; Range, Young & Hvidstone, 2013).

    A review of the research literature reveals that there is an urgent need for theoretical development in order to understand how principals enact and balance their roles as evaluators of NQTs and pedagogical leaders. In responding to this call, the purpose of the paper is: (a) to elaborate and discuss a conceptual framework that captures how principals enact and balance their roles as evaluators and pedagogical leaders in the context of evaluating NQTs and (b) to exemplify how data can be related to the framework.

    Theoretical framework

    The emphasis on and combination of supportive and evaluative dimensions are contained in the framework of a four-way table that includes “formal and structured evaluation” vs. “informal evaluation” and  “strong instructional leadership” vs. “weak instructional leadership”.

    The evaluation dimension is defined as the extent to which evaluations are scheduled, planned, directed by guiding formulae, how the different issues of the national standards are focused, time spent on the evaluation, the structure and focus of the follow-up discussions etc.   

    The instructional dimension is defined as how and how much guidance is given and how the NQTs professional development are facilitated. Here the focus is on guidance and feedback that contribute to developing the instructional skills or pedagogical thinking of the NQT. Positive feedback relates to the content included in the table. Positive feedback in a general sense, without connection to instruction, thinking or a situation, is not included. For instance, positive feedback heard in the corridor, such as: ‘colleagues say you perform well’, is not included in this dimension. Guidance can be absent or present, more or less extensive, or constructive and detailed.

    Methods/methodology

    The framework is developed by reviewing the research literature in the areas of teacher induction (cf. (Hobson, Ashby, Malderez, & Tomlinson, 2009), evaluation of NQTs (cf. Yusko & Feiman Nemser, 2008) and principals’ instructional leadership (cf. Neumerski, 2013; LaPointe Terosky, 2016). Most of the literature relating to principals’ instructional leadership focuses on teachers in general and not specifically NQTs (cf. Tuytens & Devos, 2017), but is nevertheless valuable.

    Drawing on and combining supportive and evaluative dimensions result in a four-way table framework with the following axes:  “formal and structured evaluation” vs. “informal evaluation” and “strong instructional leadership” vs. “weak instructional leadership”.

    This framework is then used in explorative analyses of data from a longitudinal research project in which five principals conducting a formal evaluation of NQTs are followed in the year of the evaluation. These five principals are regarded as cases. The NQTs being evaluated teach Years 4-6.

    Each principal is interviewed at least twice during the year (in total between 73-158 minutes), which forms the main data for the analysis. The interviews and analysis explore principals’ self-reported information regarding their strategies to enact and balance their role as evaluators and the support they provide. Using the software NVivo, codes are created based on content analysis (Miles, Huberman & Saldaña, 2014).

    Self-reported data needs to be looked at critically (Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Lee, & Podsakoff, 2003). To validate this kind of data: (i) observations and recordings of post-observation conversations (tot. 72 minutes) are performed with two of the principals (A and C) and their NQTs, (ii) joint interviews are conducted with three principals (A, C and E) and their NQTs (in total 130 minutes) and (iii) observations of three of the principals’ observations (B, C, D) are carried out. A coherent design of these validating strategies is not possible due to ethical and practical reasons. Three of the NQTs did not feel comfortable with the participation of an external researcher during the observations and/or post-observation conversations. Some of the planned observations were cancelled due to illness, the unavailability of the informant or were performed ad hoc and informally and were not observed or recorded.

    Expected outcomes/results

    Positioning the principals in the framework of the four-way table with the axes “formal and structured evaluation” vs. “informal evaluation” and “strong instructional leadership” vs. “weak instructional leadership” enables their actions to be positioned differently. Four out of the five teachers are positioned more towards “strong instructional leadership” and “formal and structured evaluation”, albeit with different emphases on the two dimensions. The fifth principal (E) is positioned more towards “informal evaluation” and “weak instructional leadership”. This principal describes his/her leadership as ‘leadership on the run’.

    The overall conclusion is that the theoretical framework enables principals to be positioned according to how their evaluative and supportive roles vary. Also, the quality of the data, for instance with regard to quantity, focus on relevant issues and different kinds of data (e.g. self-reported narratives, narratives from other actors such as NQTs, and first-hand information from the researchers’ direct observations) gives a much more informed analysis of the positioning in the framework. However, in this small-scale study, the different kinds of data do not contradict each other, but strengthen the conclusions and the positioning.

    Thus, the framework facilitates an understanding of how principals facilitate NQTs professional development in a context in which evaluative and supportive dimensions are applied. The framework could also be used to analyse how mentors balance the supportive and evaluative dimensions.

    References

    Author 1 (201*). [details removed for peer review]. Article published in international peer-reviewed journal.

    Author 1, Author 2 & Author 3 (201*). [details removed for peer review]. Paper presented at an International Annual Conference.

    Government bill 2010/11:20 Legitimation för lärare och förskollärare [Registration for Teachers and Pre-School Teachers]. The Swedish Government.

