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  • 251.
    Ekendahl, Jonna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Leijon, Emma
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors hantering av arbetsrelaterad stress2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 252.
    Ekholm, Arvid
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Yacob Ghebremicael, Seble
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Patientens erfarenheter av egenvård i samband med hjärtsvikt: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Heart failure is a common disease in the Swedish population and also a

    common cause of hospitalization. The self-care is an important part of the treatment.

    Lack of self-care can be a contributing factor to the worsening of heart failure, which

    both can lead to unnecessary suffering for the patient and lead to large costs for health

    care

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to describe patients' experiences of self-care

    associated with heart failure and describe the articles included data collection method.

    Method: Descriptive literature. Eleven scientific articles were included. Articles were

    searched using PubMed. Articles with qualitative and quantitative approach included.

    The results were analyzed by processing the articles two tables and mark with paint and

    compiled

    Result: The results of the study show that patients with heart failure often suffer from

    some form of mental illness. Patients with heart failure often have good knowledge of

    self-care. However participates depression or other forms of mental illness to reduced

    adherence to self-care because of reduced initiative.

    Conclusion: Disease heart failure is multidimensional and affects the psyche negatively

    leading to reduced ability in performing self-care. Family support, patient education and

    quick response from health care have been shown to have positive effects on self-care.

    Also contributing a strong family and good economics to better self-care.

  • 253.
    Eklind, Ellen
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Linda, Pettersson
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Personers erfarenheter av hur livet påverkas av att leva med migrän2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 254.
    Eklund, Karin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kartläggning av avvikelserapporter inom ett Primärvårdsområde i Mellansverige2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 255.
    Eklund, Karolin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Distriktssköterskornas erfarenheter och reflektioner av telefonrådgivning inom primärvården: en intervjustudie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Communication is an essential tool for nurses, especially when working with the telephone advice nursing (from here on mentioned as telenursing) that has been developed in recent decades. The aim of the present study was to describe the primary healthcare nurse´s experiences and reflections of telenursing in primary healthcare. Method: The present study was of qualitative approach with a descriptive design. Nine primary healthcare nurses was interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. Qualitative content analysis was used as data analysis. Results: Primary healthcare nurses experienced telenursing as challenging because there were many different patients of different ages and with different health needs who contacted the telenursing. The informants described working with telenursing as stimulating because they easily were able to help many patients. Primary healthcare nurses also experienced the work stressful. The most difficult thing with telenursing described the primary healthcare nurses as the lack of visualization when assessing the need of care. Other difficulties the primary healthcare nurses described were difficulties in dealing with dissatisfied patients and to ask the right questions. The informants described they were not only the patient's wishes to meet. The primary healthcare center made demands of the primary healthcare nurses when it was lack of doctors’ appointments and because the nurses distributed the work on the healthcare center by the telenursing. The informants described the telenursing important because that is the only way for the patient to get an appointment at the healthcare center. Conclusion: The primary healthcare nurses described working with telenursing in primary healthcare as challenging and difficult with limited opportunities to ensure everyone is satisfied. The primary healthcare nurses working with telenursing in primary healthcare experienced similar difficulties as nurses at the call-centers did. The most difficult thing the primary healthcare nurses experienced with telenursing was that they did not met the patient physically. Primary healthcare nurses also experienced telenursing as important and stimulating.

  • 256.
    Eklund, Maja
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Söderberg, Sandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors fördelning av arbetstid på en onkologisk vårdavdelning: en observationsstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka hur sjuksköterskors arbetstid fördelas mellan olika arbetsuppgifter på en onkologisk vårdavdelning. Studien genomfördes genom icke deltagande strukturerade observationer efter ett fastställt kategoriseringsschema på en onkologisk vårdavdelning på ett sjukhus i Mellansverige. Fjorton arbetsskift observerades, varav sju dagskift och sju kvällsskift. Huvudresultatet visade att sjuksköterskorna spenderade 33,5% av arbetstiden med direkt patientvård, 44,0% med indirekt patientvård samt 22,5% med andra göromål under samtliga observerade skift. Under dagskift spenderade sjuksköterskorna 33,0% av arbetstiden med direkt patientvård, 41,5% med indirekt patientvård samt 25,5% med andra göromål. Under kvällsskift spenderade sjuksköterskorna 34,0% av arbetstiden med direkt patientvård, 46,5% med indirekt patientvård samt 19,5% med andra göromål. Resultatet visade att ca en tredjedel av arbetstiden spenderades med direkt patientvård. Resultatet indikerade också på att en förbättringspotential fanns, mycket av den indirekta patientvården skulle kunna utföras i närmare anslutning till patienten om en annan arbetsmodell anammades. Då sjuksköterskorna har tid över skulle mindre tid kunna läggas på andra göromål och därmed också öka tiden till direkt eller indirekt patientvård.

  • 257.
    Eklund, Rakel
    et al.
    Department of Health Care Sciences, Ersta Sköndal University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    An integrative review of the literature on how eating disorders among adolescents affect the family as a system - complex structures and relational processes2016In: Mental Health Review Journal, ISSN 1361-9322, E-ISSN 2042-8758, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 213-230Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The aim of this literature review is to describe how eating disorders among adolescents affect family relationships and the family’s daily living conditions and to describe the family’s experienced need for professional support.

    Design/methodology/approach

    An integrative literature review based on the method of Whittemore and Knafl (2005). 15 articles with both qualitative and quantitative approaches were reviewed.

    Findings

    The results are presented in two main themes: A disharmonic family and The need for input from healthcare professionals. The results are discussed using Callista Roy's adaptation model and the adaptive modes; Group Identity Mode, Role Function and Interdependence.

    Originality/value

    This review article will be of interest to clinical nurses and other professionals who encounter families to clarify how the relationships and roles change within the family. To our knowledge, no integrative review has paid attention to how the relational aspects of the family members, their social roles and role constructions within the family affect daily living.

  • 258.
    Eklund, Sofie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjöström, Madeleine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Riskfaktorer som kan bidra till psykisk ohälsa hos barn2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Mental ill health in children has increased steadily over the past 20 years. Good mental health is a prerequisite for children to develop optimally. Globally, about 10-20% of the world's children suffer from mental ill health. There is limited research on what factors can contribute to this increase.

    Purpose: To identify and describe risk factors that can contribute to mental ill health in children.

    Method: A descriptive literature study of 13 scientific articles, 12 articles with quantitative approach and 1 article with qualitative approach.

    Main results: The result shows that children who experience mental ill health are affected by various risk factors. Identified risk factors were the structure of the family, the health of the parents, and the parents' education and socio-economic status. Exposure was another significant risk factor. The result shows that these factors have a negative impact on the child's mental health

    Conclusion: Children living in an unfavorable home environment with family conflicts or parents with mental ill health are at risk of developing mental illness themselves. Exposure like bullying and various types of abuse leads to a weak self-image and a significant risk of mental ill health.

  • 259.
    Eklund, Ulrika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Svedberg, Kerstin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Existentiella erfarenheter hos cancerpatienter i palliativ vård: En litteratursammanställning2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 260.
    Ekman, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Segerqvist, Carolina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenhet av arbetsrelaterad stress2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund:

    Det är vanligt att sjuksköterskor har erfarenhet av arbetsrelaterad stress i sitt dagliga arbete, om stressen blir långvarig kan det leda till komplikationer som sömnstörningar och minnessvårigheter. Arbetsgivaren är skyldig att uppmärksamma och motverka arbetsrelaterad stress. Syfte: Syftet med föreliggande litteraturstudie var att beskriva sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av arbetsrelaterad stress samt att beskriva undersökningsgrupperna i utvalda artiklar. Metod: Beskrivande litteraturstudie där åtta artiklar med kvalitativ ansats och två artiklar med mixad metod granskades. Huvudresultat: Resultatet visade att flera sjuksköterskor erfor att brist på personal och begränsat med tid var två betydande anledningarna till arbetsrelaterad stress. Även kommunikationen mellan kollegor och arbetsmiljön var anledningar som påverkade den arbetsrelaterade stressen. Personal och tidsbrist ansågs kunna bero på att sjuksköterskorna utförde flera arbetsuppgifter samtidigt. Flera av deltagarna i utvalda studier hade även erfarenheter av att de utförde arbetsuppgifter som inte ingick i deras roll och ansvarsområde som sjuksköterska. För att förebygga uppkomsten av stress framhölls förkortad arbetstid, vilket på ett positivt sätt påverkade erfarenheterna av arbetsrelaterad stress. Bra relationer till kollegor och att hitta egna copingstrategier för att hantera stressen på arbetet och privat framhölls också som positivt för att minska den arbetsrelaterade stressen. Den metodologiska granskningen visade att det var flest kvinnor i åldern 22 – 61 år som deltog i granskade studier. Slutsats: Personal och tidsbrist har stor påverkan på erfarenheterna av arbetsrelaterad stress. Litteraturstudien visar att förkortad arbetstid är en potentiell lösning på problemet och belyser arbetsgivarens ansvar att aktivt arbeta mot och förebygga uppkomsten av arbetsrelaterad stress.

