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  • 251.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggvetenskap - tillämpad psykologi.
    Toomingas, Allan
    Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Sweden.
    Norman, Kerstin
    Örebro University, Department of Public Health Sciences, Sweden.
    Hagman, Maud
    Karolinska Institutet, NASP, Sweden.
    Herlin, Rose-Marie
    Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Wigaeus-Tornqvist, Eva
    Royal Institute of Technology, School of Technology and Health, Sweden.
    Stress, energy and psychosocial conditions in different types of call centres2010Ingår i: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 36, nr 1, s. 9-25Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to identify risk indicators for high stress and low mental energy as well as to describe psychosocial working conditions at different types of call centres.

    A cross sectional questionnaire study was conducted among 1183 operators from 28 call centres, in Sweden both external and internal, with different levels of task complexity, ownership and geographical location.

    The stress level was moderately high and the energy level fairly high. Stress levels tended to be lower and psychosocial conditions better with increasing level of task complexity. Fourteen per cent of the operators were in a state of high stress/low energy (“worn out”) and 47% in high stress/high energy (“committed under pressure”). Operators in a state of low stress/high energy (“committed without pressure”) were most likely to report a better health status. High stress and lack of energy was mainly associated with time pressure, low decision latitude, and lack of social and supervisor support.

    Time pressure in combination with lack of support and influence should be seen as a potential high risk situation for the development of a “worn-out” state among call centre operators. Management should make use of this knowledge in order to promote a long lasting efficient and healthy call centre work.

  • 252.
    Kjellberg, Katarina
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Nyman, Teresia
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden ; Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden; School of Technology and health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Palm, Peter
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rhén, Ida-Märta
    Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Kristina
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; School of Technology and health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Ruth
    Swedish Work Environment Authority, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Balliu, Natalya
    Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Comparisons of six observational methods for risk assessment of repetitive work - results from a consensus assessment2015Ingår i: Proceedings 19th Triennial Congress of the IEA, Melbourne 9-14 August 2015, 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During last decades several risk assessment methods for physical ergonomics have been developed. In a literature review 30 observational methods for assessment of biomechanical exposures at work were evaluated (1). It was found that several methods are insufficiently tested in terms of validity and reliability. Comparisons between methods' resulting risk levels are rare. The Swedish Work Environment Authority has recently emphasized the demands on risk assessments of musculoskeletal disorders (2). Practitioners mostly use observational methods to assess biomechanical risks(1). Despite a recent study comparing eight methods evaluating risk factors associated with musculoskeletal disorders (3), there is a lack of knowledge and guidance on which methods are the most effective and valid.

    This study is part of a larger on-going project, the OBS-project, with the overall purpose to evaluate six observational methods for assessment of biomechanical exposures of repetitive work in respect of validity, reliability and usability. A further purpose is to provide information on which of the methods are best suited for practitioners in risk assessment of repetitive work. The specific aim of this sub-study was to investigate the agreement between six observational methods for risk assessment of repetitive work by comparing the risk levels as assessed by a group of experts.

  • 253.
    Kjellberg, Katarina
    et al.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Occupational and Environmental Health, Karolinska Institutet.
    Palm, Peter
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Josephson, Malin
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University.
    Development of an instrument for assessing workstyle in checkout cashier work (BAsIK)2012Ingår i: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, s. 663-668Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Checkout cashier work consists of handling a large number of items during a work shift, which implies repetitive movements of the shoulders, arms and hands/wrists, and a high work rate. The work is associated with a high prevalence of disorders in the neck and upper extremity. The concept of workstyle explains how ergonomic and psychosocial factors interact in the development of work-related upper extremity disorders. The aim of the project was to develop an instrument for the occupational health services to be used in the efforts to prevent upper extremity disorders in checkout cashier work. The instrument is based on the workstyle concept and is intended to be used as a tool to identify high-risk workstyle and needs for interventions, such as training and education. The instrument, BAsIK, consists of four parts; a questionnaire about workstyle, an observation protocol for work technique, a checklist about the design of the checkout and a questionnaire about work organization. The instrument was developed by selecting workstyle items developed for office work and adapting them to checkout cashier work, discussions with researchers and ergonomists, focus-group interviews with cashiers, observations of video recordings of cashiers, and studies of existing guidelines and checklists.

  • 254.
    Korshøj, Mette
    et al.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Birk Jørgensen, Marie
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Lagersted-Olsen, Julie
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Prolonged sitting at work is associated with a favorable time course of low-back pain among blue-collar workers: a prospective study in the DPhacto cohort2018Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 44, nr 5, s. 530-538Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sitting at work is suggested to increase risk for low-back pain (LBP). Thus, an association between temporal patterns of sitting and time course of LBP, across 12 months, among 665 participants from the DPhacto cohort was conducted. We found that longer durations of total and temporal sitting periods at work were significantly associated with a favorable time course of LBP.

  • 255.
    Korshøj, Mette
    et al.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Lagersted-Olsen, Julie
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Birk Jørgensen, Marie
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Is there an association between temporal patterns of sitting and low-back pain?: A cross-sectional study2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Low back pain (LBP) is a major global health challenge. Sitting is a suggested risk factor for LBP among blue-collar workers. Previously, information on sitting time has been collected by self-reports, being imprecise and biased compared to objective measurements. Therefore, we aimed at investigating the association between objectively measured sitting time and LBP among blue-collar workers.