     Hattie, J. 2009. Visible learning: a synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. London: New York: Routledge.

    Hattie, J. (2012). Visible learning for teachers: maximizing impact on learning. London: Routledge.

    Hinchey, P.H. (2010). Getting teacher assessment right: What policymakers can learn from research. Boulder, CO: National Education Policy Center.

    Hobson, A. J., Ashby, P., Malderez, A., & Tomlinson, P. D. (2009). Mentoring beginning teachers: what we know and what we don't. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25(1), 207-216.

    Jones, M. (2009). Supporting the supporters of novice teachers: An analysis of mentors’ needs from twelve European countries presented from an English perspective. Research in Comparative and International Education 4, no. 1: 4–21.

    LaPointe Terosky, A. (2016): Enacting instructional leadership: perspectives and actions of public K-12 principals, School Leadership & Management,

    Miles, M.B., Huberman, A.M. & Saldaña, J. (2014). Qualitative data analysis: a methods sourcebook. (3. ed.) Los Angeles: Sage.

    Neumerski, C. M. (2013). Rethinking Instructional Leadership: A Review of What Do We Know About Principal, Teacher, and Coach Instructional Leadership, and Where Should We Go from Here? Educational Administration Quarterly 49 (2): 310–347.

    Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J.-Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 879–903. 

    Range, B. G., Young, S. & Hvidston, D. (2013) Teacher perceptions about observation conferences: what do teachers think about their formative supervision in one US school district?, School Leadership & Management, 33:1, 61-77.

    Tuytens, M. & Devos, G. (2017) The role of feedback from the school

    leader during teacher evaluation for teacher and school improvement, Teachers and Teaching, 23:1, 6-24,

    Yusko, B., & Feiman Nemser. S. (2008). Embracing contraries: Combining assistance and assessment in new teacher induction. Teacher College Record 110, no. 5: 923–53.

  • 290.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Rektorer och lämplighetsprövningen av nyutbildade lärare: En rapport från forskningsprojektet Rektors arbete och lämplighetsprövning av nya lärare: En studie av rektorers förändrade arbetsvillkor efter införandet av lärarlegitimation2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den 2 mars 2011 beslutade riksdagen att införa en legitimation för lärare och förskollärare samt att nyexaminerade lärare och förskollärare skulle genomgå en introduktionsperiod. Under denna introduktionsperiod skulle de få stöd av en mentor samtidigt som rektor eller förskolechef skulle bedöma deras lämplighet för yrket.

    För rektorerna innebär lämplighetsprövningen av nyexaminerade lärare nya arbetsuppgifter och ett formaliserat uppdrag att bedöma lärares skicklighet. Detta i samband med att rektorers arbetssituation har befunnits vara intensiv med en uppsplittrad vardag där många snabba beslut måste tas väcker frågor kring hur arbetets förutsättningar påverkar lämplighetsprövningen, och hur lämplighetsprövningen påverkar arbetsförhållanden och yrkesroller.

    I juni månad 2014 inbjöds 646 rektorer att besvara en enkät rörande lämplighetsprövningen. 248 rektorer svarade vilket ger en svarsfrekvens på 39 % (n=248). 159 kvinnor (64 %) och 89 män (36 %) besvarade enkäten. Nästan 60 % av rektorerna hade varit rektor på sin nuvarande enhet i tre år eller mindre. 77 % av rektorerna var verksamma vid kommunala skolor medan 23 % var verksamma vid fristående skolor.

    Resultaten visar att rektorernas upplevelse av lämplighetsprövningen är att den i huvudsak, om än i varierade grad, upplevts meningsfull och att rektorerna känt sig tillfreds med de lämplighetsprövningar de genomfört. Det förekommer mer spriddaåsikter om i vilken mån lämplighetsprövningen varit väl investerad tid och kraft. Lämplighetsprövningen har konkurrerat med många andra arbetsuppgifter men det finns ändå en tendens att rektorerna som grupp anser att den investerade tiden och kraften varit värt utfallet.

    Det råder oenighet kring i vilken mån lämplighetsprövningen bidragit till mer positiva relationer mellan rektor och den nya läraren, men att det råder relativt stor enighet om att lämplighetsprövningen inte nämnvärt försämrat relationerna. En sammantagen tolkning av detta är att något mer positiva relationer med de nya lärarna etablerats och att båda parter lärt känna varandra såväl professionellt som privat. Endast 12 % av rektorerna anger att de har fått någon utbildning i att genomföra lämplighetsprövningen. Rektorerna har haft ett begränsat stöd av huvudman eller andra rektorer vilket skapat ett frirum att genomföra lämplighetsprövningen på sitt eget sätt. Samtalen med mentorn har varit viktiga för rektorns bedömning. Vidare framträder lärarkollegiets informella bedömning dels som en viktig komponent i rektors formella bedömning, dels som ett viktig komplement till i rektors formella bedömning. Av de 137 lämplighetsprövningar som genomförts rådde viss tveksamhet i 10 fall och i två fall uppgav rektorerna att det råddestor tveksamhet. Samtliga 137 lärare bedömdes dock efter introduktionsperiodens slutsom lämpliga.