  • 261.
    Ekman, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Stensson, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Den psykologiska och sociala arbetsmiljön bland distriktssköterskor och sjuksköterskor i primärvård respektive hemsjukvård2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     Background: There is a different in management and organization in primary health care and in municipal home health nursing. This different may effect activities and tasks at work, which in turn can affect the psychological and social work environment of district nurses / nurses. The purpose of this study was to compare any differences in the psychological and social work environment of district nurses/nurses in primary health care and home health nursing. Method: A quantitative, comparative cross-sectional study was conducted and the data was collected with the survey QPSNordic 34+. The survey was administred to 159 participants in primary care and to 148 participants in home health nursing. The survey was answered by (n = 39) district nurses /nurses in primary health care and (n = 39) district nurses/nurses in home health nursing. The result showed significant differences in four out of eleven categories in the psychological and social work environment between the district nurses/nurses in primary care and the district nurses/nurses in home care. Differences were found in "work requirements", "control at work", "work skills" and "stress". In all of these four categories, district nurses/nurses in primary health care estimated their psychological and social work environment lower than the estimation from district nurses/nurses in home health nursing. The conclusion of this study was that district nurses/nurses in primary health care estimate their psychological and social work environment lower in comparison to the district nurses/nurses in home care nursing.

  • 262.
    Ekman, ÅsaLena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Karlsson, Tiina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Att vara deprimerad och att återfå hälsan, unga individers upplevelser: - en litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 263.
    Ekstam, Hillevi
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Fröken.
    Älvebrink, Hanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Personers upplevelser av att leva med hjärtsvikt2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Heart failure is a progressive disease, and in Sweden around 2% of the population have been medically diagnosed with heart failure. The condition weakens the heart, and its capacity to function normally, making it unable to supply the cells with enough oxygen-rich blood. There are different types of heart failure, where the two most common is diastolic heart failure, which hinder the heart’s ability to fill up with blood properly, and systolic heart failure, which refers to the heart's inability to pump after filling with blood. While there is usually no cure for heart failure, many lifestyle changes like regular exercise, maintaining a healthy body weight, and giving up smoking can slow down its progression. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate different people’s perspective of living with CHF. Main Results: The study indicated that people with heart failure experienced depression, anxiety and worry after being diagnosed with an incurable condition. It also showed that daily activities and work became more strenuous for sufferers after developing the condition because they no longer had the same physical capacity. Many diagnosed with heart failure utilized different coping strategies to improve their general health in order to avoid physical or mental deterioration. Method:  A descriptive literature review of ten articles, one article with a quantitative approach, eight with a qualitative approach and one with a mixed method approach.  Conclusion: Those diagnosed with heart failure experienced a decline in both their mental health and physical capacity, which left them feeling isolated and lonely. Self-care was highlighted as an important aspect to avoid the condition getting worse. An improved understanding of patients experiences with heart failure among nurses can lead to improved care and quality of life for the specific patient groupBackground: Heart failure is a progressive disease, and in Sweden around 2% of the population have been medically diagnosed with heart failure. The condition weakens the heart, and its capacity to function normally, making it unable to supply the cells with enough oxygen-rich blood. There are different types of heart failure, where the two most common is diastolic heart failure, which hinder the heart’s ability to fill up with blood properly, and systolic heart failure, which refers to the heart's inability to pump after filling with blood. While there is usually no cure for heart failure, many lifestyle changes like regular exercise, maintaining a healthy body weight, and giving up smoking can slow down its progression. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate different people’s perspective of living with CHF. Main Results: The study indicated that people with heart failure experienced depression, anxiety and worry after being diagnosed with an incurable condition. It also showed that daily activities and work became more strenuous for sufferers after developing the condition because they no longer had the same physical capacity. Many diagnosed with heart failure utilized different coping strategies to improve their general health in order to avoid physical or mental deterioration. Method:  A descriptive literature review of ten articles, one article with a quantitative approach, eight with a qualitative approach and one with a mixed method approach.  Conclusion: Those diagnosed with heart failure experienced a decline in both their mental health and physical capacity, which left them feeling isolated and lonely. Self-care was highlighted as an important aspect to avoid the condition getting worse. An improved understanding of patients experiences with heart failure among nurses can lead to improved care and quality of life for the specific patient group

  • 264.
    Ekström Larsson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Backström, Jessica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans erfarenheter avpreventionsarbete med obesa barn och deras familjer: En beskrivande litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The increase in childhood obesity in recent years leads to the question of how a nurse can work on preventions adapted to obese children and their families. This applies to both primary, secondary and tertiary work Aim: The purpose of this literature study is to describe the nurse's prevention work with obese children and their families. The article's data collection method is also described. Method: A descriptive literature study. Databases used were Cinahl and PubMed. The articles that were 12 to the number published between 2007-2017 and resulted in the result. Main result: Nurses felt that prevention work is important as obesity is a major health problem in the world. In many cases, the lack of time was felt, as the work could develop even more. Often motivational conversations were used to strengthen the positive and provide a basis for respect and mood about the child's autonomy. Measuring instruments that were common were BMI. The importance of parental involvement is emphasized in most articles, as the results then improve with the weight loss of children. Instead, parents need support and guidance from nurses to be a good support for the children. Conclusion: Nurses need more support in developing prevention efforts to reduce childhood obesity. This may otherwise be a problem later in life and lead to adulthood in adulthood.

  • 265.
    Elcadi, Guilherme H.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Tsaklis, Panagiotis
    Alexander Technological Institute of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Blomqvist, Sven
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Ervasti, Per-Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    W. Söderström, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Richter, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    A Strong Correlation Between Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex And Vastus Lateralis Activity During Running To Fatigue2016In: Medicine and science in sports and exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, Vol. 48, no 5, p. 854-854Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fatigue is a phenomenon of pronounced importance in sports. Recently, there is strong evidence of interplay between the prefrontal cortex and motor output during fatiguing contractions. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPC) due to its large involvement in cognitive and motor activities is believed to be involved but this requires physiological clarification. AIM: We investigated the relationship between DLPC activity - responses in oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) and total hemoglobin (HbT) measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and the vastus lateralis muscle (VL) activity - quantified as root-mean-square (RMS) of the EMG signal, during a fatigue protocol.

    METHODS: Four male runners (32±12 yrs) with probes for NIRS over the DLPC and EMG over the VL performed a track running test at a constant speed to fatigue (exhaustion). The running speed was individually determined as the average speed of a 1200-m time trial performed ~3 days prior to testing. For NIRS changes in μmole/L of HbO2 and HbT were computed. The VL EMG-RMS of the contraction of each step was normalized as a percent of a submaximal reference contraction (%RMS), thus removing the non-activity between steps. Data of 10s epochs at 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% of time for each lap were averaged for analyses. Regression analyses performed with HbO2 and with HbT as dependent variables and %RMS as the independent variable.

    RESULTS: Over time there was an increase in HbO2 and HbT in the DLPC, and in VL-%RMS. Both HbO2 and HbT correlated strongly with EMG-RMS during running to fatigue (see figures below); p<0.001 for both.

    CONCLUSION: The strong relationship between DLPC and VL activities during running to fatigue suggests the involvement of the DLPC in the central processing of fatigue.

  • 266.
    Elemyr, Linda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Ahlberg, Bertil
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Sjuksköterskans erfarenheter i vården av patienter med suicidalt beteende.2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund

    Suicidalt beteende även kallad suicidalitet är ett stort globalt hälsoproblem.Begreppet innefattar suicidtankar, suicidförsök och suicid. Var 40:e sekundavlider en människa på grund av suicidalitet någonstans på jorden.