    Methods

    The analysis is based on the DPHACTO cohort, and included 601 Danish blue-collar workers recruited from the cleaning, manufacturing and transport sector. Cross-sectional information on LBP intensity (range 0-10) was collected by questionnaire. Objective measurements of sitting were collected using two accelerometers (ActiGraph GT3X+) worn on the thigh and trunk during 1-5 workdays. Sitting time were split in occupational and leisure time and analyzed as the total duration, and divided in temporal patterns of uninterrupted long (> 30 min), moderate (> 5 – 30 min) and short (< 5 min) bouts by the exposure variation analysis method. Association between sitting and LBP intensity was analyzed using univariate ANOVA adjusted for age, sex, smoking, BMI, job seniority and occupational lifting and carrying activities. Additionally, total sitting were adjusted for physical activities (standing, walking, running, walking in stairs and biking) and sitting in opposite domain (occupational/leisure); and temporal pattern variables were mutually adjusted for other lengths of sitting bouts.

    Results

    No associations were seen between total sitting time and LBP; (occupational B=0.017, p=0.53; leisure B=0.008, p=0.76). No associations seen between long (occupational B=-0.002, p=0.97; leisure B=0.010, p=0.75), moderate (occupational B=0.025, p=0.50; leisure B=0.006, p=0.90), or short (occupational B=0.035, p=0.63; leisure B=-0.009, p=0.95) bouts of uninterrupted sitting and LBP.

    Conclusions and implications

    Objectively measured sitting time was not associated with LBP in blue-collar workers; pointing toward other factors being attributed to LBP. Thus, this finding needs to be investigated in prospective designs.

  • 256.
    Korshøj, Mette
    et al.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Aadahl, Mette
    Research Centre for Prevention and Health, The Capital Region of Denmark, Glostrup, Denmark; Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Birk Jørgensen, Marie
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Is objectively measured sitting at work associated with low-back pain?: a cross sectional study in the DPhacto cohort2018Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 44, nr 1, s. 96-105Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. Low back pain (LBP) is a substantial health challenge, due to the risk for long term sickness absence and early retirement. Several biomechanical exposures at work, including sitting, have been suggested to increase the risk for LBP. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which temporal patterns and total amount of objectively measured sitting is associated with LBP intensity, and whether selected modifiers influence these associations.

    Methods. This cross sectional study uses baseline data from the Danish PHysical ACTivity cohort with objective measurements of physical activities in the cleaning, transport and manufacturing sectors. Peak intensity of LBP was collected by questionnaire on a 0-10 scale and sitting was expressed in terms of total duration and temporal pattern, i.e. time spent in brief bursts (≤5 minutes), moderate periods (>5 – ≤20 minutes) and prolonged periods of sitting (>20 minutes); both during work and whole day (waking hours only). Associations were determined using linear regression in models accounting for moderation and confounding. Factors evaluated as moderators or confounders were assessed by questionnaire.

    Results. The population consisted of 704 participants. No significant associations were found between total duration or temporal patterns of sitting and LBP intensity, neither during work nor for the whole day. Body Mass Index significantly moderated the association between sitting and LBP; participants with a high and low BMI showing a negative and positive association, respectively.

    Conclusion. Sitting was not independently associated with peak LBP intensity, suggesting other exposures to be more powerful risk factors for LBP.

  • 257.
    Lagergren, Josefin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Stress, återhämtning och kognitiv prestation i olika kontorstyper: Masterexamensarbete2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kontorets utformning kan antas ha en central roll för hälsa och prestation på arbetsplatsen. Syftet med den här studien var därför att undersöka hur upplevelsen av stress, behovet av återhämtning och hur kognitiv prestation skiljer sig åt mellan olika kontorstyper. Fyra kontor från en statlig myndighet genomförde ett byte från cellkontor till aktivitetsbaserade kontor, vilka utgör studiens interventionsgrupp (n=203). Ett kontor, där inget byte genomfördes, utgör studiens kontrollgrupp (n=100).

    För att undersöka upplevelsen av stress och behovet av återhämtning besvarade deltagare från interventionsgruppen och kontrollgruppen en enkät. Ett urval av deltagarna från interventionsgruppen och kontrollgruppen som besvarat enkäten genomförde även en minnesuppgift för att undersöka kognitiv prestation i olika arbetsmiljöer. Data från både enkäten och minnesuppgiften samlades in från båda grupperna en gång innan interventionsgruppens byte av kontor och en gång efter att bytet skett. Resultaten visade att upplevelsen av stress och behovet av återhämtning ökade marginellt inom interventionsgruppen efter bytet till de aktivitetsbaserade kontoren. Dock var effekterna så svaga att mer forskning behövs innan några säkra slutsatser kan dras. Resultaten indikerade även att kognitiv prestation skiljer sigåt mellan olika arbetsmiljöer. Resultaten visade till exempel att kognitiv prestation förbättrades för deltagarna i interventionsgruppen men inte för deltagarna i kontrollgruppen då interventionsgruppen genomförde minnesuppgiften i arbetsmiljön webbmötesrum. Däremot krävs det mer studier för att bland annat undersöka om skillnaderna av kognitiv prestation mellan olika arbetsmiljöer beror på själva bytet av kontor, typen av arbetsuppgift eller arbetsmiljöernas utformning.

