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  • 251.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Strategies in decling housing markets: a comparison of public and private housing companies2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 252.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Lind, Hans
    School of Architecture and the Built Environment, KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sustainable strategies in a declining housing market: a comparative study2018Inngår i: International Journal of Management Practice, ISSN 1477-9064, E-ISSN 1741-8143, Vol. 11, nr 4, s. 400-421Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is first to examine and comparesustainable strategies within public and private housing companies in decliningmarkets in central Sweden. Then, the study evaluates the impact of newlegislation that requires public housing companies to act in a ‘businesslike’way, in the same way as a long-term private company. A quantitative studywas conducted based on a survey sent to 72 housing companies. The resultsshow that public housing companies are more strategy oriented than privatehousing companies. The results can be viewed as an on-going interactionprocess, where a company’s strategies affect its profit. The study aims toincrease the understanding of activities within housing companies in adeclining market that engage the companies in sustainable strategies toimprove their market knowledge and profit.

  • 253.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Sundström, Agneta
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    The market intelligence impact on strategic performance in declining markets2017Inngår i: International Journal of Applied Business and Economic Research, ISSN 0972-7302, Vol. 15, nr 15, s. 457-473Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how companies in declining markets operate in the context of market intelligence, responding to customer needs and applying them tostrategic performance. A quantitative survey was sent to 214 public housing companies. The results indicate that market intelligence creates commitment and is significant. A positive relationship was found between data gathering, dissemination, and responsiveness, which indicates that the companies comprehend market needs but companies have difficult to manage construction strategies that improve strategic performance. There was a low value of strategic performance; a link between market intelligence and the chosen strategy was not confirmed. Companies know what the market wants but base their decision on previous strategic performanceon economic conditions in the municipality instead.

  • 254.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Sundström, Agneta
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    The role of market intelligence in declining markets: public housing companies in Sweden2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 255.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Sundström, Agneta
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    The Role of Market Intelligence in Declining Markets: Public Housing Companies in Sweden2015Inngår i: Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing, ISSN 1049-5142, E-ISSN 1540-6997Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 256.
    Ahmed, Basem
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik.
    Investigation of energy retrofits of a multi-family building by using IDA Simulation Software2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Energy simulation in building sector was an important issue which can eliminate energy use and improve energy efficiency. The building, which is located at Ringvägen 18 in Ljusdal community in Sweden, was chosen to be the main mission of this research and it was one of eleven objects which were involved in EKG project. First step was to create the model and simulate it to reach heating value of 117 MWh which was reached by EKG project. After getting validation value, many renovations were implemented and the heating value was reduced by 58.7% and the heating demand by 55.2%. Improving of energy use through prefabrication gave reduction of heating value of 70.4% and heating demand of 65.8%

    The LCC part was important issue because it gave clear vision and judgment about the economic and investment issue. The acceptability of the investment decision was decided by 198 answers which were responsible to judge if the investments were good or not. There were 22 types of different renovation and every type included 9 cases which depended on interesting rate and energy price factors. The result was 198 answers which were divided to 100 answers as “YES” for good investment and 98 answers as “NO” for good investment.

  • 257.
    Ahmed, Dolovan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik.
    Fadul, Mohammed Erik Jamal
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik.
    Utsläpp från svenska reningsverk till Östersjön: Granskning av Henriksdals reningsverk, Ryaverket, Sjölunda reningsverk, Kungssängsverket och Duvbackens reningsverk2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    From domestic and industrial waste water will have to be cleaned before it can be released into lakes and streams again. This purification takes place through various stages of treatment plants. Wastewater contains many substances that are harmful to the environment as well as human and animal health, so it is important that the purification that is done is done in an efficient and thoughtful manner. The steps that are common in Swedish cleaning plants are mechanical, biological and chemical purification. These purification steps ensure that larger particles do not come out to the open water, convert nitrogen into nitrogen through the activation process, and that by chemical treatment, the emission of phosphorus is reduced. All of these purification steps can be designed differently and vary from purification plants to purification plants. Therefore, the degree of purification and emissions can distinguish between different treatment plants. Because there are many factors involved in the processes at Swedish waste treatment plants, it is important to carry out annual audits to detect problems that can lead to environmental damage.If cleaning does not work, exercise can increase in lakes and seas, which causes people and animals to suffer. Bottom dead and acid deficiency are already a major problem for the Baltic Sea. In order to reduce the negative environmental effects, emissions of nutrients are drastically reduced. This concerns the release of nutrients from all countries around the Baltic Sea.This study focuses on nitrogen and phosphorus purification from 5 wastewater treatment plants, Henriksdal's purification plant (Stockholm), Ryaverket (Gothenburg), Sjölunda purification plant (Malmö), Kungssängsverket (Uppsala) and Duvbacken purification plant (Gävle). Information about its activities has been obtained through interviews and works own reports.The purification plants use different technical solutions, and all treatment plants meet today's requirements for purification. The biggest difference is the degree of nitrogen purification. All wastewater treatment plants have a history of changes in technical solutions to improve treatment. Cleaning wastewater from households and industries costs a lot of money for the treatment plants, so it's always a challenge for the wastewater treatment plants to clean the water in the best possible way without costing too much.It is expected that the cleaning requirements will be tightened and all treatment plants should continue to develop to increase efficiency. Current purification requirements are designed to suit the recipient's sensitivity. If the EU's idea of ​​the same degree of purification across the country is transformed into requirements, Duvbacken will need to significantly improve the nitrogen treatment at the waste water treatment plant.

  • 258.
    Ahmed, Javed
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Khan, Abdullah Al Mamun
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Influence of National culture on internal communication process. A study on universities in Bangladesh & Sweden.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate how national culture influence internal communication of university.

     

    Methodology: A qualitative approach was chosen to conduct this research. Semi structured interview were taken. Interviews were taken by face to face, skype and phone call. Ethical approach was considered while interpreting the data.

     

    Findings:

    Our study showed that high power distance has negative impact on internal communication. We found that high power distance creates block between supervisors and subordinates to share information. Thus it creates barriers for effective communication flow and hinders organizations development. Our study also found that power distance is available in both countries but the degree of power distance is varied from one to another. In our study we also found that Individualism and collectivism has effect on internal communication. Our study showed that Individualistic or collectivistic decision making process of university effect internal communication of university in both countries. Previous study suggests that high power distance country tends to be a collectivistic country. Though the result is not always true. However, we found that true in our study.

     

    Contribution: The study adopts employee centric approach to explore the effects of culture on internal communication. This is an important contribution to previous researches that focused on internal communication from different perspectives, inclusion of cultural differences on internal communication has added value to the research field. Moreover, this paper contributes insights in cultural differences as well as employee perspective and by doing so it suggests theorist and practitioners that how internal communication can relate to employee’s engagement in different cultural perspectives.

     

    Limitations: The major limitation of this study was that this study only focused on Hofstede’s power distance and individualism as cultural dimensions. Other dimensions were not focused. Another limitation of this study was the sample size. The sample size is too small to represent the whole population in regards to university perspective.

     

    Suggestions for further research: Additional qualitative or quantitative methods can be required to explore the findings in different aspects. The study focuses on the educational institute. The findings may vary in accordance with the different industry and sectors. The study provides the guidelines regarding the impact of cultural differences on internal communication. Future research could consider other important factors that may have profound impact on internal communication in different settings.

     

  • 259.
    Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed, Mazz
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap.
    Traffic Model Based Energy Efficient Radio Access Network2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    As the concerns about global energy consumption increased the matter of energy consumption in Radio Access Networks (RANs) became an important issue especially with the exponential growth in demanded traffic. This interest of developing innovative technologies to reduce the expected energy consumption by the mobile communication sector was driven by environmental concerns and cost reduction.