    Syfte

    Syftet var att beskriva sjuksköterskans erfarenheter i vården av patienter med suicidalt beteende samt beskriva undersökningsgruppen i de inkluderade artiklarna.

    Metod

    Föreliggande litteraturstudies resultat inkluderar 12 vetenskapliga artiklar, med både kvantitativ och kvalitativ ansats. Studien har en beskrivande design. Databaser som användes var PubMed, CINAHL och PsycINFO.

    Huvudresultat

    Sjuksköterskorna erfar att omvårdnad av patienter med suicidalt beteende är en komplex situation. Erfarenheterna är att suicidalt beteende väcker känslor som chock besvikelse, frustration, skuld och stress hos sjuksköterskorna. Egna värderingar har en dömande inverkan på patienten. En osäkerhet i omvårdnaden av dessa patienter finns. Fysiska behov prioriteras därför före psykiska. Detta kan kopplas till brist på utbildning, stöd och resurser.

    Slutsatser

    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter är betydelsefulla för att ge den suicidala patienten bästamöjliga omvårdnad. Sjuksköterskor bör ha en icke dömande inställning och ett holistiskt förhållningssätt. Föreliggande studie vill bidra till en samlad bild av sjuksköterskors erfarenheter i omvårdnaden av denna patientgrupp. Detta för att belysa det stöd och utbildning som sjuksköterskan behöver för att möta patienten professionellt. Men även för att belysa vikten av förståelse och betydelsen av rätt omvårdnad.

  • 267.
    Elfving Olsson, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Skolsköterskans roll i arbetet att upptäcka och bemöta barn som har en förälder med alkohol missbruk: en intervjustudie2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to the National Institute of Public Health about 350 000 Swedish children are living in homes where one or both adults has an alcohol addiction. Only one percent of these children is identified and offered support groups or similar activities, the rest goes by undetected through all of the educational years. The purpose of this study was to examine how the school nurse is working to identify children whose parents have an alcohol abuse and how they support these children. What support the school nurse wish to have in their work with these children, and how they keep themselves updated on the problems of these children. The basis of this study is based on a number of semi-structured questions. These questions were asked when interviewing ten school nurses. The material was analyzed by means of a qualitative content analysis. The results of the study demonstrate that the school nurse discovers children whose parents have an alcohol abuse by being watchful  and by gutfeeling in the meeting with the children and they are observent in the healthteam. They are giving support through personal contact with the children and by putting them in contact with

     other professions and buisnesses to provide them the support they need. The schoolnurse keeps her self updated of the problem through courses and lectures and by seeking information her self. The school nurse also cooperate with different professions round the school, and uses their own experiences from work and personal life.

  • 268.
    Elg, Denise
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Fältström, Agnes
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av arbetsrelaterad stress2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 269.
    Eliasson, Malin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nilsson, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ammande mödrars erfarenheter av stöd i samband med amning: En beskrivande litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: Mothers are breastfeeding at all times more or less. Attitudes from family and current culture can make mother ambivalent to breastfeeding their child. Problems may arise which may result in the mother refraining from breastfeeding. There are many benefits of breastfeeding both for the child and for the mother. The nurse can promote breastfeeding and contribute until mothers get more support to breastfeeding their children.                 

    Aim: To describe breastfeeding mothers experiences of breastfeeding support and to describe the selected articles study-group.                                      

    Method: A descriptive literature review based on ten scientific articles. The articles were retrieved from databases Med Line/PubMed and Cinahl through the University of Gävle. 

    Results: The outcome of the literature study describes mothers' experiences of breastfeeding support in different situations, both positive and negative. The different themes that emerged was, Mixed pre-delivery reactions, Demand for expert support and social support, and Get a good deal of attention, Insecurity and frustration, as well as Appreciation and dissatisfaction with practical tips. Mothers experienced preparations for breastfeeding as useful, but breastfeeding was not always presented in a realistic and honest way. Both prim parous and multiparous desired professional support. If the healthcare staff was responding to the needs of the single mother, evaluated supportive and non-judging as positive breastfeeding support. Contradictory messages created confusion and uncertainty. Practical support was especially appreciated initially. Hard-hearted healthcare professionals in the practical support made mothers feel dissatisfied.The mother´s in the literature study was of different ages, both prim parous and multiparous, who had born vaginally or with caesarean sections. Three continents were represented as Europe, Oceania and North America.                                                                                                                    

    Conclusion: The importance of professionally good breastfeeding support is a prerequisite for more mothers to feel safer when breastfeeding. A good preparation, practical support and that the information presented in a realistic, honest, consistent way and is based on the mother as an individual way make more mother´s breastfeed their children. This can lead to more mothers and children taking advantage of the benefits that breastfeeding involves.    

    Keywords: Breastfeeding, problems, support, health care- professionals, qualitative,nursing.

  • 270.
    Elofsson, Bianca
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Gonzalez, Evelyn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Närståendes erfarenheter och behov av stöd inom palliativ vård i hemmet: En litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It is becoming increasingly common in health care that relatives have a significant role in palliative care at home. Some patients receiving care in a palliative phase choose to pass away at home, which implies that relatives need to take on a great responsibility for the patient's care. Aim: To describe the experiences and needs of relatives that provide support from the nurse in palliative care at home. Additionally the aim was to examine the method of data collection of all articles included in the thesis. Methodology: The applied methodology is a literature study of descriptive character based on fourteen scientific articles, searched and found on the Cinahl and PubMed databases, as well as through manual research. Result: Relatives provide care around the clock, resulting in limitations in their own daily activities and ignoring their own needs. The nurse’s support was portrayed both as deficient and satisfactory. Support to the relative in terms of relief facilitated the role for the relative as nurturers and reduced feelings of tiredness, demand, loneliness, and isolation. Decent availability and a good relationship with the nurse could reduce feelings of insecurity and fear with the relative. For the nurse to give the right information and communication to the relative could facilitate for the relative, and reduce feelings of confusion and frustration as well as the burden of the care. To get good bereavement support in the form of phone calls, letters and home visits could strengthen the entire family. Conclusions: Relatives need for various forms of support from nurses during and after the palliative care. Emotional support, bereavement support, accessibility, good relationship with nurses, information, and communication are essential for maintaining well-being of the caregiving relative.

  • 271.
    Elsrud, Alexandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Distriktssköterskors erfarenheter och upplevelser av att arbeta med tobaksavvänjning i grupp2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tobaksbruk är förknippat med ohälsa, stor risk finns att drabbas av följdsjukdomar. Syftet var att beskriva distriktssköterskors erfarenheter och upplevelser av att arbeta med tobaksavväjning i grupp. En studie med kvalitativ ansats och deskriptiv design har gjorts. Åtta distriktssköterskor som arbetar med tobaksavväjning i grupp har intervjuats. Materialet har analyserats med hjälp av kvalitativ innehållsanalys. I resultatets första kategori ”Viktigt med tydliga arbetsrutiner vid tobaksavvänjning i grupp” beskrevs exempelvis arbetsrutiner såsom att hemuppgifter gavs mellan grupptillfällena, tobaksstoppdatum planerades och uppföljningar gjordes. Dock beskrevs svårigheter att rekrytera deltagare till tobaksavvänjningsgrupperna, vilket innebar att personerna hänvisades till individuell tobaksavväjning. Det rapporterades vara psykiskt påfrestande att leda grupper om deltagare hade psykisk ohälsa och komplexa sociala problem. Andra kategorin ”Möjligheter och svårigheter vid gruppbehandling” beskrev att motiverande samtal användes och deltagarnas motivation ansågs avgörande för tobaksstoppet. Tobaksavväjningen uppgavs fungera när distriktssköterskan inte ”föreläste” utan uppmuntrade alla till att bli hörda, så att erfarenheter delades och stöd gavs åt varandra. Distriktssköterskorna upplevde arbetet stimulerande men även frustrerande, möjligheter till stöd av tobakssamordnare eller kollegor fanns, dock saknades stöd av läkare. Önskvärt enligt distriktssköterskorna vore att vara två som genomförde gruppträffarna tillsammans, ha tillräckligt med administrativ tid samt ha tid för fortbildning. Slutsatsen är att distriktssköterskorna arbetade efter tydliga arbetsrutiner. De upplevde både möjligheter och svårigheter med att genomföra gruppbehandling. Dock behövs mer fokus läggas på att rekrytera personer till grupperna så att grupper inte behöver ställas in, samt att ökad möjlighet till vidareutveckling av tobaksavvänjnings arbete i grupp bör ges till distriktssköterskorna. 