  • 258.
    Landström, Ulf
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Buller: störningseffekter2007Ingår i: Nordisk lärobok i audiologi, Bromma: CA Tegnér , 2007, , s. 8Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 259.
    Larsson, Johan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Healthy and effective leadership behaviour through a leadership development programme2017Ingår i: Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 28, nr 13-14, s. 1617-1631Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analysed the influence on leadership behaviours acquired through a structured development programme. A total of 30 municipality workplaces around the west coast of Sweden participated in a leadership intervention using a case-control design. The oneyear programme included lectures, seminars, group and individual reflection, and for some participants, an intervention that included group development activities with subordinates. The intervention was based on the healthy and effective leadership (HEL) model. The model draws from common leadership behaviours in successful organisations. Among municipalities in western Sweden, does subordinate perception of their managers’ HEL behaviours differ between subordinates whose managers participated in one-year leadership development programs and subordinates whose managers were in a control group? The leadership development programme, both with and without a systematic group development process, had a significant positive relation with the change in the HEL behaviour index when controlled for age, gender and education compared with a control group from the same region and sector. Further research is suggested using longitudinal leadership behaviour intervention studies that focus on both subordinate health and organisational effectiveness.

  • 260.
    Lassen, Anne Dahl
    et al.
    Division for Risk Assessment and Nutrition, Technical University of Denmark, Kemitorvet, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Fagt, Sisse
    Division for Risk Assessment and Nutrition, Technical University of Denmark, Kemitorvet, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap.
    Nyberg, Maria
    Department of Food and Meal Science, Kristianstad University, Kristianstad, Sweden.
    Haapalar, Irja
    School of Social and Political Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; School of Applied Educational Sciences and Teacher Education, Savonlinna, Finland.
    Thorsen, Anne V.
    Division for Risk Assessment and Nutrition, Technical University of Denmark, Kemitorvet, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Møbjerg, Anna C. M.
    Institute for Nursing and Nutrition, University College Copenhagen, Copenhagen N, Denmark.
    Beck, Anne M.
    Institute for Nursing and Nutrition, University College Copenhagen, Copenhagen N, Denmark; Clinical Nutrition Research Unit, Copenhagen University Hospital Herlev-Gentofte, Gentofte, Denmark.
    The impact of worksite interventions promoting healthier food and/or physical activity habits among employees working 'around the clock' hours: a systematic review2018Ingår i: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 62, artikel-id 1115Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We conducted a systematic review of randomised studies on the impact of worksite interventions to promote healthier food and/or physical activity among people who work irregular hours 'around the clock', that is, outside of ordinary daytime working hours. The population-intervention-comparator-outcomes-study (PICOS) design format was used. Data sources were PubMed and CINAHL. An updated search was conducted on October 2017 using Google Scholar and the related articles function in PubMed on initially included studies to identify additional studies. Risk of bias was used to assess study quality. A total of seven studies (reports published in 14 papers) were included in the systematic review: Two interventions with a broader lifestyle approach, three focusing on physical exercise and two on providing healthier food or meal options. The studies had sample sizes from 30 to 1,000 and targeted a mixture of occupations, including both male- and female-dominated occupational groups. The interventions lasted from 2 to 12 months. Only one had an extended follow-up. In general, the studies showed small-to-moderate effect sizes on several measures, including dietary and/or physical activity measures, suggesting acceptable effectiveness for interventions involving community-level behaviour change. Our findings highlight a need to further develop and implement well-designed health promotion interventions with comparable outcome measures and effect size reports. A mixture of health promotion strategies is recommended for future practice in this target population, including individually tailored programmes, improving the food and physical activity environment and using broader lifestyle approaches including the use of participatory and empowerment strategies. While more research is needed in this field, the existing knowledge base on effective approaches awaits translation into practice.

  • 261.
    Lewis, Charlotte
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Belastning, genus och hälsa i arbetslivet2013Rapport (Refereegranskat)
  • 262.
    Lind, Nina
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Söderholm, Anna
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Palmquist, Eva
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Andersson, Linus
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Millqvist, Eva
    Asthma and Allergy Research Group, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nordin, Steven
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Comorbidity and Multimorbidity of Asthma and Allergy and Intolerance to Chemicals and Certain Buildings2017Ingår i: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 59, nr 1, s. 80-84Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: We tested the hypothesis of high comorbidity between asthma/allergy and chemical intolerance (CI) and between asthma/allergy and building intolerance (BI), and high multimorbidity between asthma/allergy, CI, and BI.

    Methods: Population-based questionnaire data were used from 530 participants with asthma/allergy (allergic asthma, nonallergic asthma, allergic rhinitis, and/or atopic dermatitis), 414 with self-reported and 112 with physician-diagnosed CI, and 165 with self-reported and 47 with physician-diagnosed BI. Separate reference groups were formed for each of the five case groups.

    Results: Adjusted odds ratios varied from 4.6 to 13.1 for comorbidity, and from 6.6 to 46.4 for multimorbidity.

    Conclusion: The large comorbidity and multimorbidity between asthma/allergy, CI, and BI evokes the question as to whether there are similarities in underlying mechanisms between these conditions.