    The aim of this thesis is to introduce a new methodology to make the Radio Access Network (RAN) more energy efficient based on jointly the demanded throughput and a realistic traffic profile. Furthermore, to find a metric that quantifies the relation between the Energy Efficiency (EE), Spectrum Efficiency (SE) and demanded throughput.

    The proposed methodology for reducing the energy consumption in the RAN characterizes the offered throughput in order to determine the sufficient energy needed. The manner for reducing the energy consumed by the RAN is simply by switching (OFF/ON) Base Stations (BSs) based on the demanded throughput which introduces an energy efficient RAN.

    The results show a significant reduction in the energy consumption with regard to the demanded traffic. Moreover, it gives a measure of the EE with consideration to the SE which enhances the performance evaluation from an EE point of view during the RAN planning phase.

  • 260.
    Ahmed, Mohamed
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad.
    Maxamed, Maxamed
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad.
    Modell för beslutsfattande avseende hållbar logistik: I både tjänsteföretag och tillverkningsföretag2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I alla framgångsrika företag är det av vikt att etablera en dedikerad ledning med förmågan att fatta avgörande och hållbara beslut. Beslutsfattarna är en stor och kanske den största faktor i ett företag och oftast är det företagsledarna som även är beslutsfattarna. Det finns en rad olika aspekter att ha i åtanke för att kunna fatta så lämpliga beslut som möjligt.Dessa kan vara allt från personlighetsdrag till hur väl marknadsanalytisk beslutsfattaren är.Syftet med detta arbete är att ta fram en modell för beslutsfattande avseende hållbar logistik, i såväl tillverkningsföretag som tjänsteföretag i Sverige. Litteraturstudier och intervjuer genomförs för att besvara syftet. Genomlitteraturstudienkan betydande faktorer kring ämnet uppmärksammas, exempel på dessa faktorer är krishantering och förtroende, fördomar och karaktärsdrag.Arbetets empiriska material baseras på fyra olika organisationer som intervjuas kring deras beslutsfattande och syn på hållbar logistik. Dessa organisationer är både tjänsteföretag samt tillverkningsföretag vilket ger arbetet en bredd och generaliserbarhet.De identifierade faktorerna genom fallstudier är bland annat känslomässighet och rationalitet, förtroende samt transparens. Det framgår flera faktorer i litteraturen som tydligt överensstämmer med de betydande faktorerna i resultatet. Dessa faktorer som presenteras i resultatet kan både tjänsteföretag samt tillverkningsföretag ha i åtanke vid beslutsfattande avseende hållbar logistik. Slutsatsen av detta arbete är en modell som visualiserar de faktorerna man bör ha i åtanke vid dessa typer av befattande, dessa är förtroende, leverantörsval, enhällighet, faktaunderlag, transparens och empati. Utifrån dessa faktorer kan andraföretag med en dedikation och hängivenhet för långvariga beslutfattningsprocesser fatta klokaoch effektiva bedömningar.

  • 261.
    Ahmed, Motasim
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap. Radarbolaget AB.
    Single-Layer Metamaterial Absorber for Radar Application2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In the radar systems, the crosstalk or antenna-to-antenna interference between the radar antennas is useful in some cases. However in some application the received signal is too weak such as wall crack detection and it might affect the accuracy of the radar system. The aim of this thesis is to design, fabricate and test a single layer metamaterial absorber operates from 1 GHz to 4 GHz. The metamaterial absorber can be used as a barrier between the antennas or even in the antenna housing in order to reduce or prevent the antenna-to-antenna interference.

    The method used to fulfill the goal is to shift the frequency response of a known structure by changing the dimension to the wanted band. The software HFSS used to design and simulate the proposed structure which made of L-shaped copper placed diagonally over a substrate separating it from a continuous copper plane. The simulation results exhibit a wideband absorption response of 2.42 GHz ranging from 1.9 GHz to 4.32 GHz. The structure has been simulated over the dimension variation to investigate the flexibility and sensitivity of the designed single layer structure.

    The fabricated metamaterial absorber measured over the direct incident waves. The structure reveals a wideband absorption response of 1.69 GHz ranging from 2.23 GHz up to 3.92 GHz with more than 90% absorptivity. The structure also exposed that the response of the structure starts to create two bands within the wanted band by increasing the angle of the incident waves. 10° polarization angle gives more than 80% absorptivity response. 

  • 262.
    Ahnberg Åsenius, Elisabeth
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad, Samhällsbyggnad, GIS.
    Lekmöjligheter och trafiksäkerhet för barn i stadsmiljöer: Fallstudie av centrala Falun2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Små barn i förskole- och lågstadieåldern behöver utrymmen att leka och röra sig på för att utvecklas, och dessa behov behöver vägas in i samhällsplaneringen. Tyvärr finns det tecken på att hänsynen till barns behov av plats för lek och rörelsefrihet har tappat i prioritet inom stadsplanering de senaste decennierna. Exempelvis visar forskning att barns tillgång till allmänna platser att leka på i svenska städer generellt sett har minskat. Även barns möjligheter att röra sig fritt i svenska städer har kommit att begränsas alltmer, framförallt av den alltjämt ökande biltrafiken. Det har även konstaterats att allt färre barn går eller cyklar själva till skolan och att cyklandet på fritiden har minskat.

    Syftet med den här studien har varit att undersöka barns möjligheter att leka och röra sig fritt i stadsmiljöer. Studien har avgränsats till en fallstudie av stadsmiljön Falun-Centrum. Det är ett område på ca 2,5 km2 som är definerat sedan tidigare av Falu kommun och inrymmer Faluns stadskärna med centrumhandel, parker, vägar, bostadsområden, förskolor, skolor etc. Information har samlats in genom en postenkät skickad till vårdnadshavare till 100 barn inom åldersspannet äldre än ett och yngre än elva år, bosatta inom fallstudieområdet. 100 barn motsvarar ca 20 % av det totala antalet i området.

    Resultaten baseras på 53 svar; 39 svar på postenkäten och 14 svar genom kompletterande telefonintervjuer. Svaren visar att inom Falun-Centrum upplever respondenterna att deras barn har relativt god tillgång på platser att leka på i sitt närområde. Fältinventering av platserna visade att många av platserna var tillräckligt rymliga för att tillåta vidlyftig lek och hade grön och varierad terräng, vilket är bra. Vad gäller trafiksäkerhetsaspekter visar resultaten däremot att det finns stora hinder för barnens möjligheter att röra sig självständigt p g a brist på trafiksäkerhet.

    Sammanfattningsvis innebär det för barnen att de generellt sett har bra platser att leka på i sitt närområdet (även om det finns undantag), men att de inte kan röra sig självständigt till platserna p g a trafikfaror. Bristen på trafiksäkerhet innebär också att de har dåliga förutsättningar att ta sig till, upptäcka och lära känna nya platser i sitt närområde. I förlängningen hämmar det utvecklingen av deras geografiska förståelse för den omgivande stadsmiljön. Det minskar också deras möjligheter att möta och lära känna andra personer i området vilket försämrar den sociala hållbarheten i staden.   