  • 272.
    Elverstig, Ebba
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Söder, Evelina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nyutexaminerade sjuksköterskors upplevelser och hantering av arbetsrelaterad stress under det första året i yrket: En intervjustudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The nursing profession involves a high workload and can thus lead to a perceived work related stress. Newly graduated nurses are particularly susceptible to this type of stress because of their lack of experience in their professional capacity. To develop strategies for managing stress is therefore important for the nurse’s wellbeing. Aim: The aim of the present study was to describe how recently graduated nurses experience and cope with work related stress during the first year in the profession. Method: The study had a qualitative approach with descriptive design. In this study eight nurses participated who graduated in January, alternatively, in June 2014, and were employed at four different somatic wards situated in central Sweden. Data were collected using semistructured interviews and were analyzed with manifest qualitative content analysis. Main Findings: The results showed that work related stress was caused by a combination of the recently graduated nurse’s internal demands, feelings and ambient external influences. How nurses handled work related stress was individual and varied depending on the situation. To find the support and enlist the help of colleagues, to reduce their own requirements and to develop an approach that suits the individual was found to be effective strategies for stress management. Conclusion: The conclusion was that the recently graduated nurses experienced several types of stress during the first year in the profession. The ability to evolve, learn to be kind to yourself and that the colleagues were available to provide assistance and support were prerequisites for managing the stress.

  • 273.
    Elving, Sara
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Hallstensson, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Personers upplevelser av omvårdnad efter ett suicidförsök2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: About 7000 people in Sweden try to take their lives every year. This number is expected to rise. The primary risk factors for suicide are past suicide attempts and mental illness. The stigmatized approach in society makes people feel ashamed of suicidal thoughts. Many people that completed a suicide had an earlier healthcare contact. Suicide can by that fact be prevented. Nursing's attitude should be based on a non-judicial approach and make it clear that both time and interest are present. Nursing should be based on a holistic perspective where the individual's unique needs are put in focus. The nurse should be helpful with support both mentally, physically, existentially and socially. Experiences of people who survived a suicide attempt will be a guiding tool for the nurse in the design of nursing care for this patient group.

    Aim: To describe people's experiences of nursing after a suicide attempt.

    Methods: A descriptive literature review containing ten studies with a qualitative approach was used.

    Main results: Continuity and accessibility in the healthcare and also involvement of family and friends were aspects that emerged as positive for the nursing experience. Commitment and good communication from the healthcare professionals was also considered significant for a positive experience. Lack of continuity and accessibility in the healthcare as well as experiences of losing control emerged as negative aspects of nursing experience. What also appeared to be negative for the experience was when the healthcare professionals showed a lack of knowledge or communication or had a stigmatized approach of suicide.

    Conclusion: In the caring of people after a suicide attempt, the nurse is the main tool herself. More education and time would be a good tool for nurses in helping people who survived a suicide attempt in their recovery process.

  • 274.
    Emilsson, Carl-Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ziyara, Fatma
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Upplevelser av att vara anhörig till en person med cancersjukdom: en litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In 2014, 60 524 patients with malignant tumours were registered in the Swedish Cancer Registry. The distribution of malignant tumours was 52 percent for men and 48 percent for women. Relatives play an important role in the life of a person with cancer, and these families are facing major changes in everyday life. Nurses have an important role to give support to these affected families.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe family members’ experiences of being a relative of a person with cancer and to describe research groups in the included studies.

    Method: A literature review with descriptive design based on 13 qualitative scientific studies. The material was analysed and divided into subject headings.

    Main Results: The results displayed that relatives of people with cancer are living in a family with major changes of their roles and in everyday life. Relatives could experience anxiety and concerns about life situation and helplessness. It was important for family members to keep the family together for their own sake and for the person with cancer. The experience of healthcare professionals varied among these family members.

    Conclusion: Relatives are affected in many ways. Facing challenges is everyday life for these relatives, and help from friends, family and health professionals are important for family members with a person with cancer. It is relevant with information in just the right amount and that the nurse is showing empathy towards relatives. Finally, it’s relevant that the nurse also sees the whole family and not just the person with cancer.

  • 275.
    Emnehult, Lina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Landsem, Jonna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans erfarenheter av att möta transpersoner: en litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A transgender person is a person who does not identify themselves as the gender assigned at birth but more as the opposite gender, as both man and woman or as neither of them. The process undergoing sex reassignment is social as well as medical and legal. The nurse should strive to treat all patients equally.

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to describe nurses experience in meeting transgender persons and to conduct a methodological review of the included articles.

    Method: This is a literature review with a descriptive design in which the result is based on eight qualitative and one quantitative article. These were collected from the databases Cinahl and Medline through PubMed. In the research of the articles there emerged two themes with five subheadings. The methodological aspect is study group.

    Results: The nurses expressed low knowledge about transgender people and therefore was uncertain how to meet and nurse them. Most nurses felt fear of discriminating despite the intention to treat these people with respect and dignity. The number of nurses who participated in the studies of the included articles was 400. The studies were performed in the United States, Canada and Australia.

    Conclusion: Inadequate knowledge and fear of making mistakes affect the nurse in the care of transgender persons. More research is needed to increase understanding for all health care professional and to provide better conditions for equal treatment of transgender persons and to provide better support for those undergoing gender sex reassignment treatment.

  • 276.
    Endahl, Ann-Louise
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Linder, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Patienters fysiska och psykiska symtom av fasta i väntan på operation: en litteraturstudie : sjuksköterskans möjlighet att befrämja patientens hälsa2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrunden till denna litteraturstudie var att tidigare forskning påvisat att framtagna riktlinjer gällande preoperativ fasta inför planerade operationer ej efterlevs optimalt. Syftet var att beskriva vuxna patienters fysiska och psykiska symtom vid fasta i väntan på planerad operation, hur sjuksköterskan kan främja patientens hälsa under den preoperativa tiden samt beskriva de ingående studiernas urvals- och datainsamlingsmetod. Metoden som användes var en beskrivande litteraturstudie där artiklar söktes via PubMed (Medline) och Cinahl. Där påfanns 17 artiklar som utgjorde grunden till studien. I resultatet framkom att patienter som fastar i väntan på planerade operationer visar på fysiska symtom som törst, hunger och illamående samt psykiska symtom som oro och ångest. Den övergripande omvårdnadsåtgärden för att förebygga dessa symtom vid fasta i väntan på planerad operation var att administrera patienten kolhydratrik dryck fram till två timmar innan operation. Vidare framkom sjuksköterskans viktiga roll att beakta detta och främja för ökad hälsa för patienter i väntan på planerade operationer. Slutsatsen visar på att det behövs kontinuerliga uppdateringar och spetsutbildningar samt utökat samarbete mellan de olika professionerna och klinikerna för att vårdpersonal skall bli medvetna om detta problemområde. Bättre förutsättningar skapas då för såväl patienterna som vårdpersonal inom den planerade operationsverksamheten.

  • 277.
    Engberg-Nordqvist, Lena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Upplevelse av den egna matsituationen hos äldre som har matdistribution i ordinärt boende2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to describe how older people living in ordinary housing and had food distribution by the municipality was experiencing its meal situation. The study has been carried out through unstructured interviews with eight people who were over 75 years who living in their own homes and had food distribution by the municipality. Data were analysed using qualitative manifest content analysis and five categories revealed: about food's nature and content , internal and external conditions , adaptation, needs and strategies and being dependent on other people. The informant felt that they missed having social companionship at mealtimes. They felt that the food distribution was a good way to ingest food when you were unable to do it youself . The biggest gripe with the mealbox was that the potatoes were perceived not tasting good. The informant also described not feeling hungry this was particularly noticeable among those who felt that their health was deteriorating , was miserable, had few social relationships, had physical limitations and was in need of much help from home care services . Home service was described as an important social contact, but all informants felt that the staff was stressed. The study's conclusion indicates that informants wish more active staff support at mealtimes and that lunchbox portion should be reduced. The reduced portion should contain nourished diet for those who are in need of it. Lunch boxes and the potatoes should be made more appetizing to older should get increased appetite

    Keywords: older people , malnutrition, food distribution, ordinary housing .