  • 263.
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Arbetsmiljöarbete i omvandling - positivt tillskott eller kejsarens nya kläder?2014Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Trots mångårigt riskeliminerande arbetsmiljöarbete drabbas 20 % i Sverige årligen av arbetsrelaterade fysiska och/eller psykiska besvär. Många orkar idag inte arbeta fram till pensionsåldern. Den demografiska utvecklingen medför dock att vi kommer att behöva arbeta längre än i dag. Det traditionella arbetsmiljöarbetets risktänkande har lärt oss hur arbetet inte skall vara. Risktänkande är en nödvändig kunskap för att förhindra ohälsa men otillräckligt i ett omstrukturerat arbetsliv där nyckelfaktorerna för framåtskridande är motivation, samarbete och kreativitet. Undvikandet av exponering för negativa förhållanden leder heller inte alltid till en positiv situation då positiva tillstånd ofta är något kvalitativt annorlunda – inte bara det omvända. För att nå ett hälsomässigt hållbart arbetsliv är det troligt att det behövs insatser från flera olika håll och av olika typ. Under särskilt det senaste decenniet, har ett främjande perspektiv utökat arbetsmiljödiskursen. ”Främjande faktorer” i arbetet antas främja både individens fysiska och psykiska hälsa och företagets konkurrenskraft och lönsamhet och därmed ge ”friska” företag/verksamheter. Vilka faktorer som verkar hälsofrämjande, liksom hur en organisation skall arbeta för att främja hälsan hos anställda och samtidigt gynna en affärsmässigt sund verksamhet, är dock ännu i sin linda. Med utgångspunkt från det s.k. GodA-projektet kommer detta att diskuteras.

  • 264.
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    FALF KONFERENS 2018 Arbetet – problem eller potential för en hållbar livsmiljö?   10-12 juni 2018 Gävle: Program och abstracts2018Proceedings (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
  • 265.
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    God arbetsmiljö och friska arbetsplatser2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 266.
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hälsa och hälsofrämjande i arbetslivet2011Ingår i: Perspektiv på kvinnors hälsa i arbetslivet / [ed] Hélène Sandmark, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2011, s. 33-63Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 267.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Strömberg, Annika
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och psykologi, Socialt arbete.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap.
    The birth, rise and success (or fall?) of an intervention project: GodA – a project set up to test a model of the prerequisites for a healthy workplace2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Conditions in today’s working life make new approaches necessary in order to limit negative health effects of working life and to enhance wellbeing and health at work. Despite rather progressive legislation, a century of labour inspections, and the efforts of thousands of occupational health personnel, still around 20% of the Swedish workforce report to have had work-related disorders other than accidents during the last year (1). Even if this "elimination approach" partly has succeeded it´s obvious that it is insufficient or inadequate for a working life where key issues for progress are motivation, cooperation and creativity (2). In order to achieve a sustainable working life, not the least to coop with issues related to the ageing population in the developed countries, it is likely that strategies and actions from different and new angles are needed.

    Healthy workplace has been defined as an organization that maximizes the integration of worker goals for wellbeing and company objectives for profitability and productivity(3). It is noteworthy that the notion healthy workplace is not a substitute for good work environment it is a consequence. Different models, e.g. the PATH-model by Grawitch et al.(4) shows a synthesis of earlier research in a number of different disciplines and frames how a healthy workplace with wellbeing for the individual and organizational improvements can be achieved. Five general categories of healthy workplace practices were identified in the literature: work-life balance, employee growth and development, health and safety, recognition, and employee involvement. Previous research also suggests that the link between these practices and employee and organizational outcomes is contingent on the effectiveness of communication within the organization and the alignment of workplace practices with the organizational context.

    The GodA-project aims at investigating if work place strategies in line with the PATH-model lead to better health and wellbeing among the employees as well as organizational improvements.

    The GodA project is a 2 year follow up study with a survey feedback design in three companies with both blue- and white collar workers within the energy sector. One of the companies serves as "intervention company", the other two as controls. The project started out with a pre-project, by means of focus groups and individual interviews, in 2012 in order to find out how employees and managers in the three companies describe the concept of a healthy work environment, what they consider to create well-being at work, and how they perceive their own work environment:

    What factors are important for well-being at work? presented by T. Karlsson

    In 2013 a baseline questionnaire where was sent out including items a) based on the results from the pre-study, and b) well-established questions and indices on health and work environment. The results from the survey have been reported back to the companies, which now are processing their results. Research question to be presented and discussed at the symposium:

    Is there a balance between factors of importance for wellbeing at work and the extent to which they are present at the workplace? presented by P. Lindberg.

    Is there a correlation between psychosocial work climate indicators and work-related well-

    The PATH-model emphasizes internal communication as critical in establishing a healthy workplace. As the baseline results show that the communication is not very well developed, this is the primary target for our intervention. We will demonstrate a method for how the survey data are presented back to the intervention company and how they are going to work with the results to improve their work environment, and at the same time enhance communication skills.

    After our presentation we invite the audience to discuss both the GodA-study and more general methodological issues when conducting intervention-studies, e.g:

    - When is a company ready (mature) to take part in research activities?

    - What are the pitfalls in workplace intervention studies?

    - To what degree can the researchers interact at the workplace and still be objective?

    - What is the value of focusing on the items that the employees responded to in the survey?

    References

    1. Swedish Work Environment Authority. Work -related disorders 2010 - Arbetsmiljöstatistisk Rapport 2010:4. Stockholm: Swedish Work Environment Authority. & Statistics Sweden 2010.

    2. Aronsson G, Gustafsson K, Hakanen J. On the development of a positive work-life psychology. In: Christensen M, editor. Validation and test of central concepts in positive work and organizatinal psychology The second report from the Nordic project 'Positive factors at work'. TemaNord 2009:564. Copenhagen: Nordic Council of Ministers; 2009. p. 93-4.