  • 263.
    Ahne, Ingemar
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för didaktik.
    Söderhäll, Bengt
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för didaktik.
    HiG har ännu inte nått fram2002Inngår i: Gefle Dagblad, ISSN 1103-9302, Vol. 28 oktoberArtikkel, omtale (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    HÖGSKOLEDEBATT

    Tisdagen den 21 oktober hade Gefle Dagblad förstasidesrubriken: "Lärarutbildningen som ett dagis" Vi tycker det är en mycket olycklig formulering. Rubriken och artikeln andas fördomar mot förskolan

  • 264.
    Ahnfeldt, Tomas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö.
    Geometry for CAD Toolbox2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 265.
    Aho, Emmy
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi.
    Johansson, Sofia
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi.
    Personliga assistenters upplevelse av deras psykologiska kontrakt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The purpose of the study was to examine how personal assistants experience their psychological contract and how the psychological contract was fulfilled against their supervisor or manager.A qualitative method was used and seven interviews were conducted with personal care assistants from various workplaces. The interviews were analysed with thematic analysis and resulted in five main themes. Expectations, personal but not private, what really stands in the contract, how people look at the profession and fulfilment. In conclusion, the main result was that the personal care assistants experienced that the internal psychological contract consisted of the relation to the supervisor or manager and the accessibility to the employer. The personal care assistants felt that the contents of the external psychological contract consisted of the work duties, employment security, working hours and the attractiveness of the profession. The majority of the respondents felt that the internal and external psychological contract was fulfilled. None of the respondents considered that the internal and external psychological contract was not fulfilled at all.  

  • 266.
    Ahonen-Jonnarth, Ulla
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för matematik, natur- och datavetenskap, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Dynamic web interface for metabolic pathways2002Inngår i: Promote IT 2002, 2002Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 267.
    Ahonen-Jonnarth, Ulla
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för matematik, natur- och datavetenskap, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Göransson, A
    Finlay, R
    Growth and nutrient uptake of ectomycorrhizal Pinus sylvestris seedlings treated with elevated Al concentrations and decreased levels of base cations2003Inngår i: Tree Physiology, ISSN 0829-318X, E-ISSN 1758-4469, Vol. 23, nr 3, s. 157-167Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Models of the effects of elevated concentrations of aluminum (Al) on growth and nutrient uptake of forest trees frequently ignore the effects of mycorrhizal fungi. In this study, we present novel data indicating that ectomycorrhizal mycelia may prevent leaching of base cations and Al. Mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings were grown in sand obtained from the B-horizon of a local forest. In Experiment 1, non-mycorrhizal seedlings and seedlings inoculated with Hebeloma cf. longicaudum (Pers.: Fr.) Kumm. ss. Lange or Laccaria bicolor (Maire) Orton were provided with nutrient solution containing 2.5 mM Al. Aluminum did not affect growth of non-mycorrhizal seedlings or seedlings inoculated with L. bicolor. Seedlings colonized by H. cf. longicaudum had the highest biomass production of all seedlings grown without added Al, but the fungus did not tolerate Al. Shoots of seedlings colonized by L. bicolor had the lowest nitrogen (N) concentrations but the highest phosphorus (P) concentrations of all seedlings. The treatments had small but significant effects on shoot and root Al concentrations. In Experiment 2, inoculation with L. bicolor was factorially combined with the addition of a complete nutrient solution, or a solution lacking the base cations K, Ca and Mg, and solutions containing 0 or 0.74 mM Al. Seedling growth decreased in response to 0.74 mM Al, but the effect was significant only for non-mycorrhizal seedlings. Mycorrhizal seedlings generally had higher P concentrations than non-mycorrhizal seedlings. Aluminum reduced P uptake in non-mycorrhizal plants but had no effect on P uptake in mycorrhizal plants. Mycorrhizal colonization increased the pH of the soil solution by about 0.5 units and addition of Al decreased the pH by the same amount. We conclude that the presence of ectomycorrhizal mycelia decreased leaching of base cations and Al from the soil.

  • 268.
    Ahonen-Jonnarth, Ulla
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för matematik, natur- och datavetenskap, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Odelstad, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för matematik, natur- och datavetenskap, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Evaluation of simulations with conflicting goals with application to cleaning of young forest stands2006Inngår i: Proceedings of ISC 2006 (Forth International Industrial Simulation Conference), 2006, s. 498-503Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 269.
    Ahonen-Jonnarth, Ulla
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad, Datavetenskap.
    Odelstad, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för Industriell utveckling, IT och Samhällsbyggnad, Datavetenskap.
    Simulation as a tool for the evaluation of forest management treatments2010Inngår i: ESM'2010 - The 2010 European Simulation and Modelling Conference / [ed] Gerrit K. Janssens, Katrien Ramaekers and An Caris, Ghent: EUROSIS-ETI , 2010, s. 426-433Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cleaning of young forest stands is a multicriteria problem with conflicting goals. This kind of forest management treatment is performed by human beings but it is possible that this work may be performed by artificial agents in the future. The artificial agents need detailed information about how to clean a forest stand and/or what are the goals for cleaning. One problem in development of cleaning rules for artificial cleaning agents is that explicit knowledge about good cleaning results is not detailed. In this paper we present a tool for developing and testing rules and judging evaluation functions for cleaning. We illustrate this tool by presenting examples of some ways to clean forest stands in a computer environment and we present how the cleaning results can be evaluated. In order to obtain material for experiments it is also possible to simulate forest stands using this tool.

  • 270.
    Ahonen-Jonnarth, Ulla
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för matematik, natur- och datavetenskap, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Odelstad, Jan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för matematik, natur- och datavetenskap, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Simulation of cleaning of young forest stands2005Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 271.
    Ahonen-Jonnarth, Ulla
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för matematik, natur- och datavetenskap, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Roitto, M
    Markkola, A M
    Ranta, H
    Neuvonen, S
    Effects of Nickel and Copper on Growth and Mycorrhiza of Scots Pine Seedlings Inoculated with Gremmeniella abietina2004Inngår i: Forest Pathology, ISSN 1437-4781, E-ISSN 1439-0329, Vol. 34, nr 6, s. 337-348Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) seedlings were planted in soil originating from two localities with different background levels of nickel and copper. In addition, some of the seedlings were exposed to additional nickel (20.5 mg Ni/l of soil) or copper (63.5 mg Cu/l of soil), or a combination of both Ni and Cu, via soil without direct shoot exposure during their second growing period. The seedlings were either irrigated with spring water (pH 6) or got only natural rain during the whole field experiment. All seedlings were inoculated with conidia of a shoot-pathogen Gremmeniella abietina during their third growing season, and harvested the following spring. Lengths of shoots of different year-classes were used as growth estimates. In roots, the proportion of fungal (assumedly mycorrhizal) biomass was estimated by measuring ergosterol concentration. Guajacol peroxidase activity was measured. Short roots were classified into two groups according to their condition and the composition of the mycorrhizal community was expressed as a proportion of morphotypes in the roots. The seedlings exposed to additional Ni had higher shoot growth than the seedlings in the other treatments. The mean Ni concentration in the roots of seedlings exposed to additional Ni was 79 p.p.m. and in other seedlings 16 p.p.m. Additional Ni also decreased the frequency of clearly senescent short roots and the proportion of the mycorrhizal morphotype with the thinnest mantle. These results indicate that the Ni exposure levels used in this experiment had some positive effects on the seedlings. The relative fungal biomass was about 6% lower (p = 0.0981) in the fine roots of seedlings treated with additional Cu. The mean Cu concentration in the roots of seedlings exposed to additional Cu was 256 p.p.m. and in other seedlings 29 p.p.m. Peroxidase activity, which was used as a general stress indicator in this study, was not affected by any of the treatments. The shoot growth and the relative biomass of fungi in the fine roots were positively correlated in all seedlings, and this correlation was stronger in seedlings exposed to additional Ni that were not irrigated compared with seedlings not exposed to additional Ni that were irrigated. The frequency of asymptomatic infections of G. abietina was positively correlated with the proportion of senescent short roots in the irrigated seedlings but not in not-irrigated seedlings. The general condition of seedlings may be an important factor for infection by G. abietina when moisture is high enough for the fungi to infect seedlings by conidia.