  • 278.
    Engebretsen-selander, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Strid, Birgitta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    En beskrivning av händelser som leder till en avvikelserapport och efterföljande åtgärder i ett primärvårdsområde i norra Sverige2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The aim was to describe errors resulting in incident reporting and the number of errors resulting in injuries caused by the health care and also subsequent measures in a primary care area in northern Sweden. Furthermore, to describe errors and measures reported in the internal, outgoing and incoming incident reports and investigate if there were any differences. In addition, to describe errors and measures reported in the two regions included and investigate if there were any differences. The study had a descriptive and a comparative design, 510 incidents were included using all accessible reports in the primary care area during 2011. Seven main categories and nineteen subcategories were revealed. The errors being reported were; deficiencies regarding routines/guidelines (n=218), lack of communication (n=165), deficiencies regarding interaction with patients (n=46), fall accidents (n=31), accessibility problems (n=30), deficiencies regarding management of drugs (n=11) and incorrect referrals (n=9). Of the errors 117 led to injuries. The results showed statistically significant differences between the internal, outgoing and incoming incident reports for communication, routines/guidelines and interaction with patients. The most common measure was to discuss the problems during department meetings and then individual meetings with involved staff. The conclusion from this study is that incident reports regarding deficiencies in the routines/guidelines are most common. Thereafter, incident reports regarding lack of communication.

  • 279.
    Engebretzen, Gabriel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Solinen, Joel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    En kvalitativ intervjustudie om hur Fysisk aktivitet på recept (FaR) som metod påverkar motivation till fysisk aktivitet hos FaR- klienter2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Physical activity on prescription, (PaP), is a method used to prevent and treat common diseases. The aim of PaP is to get individuals to become more physically active [PA] and through that influence the disorders in a positive direction through a more active lifestyle. This change requires motivation and something that creates a desire to perform the PA. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate whether a prescriptions may warrant increased PA in the clients. The methodology used in this study was semi-structured interviews with open questions. Six respondents participated. The requirement was that the people would have a PaP- prescription. The results indicate that the perceived support from both the healthcare, PaP- leader and social support plays a major role in the creation and maintenance of motivation to the PA in the PaP- client. The conclusion is that the mediated knowledge and support from health care and PaP leader created a meaningfulness, understanding and manageability of the client. This can lead to increased motivation to PA in PaP client.

  • 280.
    Englund, Camilla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Olsson, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    BVC-sköterskors tilltro till sin förmåga att påverka föräldrar att främja hälsosamma levnadsvanor hos sina barn: En enkätstudie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract  Background: The aim of public health is to create the societal conditions whereby the entire population has an equal opportunity to achieve and enjoy good health. The counties of Gävleborg and Dalarna has lower socioeconomic conditions and a higher proportion of children with unhealthy living habits. Child health nurses have an important role to play in promoting health promotion in these counties. Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate child health nurses’ confidence in their own ability to influence parents to promote healthy living habits in their children in two counties in Sweden.  Method: Data were gathered using parts of an earlier questionnaire measuring child health nurses’ confidence in their own ability to influence parents to promote healthy habits in their children. Data were analysed by descriptive and comparative statistic with Mann-Whitney Utest and Spearman´s correlation. Primary results: The child health nurses rated themselves higher on the questions relating to their confidence in their ability to influence parents regarding eating habits than on the other questions in the questionnaire. The child health nurses rated themselves lowest on the questions concerning limit-setting, regardless of age, experience, education or county. There was a weak but significant correlation between the extent of the child health nurses’ experience and how highly they rated their self-efficacy.  Conclusion: The study revealed relatively low self-efficacy in the child health nurses’ ability to influence parents to establish and maintain good habits in their children. Child health nurses with more experience rated their self-efficacy higher in all parts of the questionnaire. Experienced child health nurses need to be given time and space to share their experience with their less experienced colleagues to strengthen the younger nurses’ self-efficacy.    Keywords: healthy living habits, child health nurses, self-efficacy, socioeconomic differences, motivational interviews.

  • 281.
    Englund, Caroline
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Smärta hos personer med demens: Sjuksköterskarns roll i smärthanteringen. En litteraturstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Målet med studien var att beskriva sjuksköterskans kunskaper för att identifiera, bedöma och agera vid olika smärttillstånd hos personer med demenssjukdom. Metod: Litteraturstudie med deskriptiv design. Artikelsökning skedde i databaserna PubMed och Cinahl vilket resulterade i 13 vetenskapliga artiklar. Resultat: Huvudresultatet var att sjuksköterskan kunde använda beteendeskalor som smärtskattningsinstrument. Observerbara uttryck som indikerade smärta var: ansiktsuttryck, verbala uttryck, kroppsspråk, fysiologiska indikatorer och personens sinnesstämning. Kunskaper som påverkade sjuksköterskans agerande vid smärthanteringen var: kunskaper i smärta, erfarenheter, attityder, osäkerhet i bedömning och samarbetet kring patienten. Slutsats: För att tillgodose behovet av smärtidentifiering samt adekvat smärtlindring hos denna växande grupp av personer med demenssjukdom krävdes det att sjuksköterskan hade en väl utvecklad kunskap och medvetenhet inom smärtområdet.

  • 282.
    Englund, Ingela
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Wallin, Pia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Information och stöd kring egenvård som individer med diabetes typ 2 finner värdefull: En beskrivande litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    Introduction:

    Diabetes mellitus type 2 is the most common form of diabetes in the world and is rapidly increasing, it is a serious endocrinology, progressive illness with high chance of complications. Due to the patients life quality being a very important priority it is necessary for a continuous and rigorous selfcare. In order for the patient to have an opportunity to do so the nurse needs to support the patient with knowledge in the form of education, assistance and information.

    Purpose:

    The main purpose of this study is to describe what type of information, knowledge and support in regards to selfcare for grownups are valuable and helpful for individuals with diabetes mellitus type 2.

    Method:

    A descriptive literature study based upon twelve scientific articles found from PubMed database using the search words Diabetes Mellitus Type 2, Selfcare and Information. Both authors have processed the articles and search words.

    Aim objective:

    Numerous patients expressed the need for support and education concerning food, physical activities and weight balance. Education in group and individual levels are highly demanded, especially to share individual experiences between diagnosed patients. The educational activities generated an increased feeling of self-esteem and an opportunity through selfcare of being able to treat yourself in a correct manner. Mobilized selfcare support was considered useful and resulted in good control over Diabetes. Blood samples where used to examine the effect of different behavioral changes related to the treatment.

    Conclusion:

    Education in group and individual levels are considered very import-ant and valuable, furthermore web- and mobile support were also considered valuable. Patients with type 2 diabetes desired information and support in to a greater extent, the caretaker and nurse with their knowledge within care, have a key role in the process of improving selfcare treatment for the diagnosed patients.

  • 283.
    Englund, Linnea
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lundgren, Fanny
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Fotbollsspel på konstgräs ur ett skadeperspektiv: En litteraturstudie om skadeförekomsten och de vanligaste skadorna hos fotbollsspelare som tränar och spelar match på konstgräs.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att genom litteraturgranskning beskriva förekomsten och typ av skador hos fotbollsspelare som spelar match och tränar på konstgräs.

    Metod: Litteratursökning i databaserna PubMed, Cinahl och Human Kinetics resulterade  i 12 artiklar som publicerats de senaste 10 åren. Alla artiklar har evidensgraderats, granskats och därefter sammanställts.

    Resultat: Den vanligaste skadelokaliseringen inom fotboll på konstgräs är lår- och knäskador, följt utav ankelskador och ljumskskador. Den skada som var mest frekvent förekommande var ligamentskador och muskelskador. Vrickningar i ankeln uppstod ofta vid fotbollsspel på konstgräs, även inre blödningar i lårmuskulaturen och ligamentskador i knäleden var vanligt förekommande. Den vanligaste typen av skada är den minimala skadan som genererar 1-3 dagars frånvaro från träning och match. Den näst vanligaste typen av skada är den måttliga skadan som frånhåller fotbollsspelaren från träning och match mellan 8-28 dagar.