    Rektorers tilltro till politiker har påverkats negativt av alla turer kring lärarlegitimationen och att lämplighetsprövningen slutligen avvecklades. 73 % av rektorerna anser att deras förtroende för politiker minskat, medan 6 % anser att förtroendet ökat.

  • 291.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Frelin, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Grannäs, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Resources and Support for Principals’ Assessment of Newly Qualified Teachers During a Teacher Registration Reform2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    In July 2011 a teacher registration reform (TRR) and a probation year for newly qualified teachers (NQTs) came into effect in Sweden (Government Bill, 2010/11).

    It required newly qualified teachers and pre-school teachers to do a “probationary year” under the guidance of a mentor. Between July 1 2011 and July 1 2014 principals or pre-school managers were responsible for assessing whether the NQT were to be registered or not. The principals were expected to perform this assessment by following the national standards (competence profiles) developed by the Swedish National Agency for Education, the issuing authority. The purpose of this paper is to analyse and discuss (1) sources of support for assessment and (2) to what extent these supported the principals in the assessment of the NQTs. Data is drawn from a questionnaire answered by 248 principals, completed in 2014 within the research project “Head teachers working conditions and the evaluation of newly qualified teachers (the RAOL-project)”

    The TRR is another example of travelling policies in a globalized world, in this case with origin in Scotland and Canada. Some contextual policy learning adjustments (Lingard, 2010; Waldow, 2009) were made regarding the standards, but almost no adjustments regarding the structure and focus of the reform. As a consequence, parts of the reforms have been adjusted or withdrawn at several occasions. One major policy retreat was made in June 2013 when the Minister of Education, the Presidents of two teacher unions, representatives of The Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions and The Swedish Association of Independent Schools made a joint statement to withdraw the assessment of NQTs. Hence, the implementation of the Swedish TRR and the assessment of NQTs can be viewed as an example of policy borrowing and the challenges encountered when reforms are implemented prior to a completed policy learning processes. From July2014 the assessment ceased to be part of principals’ task.

    Thus, this paper offers unique data from a specific time period with particular tasks and working conditions for principals. Swedish research on how principals assess and evaluate teachers' skills is largely absent, but similar international research indicates the need to explore how such assessments are performed. For instance, Kimball & Milanowski (2009) found that head teachers vary their evaluations over time and in relation to subjective values, and that their evaluations seem to be based on intuition and instinct rather than carefully formulated and objective criteria.

    Recent studies show that the working conditions for principals are intense with fragmented working days during which many quick decisions have to be made (Day, 2000; Nihlfors & Johansson, 2013).  Research on school leaders' working conditions (e.g. Swedish Work Environment Authority, 2011; Ludvigsson, 2009; Schools Inspectorate, 2010) raise questions on how working conditions affect the assessment of NQTs, and how the assessment affects working conditions and the principal’s role and self-image (Federici, 2013). Principals operate in the intersection of different interests, expectations, tasks and roles (Nihlfors & Johansson, 2013; Törnsén & Ärlestig, 2014), which affect the psychosocial work environment. Interestingly, changes in the professional role were being handled differently by the principals depending on their career stage (The Swedish Research Council, 2011).

    Even though the main data reported here is Swedish, in times of policy travelling the results are of importance in a wider European perspective to help understand principals’ working condition and roles.

    Methods (max 400 ord)

    In June 2014, 644 principals were invited to answer a questionnaire and 249 responded, yielding a response rate of 38,5%. This may be considered relatively low, however, at this time it was generally known that the assessment would be phased out which probably reduced responsiveness. It should be noted that a similar questionnaire of principals conducted in December 2013 in another Swedish research project had a response rate of 31% (n = 106), wherein our response rate at a later stage can be considered relatively good.

    Three clusters of principals representing different municipals located in different regions in Sweden were invited, selected to ensure a diverse sample. The web questionnaire was sent to all primary, secondary and upper-secondary schools in three regions: a metropolitan area (1 municipality), major regional centre (8 municipalities) and rural locations (15 municipalities).

    The survey focused the following areas: school context, working conditions, assessment of the NQTs, support available for the principal, cooperation, the principals’ strategies in observation and assessment, issues regarding the reform and reform implementation. A typical type of response alternatives were 5-point likert scale. Some other appropriate scaling was also used as well as open questions.  

    The analysis of the quantitative data has been performed with the SPSS-software, in a first step through crosstab analysis. The questions analysed in this paper regard sources of support for assessment and principals’ use of these sources.

     

    Findings

    The analysis focused firstly on internal resources for assessment such as degrees from the national school leadership programme, experience of evaluating work performance from other professions etc.

    Secondly, outside support included interpersonal resources such as (a)school owner/administrative level, (b)fellow principals, (c)the NQTs appointed mentors, (d)teacher staff; and material resources such as (e)national/local competence profiles.