  • 272.
    Ahrenby, Hanna
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Bildpedagogik.
    Everything is possible!: - what can happen when the content in art education is equal to a visual culture that young people live in and take part of in their everyday life2014Inngår i: 34th World Congress of the International Society for Education through Art (InSEA ) :  Diversity through Art, Change, Continuity, Context: Abstracts : Pecha Kucha Presentations, 2014, s. 1-Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the content of Art in lower secondary school education. What happens when the content is equal to a visual culture that young people live in and take part of in their everyday life? To be able to make a transition from traditional art education such as learning traditional art technics, to explore and work with contemporary visual culture that concerns young people to day, it is crucial to find out what kind of visual culture is relevant to teenagers to day. When I started working at the University of Gävle in Sweden I had the opportunity to look back at my own practise as an art teacher. In a project with pupils between the ages of 13 to 16 were asked to show in photographs and clarifying text, what they thought possibleto do technically in the art class classroom. The 13-year olds took photographs of objects that represented what they saw as possible to do in that classroom. After the pupils had taken, shown and commented on their photographs a discussion with the pupils about the content, possibilities and limitations that they experienced in that art class room followed. As a second part of the project pupils aged 16 were then invited to discuss the same questions. The forms of visual culture that turned out to be the most important to both groups were digital forms of pictures, such as film, photographs made with their mobile phones, and often published on social forums such as Facebook or Instagram, as well as computer games with there visually designed settings. In conclusion the photographs and the discussions following showed that when the pupils could work with a visual media that they meet in their everyday life it gave meaning to the art subject. Some even expressed that in the art class room “everything was possible”.

  • 273.
    Ahrenby, Hanna
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap, Bildpedagogik.
    Får ungas visuella kultur plats i skolans bildsal?2014Inngår i: Visuella arenor och motsägelsefulla platser: Tio texter om transformativt lärande, identitet och kulturell förändring / [ed] Karlsson, Sten O, Göteborg: Daidalos, 2014, 1, s. 193-218Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 274.
    Ahrenby, Hanna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Bild- och dramapedagogik.
    Silfver, Birgitta
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Bild- och dramapedagogik.
    Aesthetic learning processes2015Inngår i: 25th EECERA Annual conference 'Innovation, experimentation and adventure in early childhood': Abstract Book, 2015, s. 271-271Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with our ongoing research is to find out what primary school teacher students (working with 6-8 year old pupils) thought of the meaning of aesthetics in teaching. What are the benefits of an aesthetic learning process? Previous research that we refer to is the dissertation of Tarja Häikö (2007). She investigates how aestethic learning processes are used in school and preschools. Boberg & Högberg (2015) have investigated how aestethic learning processes are used in schools and teacher education. Chemi (2012) has investigated the relationship between art, emotions and learning. Our framework is socio-cultural theory in accordance with Vygotsky (1995). The work of Gardner (2009), Hethland (2013) and Lindström (2010 & 2012) provides us with tools for analysis. The work has an hermeneutic phenomenologic research approach, using narratives (poetry as method). The participants were informed of the study and its aims. The confidentiality of the informants was secured. Consequences for informants were considered. A story can be a powerful way of reporting the results in research. How about using an even more condensed form, like a poem? We assume that the poetic language communicates with the reader in a more sensitive way than other research languages. Can the creation of the haiku in itself be a tool for discovery? We hope that the students will became aware of the usefulness and meaning of aesthetic learning. We also hope for increased use of aesthetic learning processes in schools. 

  • 275.
    Ahrenby, Hanna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Bild- och dramapedagogik.
    Silfver, Birgitta
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Bild- och dramapedagogik.
    Estetiska lärprocesser: vad ger det studenterna?2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 276.
    Ahrné, Karin
    et al.
    SLU.
    Bengtsson, Bengt Åke
    Björklund, Jan-Olof
    Cederberg, Björn
    Eliasson, Claes
    Hydén, Nils
    Jonasson, Jan
    Lindeborg, Mats
    Lst Kalmar Län.
    Ohlsson, Anders
    Palmqvist, Göran
    Ryrholm, Nils
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Biologi.
    Rödlista över fjärilar Lepidoptera2015Inngår i: Rödlistade arter i Sverige 2015 / [ed] Westling, Anna, Uppsala: ArtDatabanken SLU , 2015, s. 98-112Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 277.
    Ahrreman, Jonna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Näsberg, Johanna
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Inflytande och delaktighet i förskolan: en studie om yngre barns möjligheter och rättigheter2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate young children’s possibility to participation and influence in preschool settings. The specific questions were:  If and how do preschool teachers work with young children's influence and participation? In what way is the preschool teachers approach closely related to young children's opportunity to influence and participate? The results show that preschool teachers do work with young children’s influence and participation by keeping them involved in the preschool settings and considering their interest when planning the activities. The teachers also interpret the children’s ability to express their wishes and needs through nonvocal communication such as gestures and body language. The teacher's approach was shown as closely connected to the children opportunity to influence and participate in consideration to how close the teacher was to the child’s perspective and how they viewed the child. In summary this study concludes that the children’s ability to exert influence and participation will increase by endeavouring to come close to the child’s perspective and balancing the routines of the preschool settings as well as taking the child’s individuality into consideration.

  • 278.
    Aidehag, Marie
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för kultur-, religions- och utbildningsvetenskap.
    Bygga ett torn: en undersökning av gymnasieelevers upplevelse av ett lärande2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I svensk gymnasieskola genomfördes 2011 en omfattande reform som innehöll stora förändringar. En av dessa förändringar var ett minskat utrymme för estetiska kurser. Många gymnasieelever genomgår numera en hel utbildning utan att ha mött någon estetisk uttrycksform.

     

    I skolans styrdokument återkommer begrepp som kreativitet, förmåga att lösa problem och förmåga att ta initiativ. I ett modernt samhälle uttrycks en efterfrågan på ovanstående kompetenser. Skolans läroplaner beskriver elevers rätt till lärande genom flera olika uttrycksformer. I enlighet med dessa mål pågår en forskningsdiskurs kring ett designteoretiskt perspektiv och multimodala arbetsformer.

     

    Mot bakgrund ur detta har jag genomfört en undersökning där en grupp elever fått besvara frågor kring ett upplevt lärande i samband med ett genomfört bildprojekt. Arbetsuppgiften innehöll ett antal olika moment och arbetssätt. I uppgiften arbetade eleverna med traditionella tekniker för bild och form, men även med digitala verktyg och reflekterande texter kring process och innehåll. Undersökningen behandlar frågor kring vilken kunskap eleverna upplever att arbetet med det specifika projektet ger och vilka förmågor de upplever att de får möjlighet att utveckla och träna genom arbetet?

     

    Undersökningens huvudsyfte var att lyfta fram elevernas personliga upplevelser av ett lärande. Jag försökte dessutom att spegla arbetet ur en designteoretisk och multimodal diskurs, där läraren är en designer av lärandets förutsättningar och ger utrymme för ett lärande genom varierande uttryck och med olika verktyg. Undersökningen är genomförd i form av en enkät med tre frågor. Eleverna beskriver en personlig upplevelse med egna ord. Utsagorna har jag sedan bearbetat, klassificerat och analyserat.

     

    Undersökningen synliggör en varierad upplevelse av ett lärande, där vissa utsagor återkommer hos många informanter och vissa andra återfinns hos några enstaka. Den samlade bilden är mångfacetterad och komplex och visar på en bredd och en mångfald av upplevelser.

    Eleverna lyfter fram en hel del förväntade upplevelser av ett lärande, men även mer oväntade.