    Slutsats: Denna studie visar sambandet mellan skadeförekomst och exponeringstid. Den vanligaste skadan inom fotboll på konstgräs är vrickningar i ankeln, inre blödningar i lårmuskulaturen och ligamentskador i knäleden. 

  • 284.
    Englund Åsbrink, Towe
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nedeljkovic, Jonathan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    HIV- positiva personers uppfattningar och upplevelser av bemötande från sjukvårdspersonal: en litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Idag lever ca 30-35 miljoner av världens befolkning med Humant immunbrist virus. I Sverige är ungefär 6500 personer infekterade och varje år rapporteras 400-500 nya fall. När en person drabbas av Humant immunbrist virus medför det ofta en stor förändring i livet. Hos sjukvårdspersonal finns det en bristande kunskap inom ämnet.

    Syfte: Beskriva hur personer med Humant immunbrist virus uppfattar och upplever att de bemöts av sjukvårdspersonal, samt beskriva undersökningsgruppen i inkluderade artiklar.

    Metod: En litteraturstudie med en deskriptiv design. Elva artiklar inkluderades, två kvantitativa och nio kvalitativa.

    Resultat: Två teman identifierades: Negativt bemötande och Positivt bemötande. Tre underrubriker hittades under rubriken Negativt bemötande, vilket var: Att bli bemött annorlunda, Bemött med rädsla och Brist på empati. Undersökningsgruppen presenteras under rubriken: Presentation av artiklarnas undersökningsgrupp. HIV- positiva personer upplevde ofta att de blev bemötta med fördomar från sjukvårdspersonal. Sjukvårdspersonalen kunde få deltagarna att känna sig ignorerade och respektlöst behandlade. Många HIV- positiva personer upplevde att de behandlades annorlunda på grund av sin sjukdom. Goda kunskaper inom HIV- vård från sjukvårdspersonalens sida resulterade i att deltagarna kände sig väl bemötta.

    Slutsatser: HIV- positiva personer upplevde att de blev dåligt bemött av sjuvårdspersonal.

    Fördomar och diskriminering var vanligt förekommande företeelser i vårdmötet. Det visade sig även att den sjukvårdspersonal som hade ökade kunskaper om Humant immunbrist virus, hade ett bättre bemötande gentemot denna patientgrupp.

  • 285.
    Engstrand, Frida
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Nilsson, Linnéa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Nyutexaminerade sjuksköterskors upplevelse av att arbeta som sjuksköterska2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: approximately 5000 nurses are examined each year in Sweden. A nurse has many tasks in addition to the care around the patient. As a person, the nurse should be respectful and show compassion. Experienced nurses felt that newly graduated nurses lacked the knowledge required to independently exercise the profession. The experienced nurses felt responsible for the newly graduated nurses, saying that, among other things, they experienced tiredness and fatigue.Aim: to describe newly graduate nurse´s experience of working as a nurse. Furthermore, the aim of this study was to examine the sampling of the included articles.Methods: a literature study with a descriptive design. The eleven scientific articles included in the study were quantitative, qualitative and mixed approaches. The articles were searched in the PubMed database.Main results: newly graduated nurses felt that good guidance promoted the development of knowledge, but that several factors negatively affected self-confidence in the professional role; including the lack of clinical experience. Experiences of hierarchy and bullying were described as well as the communication leading to experiences of stress. The fact that newly graduated nurses thought to quit their work was due, inter alia, to the fact that they felt incompetent and had difficulty feeling free because they thought about work all the time.Conclusion: newly graduated nurses experienced the first professional years as mentally demanding and exhaustive due to the lack of clinical experience and experiences of bullying. A good supervisor fostered the development of knowledge and contributed to a better experience. Increased understanding of the experience of newly graduated nurses is beneficial for both experienced nurses and for the occupations so that they can improve the working environment of newly graduated nurses.

  • 286.
    Engstrand, Åsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Anestesisjuksköterskors upplevelse av barnanestesi2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The aim of this study was to describe the anesthesia nurses experiences of pediatric anesthesia in two surgical wards, a general surgery department and a day surgery surgical department at two hospitals in central Sweden. The study had a descriptive design with a qualitative approach, in which ten anesthetic nurses with more or less experience in children's anesthesia participated. Data were collected using semi-structured interview questions and were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The results were reported based on a theme, three sub themes and nine categories. The theme When skills, tactfulness and interpersonal skills come to a head, with three sub themes Being prepared and ready, Interacts and open for participation   and Emotional tension. The anesthesia nurses who were interviewed described the experiences of children anesthesia as complex and varied situations. They needed to prepare themselves thoroughly, both mentally and practically. Good interactions with the child, parents and health professionals were described as important components for a successful pediatric anesthesia. A successful anesthesia gave a feeling of great satisfaction, while a less successful anesthesia gave a feeling of frustration and failure of the anesthetic nurses. Despite the emotional tension, they felt that pediatric anesthesia was the most fun and challenging they could be involved in their profession.

     

     

     

     

    Keywords: anesthesia nurses, experiences, children's anesthesia, experience, preparation, parents' presence.

  • 287.
    Engström, Jennifer
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Mandlbauer, Madeleine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    En litteraturstudie om Coreträning, smärta och cobb angle hos tonåringar med idiopatisk skolios2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Skolios är en åkomma som förekommer hos två till fyra procent av alla barn och ungdomar i en ålder på 10-20 år. Skolios innebär att personen har en snedställning av ryggraden som mäts och definieras med metoden cobb angle. Detta kan ge upphov till smärta men även andra typer av problem som exempelvis längre livskvalitet. Ungdomarna kan uppleva att det besvärar dem i deras vardag både fysiskt, psykiskt och socialt. Vid andra allmänna former av ryggproblem har studier påvisat goda resultat för minskad smärta vid fysisk aktivitet av bålen.

     

    Syftet: med studien är att utvärdera om coreträning kan minska ryggsmärtor och cobb angle hos tonåringar med idiopatisk skolios.

     

    Metod: Metoden som användes är en deskriptiv litteraturstudie. För att hitta relevanta studier användes databaserna pubmed och cinahl. Studiernas evidensgranskades utifrån ett granskningsprotokoll (GRADE).

     

    Resultatet: inkluderade 14 artiklar som redovisades i fyra olika teman: Coreträning som reducerar smärta & cobb angle, Coreträning utan inverkan på smärta och cobb angle, muskelstyrka & träningskapacitet och samband mellan bålstabilitet & livskvalité. Resultatet påvisade lite delade meningar om huruvida coreträning kan hjälpa till att minska smärta och cobb angle. Merparten av artiklarna visade att specifikt utformad coreträning kan hjälpa till att reducera smärta och cobb angle, men däremot sågs ingen större skillnad mellan generella- och specifika träningsprogram på reducering av smärta och cobb angle.

     

    Slutsats: I denna studie framkom samband mellan ökad bålstabilitet och minskad smärta/cobb angle. Detta kan tyda på att specificerad coreträning skulle kunna agera som behandling för att minska smärta och cobb angle hos tonåringar med idiopatisk skolios.

  • 288.
    Engström, Lena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kronberg, Stina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Invandrare med Diabetes Mellitus uppfattningar av sjukdomen och erfarenheter av omvårdnad: En deskriptiv litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Diabetes mellitus är en av de vanligaste kroniska metabola sjukdomarna i världen, många invandrare är drabbade av sjukdomen. När krig och oroligheter uppstår i världen får det människor att fly för sina liv och söka skydd i tryggare länder. Uppfattningar och omvårdnad av diabetes mellitus ses som en stor utmaning inom vården. Stora brister i kommunikationen mellan patienter och sjuksköterskan har identifierats.

    Syfte: Litteraturstudien syfte var att beskriva invandrare med diabetes mellitus uppfattningar av sin sjukdom och deras erfarenheter av omvårdnad vid diabetes mellitus samt att beskriva undersökningsgruppen i de inkluderade artiklarna.

    Metod: En deskriptiv litteraturstudie baserad på 13 vetenskapliga artiklar inkluderades i resultatet. Artikelsökningarna utfördes i databasen PubMed.