    3. Sauter S, Lim S, Murphy L. Organizational health: A new paradigm for occupational stress research at NIOSH. Japanese Journal of Occupational Mental Health. 1996;4:248-54.

    4. Grawitch MJ, Gottschalk M, Munz DC. The path to a healthy workplace: A critical review linking healthy workplace practices, employee well-being, and organizational improvements. Consulting Psychology Journal. 2006;58(3):129-47.

  • 268.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet.
    Berntsson, Erik
    Stockholms universitet.
    Härenstam, Annika
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Pousette, Anders
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet.
    Westlander, Gunnela
    Stockholms universitet.
    Workshop: Interventionsforskning: GodA - God arbetsmiljö och Friska företag2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 269.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Section for Personal Injury Prevention, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Josephson, Malin
    Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Division of Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre of Public Health, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Vingård, Eva
    Section for Personal Injury Prevention, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Comparisons between five self-administered instruments predicting sick leaves in a 4-year follow-up2009Ingår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 82, nr 2, s. 227-234Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore and compare the ability of five instruments for self-rating to predict future sick leave rates. METHODS: In three Swedish municipalities 2,252 employees completed a baseline questionnaire and were followed up for 4 years. Five health-oriented instruments for self-rating were used as potential predictors of the two outcome measures no sick leave at all, and one or more spells of long-term sick leave >/=28 days. Positive and negative predictive values as well as Cox proportional hazard ratios (denoted as RRs) adjusted for age and work type were calculated. RESULTS: The instruments showed no statistical difference in predicting future sick leave for either of the sexes. For no sick leave RRs ranged between 1.27 and 1.52 (women), 1.35 and 1.61 (men); for long-term sick leave RRs ranged between 1.78 and 2.39 (women), 2.87 and 5.53 (men). However, the best prediction of long-term sick leave for men, RR 5.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.37-9.08, was significantly higher than the best prediction for women, RR 2.39, 95% CI 1.97-2.90. CONCLUSION: Prediction of long-term sick leave was better than that of no sick leave, and better among men than among women. There was a tendency for somewhat better prediction of future sick leave by multiple-question instruments, but single-question instruments can very well be used in predicting future sick leaves, and crude analyses stratified by sex can be used for screening purposes.

  • 270.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    The process of work environmental changes in manufacturing companies2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    For survival reasons, the process of change is ever-present in companies. If well conducted it can create commitment, new knowledge and skills as well as meet workers need for development. To succeed it is crucial to understand how changes come about.

     

    Objectives

    The aim of this study was to investigate how changes, especially improvements of work environment issues, within manufacturing companies are initiated, processed and implemented.

     

    Methods

    Twelve managers in charge of work environment issues, representing twelve randomly selected small, medium and large manufacturing companies within the wood-, paper-, metal-, and steel sectors in central Sweden were interviewed. The semi-structured interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed.

     

    Results

     The managers described work environmental changes as a continuous process of development, central for the company’s competitiveness. Economic incentives were the prime driving force for change. The organisational structure was considered as a key factor for initiating and implementing changes, and it was described how hierarchical structures had been transformed into more self-managing structures where the individuals, as well as the group, now had extended responsibilities.

     As internal driving forces for change the managers described how many ideas came from the employees, and that informal communication was a key concept in order to take advantage of the employees’ ideas and creativity. External driving forces were rather customer requirements like quality- and environmental certifications than legislative requirements.

    Common obstacles during the process of change were issues of economy, poor communication, employee resistance and inactive management.  

    The managers regarded the evaluation of implemented changes, in general, as poor and mainly concentrated on obvious economical issues. Reasons for this were time constraints, and that customer matters always were prioritized over internal processes.

     

    Conclusions

    In order for consultants, authorities or researchers to address change and development at companies it is necessary to understand how these organisations perceive, think and act regarding these matters. The present study suggests that possible gateways can be economy, employee health, leadership, employee involvement and participation, and evaluation routines.

  • 271.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Nordlöf, Hasse
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Engström, Veronica
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap.
    Vingård, Eva
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Factors at work promoting mental health and wellbeing - a systematic litterature review2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    There is strong evidence that work itself, despite its risks, reduces the risk of depression and improves mental health (Waddell & Burton, 2006; van der Noordt, IJzelenberg, Droomers, & Proper, 2014). Mental health, like mental illness, is a vaguely defined concept. Mental health is a non-contextual concept which can be defined as absence of mental illness and with the opportunity to develop and flourish with high levels of emotional, psychological and social well-being (Keyes, 2005). The concept of wellbeing at work is inclusive. It relates to the physical environment, work-related risks, organization of work and tasks, relationships with colleagues, personal health and work ability and even family-related stress (Suomaa Leo, Yrjänheikki Erkki, Savolainen Heikki, & Hannu, 2011). It can also be seen as an important determinant of productivity at the individual, corporate and community levels (Schulte & Vainio, 2010).

    "Healthy factors" for mental health in the workplace are factors and circumstances at work that may have a preventive and/or promotional effect on mental health and wellbeing of the workers. These factors can serve as resources (buffers) against negative consequences of various risks at work, but they may also be factors that, by themselves, create positive health benefits for the individual and the workplace.