    The analysis of support indicated, for instance, that 69% of the principals reported low or no support from owner/administrative level in the assessment of the NQTs, that is, the management of the public or private school. 71% of the principals did not cooperate with other principals regarding the design of the assessment, while 7% say that they did, to a high or very high degree.

    A slightly higher proportion of support (10%) from fellow principals was reported regarding the actual assessment practice, a higher proportion of support (36%) from school staff and the highest (69%) from experienced mentors.

    12% of the principals report some form of training in assessment, which can be related to the fact that 40% of principals report that they, to a very high degree, report sufficient knowledge of conducting lesson observations, which is mandated in the assessment.

    No significant differences appear when data is related to principals’ gender or type of school (private or public). In sum, principals receive most support from their employees, which makes them which makes their assessment practice largely free from external control, for good or bad. The issue will be analyzed further.

    In terms of TRR, the centrally distributed competency profiles seem to be of relatively low use for assessment support in comparison to local collaboration with employees. This is an example of how policy becomes enacted rather than implemented, (cf. Ball et al, 2012) depending on principals’ local work conditions and organization.

    References (max 400 ord)

    Ball, S. J., Maguire, M., & Braun, A. (2012). How Schools Do Policy: Policy Enactments in Secondary Schools London & New York: Routledge.

    Day, C. (2000). Leading schools in times of change. Buckingham: Open Univ. Press.

    Federici, R. A. (2013). Principals’ self-efficacy: relations with job autonomy,

    job satisfaction, and contextual constraints. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 28:73–86

    Government bill 2010/11:20 Legitimation för lärare och förskollärare [Registration for Teachers and Pre-School Teachers]. The Swedish Government.

    Kimball, S.E. & Milanowski, A. (2009). Examining Teacher Evaluation Validity and Leadership Decision Making Within a Standards-Based Evaluation System. Educational Administration Quarterly. Vol. 45. No. 1. February 2009. 34–70.

    Lingard, B. (2010). Policy Borrowing, Policy Learning: Testing Times in Australian Schooling, Critical Studies in Education, 51(2), 129-147

    Nihlfors, E. & Johansson, O. (2013). Rektor - en stark länk i styrningen av skolan. [The Principal – a strong link in the Governance of School]. Stockholm: SNS förlag.

    Swedish School Inspectorate (2010). Rektors ledarskap. En granskning av hur rektorer leder skolans arbete mot ökad måluppfyllelse. [The Principals Leadership. Inspection of how priciplas leads the schools towards increased goal-fullfilment]. Skolinspektionen: Stockholm.

    SOU. 2008. Legitimation och skärpta behörighetsregler [Swedish Government Official

    Report 2008:52. Registration and stricter qualifying rules]. Stockholm: Ministry of

    Education and Research.

    Swedish Work Environment Authority (2011). Rektorers arbetsmiljö. En tillsynsinsats genomförd av Arbetsmiljöverket (AV), distriktet i Göteborg under 2009 och 2010. [Principals working condition. An inspection by the Swedish Work Environment Authority, Gothenburg region 2009-2010] ISG 2011/100102. Göteborg: Arbetsmiljöverket.

    Swedish Research Council (2011). Rektor – En forskningsöversikt 2000-2010. [Principals – a Research overview 2000-2010]. Vetenskapsrådets rapportserie. 2011:4. Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet.

    Törnsén, M. & Ärlestig, H. (red.) (2014). Ledarskap i centrum: om rektor och förskolechef. [Leadership in the center: about principals and pre-school managers]. Malmö: Gleerup.

    Waldow, F. (2009). Undeclared imports: silent borrowing in educational policy-making and research in Sweden, Comparative Education Vol. 45, No. 4, November 2009, 477–494.

  • 292.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Gallant, Andrea
    Faculty of Arts and Education, Deakin University, Burwood, Australia.
    Shanks, Rachel
    School of Education, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK.
    Human elements and the pragmatic approach in the Australian, Scottish and Swedish standards for newly qualified teachers2018In: Journal of educational change, ISSN 1389-2843, E-ISSN 1573-1812, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 243-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Teacher standards are used in many countries, but it has been argued that there is a disconnection between the standards and teachers’ everyday practices. Mega-narratives about teachers' practices have been recognised as powerful for educational change and when implementing and legitimising standards. In this comparative study, the standards for newly qualified teachers in Australia, Scotland and Sweden are analysed in order to determine the extent to which they contain human elements, here framed as contextual professionalism, and/or paradigmatic knowledge (Olson and Craig, 2009. This comparison facilitates an exploration of how teachers' work is envisaged in the respective countries and what is expected or required from newly qualified teachers.  The results indicate that the Australian and Scottish standards emphasise paradigmatic knowledge in teaching, whereas the now abandoned Swedish standards emphasise contextual professionalism in teaching.