    Resultat: Det framkom att invandrare med diabetes uppfattade sin sjukdom som något skamligt. Invandrarna upplevde en identitetsförlust när de tvingades ändra sin mat och sina kostvanor. Deltagarna upplevde även sin sjukdom som ett fysiskt och psykiskt lidande. Erfarenheter beträffande omvårdnaden ansågs bestå av svårigheter och hinder i kommunikationen. Även frustrationer över bristen på stöd och resurser från sjukvården beskrevs. Deltagarna kom ifrån olika världsdelar men majoriteten av deltagare i denna litteraturstudie kom från Asien.

    Slutsats: Mat och kostvanor är betydelsefulla traditioner bland invandrare, ett tillfälle till socialt umgänge. En identitetsförlust upplevdes när dessa traditioner måste förändras och anpassas efter sjukdomen diabetes mellitus. Skamkänslor för sjukdomen upplevdes, deltagarna undanhöll sin sjukdom för att rädda sitt anseende. Frustrationer över bristande stöd i omvårdnadsprocessen erfors som negativa aspekter i kontakten med sjukvården.

  • 289.
    Engström, Malin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Helsing, Sara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Att leva med HIV och upplevelsen av stigmatisering från samhället - ett patientperspektiv: Deskriptiv litteraturstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med litteraturstudien var att beskriva hur vuxna personer med HIV upplever och hanterar sitt liv efter diagnos. Deskriptiv design användes och studien omfattade 16 artiklar som söktes fram via databaserna Cinahl och PubMed samt genom manuell sökning. Resultatet visade att rädsla och oro fanns över att berätta för andra om sin HIV diagnos. De var rädda att bli utstötta av vänner och familj samt annorlunda behandlade än före diagnos. Stigmatisering var vanligt förekommande bland personer diagnosticerade med HIV och många upplevde ensamhet och isolering från samhället, många gånger beroende på svårigheter att känna tillit till andra. Att ha ett socialt nätverk var betydande och då både av vänner och familj samt interaktion med andra i liknande situation men även att kunna fokusera på andra saker än sjukdomen, att sätta upp framtida mål och ha fritidsintressen. Personer diagnosticerade med HIV upplever stigmatisering från samhället. Känslor av skuld och skam är vanligt förekommande och vikten av ett socialt nätverk är betydande för att kunna hantera dessa känslor samt den förändrade livssituationen. Varje individ är unik och bör bemötas med respekt och utan förutfattade meningar.

  • 290.
    Engström, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden; Nursing Department, Medicine and Health College, Lishui University, China .
    Löfmark, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Faculty of Health Education, Stord/Haugesund University College, Norway.
    Ugland Vae, Karen Johanne
    Faculty of Health Education, Stord/Haugesund University College, Norway.
    Mårtensson, Gunilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Nursing students' perceptions of using the Clinical Education Assessment tool AssCE and their overall perceptions of the clinical learning environment: a cross-sectional correlational study2017In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 51, p. 63-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Clinical education is a vital part of nursing students' learning; the importance of assessment tools and feedback in stimulating student learning has been stressed, but this needs to be studied in more detail.

    Objectives

    To examine relationships between nursing students' perceptions of using an Assessment tool in Clinical Education (AssCE) during their mid-course discussion and final assessment, the content discussed during these meetings between the student, preceptor and nurse teacher and the students' overall perception of the clinical learning environment.

    Design

    A cross-sectional, correlational design was used.

    Setting and Participants

    A convenience sample of 110 nursing students from one Norwegian university college with two campuses.

    Methods

    Data were collected with self-developed questionnaires and analysed using logistic regression with SPSS and the PROCESS macro for mediation analysis.

    Results

    There was a positive relationship between nursing students' perceptions of using the assessment tool AssCE and their overall perception of the clinical learning environment. This relationship was, in turn, mediated by the content discussed during the formative mid-course discussion and summative final assessment.

    Conclusions

    Our conclusion is that the assessment tool AssCE supported students' clinical learning and that this relationship, in turn, was mediated by the degree to which the conversation during the assessment meeting focused on the student's knowledge, skills and professional judgement.

  • 291.
    Engström, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Skytt, Bernice
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Ernesäter, Annica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Fläckman, Birgitta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Mamhidir, Anna-Greta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    District nurses' self-reported clinical activities, beliefs about and attitudes towards obesity management2013In: Applied Nursing Research, ISSN 0897-1897, E-ISSN 1532-8201, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 198-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM:

    To describe district nurses' self-reported clinical activities, beliefs about and attitudes towards obesity management; and to examine associations between the variables.

    BACKGROUND:

    Obesity is increasing worldwide and primary care could play a central role in the management.

    METHODS:

    Questionnaire data were collected from 247 nurses in 33 centres.

    RESULTS:

    The most common activities performed weekly were; advice about physical activity (40.1%) and general lifestyle advice (34.8%). However, nearly one third seldom/never performed these activities. Approximately half seldom/never performed BMI assessment and even fewer waist circumference (78.1%). Values for the factors Importance of obesity and Personal effectiveness were skewed towards a positive view and Negative view close to neutral. Multivariate analysis revealed that nurses with specialized tasks, longer working experience and higher perceived personal effectiveness performed more clinical activities.

    CONCLUSION:

    Managers need to make efforts to engage all personnel in obesity management; and strategies to increase self-efficacy are called for.

  • 292.
    Engström, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Skytt, Bernice
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Nilsson, Annika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Working life and stress symptoms among caregivers in elderly care with formal and no formal competence2011In: Journal of Nursing Management, ISSN 0966-0429, E-ISSN 1365-2834, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 732-741Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Working life and stress symptoms among caregivers in elderly care with formal and no formal competence Aim  The aim of the present study was to describe and compare caregivers with formal and no formal competence on job satisfaction, psychosomatic health, structural and psychological empowerment and perceptions of care quality. A further aim was to study relationships among study variables. Methods  A convenience sample of 572 caregivers in elderly care participated. Results  Caregivers with no formal competence perceived higher workload, more communication obstacles, less competence, poorer sleep and more stress symptoms than did their colleagues. Linear regression analyses revealed that the factor self-determination was an explanatory variable of stress levels among caregivers with no formal competence, and self-determination and impact among caregivers with formal competence. Linear regression analysis revealed that different dimensions in structural and psychological empowerment explained the variance in staff job satisfaction, perceived stress symptoms and quality of care. Conclusions  No formal competence seems to be a risk factor for psychosomatic health problems. Implications for nursing management  Managers need to have a strategic plan for how to create a working environment for caregivers with no formal competence. Caregivers' self-determination seems to be important for stress symptoms. Meaning, self-determination, impact and opportunities appear to be important for job satisfaction and competence, opportunities, resources and formal power for quality of care.

  • 293.
    Engström, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Wadensten, Barbro
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala universitet.
    Häggström, Elisabeth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Caregivers' job satisfaction and empowerment before and after an intervention focused on caregiver empowerment2010In: Journal of Nursing Management, ISSN 0966-0429, E-ISSN 1365-2834, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 14-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To evaluate a training programme aimed at strengthening caregivers' self-esteem and empowering them, and also to study correlations between psychological empowerment and job satisfaction.

    Background: Structural and psychological empowerment have received increased attention in nursing management, yet few intervention studies on this topic, based on theoretical assumptions, have been conducted in elderly care.

    Method: Data on self-assessed psychological empowerment and job satisfaction were collected in an intervention (n = 14) and a comparison group (n = 32), before and after the intervention.

    Results: When compared over time in the respective groups, there were significant improvements in the intervention group regarding the factor criticism (job satisfaction scale). There were no statistically significant differences in the comparison group. Total empowerment and all factors of empowerment correlated positively with total job satisfaction. Six out of eight factors of job satisfaction correlated positively with total empowerment.

    Conclusions: Caregivers' perception of criticism can improve through an intervention aimed at strengthening their self-esteem and empowering them.

    Implications for nursing management: Intervention focused on psychological empowerment and especially caregivers' communication skills seems to be beneficial for caregivers. Recommendations are to increase the programme's length and scope and to include all staff at the unit. However, these recommendations need to be studied further.

  • 294.
    Engström, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Westerberg Jacobson, Josefin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Mårtensson, Gunilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Uppsala University and University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Staff assessment of structural empowerment and ability to work according to evidence-based practice in mental health care2015In: Journal of Nursing Management, ISSN 0966-0429, E-ISSN 1365-2834, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 765-774Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To study associations between staff members' self-rated structural empowerment in mental health care, organisational type, and the ability and willingness to work according to evidence-based practice.