    The large numbers of work-related mental unhealthy in the western world (not the least in Sweden), call for actions in improving working conditions, but which are the important determinants of positive mental health and wellbeing at work to be influenced?  A review of indicators for healthy workplaces has recently been performed (Lindberg & Vingård, 2012), but we have not found any comprehensive review explicitly concerning positive mental health at work. Hence, the aim of this study was to review current knowledge concerning determinants for mental health and wellbeing at work.

    Method

    Two comprehensive literature searches were conducted in nine scientific databases, EBSCO (includes Academic Search Elite, Cinahl, PsycINFO och PsycARTICLES), Emerald, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science, for relevant articles written in English, German or the Scandinavian languages. The first search, covering 2000-2014, was done for a Swedish government report (Lindberg & Karlsson, 2015). The second search, covering 2014 - June 2016, updated the previous data for the purpose of a scientific publication. Exclusion of articles was made stepwise by title, abstract and full text. The quality of included articles was assessed by acknowledged guidelines (STROBE Statement) and done separately by two researchers. The combined results are being analysed and will be presented in Montreal.

    Search terms were: work OR workplace OR "healthy workplace" OR "healthy work" OR "healthy work* environment" OR "good work* environment" AND "depressive disorder" OR depression OR "behavioral symptoms" OR "anxiety disorders" OR "stress, psychological" OR "common mental disorders" OR "mental health" OR "sustainable mental health” OR "mental wellbeing" OR "mental well-being" OR "job wellbeing" OR "job well-being" OR "positive mental health" OR "good mental health" OR "positive mental wellbeing" OR "positive mental well-being" AND prevention OR promotion.

    Results

    According to preliminary analyses 5378 unique publications were found, of these 30 review-, cohort-, cross sectional-, and qualitative studies are included.

    In the included studies 25 individual or categories of related factors promoting positive mental health and wellbeing at work were identified. Below is a list of the twelve most frequently researched factors listed in order of descending frequency.

    • Style of  leadership
    • Empowerment; Autonomy; Control at work; Participation
    • Possibilities for own development
    • Positive work climate
    • Social  support from supervisor
    • Communication supervisor-employee
    • Clear goals
    • Appreciation from supervisors, colleagues, customers
    • Work time control; Enough time
    • Effort-reward balance
    • Intellectually stimulating
    • Job security

     As seen above the most frequently investigated factor was the impact of leadership on mental health. It was found that “good leadership”, i.e. fair, supportive and empowering, gave positive health changes and increased well-being, that increased quality of a staff-oriented leadership reduced sickness absence in the company and that transformational leadership increased psychological wellbeing and job satisfaction among workers.

    Conclusion

    Independent of study design leadership was the most scrutinized factor. Apart from possibly being a research trend (?), this may be interpreted as an understanding of both its explicit influence on the well-being of the employees, and its implicit influence by having the authority to facilitate communication, empowerment, control, support, respect, work content, feedback, etc.

    Practical implications

    Working conditions arise in the interaction between the individual and the organization, but creating working conditions that promote mental health cannot be put on the individual. It must be organized in the workplace for the employees in that special context, whereby the leadership seems to be paramount for the promotion of mental health and wellbeing at work.

  • 272.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Nordlöf, Hasse
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Engström, Veronica
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Vingård, Eva
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Factors at work promoting mental health and wellbeing at work – a systematic literature review2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    There is strong evidence that work itself, despite its risks, reduces the risk of depression and improves mental health (Waddell & Burton, 2006; van der Noordt, IJzelenberg, Droomers, & Proper, 2014). Mental health, like mental illness, is a vaguely defined concept. Mental health is a non-contextual concept, which can be defined as absence of mental illness and with the opportunity to develop and flourish with high levels of emotional, psychological and social well-being (Keyes, 2005). The concept of wellbeing at work is inclusive. It relates to the physical environment, work-related risks, organization of work and tasks, relationships with colleagues, personal health and work ability and even family-related stress (Suomaa, Yrjänheikki, Savolainen, & Jokiluoma, 2011). It can also be seen as an important determinant of productivity at the individual, corporate and community levels (Schulte & Vainio, 2010).

    "Healthy factors" for mental health in the workplace are factors and circumstances at work that may have a preventive and/or promotional effect on mental health and wellbeing of the workers. These factors can serve as resources (buffers) against negative consequences of various risks at work. They may also be factors that, by themselves, create positive health benefits for the individual and the workplace.

    The large numbers of work-related mental unhealthy in the western world (not the least in Sweden), call for actions in improving working conditions, but which are the important determinants of positive mental health and wellbeing at work to be influenced?  A review of indicators for healthy workplaces has recently been performed (Lindberg & Vingård, 2012), but we have not found any comprehensive review explicitly concerning mental health at work. Hence, the aim of this study was to review current knowledge concerning determinants for mental health and wellbeing at work.

    Method

    Two comprehensive literature searches were conducted in nine scientific databases, EBSCO (includes Academic Search Elite, Cinahl, PsycINFO och PsycARTICLES), Emerald, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science, for relevant articles written in English, German or the Scandinavian languages. The first search, covering 2000-2014, was done for a Swedish government report. The second search, covering 2014- June 2016, updated the previous data for the purpose of a scientific publication. Exclusion of articles was made stepwise by title, abstract and full text. The quality of included articles was assessed by acknowledged guidelines (STROBE Statement) and done separately by two researchers. The combined results are being analysed and will be presented in Montreal.