  • 293.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Curriculum studies.
    Gallant, Andrea
    Deakin University, Australia.
    Shanks, Rachel
    University of Aberdeen .
    Standards for Newly Qualified Teachers in Australia, Scotland and Sweden: a Comparative Analysis of Focus and Rationales2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Standards for newly qualified teachers to gain full registration in Australia, Scotland and Sweden are analysed in a comparative perspective regarding the focus and rationales as teacher standards are “neither neutral nor impartial” (Down, 2012, p. 77; cf. Ball, Maguire & Braun, 2012; Lim, 2012). NVivo has been used for comparative qualitative content analysis with a focus on the meaning-making entities in the standards. The analysis indicates that the emphasis is mainly on applied learning with references to ‘demonstrate, draw on, know how to, be able to use’. The applied focus is on the performance of both teachers and their students alike. The overall tenet is that teaching and learning standards promote technical approaches towards teaching and learning, hence the emphasis on competence. This could potentially result in coaching practices being adopted to facilitate quantifying when standards have been achieved. A standard could equally be read as a goal (to be achieved). Another key finding is the similarity of Scotland’s (in terms of language usage and emphasis) and Australia’s teacher standards. Neither standards document appears to have anything that differentiates it culturally or that caters for the specific needs of the country in a globalised world. The Swedish standards, however, appear to have different and nuanced standards which reflect cultural differences and are connected to its national needs. With regards to ICT-skills, these are most explicitly addressed in the Australian standards (sections 2.6, 3.4 and 4.5), are referred to in the Scottish standards (sections 2.1.4, 3.1.3 and 3.2) while being implicit in the Swedish standards.

    References

    Ball, S. J., Maguire, M., & Braun, A. (2012). How Schools Do Policy: Policy Enactments in Secondary Schools London & New York: Routledge. Down, B. (2012). Reconceptualising Teacher Standards: Authentic, Critical and Creative, pp.63-80. In B. Down and J. Smyth (eds.) Critical Voices in Teacher Education, Explorations of Educational Purpose. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. Lim, L. (2012) Ideology, class and rationality: a critique of Cambridge International Examinations’ Thinking Skills Curriculum, Cambridge Journal of Education 42 (4) pp.481-495.

  • 294.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Holmberg, Jörgen
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Lindberg, J. Ola
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Digitalise and capitalise? Teachers’ self-understanding in 21st-century teaching contexts2019In: Oxford Review of Education, ISSN 0305-4985, E-ISSN 1465-3915, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 102-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The digitalisation of educational contexts has changed the prac- tice of teaching and learning. In this, teachers have a key role in enacting digital technologies for this purpose and have different opportunities to do so. This article explores how digitalisation can affect teachers by focusing on: (a) how teachers manage to capi- talise on digitalisation; and (b) how digitalisation can affect and reconstruct their self-understanding. Two teacher colleagues of English as a foreign language (EFL) in the same teaching team are interviewed and observed. Drawing on the interplay between self-image, self-esteem, job motivation, and task perception, it is shown how the teachers’ self-understanding is played out and changes due to the call for digitalisation. Whereas one of the teachers has been able to capitalise on digitalisation in a way that has been beneficial both professionally and personally, the other has felt pressurised by it. A conclusion is that a limited or extended use of digital technologies should not be taken as an indicator of teaching quality.

  • 295.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan (KTH).
    Jaldemark, Jimmy
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Lindberg, Ola J.
    Umeå Universitert.
    Lundin, Johan
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Svensson, Lars
    Högskolan Väst.
    Öberg, Lena-Maria
    Mittuniversitetet.
    On the Swedish National Grade School for Digital Technologies in Education – GRADE: Expectations and experiences of doctorial students and supervisors2018In: ICERI2018 Proceedings, 2018, p. 769-774Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish National Graduate School for Digital Technologies in Education (GRADE) is a cooperative venture between six Swedish universities established during 2018. Within the field of educational sciences and in the area of digital technologies in education, GRADE aims to strengthen the expertise in the area and to increase national and international cooperation in research training activities.