    Method: Questionnaire data were collected from 253 mental health staff members.

    Result: Multivariate logistic regressions analyses revealed that participants who scored higher on opportunity (OR 2.5) and were employed by the county council (OR 1.9) vs. the municipality were more likely to report high evidence-based practice ability. A generalised estimating equation taking into account unknown correlations within units found opportunity and resources to be significant predictors of evidence-based practice ability. Regarding evidence-based willingness, increased odds were found for higher scores of opportunity (OR 2.2) and being employed by the county council (OR 2.9). The generalised estimating equation also found resources to be a significant predictor of evidence-based willingness. In both organisations, the values for empowerment were moderate.

    Conclusion: Structural conditions such as access to opportunities and resources are important for creating supporting structures for practice to be evidence-based. Implications for nursing management: Our results emphasise the managers' essential role in creating empowering structures, and especially access to opportunities and resources, for their staff to carry out evidence-based practice.

  • 295.
    Engström, Matilda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Eklund, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelse av att vårda vuxna palliativa patienter inneliggande på sjukhus2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund:

    För lindring av lidande och en förbättring av livskvaliten i livetsslut gavs palliativ vård något som grundades på kunskap, teamarbete, kommunikation och samspel. Inom palliativ vård såg döden som en naturlig process med fokus på att leva aktivt så länge som möjligt. I Sverige fanns det brister i grundutbildningen inom palliativ vård.

  • 296.
    Enzell, Markus
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Boman, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Stillasittande - en hälsorisk för kontorsarbetare: En kvantitativ studie om hur kontorsarbetare hanterar problematiken som kan uppstå av stillasittande arbete2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den digitala arbetsplatsen är något som blivit allt vanligare och det stillasittande kontorsarbetet har växt explosionsartat. Långvarigt stillasittande har en mängd negativa hälsoeffekter på kroppen samt kan medföra olika typer av belastningsskador. Tidigare forskning belyser vikten av ett ergonomiskt arbetssätt för att undvika de konsekvenser som kan uppstå av ett stillasittande kontorsarbete.

    Syftet

    med denna studie är att undersöka hur kommunalt anställda i Mellansverige med stillasittande kontorsarbete, under arbetstid, hanterar problematiken som kan uppkomma vid ett stillasittande arbete. Detta gjordes genom att undersöka hur och vad de anställda gör under arbetstid för att undvika de konsekvenser som kan uppstå med ett stillasittande arbete.

    Datainsamlingen skedde genom en kvantitativ

    metod i form av online-enkäter. Detta för att det är ett bra sätt att täcka en större grupp människor och det är tidseffektivt. De som deltog valdes ut med hjälp av två kontaktpersoner på två kommuner i Mellansverige . Kontaktpersonerna distribuerade sedan enkäterna till lämplig urvalsgrupp för studiens syfte. Den besvarades av 131 respondenter varav 90 av dem var kvinnor och 41 var män.

    Resultatet

    för studien visade att alla förutom tre personer tar pauser från det stillasittande arbetet i olika utsträckning. Dessa pauser togs i olika former där ta trapporna var den mest förekommande typen av paus i det stillasittande arbetet. Näst intill alla respondenter svarade att de hade tillgång till anpassningsbart bord och stol samt ergonomiska hjälpmedel såsom "roller mouse". Slutsatsen av denna studie visar att antalet pauser under arbetstid är varierande hos de anställda. Vissa respondenter trodde även att långvarigt stillasittande kunde kompenseras med träning på fritiden.

  • 297.
    Ericsson, Fredrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Current methods, concepts and theories regarding mobile power meters in cycling: A critical review of the physiological and pedagogical implications for training,racing and performance testing2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    This critical review is aimed at the methods, concepts and theories currently employed and

    advocated by users of mobile power meters (PM) in cycling and the physiological and

    pedagogical implications they have for training, racing and performance testing.

    Method

    The methods, concepts and theories reviewed were chosen since they generated the most

    hits from a search on the Google Groups Wattage

    (http://groups.google.com/group/wattage) discussion forum, which is the largest internet

    forum for PM-related discussions. After the selection of methods, concepts and theories a

    search in the data bases available at College of Dalarna was made to find if they had any

    support in the scientific literature.

    Results

    The methods, concepts and theories included are:

    1. Pacing strategy and racing tactics

    2. General considerations for performance testing with a PM. Tests for alactic

    anaerobic and maximal neuromuscular power, anaerobic lactic power, maximal

    aerobic power and power related to VO2max and anaerobic threshold power.

    Performance profiling, scaling and ratios for power output and interpreting changes

    in testing results.

    3. Quantifying the power output demands of racing for designing training programs

    and other preparations.

    4. Andrew Coggans and Richard Sterns power based training zones and the relationship

    between power output and perceived exertion.

    5. Analysis of training and racing power output with tools such as Normalized Power™,

    Intensity Factor™, Quadrant Analysis™, energy expenditure and how pedaling

    dynamics affect this analysis.

    6. Planning, monitoring and managing the training process with tools such as Training

    Stress Score™, Performance Manager Chart™ and “power-to-heart rate decoupling”.

    7. Theoretical basis for the role of the PM in the inter-personal and intra-personal

    communication.

    Conclusions

    This review has shown that there are several very promising methods, concepts and

    theories related to the use of PM’s in cycling. Presently, however, most of these are in need

    of further research to investigate their affect on performance and how to improve their

    validity and reliability.

  • 298.
    Erikson, Henrik
    et al.
    Department of Nursing and Care, Swedish Red Cross University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Future Challenges of Robotics and Artificial Intelligence in Nursing: What Can We Learn from Monsters in Popular Culture?2016In: The Permanente Journal, ISSN 1552-5767, E-ISSN 1552-5775, Vol. 20, no 3, article id 15-243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is highly likely that artificial intelligence (AI) will be implemented in nursing robotics in various forms, both in medical and surgical robotic instruments, but also as different types of droids and humanoids, physical reinforcements, and also animal/pet robots. Exploring and discussing AI and robotics in nursing and health care before these tools become commonplace is of great importance. We propose that monsters in popular culture might be studied with the hope of learning about situations and relationships that generate empathic capacities in their monstrous existences. The aim of the article is to introduce the theoretical framework and assumptions behind this idea. Both robots and monsters are posthuman creations. The knowledge we present here gives ideas about how nursing science can address the postmodern, technologic, and global world to come. Monsters therefore serve as an entrance to explore technologic innovations such as AI. Analyzing when and why monsters step out of character can provide important insights into the conceptualization of caring and nursing as a science, which is important for discussing these empathic protocols, as well as more general insight into human knowledge. The relationship between caring, monsters, robotics, and AI is not as farfetched as it might seem at first glance.

  • 299.
    Eriksson, Amanda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Walldén, Matilda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Personers upplevelser efter överviktskirurgi, med psykosocialt fokus2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 300.
    Eriksson, Annelie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Vestre Viken HF, Baerum, Norway.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Distriktssköterskors beskrivningar av sjukdomsförebyggande arbete i daglig verksamhet och strukturella förutsättningar för detta arbete: [District nurses’ perceptions of their preventive work and structural conditions for this work]2015In: Nordic journal of nursing research, ISSN 2057-1585, E-ISSN 2057-1593, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 77-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background There is much research about district nurses’ preventive work, effects of it and their perceptions of the preventive work. Less is known about how district nurses perceive their preventive work in relation to structural conditions for this work.

    Aim The aim was to describe district nurses’ perceptions of their preventive work in daily practice; and structural conditions for this using Kanter’s theory of structural empowerment.

    Methods Interviews were conducted 2012 with nine Swedish district nurses. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis.

    Findings The analysis resulted in one theme; ‘To experience stimulation versus frustration; a consistency versus a discrepancy between will and structural conditions’. District nurses who worked with specialized tasks felt that they mostly had the structural conditions required to work in a preventive manner and that they could prioritize which unhealthy living habits to discuss with their patients. District nurses without specialized tasks described that their structural conditions for preventive work was limited in the present streamlined organization. This in turn led to a feeling of frustration.

    Conclusion Preventive work is described as stimulating when district nurses have the conditions required, yet the conditions required are sometimes lacking and especially for district nurses without specialized tasks. There is a will to work in a preventive manner but structural conditions need to be improved.

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