    Resultatet är intressant i relation till det teoretiska perspektiv som jag valt att knyta min undersökning till och till den aktuella samhällsdebatten kring kunskap och kompetens. Jag finner även resultatet viktigt och intressant med tanke på utvecklingen för estetiska ämnen i skolan och i synnerhet för ett framtida bildämne

  • 279.
    Aihie Lin, Zhouni
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi.
    Yan, Shiying
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi.
    Customer Loyalty of Amazon: how to build a long lasting relationship?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The purpose of the study is to do the research that under the e-commerce business model, the impact factors of customer loyalty in an online shopping environment, how to improve the customer loyalty and how to build a long lasting customer relationship.

    Design/Methodology/approach: Through to the questionnaire survey research, design and collect sample data, combine with the Amazon Company’s current operating mode and the theoretical, and also got the second data. In order to make the data become more and more reliable.

    Findings: The studying on improving customer loyalty under the B2C e-commerce model is significant for theory and practice. On the background of Amazon company,which is the biggest e-commerce company in America, according to the relevant literature and field surveys,the paper brings forward the importance of customer loyalty at the e-commerce business. It could come to the conclusion is how to improve the customer loyalty and then how to build the long lasting customer relationship.

    Contribution: The paper according to the characters of the online shopping and combine with the literature about the e-commerce and customer loyalty research, Put forward a certain hypothesis, through questionnaire survey on customers, and statistical analysis of the relationship between customer loyalty and its influence factors make an empirically evaluation. The paper gives contribution to the e-commerce business, how to build the long lasting customer relationship. 

  • 280.
    Ainasoja, Heidi
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för humaniora.
    Swedish upper secondary school teachers and their attitudes towards AmE, BrE, and Mid-Atlantic English.2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this essay is to investigate what English teachers’ attitudes are towards British English, American English and Mid-Atlantic English. What variety of English do teachers use in Swedish upper secondary schools today and what are their reasons for using that variety? Do upper secondary school teachers think it is important to expose students to several varieties of English and do they teach differences (e.g. vocabulary and spelling) between varieties? The material is based on a questionnaire, which 20 participating teachers from five different upper secondary schools in Gävleborg answered. The study showed that there is an even distribution between the varieties used and taught. British English was preferred by teachers working the longest time while both AmE and MAE seemed to be growing in popularity among the younger teachers. Of the 20 teachers, 18 considered teaching differences to students since it gives them a chance to communicate effectively with people from other English speaking countries.

  • 281.
    Ainasoja, Heidi
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi.
    Pallin, Johan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi.
    Elevers hälsokunskaper i idrott och hälsa: En enkätstudie om hur elever på tre olika gymnasieprogram värderar sina kunskaper i hälsa2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta examensarbete var att undersöka hur elever vid tre olika gymnasieprogram värderar sina kunskaper i ’hälsa’ utifrån en lokal tolkning av betygskriterier för kursen Idrott och hälsa A. En kvantitativ undersökning gjordes med hjälp av en enkätstudie och det insamlade datamaterialet behandlades sedan statistiskt via PASW (SPSS). Eleverna ansåg sig ha relativt mycket kunskap inom sju utvalda moment i hälsa, dock indikerades skillnader i kunskapsnivån mellan de olika gymnasieprogrammen. Elevernas uppskattade hälsokunskap stämde väl överens med elevernas uppskattade slutbetyg. Studien berörde även i vilken utsträckning elever använder sig av betygskriterierna för kursen och det framkom att hälften av deltagarna aldrig anser sig ha läst dessa. Bakgrundslitteraturen tyder på att lärare är osäkra kring vilka kunskaper som är viktiga i ämnet och att detta avspeglas på eleverna, vilket skulle kunna vara en orsak till elevernas ointresse för betygskriterier.

  • 282.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Eriksson, Urban
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    On the Disciplinary Affordances of Semiotic Resources2014Inngår i: IACS-2014 Book of abstracts, 2014, s. 54-55Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the late 70’s Gibson (1979) introduced the concept of affordance. Initially framed around the needs of an organism in its environment, over the years the term has been appropriated and debated at length by a number of researchers in various fields. Most famous, perhaps is the disagreement between Gibson and Norman (1988) about whether affordances are inherent properties of objects or are only present when they are perceived by an organism. More recently, affordance has been drawn on in the educational arena, particularly with respect to multimodality (see Linder (2013) for a recent example). Here, Kress et al. (2001) have claimed that different modes have different specialized affordances. Then, building on this idea, Airey and Linder (2009) suggested that there is a critical constellation of modes that students need to achieve fluency in before they can experience a concept in an appropriate disciplinary manner. Later, Airey (2009) nuanced this claim, shifting the focus from the modes themselves to a critical constellation of semiotic resources, thus acknowledging that different semiotic resources within a mode often have different affordances (e.g. two or more diagrams may form the critical constellation).

    In this theoretical paper the concept of disciplinary affordance (Fredlund et al., 2012) is suggested as a useful analytical tool for use in education. The concept makes a radical break with the views of both Gibson and Norman in that rather than focusing on the discernment of one individual, it refers to the disciplinary community as a whole. Put simply, the disciplinary affordances of a given semiotic resource are determined by those functions that the resource is expected to fulfil by the disciplinary community. Disciplinary affordances have thus been negotiated and developed within the discipline over time. As such, the question of whether these affordances are inherent or discerned becomes moot. Rather, from an educational perspective the issue is whether the meaning that a semiotic resource affords to an individual matches the disciplinary affordance assigned by the community. The power of the term for educational work is that learning can now be framed as coming to discern the disciplinary affordances of semiotic resources.

    In this paper we will briefly discuss the history of the term affordance, define the term disciplinary affordance and illustrate its usefulness in a number of educational settings.

  • 283.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Eriksson, Urban
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Fredlund, Tobias
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    Linder, Cedric
    Uppsala universitet, Fysikundervisningens didaktik.
    The Concept of Disciplinary Affordance2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Since its introduction by Gibson (1979) the concept of affordance has been discussed at length by a number of researchers. Most famous, perhaps is the disagreement between Gibson and Norman (1988) about whether affordances are inherent properties of objects or are only present when perceived by an organism. More recently, affordance has been drawn on in the educational arena, particularly with respect to multimodality (see Linder (2013) for a recent example). Here, Kress et al (2001) claim that different modes have different specialized affordances.

     

    In this theoretical paper the concept of disciplinary affordance (Fredlund et al., 2012) is suggested as a useful analytical educational tool. The concept makes a radical break with the views of both Gibson and Norman in that rather than focusing on the perception of an individual, it focuses on the disciplinary community as a whole. Put simply, the disciplinary affordances of a given semiotic resource are determined by the functions that it is expected to fulfil for the discipline. As such, the question of whether these affordances are inherent or perceived becomes moot. Rather, the issue is what a semiotic resource affords to an individual and whether this matches the disciplinary affordance. The power of the term is that learning can now be framed as coming to perceive the disciplinary affordances of semiotic resources.

     

    In this paper we will discuss the history of the term affordance, define the term disciplinary affordance and illustrate its usefulness in a number of educational settings.

     

    References

    Airey, J. (2009). Science, Language and Literacy. Case Studies of Learning in Swedish University Physics. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis. Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology 81. Uppsala  Retrieved 2009-04-27, from http://publications.uu.se/theses/abstract.xsql?dbid=9547

    Fredlund, T., Airey, J., & Linder, C. (2012). Exploring the role of physics representations: an illustrative example from students sharing knowledge about refraction. European Journal of Physics, 33, 657-666.

    Gibson, J. J. (1979). The theory of affordances The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception (pp. 127-143). Boston: Houghton Miffin.

    Kress, G., Jewitt, C., Ogborn, J., & Tsatsarelis, C. (2001). Multimodal teaching and learning: The rhetorics of the science classroom. London: Continuum.

    Linder, C. (2013). Disciplinary discourse, representation, and appresentation in the teaching and learning of science. European Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 1(2), 43-49.