    Search terms were: work OR workplace OR "healthy workplace" OR "healthy work" OR "healthy work* environment" OR "good work* environment" AND "depressive disorder" OR depression OR "behavioral symptoms" OR "anxiety disorders" OR "stress, psychological" OR "common mental disorders" OR "mental health" OR "sustainable mental health” OR "mental wellbeing" OR "mental well-being" OR "job wellbeing" OR "job well-being" OR "positive mental health" OR "good mental health" OR "positive mental wellbeing" OR "positive mental well-being" AND prevention OR promotion.

    Results

    5378 unique publications were found, of these 30 review-, cohort-, cross sectional-, and qualitative studies are included (preliminary data).

    We found 25 individual or “group of related factors” promoting positive mental health and wellbeing at work. Below is a list of the twelve most frequently investigated factors arranged in order of descending frequency.

    • Style of leadership
    • Empowerment; Autonomy; Control at work;      Participation
    • Possibilities for own development
    • Positive work climate
    • Social support from supervisor
    • Communication supervisor-employee
    • Clear goals
    • Appreciation from supervisors, colleagues,      customers
    • Work time control; Enough time
    • Effort-reward balance
    • Intellectually stimulating
    • Job security

    As seen above the most frequently investigated factor was the impact of leadership on mental health. It was found that “good leadership”, i.e. fair, supportive and empowering, gave positive health changes and increased well-being, that increased quality of a staff-oriented leadership reduced sickness absence in the company and that transformational leadership increased psychological wellbeing and job satisfaction among workers.

    Conclusion

    Independent of study design leadership was the most investigated factor. Apart from possibly being a research trend, this can be interpreted as an insight into both its explicit influence on the well-being of the employees, and its implicit influence by having the authority to facilitate communication, empowerment, control, support, respect, work content, feedback, etc.

    Working conditions arise in the interaction between the individual and the organization, but creating working conditions that promote mental health cannot be put on the individual. It must be organized in the workplace for the employees in that special context, whereby the leadership seems to be paramount for the promotion of mental health and wellbeing at work.

  • 273.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Strömberg, Annika
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och psykologi, Socialt arbete.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap.
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Can a systematic participative method for procesing workplace survey data enhance organizational communication skills?2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    The concept healthy workplace has been defined as an organization that maximizes the integration of worker goals for wellbeing and company objectives for profitability and productivity (Sauter, Lim, & Murphy, 1996). The PATH-model (Grawitch, Gottschalk, & Munz, 2006) shows a synthesis of earlier research in a number of different disciplines and frames how a healthy workplace with wellbeing for the individual along with organizational improvements can be achieved. The model suggests five general categories of healthy workplace practices: work-life balance, employee growth and development, health and safety, recognition, and employee involvement. In order for these workplace practices to have an influence on the employees and the organizational outcomes the effectiveness of communication within the organization is crucial as is the alignment of workplace practices with the organizational context. Effective organizational communication in this context means that the management communicates what the organization offers the employees in order to enable good performance and wellbeing at work as well as that the employees state their needs in order to do a good job. The ongoing GodA-project (a Swedish acronym for good work environments and healthy workplaces) aims at investigating if workplace strategies in line with the PATH-model add to better health and wellbeing among the employees as well as organizational improvements. The present study is part of the GodA-project and aims at exploring to which extent the specific “GodA-method” for processing workplace survey data influences organizational communication skills. 

    Methods

    The GodA study is a 2-year follow up study with a survey feedback design in three companies with both blue- and white collar workers. One of the companies serves as “intervention-company”, the other two as controls. The project started in 2012 with a pre-project by means of focus groups and individual interviews in order to find out how employees and managers in the three companies describe the concept of a healthy work environment and what contributes to their well-being at work. In 2013 a baseline questionnaire was sent out including items, a) based on the combined results of the pre-study and a comprehensive literature review (Lindberg & Vingård, 2012) , and b) well-established questions on health and work environment. The results from the survey were reported back to the companies, which have been processing their respective results. In spring 2015 another survey wave was administered. Parallel, data concerning the company’s key indicators and internal development have been collected.

     Baseline results in the GodA-study showed that the employees considered communication as a very important factor for their well-being at work. However, they also reported that the internal communication was not at all at desired level. Considering that the PATH-model emphasizes internal communication as critical in establishing a healthy workplace, the intervention was designed to enhance communication skills. The “GodA-method”, to process the survey feedback was developed in collaboration with the “intervention-company”. In short, the baseline results concerning health, and physical- and psychosocial factors at the workplace, as reported by respective working group, are split into nine themes. Each theme is designed small enough to be processed during the groups’ monthly staff meetings. At the meetings the employees discuss today’s theme, first without then together with their supervisor and decide upon one measurable action to be taken to improve their work environment. To begin each discussion without the supervisor was a chosen strategy in order to empower the employees and in an implicit way train communication skills. The intervention has been followed by process evaluation forms for the supervisors as well as group interviews with employees and supervisors, respectively.   

    Results

    Nine working groups, each with 7-13 employees, were studied. The individual groups performed heterogeneous. The degree to which the various groups actively took actions for improvements seemed to be associated with the closest supervisor’s understanding of the importance of respective themes and his/her capability to conduct group discussions.