    Over a number of years, and from multitude of sources (cf. Brown & Davis, 2004; Fisher, Higgins & Loveless, 2006; Kafai & Resnick 1996), research has stressed that increased digitalization in schools leads to a complexity that needs to be taken into account on different levels, from different perspectives and with different designs, methodologies and theoretical perspectives (cf. Olofsson, Lindberg, Fransson & Hauge, 2015; Price, Jewitt & Brown, 2013; Tondeur, Valcke & van Braak, 2008). At a micro-level, the learning situation of students, teachers and school-leaders changes and it becomes important to deepen the knowledge about the impact digital technologies has on the fundamental conditions for teaching and learning of different school subjects (cf. Chun, Kern & Smith 2016; Leung & Baccaglini-Frank, 2017). On a macro-level, conditions for education as such changes and digital technologies becomes an important object of study as agents of change (Wong & Li, 2008). The digitalization of K-12 schools has long been highlighted in policy as a necessity (cf. Kirkman et al, 2002; OECD, 2010). However, research and evaluations (cf. Fransson et al, 2012; OECD, 2015; Wastiau et al, 2013) show that many substantial challenges remain. One of the fundamental pillars of GRADE is the interdisciplinary approach. Several disciplines are present (Applied IT, Curriculum studies, Education, Informatics, Technology and Learning, Educational work, Work-interated Learning) in researching digital technologies in K-12 schools with the ambition to contribute to the continued implementation, integration and use of digital technologies in Swedish K-12 schools that stems from the evidence-based knowledge produced within the activities of GRADE. The research within GRADE will be characterized by close cooperation with stakeholders from school practice, with the aim to contribute to concrete school development. In GRADE, a multi-level approach that involves multiple layers or levels of school activities will be encouraged. When possible, studies will be longitudinal. This will imply studies from an organizational and management perspective, e.g. studies of school leaders and other members of senior management positions responsible for digital technology use and implementation. Also implied are studies of teachers' teaching practices and didactical considerations, as well as studies of the students in classrooms and their learning using digital technologies. This will also imply that several issues with a bearing on the digitalization of education, for example regarding school policy, teaching, learning, assessment and professional development will be researched from different perspectives and with different methodological approaches. In this paper, these points of departure will be explored based on the expectations and experiences of the first twelve admitted doctoral students and their supervisors.

  • 296.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Lindberg, Ola J.
    Department of Education, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    Department of Applied Educational Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Adequate digital competence – a close reading of the new national strategy for digitalization of the schools in Sweden2018In: Seminar.net: Media, technology and lifelong learning, ISSN 1504-4831, E-ISSN 1504-4831, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 217-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the notion of ‘adequate digital competence’, as it is used in the 2017 Swedish strategy for digitalization of the school system, is in focus. Based on a close reading of the strategy, three dimensions are formulated for discussion: time, context, and interpretation. These dimensions open a more general discussion about the content of policies regarding digital competence. The notion of striving for an ‘adequate digital competence’ for children, students, teachers, school leaders, and other school staff is loaded with a variety of possible meanings. The strategy provides guidance in some aspects, but leaves a lot to local enactment of the strategy.

  • 297.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science.
    Lindberg, Ola J.
    Umeå Universitert.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    Umeå Universitet.
    Conditions for implementing ICT in Swedish upper secondary schools: How national strategies for implementation relate toexisting local educational practices2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The implementation and use of information- and communication technology (ICT) in education are high on the educational agendas of most countries. In principle, all western countries now have a policy or strategy for ICT in K-12 schools. Although countries may have similar economic preconditions, they often implement different ICT policies in school (Austin & Hunter, 2013; Ottestad, 2010).  ICT policies may also have different rationales and are often over-optimistic about ICT options (Convery, 2009; Egea, 2014; Jordan, 2011) and the use of ICT as a tool for teaching and learning in education (Hammond, 2014). Most research on ICT policies seems to focus on issues such as policy rationale or how policy is implemented in schools. However, few studies focus on the existing educational practices in schools as preconditions for ICT implementation. In this paper, the focus is on how policy implementation strategies, as they are understood in the recently proposed Swedish ICT policy, relate to already established educational practices in upper secondary school settings. Specifically, the aim of the paper is to discuss how policy implementation strategies relate to the existing local practices in three upper secondary contexts as preconditions for integration of ICT.

    Traditionally, policy has often been viewed as a top-down process, where policy is formulated in one arena and then realized in another (Lindensjö & Lundgren, 2000). However, policy formation processes are rather more complicated than that and can be understood as processes of interpretation and enactment (Ball, Maguire & Braun, 2012). Acknowledging these processes of policy formation (Edwards, 2012) is to acknowledge processes of micro-political manoeuvring, power and negotiation in practice, and to relate the policy enactment processes to the existing preconditions, structures and activities of the contexts in which the policy is to be realized. Thus, understanding how the proposed policy implementation strategies relate to existing practices as preconditions in schools may help us to understand what kind of challenges an ICT policy may face and to formulate more realistic expectations for the use of ICT in education.

    The kind of analysis that is suggested in this paper may also clarify why the implementation and use of ICT in school is so challenging and why there seems to be a discrepancy between expectations in the policy formulation arena and its use in the realization arena (Author 1, Author 2, Author 3 & Colleague, 20**; Tondeur, van Braak and Valcke’s, 2007). It has been suggested that national and political initiatives and governing have little impact on the use of ICT in school (McGarr, 2009). Rather, it has been emphasized that teachers want to see compelling reasons why they and their students should use ICT for teaching and learning (Howard, 2013; Lim, 2015). This might be related to ‘teacher culture’ and a reason why principals have been identified as key persons when implementing ICT. However, different leadership styles have also been found to give different results when it comes to implementing ICT (Hadjithoma-Garstka, 2011). Indeed, different leadership styles seem to fit different educational cultures. Implementing an ICT policy in local schools has been found to be a multifaceted phenomenon rooted in educational culture (Vanderlinde, van Braak, & Dexter 2012). If contextual matter is of importance for implementing ICT, it is therefore of interest to study how the proposed policy implementation strategies relate to existing educational practices in schools.