    Norman, D. A. (1988). The psychology of everyday things. New York: Basic Books.

     

     

  • 284.
    Aittamaa, Christina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö.
    Inmätning av fastigheten Hållsta 2:3, Hudiksvall2007Student paper second term, 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta projekt har genomförts på mark- och mätningsavdelningen i Hudiksvalls kommun och projektets område är beläget norr om Hudiksvall, ca 6 km från centrala Hudiksvall vid norra infarten till E4:an.

    I området ligger en friskola, en gymnasieskola som heter ”Glada Hudik-skolan”. I skolans lokaler har det tidigare bedrivits hotellverksamhet i många år, f.d. Hammering Hotell. Hösten 2006 öppnade skolan sina portar och de räknar med att öka antalet elever varje läsår. I närheten av skolan finns den kända travbanan, Hagmyren.

    Syftet med arbetet var att göra en inmätning av fastigheten Hållsta 2:3, eftersom det inte fanns några inmätningar där tidigare. Stompunkter mättes in både i plan och höjd, därefter gjordes det detaljmätningar. Koordinatsystemet i plan i Hudiksvall är RTR10 2.5 gon V 0:- 15 och i höjd RH 70. Efter stom- och detaljmätningarna konstruerades en primärkarta i Geosecma som är ett kartprogram.

    I den här rapporten kommer mätmetoder, beräkningar, dokumentation och kartframställning att redovisas.

    Målet med projektet är att kommunen skall få nytta av inmätningarna i framtiden för olika projekteringar och att jag skall få mer erfarenhet av både mätning och kartframställning. Jag får även kunskaper om hur det går till på arbetsplatsen, tankegångar kring ett projekt och lärdomar av att arbeta självständigt.

  • 285.
    Ajax, Olivia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi.
    Brunila, Julia
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi.
    Influencers påverkan på varumärkeslojalitet.: En kvantitativ studie på den svenska marknaden2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 286.
    Akam, Barbara
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för vårdvetenskap och sociologi.
    Larsson, Svetlana
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för vårdvetenskap och sociologi.
    Inegrations- och normaliseringsmål för personer med intellektuella funktionsnedsättningar: en studie av personalens upplevelser av daglig omsorgsverksamhet i Polen2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syftet med vår uppsats är att med en komparativ ansats studera hur integrerings- och

    normaliseringsmål uppnås för personer med intellektuella funktionsnedsättningar inom den

    dagliga verksamheten i Polen. Vi vill även se hur personalen upplever att de uppnår dessa

    mål. Huvudmetoden för studien var kvalitativ intervju. I vår analys har vi valt att använda oss

    av KASAM-teorin som kan förklara hur personalen på den dagliga verksamheten upplever att

    integrerings- och normaliseringsmålen uppnås. Vi använder oss av begrepp som

    empowerment, normalisering och integration. Vad som framkommer är att personalen

    upplever att deras integrerings- och normaliseringsmål i verksamheten uppnås, men att det

    finns brister som gör att man inte når ända fram. För att uppnå målen behövs mera resurser

    och en annan syn på människor med intellektuella funktionsnedsättningar.

  • 287.
    Akander, Jan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem. Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linköping University.
    Assessing the Myths on Energy Efficiency When Retrofitting Multifamily Buildings in a Northern Region2017Inngår i: Sustainable High Rise Buildings in Urban Zones: Advantages, Challenges, and Global Case Studies / [ed] Ali Sayigh, Cham: Springer Publishing Company, 2017, 1, s. 139-161Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the light of EU’s requirements to achieve a major cut in energy use by 2050, Sweden has the same target. The built environment must by 2020 reduce energy use by 20 and 50 % by 2050. The size of the future building stock will naturally increase and regardless of how energy efficient future buildings will be, the energy performance of the old stock must be improved in order to reach those goals. In major renovation projects involving multifamily buildings in large residential areas in the cities, 50 % reduction can be achieved. This is cost-effective and profitable even if the rent is increased.

    Gävleborg is a sparse region in the North, with few cities. Multifamily buildings are generally much smaller than in large cities and owners are reluctant to impose changes that increase rents due to the housing situation in the region. In consequence, the Regional Council and the University of Gävle set out to assess the potential and feasibility of reducing energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in this region’s multifamily buildings. Eleven real buildings were investigated, each having various ownership forms, different technical attributes and heating sources. Energy audits and measurements were conducted to assess the condition of each building. Performances of the buildings and proposed improvements were simulated with building energy simulation programs, whilst life cycle cost analyses were conducted to study viability. Carbon dioxide emission (CO2) reductions were estimated for each improvement.

    Based on the results, a concluding discussion is made on whether or not some myths on energy use and retrofitting are true. The following is concluded: It is possible to reach a 50 % reduction, but it is not economical with the costs involved and with today’s energy prices and moderate price increase over time.

    Retrofitting or improvements made in the building’s services systems (HVAC) are more economical than actions taken to improve performance of building by constructions. HVAC improvements give about 20 % reduction in energy use. However, mechanical ventilation systems with heat recuperation are not economical, though these may or may not substantially reduce use of thermal energy.

    Solar energy is, despite the latitude of the region, economically viable—especially PV solar energy. Photovoltaic panels (PVs) are becoming viable—the combination of PVs and district heating is beneficial since saving electricity is more important than thermal energy in district-heated areas.

  • 288.
    Akander, Jan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem.
    Morberg, Åsa
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Sustainability of world heritage: who inherits the ownership of decorated farmhouses of Hälsingland?2017Inngår i: A Good Life for All: Essays on sustainability celebrating 60 years of making life better / [ed] Fagerström, Arne and Cunningham, Gary M., Mjölby: Atremi AB , 2017, 1, s. 139-161Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter discusses sustainability of Sweden’s most recent World Heritage (WH) site, the Decorated Farmhouses of Hälsingland. A general overview presents what WH is, why it is special and why it should be preserved for future generations. The views of WH farm owners on managing a WH site and how they feel about the task have been assessed. WH must be preserved for future generations and it is necessary for the farms to interact sustainably with their local communities. Most WH farms are privately owned and have been within the same family for centuries. Will this continue in the future or are there problems with succession?

  • 289.
    Akander, Jan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Stojanovic, Bojan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Hallberg, Daniel
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Simulated Long-term Thermal Performance of a Building That Utilizes a Heat Pump System and Borehole2008Inngår i: Durability of Building Materials & Components 11: Globality and Locality in Durability / [ed] A. Nil Türkeri, Özkan Sengül, Istanbul, Turkey: Istanbul Technical University, 2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decades, installation and use of heat pumps has grown rapidly in Sweden, to the extent that these mainly or partly heat roughly 25 % of the heated floor space in single-family houses. A majority are ground coupled where the heat exchanger is a borehole of 60-220 m depth. As the heat pump system operates, heat extraction will in time reduce borehole temperatures, rendering lowered efficiency of the heat pump system thus directly affecting its economical and environmental aspects. Within the building sector, durability and life performance dynamics of energy systems is often not reflected upon. System performance and efficiency is assumed to be static over time, changing only due to different operation scenarios. This paper serves to quantify the long-term thermal performance degradation of a component, in this case the borehole, and how the degradation of this component affects performance-over-time of an entire system, in this case the heating system of the building. A dynamic thermal simulation model is used to assess the long-term thermal performance of the borehole. The building, which the heat pump serves, is assumed to be a typical Swedish house with normal energy consumption. Simulation results show that the depth of the borehole is of great importance to limit over-time temperature drops. The efficiency of the heat pump system is directly dependent of temperatures in the borehole. How the overall system performance is affected by component performance degradation, is highlighted.

  • 290.
    Akander, Sara
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap, Medicin- och vårdvetenskap.
    Eriksson, Ellinor
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap, Medicin- och vårdvetenskap.
    Hur personer som lever med HIV/AIDS upplever bemötandet inom vården: - En litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: HIV är en virussjukdom som orsakas av retrovirus vilket innebär sänkt immunförsvar. AIDS är slutstadiet av sjukdomen och det finns två typer av HIV; typ 1 och typ 2. Vårdaren och patienten är beroende av varandra för att omvårdnaden ska bli optimal. Här är bemötandet viktigt i patientens upplevelse av vården, speciellt för personer som lever med en smittsam sjukdom. Tidigare forskning visade att sjukvårdspersonal kunde ha en kritisk syn på livsstilen hos personer som lever med HIV/AIDS, men kunskap om hur personer som lever med HIV/AIDS (PLHA) upplever bemötandet i kontakt med sjukvården saknas idag, något som författarna valt att studera djupare. Syfte: Syftet var att beskriva hur PLHA upplever bemötandet inom sjukvården i samband med kontakt på grund av sjukdomen, samt beskriva urvalet i använda vetenskapliga artiklar. Metod: En deskriptiv litteraturstudie, nio vetenskapliga artiklar med både kvalitativ och kvantitativ ansats användes. Huvudresultat: Enligt PLHA var ett positivt bemötande av stor vikt för den fortsatta vårdrelationen. Genom information och ökad kunskap hos sjuksköterskor och vårdpersonal beskrev PLHA att bemötandet blev bättre och att HIV-relaterade stigman kunde reduceras. En personlig utbildning för PLHA själva var också viktigt för att minska den självupplevda interna stigman som ofta grundade sig i skam över sjukdomen. Den inre skammen och känslan av att behöva dölja något kunde leda till både depression och negativa känslor. Ett negativt bemötande kunde vara exempelvis brist på engagemang och icke välkomnande intryck samt upplevd motvilja hos vårdpersonalen till att vårda, behandla och stödja PLHA fysiskt och psykiskt. Slutsats: PLHA upplever inte lika mycket stigma/diskriminering idag, men det finns fortfarande en viss grad av fördomar. Utbildning av både personal som inte jobbar med/möter denna patientgrupp ofta och information till samhället skulle kunna hjälpa att minska de existerande fördomarna och stigma som fortfarande finns kring sjukdomen.

  • 291.
    Akbar, Yusra
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för utbildningsvetenskap. 0704965014.
    Är du glad på din arbetsplats?: En kvalitativ undersökning om faktorer av betydelse för trivseln på arbetsplatser2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Att vara glad på arbetsplatsen är ett mål som vi anställda strävar efter inom arbetsmarknaden. Att trivas på arbetet kan bero på olika faktorer som kan hänga ihop med en god arbetsmiljö för de anställda. Anställda som trivs med sitt jobb visar bättre resultat och har en ökad prestation. Arbetsgivarna bör tänka strategiskt på detta område och investera både tid och resurser för positiv påverkan på verksamheten. Att mäta trivselgraden regelbundet i ett företag är nödvändigt i högsta grad för att ta reda på vad som fungerar bra och vilka områden som behöver förbättras.

    Uppsatsen bygger på en kvalitativ metod i form av halvstrukturerade intervjuer. Detta innebär intervjuer av ett antal anställda på företaget Bauhaus. Valet av företag bygger på bekvämlighetsprincipen. Intervjuerna riktade in sig på upplevd trivsel på arbetet samt vad som ökar trivseln.

    Uppsatsen utgår från en studie av Angelöw (2015) som visar att Sverige ligger på 9:e plats på världskartan när det gäller trivsel i arbetet, efter bland annat Mexiko, Indien och Norge. Resultaten av denna studie visar exempel på faktorer som kan ligga bakom trivseln i arbetet. Undersökningen kan därför vara en grund till att öka förståelse och insyn i vad som kan vara en trivsam arbetsplats och vad som kan påverka arbetsmiljötrivsel.

  • 292.
    Akello, Juliana
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för humaniora.
    Trendigt: En undersökning av värdeord i reklam för skönhetsprodukter2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med undersökningen är att granska modern reklam och dess spegling av genus i vårt samhälle. Språk är ett verktyg som påverkar alla individer och i reklam kan språket ofta användas manipulativt. Att analysera hur skönhetsreklam handskas med konsumentens föreställning av manlighet och kvinnlighet gör en iakttagelse av vad språket i en viss typ av reklamannonser innebär. Syftet utformades efter en målgrupp, millenials, och de normbrytande tankar kring kön och samhälle som figurerar bland dem som konsumenter. Med strukturell analys för brukstexter undersöktes de värdeord, attityder, ramar och språkhandlingar som förekommer i skönhetsreklam. Resultatavsnittet knyter teori och forskning till de värdeord och stereotyper annonserna använder sig av och belyser olika strategier reklamen brukar för att påverka konsumentens attityd till kön och konsumtion. Genom att studera ordvalen och innehållet i annonserna kunde frågeställningar besvaras,  exempelvis de om värdeord som finns i annonserna och vilka stereotyper de framställer. I diskussionsavsnittet förs resonemang kring kundens positiva och negativa inställning till erbjudanden i skönhetsreklam och de ordval som gjorts i annonserna. Slutsatsen är att den manlighet och kvinnlighet som visas i den här kontexten är omodern och har i viss mån konstruerats för att vara normbrytande men bara för att öka attraktionsvärdet hos den produkt som marknadsförs. 

  • 293.
    Akin-Tepede, Oladipupo
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi.
    Impediments to Adopting Sustainable Transportation in Developing Countries – TheCase of Tricycles in Nigeria: MBA-thesis in marketing2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the impediments to adopting sustainabletransportation in developing countries using tricycles in Nigeria as a case study.Two Executives of Chongqing Beyond Company in China, Marketing Managerof Kayemel Tricycle in India, Brand Manager of keke POeT, the chairman ofTricycle Association, Idewu Routes, the chairman of Tricycle Association,Liverpool Routes and a member of Transport Committee, Obafemi AwolowoUniversity (OAU) were interviewed. Data was also gathered throughquestionnaires for a total of fifteen drivers of different tricycle types on differentroute and a total of twenty passengers picked at random from Idewu Route,Liverpool Route and OAU campus.It was discovered under the lenses of relevant Green Marketing literature thatthe data supports some theoretical findings in their respective fields but alsocounters some other theoretic findings. It came to the conclusion that concept ofdominant demand, commercial stakeholders’ cooperation and effective qualityprogram advocated by some of the green marketing literature are very effectivemarketing tactics in the success of green tricycles adoption in Nigeria.

  • 294.
    Aktan, Mikael
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för matematik, natur- och datavetenskap.
    Dynamic hair effects2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Creating three dimensional hair is still one of the hardest elements when creating characters. Problems occur because of the constant changes in the software every few years. A major goal is to create as realistic hair as possible in Autodesk Maya and to supply this detailed information on to other 3D artist. Techniques are researched and reviewed on how different hair systems are created, as well as how dynamic effects react on the moving hair.

  • 295.
    Akter, Ruzlin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Rathnayaka, Shashiprabha
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    The Impact of Organizational Culture and Leadership on Organizational Innovation2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Title: The Impact of Organizational Culture and Leadership on Organizational Innovation

    Level: Final assignment for Master Degree in Business Administration

    Authors: Ruzlin Akter and Shashiprabha Rathnayaka

    Supervisor: Zahra Ahmadi, PhD

    Examiner: Maria Fregidou-Malama, PhD

    Date: 2019 – January

    Aim: The aim of the study is to explore the impact of organizational culture and leadership in the development of organizational innovation.