    Methods/methodology

    The discourse and qualitative content analyses of a Swedish national ICT policy (Miles, Huberman & Saldaña, 2014) identified several suggested strategies for its implementation. These were then related to data from a 4-year research project in three upper secondary schools ‘known’ for their advanced use of ICT for teaching and learning. However, the narratives of advanced use appear to have been projected onto the schools. It is possible to trace this to different specific contextual circumstances: for school A, to the reputation of the municipality regarding the use of ICT in its K-12 schools, for school B, to a specific centre of technology at the school sponsored by a private founder, and for school C, as being known for remote teaching. All three schools are so-called one-to-one schools, meaning that every student and teacher has their own computer.

    In the three municipalities involved in the project, interviews were conducted with three centralized ICT strategists. In each school unit (A, B and C above), interviews were conducted with the principals and with the local ICT coordinators. These interviews were conducted between September 2015 and February 2016 and focused on the use of ICT in schools in a general sense, policies and routines related to ICT, the challenges and opportunities with ICT, infrastructural issues and professional development for principals and teachers. In total, the three interviews lasted almost three and a half hours.

    Data has also been collected from teachers and students in the three upper secondary schools. At each school unit, teachers and students were interviewed and observations of the teaching situations were performed. These interviews and observations were conducted between October and November 2015. In school unit A, ten teachers and 13 pupils were interviewed and approximately 22 hours of teaching was observed. In school B, nine teachers and 15 pupils were interviewed and approximately 20 hours of teaching was observed. In school C, six teachers and 10 pupils were interviewed and approximately 9 hours of teaching was observed. In spring 2016 seven subject-oriented group interviews were conducted with in total 21 teachers. 

    Expected outcomes/results

    The analyses of the policy document identified the following ICT policy implementation strategies:

    (a) the importance of strategies and plans for policy implementation,(b) local processes of policy enactment, (c) principals strategic leadership,(d) professional development for teachers, principals and management, (e) organized collegial learning and(f) cooperation and strategic alliances.

    In this proposal, three of the strategies (c, d and e) are used to exemplify and discuss how they relate to existing practices in the three upper secondary schools as preconditions for ICT policy implementation. In the full paper, all six strategies will be discussed in relation to existing educational practices.

    Regarding principals’ strategic leadership (c): existing practices show that at present the extent to which the principals act as strategic leaders is not clear when it comes to digitization and the use of ICT in the schools. The principals express that digitization is important, but it is not clear which strategies they deploy and how they operate as active strategic leaders in this regard. The ‘ICT issue’ competes with the many other issues that principals have to deal with and does not seem to be prioritized or generate any significant activities.

    Regarding professional development for teachers and principals (d): there are several issues that teachers and principals are expected to learn about. Analyzing professional development regarding ICT at four levels – the municipal, school, collegial and individual level – suggests that teachers learn most about ICT and its use in teaching and learning at the individual and collegial level, usually as informal learning when two or more colleagues create an informal self-organized professional development activity around a specific issue, application or lesson. This kind of activity could be regarded as informal “collegial learning”. The strategy proposed for organized collegial learning (e) appears to be less frequent.

     

    References

    Author 1, Author 2, Author 3 & Colleague (20**). [details removed for peer review]. Published as an international book chapter. 

    Ball, S. J., Maguire, M., & Braun, A. (2012). How schools do policy: Policy enactments in secondary schools. London & New York: Routledge.

    Convery, A. (2009). The pedagogy of the impressed. How teachers become victims of technological visions. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 15(1), 25–41.

    Egea, O. M. (2014). Neoliberalism, education and the integration of ICT in schools. Acritical reading. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 23(2), 267-283.

    Edwards, D.B. (2012), “Researching international processes of education policy formation: conceptual and methodological considerations”. Research in Comparative and International Education, 7(2), 127-145.

     Hadjithoma-Garstka, C. (2011). The role of the principal’s leadership style in the implementation of ICT policy. British Journal of Educational Technology, 42(2), 311–326.

     Hammond, M- (2014). Introducing ICT in schools in England: Rationale and consequences. British Journal of Educational Technology, 45(2), 191–201,

     Howard, S. K. (2013). Risk-aversion: understanding teachers’ resistance to technology integration. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 22(3), 357–372.

     Jordan, K. (2011). Framing ICT, teachers and learners in Australian school education ICT policy. The Australian Educational Researcher, 38(4), 417-431.

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    Tondeur, J., van Braak, J., & Valcke, M. (2007). Curricula and the use of ICT in education: Two worlds apart? British Journal of Educational Technology, 38(6), 962–976.

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  • 298.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Lindberg, Ola J.
    Department of Education, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    Department of Applied Educational Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    From a student perspective, what constitutes a good (or less good) use of ICT in teaching?2018In: Education and Information Technologies: Official Journal of the IFIP technical committee on Education, ISSN 1360-2357, E-ISSN 1573-7608, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 2155-2177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates what upper secondary school students regard as good or less good teaching using ICT. 367 Swedish upper secondary students in 2 schools responded to a web-based questionnaire. The students were asked to describe one of their teachers who used ‘ICT in a way that made them learn very well, and one who used ICT in a way that made them learn less well’ and to describe what these teachers did and why their teaching was understood as good or less good. 18 themes were identified, of which 17 were combined into eight overall counterpart themes and one non-counterpart theme. ‘Clarity’ was the most prominent theme, followed by ‘teachers’ ‘ICT skills’, ‘uses ICT in a good way’, ‘fun factor’, ‘puts information on the LMS’, ‘varies the teaching methods’, ‘demonstrates how to use ICT’ and ‘general pedagogical skills’. The results show that although the specific focus is on students’ views of their teachers’ use of ICT, general pedagogical skills are a major focus in the themes. Effectiveness is an explicit theme in terms of ICT adding value to teaching and learning, while ineffectiveness is an implicit underlying dimension in the themes relating to less good teaching. It is also evident that the students value the same teacher’s use of ICT in teaching differently.

  • 299.
    Fransson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Lindberg, Ola J.
    Umeå Universitet.
    Olofsson, Anders D.
    Umeå Universitet.
    Policy Narratives VS. The Actual Use of Digital Technologies. Practices That Never Meets?2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Often great faith is given to the use of digital technologies to facilitate and transform teaching and learning in primary and secondary schools. Especially prominent are such a belief in various policy papers on a wide international level of supranational organizations such as the United Nations, OECD, or the European Union (Egea, 2014; Scheurmann & Pedro, 2009, Bassi, 201; cf. OECD 2015;) as well as at national levels (eg. Akcaoglu, 2015). Policy documents often mention digital technologies in terms of their ability and potential to improve and transform educational activities. Such statements can both be seen as part of a political rhetoric in order to push for change, as well as a belief that such claims are reasonable.

    Expressions of the reasonable to include digital technology and the use of IT in schools' activities appear in the various trans-national studies that aim to create a picture of the use of digital technologies in various European countries. Several such studies have been conducted in recent years (cf. OECD, 2015; Fredriksson, Gajek & Jedeskog, 2009; Blamire, 2009). Many of these studies have the aim to create a form of benchmarking process on the use of digital technologies in schools. The rhetoric of how digital technology can transform teaching and learning is also stressed by private operators offering services that in a simple way seems to be able to solve schools' problems with the use of digital technology and related applications (see eg. Grimaldi, 2013).

    However, educational contexts are complex and multidimensional. With scarce financial and human resources, teachers and other school staff is to deal with a variety of requirements, goals and expectations that are not always compatible with each other. In addition, a variety of complex relationships and positions as well as norms, traditions and values ​​of what teaching and learning is and should be, and how it ought to take shape. According to Säljö (2010) research focusing the uptake and use of digital technologies in schools are not always clear and seldom indicate success (e.g. Hammond, 2013; Krange & Ludvigsen, 2009). The outcomes are far from straightforward when digital technologies are introduced either in general or in specific subjects or contexts of learning.

    Aim

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze and discuss differences in how digital technology is expected to be used for learning in schools in, on one hand, various policy documents and evaluations, and on the other hand, the use that is reported in research. In that sense, evaluations are seen as evaluations-as-policy, rather than ‘objectice’ search for knowledge.

  • 300.
    Fransson, Sara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Vem är förskoleföräldern?: En intervjustudie om vilka föräldraidentiteter som framträder i upplevelser under inskolning i förskolan2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Samarbetet mellan hem och förskola är enligt tidigare forskning en viktig del i barns förskolegång. Föreliggande studie fokuserar på inskolningen som är början på detta samarbete där föräldern är en betydelsefull part. Av den anledningen utgår studien från ett föräldraperspektiv på inskolning. För att synliggöra en nyanserad bild av föräldern och skapa förståelse för vem förskoleföräldern är syftar studien till att söka kunskap om vilka föräldraidentiteter som framträder i upplevelser under inskolning i förskolan. Studiens teoretiska utgångspunkt består av ett identitetsteoretiskt perspektiv där identiteter betraktas som socialt konstruerade. Studien är baserad på intervjuer med föräldrar där deras upplevelser av inskolning i förskolan lyfts fram. Analysen av dessa upplevelser resulterade i två teman; Föräldraidentiteter i medvind respektive Föräldraidentiteter i motvind. Ur dessa teman har i sin tur olika föräldraidentiteter kunnat utmönstras. Resultatet visar vilka föräldraidentiteter som framträder i upplevelser av främjande respektive utmanande faktorer för deltagande i inskolning i förskolan. Upplevelser av delaktighet, inflytande och information dominerar båda kategorierna. I slutsatsen framhålls inskolningens betydelse för föräldraidentiteterna samt för det fortsatta samarbetet mellan hem och förskola.

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