    Method: The study is based on twelve qualitative interviews from six different organizations. The organizations have been selected randomly but with consideration of innovativeness. Two of the organizations have been selected from Sri Lanka and four organizations from Sweden. This study has been conducted by following an inductive qualitative research method using structured and semi-structured interview. Inductive approach has been followed to analyze the data.

    Result & Conclusion: Organization culture and leadership together have an influence for developing innovation. The findings of the study suggest that process and job oriented culture, and transactional leadership has both positive and negative impact in developing innovation. Our findings suggest that result oriented culture, employee oriented culture, pragmatic culture, open system and transformational leadership are more effective than process oriented, job oriented, normative culture and transactional leadership for developing innovation.

    Suggestion for Future Research: Though this study has used six organizations, the numbers of participants is low for each organization. This study has not focused on any specific industry and national culture. Therefore the suggestion for further study is to use more participants and to be industry specific. Researcher can also go in depth to identify which factors are particularly the reasons for the failure and success of innovativeness to this particular industry through comparing the national culture.

    Contribution: This study has made a theoretical contribution by connecting organizational culture and leadership with innovation and provides a new reflection regarding the impact of ii process oriented culture and job oriented culture. This study contributes to the implication to managers where managers can serve best for the culture while knowing about the influential result of the culture and leadership on innovation. With the help of this study, organizations will be able to identify the factors that may help them to be innovative and competitive in market. Ultimately the organization will be able contribute to the national economy of its country.

    Key words: Organizational Innovation, Leadership, Organizational Culture.

  • 296.
    Al Abdalla, Yazan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för humaniora.
    Sju & de abrahamitiska religionerna: Ett heligt tal?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

     

    Purpose: The study focuses on the number seven in Judaism, Christianity and Islam. The purpose of this essay was to find out where in the Holy Scriptures and traditions the number seven can be found and also to understand what purpose the number have in these religions.

     

    Method: In order to answer the purpose of the work, various literature studies were used with previous research on the subject. The studies used gave a deeper understanding of the historical background of the number seven. In addition to literature studies, the religious scriptures, the Bible and the Qur'an were used.

     

    Theory: The theory used in the work is intertextuality. Intertextuality is based on the fact that most texts are based on other texts. Given that the religious scriptures were studied in the paper, this theory was very helpful.

     

    Result: The survey of the religious texts revealed that the number seven addresses the moderation of the creation myth which made the characters in the biblical story use the number seven as a symbol of moderation.

     

    The analysis part led to the second result which is based on intertextuality. This theory tells us that religious scriptures are part of an intertextual chain, for example, the Quran incorporates certain elements from previous writings. The same applies to, for example, the Bible. The result of this is that the religious texts are based on each other which means that the number seven may have been mentioned in early texts as a sacred element and texts that came later on incorporated that theory.

  • 297.
    Al Amin, A.
    et al.
    Department of EEE, Uttara University, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Islam, M.
    Department of EEE, Uttara University, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Masud, M. A.
    Department of EEE, Uttara University, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Khan, N. H.
    Department of EEE, Uttara University, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Zavala, J. W. A.
    Characterization Engineer, Radio Semiconductor Corporation, Netherlands.
    Minhaz-Ul-Islam, Mohammed
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Design and performance analysis of 3.4 ghz rectangular microstrip patch antenna for wireless communication systems2017Inngår i: International Journal on Communications Antenna and Propagation, ISSN 2039-5086, E-ISSN 2039-5094, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 80-86Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless communication provides low-cost, high-speed and flexible communication in present days. Hence antenna plays a vital role in the wireless communication sector. The main concern of this paper is therefore to design a 3.4 GHz rectangular Microstrip patch antenna. Moreover, the feed probe based rectangular patch antenna will be designed. The performance of the designed rectangular patch antenna will be evaluated by analysing the major parameters of the simulation results. Hence the radiation pattern, gain, impedance matching and reflection coefficient or return loss calculation will be executed by the HFSS software to evaluate the performance of the antenna. 

  • 298.
    Al hamdany, Yarub
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Energisystem.
    Simulering och energieffektivisering för en kontorsbyggnad iForsmark2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The society changes rapidly and is heavily dependent on energy. The Energy usage in buildings account for about 40% of total Sweden's energy usage, where energy is used by buildings for electricity, cooling and heating. Therefore, energy is an important issue in today's society from an energy use approach to stop the global warming. In this work, a survey was carried out by an office building in Forsmark Kraftgrupp AB to find out about energy use and create a basis for energy-saving measures. The IDA ICE 4.7.1 program was used to simulate the building's energy use by creating a base model of the building. After that, the base model has been compared with different energy efficiency measures to check where the biggest and least energy saving potentials occur. The result shows that the total energy use in the office building is 198 125 kWh / year. The simulations show that energy efficiency measures could reduce energy use in the building by 81 962 kWh / year, which corresponds to 41.4% of the total energy use. Time control of ventilation systems gives the largest energy savings of 51, 2 kWh / m2, year.

  • 299.
    AL Hareere, Rafeh Ibraheem Taleb
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    Bekic, Kenan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Företagsekonomi.
    The relationship between leadership and organizational culture: Handelsbanken in Sweden2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Title: The Relationship between Leadership and Organizational Culture

    Level: Master Degree in Business Administration 

    Authors: Al Hareere, Rafeh and Bekic, Kenan

    Supervisor: Maria Fregidou- Malama 

    Examiner: Ehsanul Huda Chowdhury

    Date: 2018-10-10

    Aim: The aim of the study is to explore the relationship between leadership and organizational culture in a financial organization. The study has been conducted in Handelsbanken, Sweden.

    Method: The study is based on ten qualitative interviews with managers and employees in Handelsbanken, Mid-Sweden offices. We used inductive approach by comparing findings with existing theory.

    Result & Conclusions: Leadership depends mostly on corporate values and individuals´ personalities within SHB.  We noticed predominantly notion of transformational leadership, consisting of democratic, empowering and participative leadership. SHB´s corporate culture is strong and cohesive, resembling mostly guided missile type of culture. We argue that leadership and corporate culture affect each other, in case of Swedish Handelsbanken through employee motivation and empowerment and internal recruitment and development of future managers.

    Suggestions for future research: We suggest a study where the possible existence of transactional and laissez faire leadership could be proven within a financial organization as well as studies on other types of corporate culture and conducting similar studies within financial organizations to make comparisons between the organizations.

    Contribution of the thesis: This study contributes to theoretical knowledge development about leadership and corporate culture and the interconnection between them within a financial organization, as presented in case of Handelsbanken, Mid-Sweden offices.

    Key words: Leadership, corporate culture, transformational leadership; democratic, empowering, participative leadership; guided missile corporate culture, financial organization

  • 300.
    Al Tanany, Ahmed
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö.
    A Study of Switched Mode Power Amplifiers using LDMOS2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This work focuses on different kinds of Switch Mode Power Amplifiers (SMPAs) using LDMOS technologies. It involves a literature study of different SMPA concepts. Choosing the suitable class that achieves the high efficiency was the base stone of this

    work. A push-pull class J power amplifier (PA) was designed with an integrated LC resonator inside the package using the bondwires and die capacitances. Analysis and motivation of the chosen class is included. Designing the suitable Input/Output printed circuit board (PCB) external circuits (i.e.; BALUN circuit, Matching network and DC

    bias network) was part of the work. This work is done by ADS simulation and showed a simulated result of about 70% drain efficiency for 34 W output power and 16 dB gain at 2.14 GHz. Study of the losses in each part of the design elements is also included.

    Another design at lower frequency (i.e.; at 0.94 GHz) was also simulated and compared to the previous design. The drain efficiency was 83% for 32 W output power and 15.4 dB Gain.

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