    Communication was measured by a 5-item index showing the discrepancy between experienced and desirable communication level, where an index score of -0,5 to 0 (no discrepancy) was considered as good and a score below -.5 was considered undesirable. Preliminary results show that in groups (=5) performing 3-5 meetings the communication index in average deteriorated from -0.89 to -1.41, whereas groups (=4) performing 8-9 meetings the index improved or remained at a rather high level, in average from -0.92 to -0.71. Further analyses and results will be presented at the conference.

    Conclusion

    The results give support to the hypothesis that systematic and continuous training focusing on a mutual theme is a feasible method for improving communication skills.

    Practical implications

    Healthy workplaces are not created overnight. The GodA-method for processing employee surveys seems to be a useful way to systematically work with continuous improvements of the workplace. However, training of supervisors for group discussions seems necessary.

  • 274.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Strömberg, Annika
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och psykologi, Socialt arbete.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap.
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Can a systematic participative method for processing workplace survey data enhance organizational communication skills?2016Ingår i: Scientific programme: Book of Abstracts, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    The PATH-model (1) frames how a healthy workplace with wellbeing for the individual along with organizational improvements can be achieved, suggesting five healthy workplace practices. In order for these practices to have the desired influence, the effectiveness of communication within the organization is crucial. The ongoing GodA-project (an acronym for good work environments and healthy workplaces) is set up to investigate different aspects of the PATH-model. The present sub-study aims at exploring to which extent the specific “GodA-method” for processing workplace survey data influences organizational communication skills. 

    Methods

    The GodA study is a 2-year follow up study with a survey feedback design in three companies with both blue- and white collar workers. In one of the companies the “GodA-method” for processing survey feedbacks was developed and tested. Baseline results concerning workplace factors were split into nine themes, small enough to be processed during respective working groups’ monthly staff meetings. At the meetings the employees discussed today’s theme, first without, then together with their supervisor and decided on one action for improvements. This strategy was chosen in order to empower the employees and implicitly train their communication skills. The intervention was followed by process evaluations.   

    Results

    Nine working groups, each with 7-13 employees, were studied. The degree to which the various groups actively took actions for improvements seemed to be associated with the closest supervisor’s understanding of the importance of respective themes and his/her capability to conduct group discussions.

    Communication was measured by a 5-item index showing the discrepancy between experienced and desirable communication level, where -0,5 – 0 was considered as good. In groups (=5) performing 3-5 meetings the communication index in average deteriorated from -0.89 to -1.41, whereas groups (=4) performing 8-9 meetings the index improved or remained at a rather high level, in average from -0.92 to -0.71.

    Conclusion

    The results give support to the idea that systematic and continuous training focusing on a mutual theme is a feasible method for improving communication skills. Training of supervisors for group discussions seems necessary.

  • 275.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Strömberg, Annika
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och psykologi, Socialt arbete.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Can a systematic participative method for processing workplace survey data enhance organizational communication skills?: Experiences from the GodA-project for healthy workplaces2015Ingår i: Proceedings 19th Triennial Congress of the IEA, Melbourne 9-14 August 2015, 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Conditions in today’s working life make new approaches necessary in order to limit negative health effects of work and to enhance wellbeing and health at work. Despite rather progressive legislation, a century of labour inspections, and the efforts of thousands of occupational health personnel, still 24 % of the working population in Sweden report to have had work-related disorders during the last twelve months (Swedish Work Environment Authority and Statistics Sweden, 2014). Even if the “elimination approach” partly has succeeded in reducing detrimental factors at work, it is obvious that this is insufficient or inadequate for a working life where key issues for progress are motivation, cooperation and creativity (Aronsson, Gustafsson, & Hakanen, 2009). In order to achieve a sustainable working life, not the least to coop with issues related to the ageing population, it is likely that strategies and actions from different and new angles are needed.

    The concept healthy workplace has been defined as an organization that maximizes the integration of worker goals for wellbeing and company objectives for profitability and productivity (Sauter, Lim, & Murphy, 1996). The PATH-model (Grawitch, Gottschalk, & Munz, 2006) shows a synthesis of earlier research in a number of different disciplines and frames how a healthy workplace with wellbeing for the individual along with organizational improvements can be achieved. The model suggests five general categories of healthy workplace practices: work-life balance, employee growth and development, health and safety, recognition, and employee involvement. In order for these workplace practices to have an influence on the employeesand the organizational outcomes the effectiveness of communication within the organization is crucial as isthe alignment of workplace practices with the organizational context. Effective organizational communication in this context means that the management communicates what the organisation offers the employees in order to enable good performance and wellbeing at work as wellas that the employeesstate their needs in order to do a good job.The ongoing GodA-project (a Swedish acronym for good work environments and healthy workplaces) aims at investigating if workplace strategies in line with the PATH-model (Grawitch et al., 2006) lead to better health and wellbeing among the employees as well as organizational improvements. The present study is part of the GodA-project and aims at exploring to which extent the specific “GodA-method” for processing of workplace survey data influences organizational communications skills.

  • 276.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Strömberg, Annika
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och psykologi, Socialt arbete.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Folkhälsovetenskap.
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University.
    GodA-metoden och dess inflytande på kommunikationsförmågan på arbetet2015Ingår i: Book of Abstracts: FALF 2015 : Conference10-12 June 2015, 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Trots en progressiv arbetsmiljölagstiftning, 10 år av arbetsmiljöinspektioner och ansträngningar från tusentals arbetsmiljöaktörer rapportera 24% av den arbetande befolkningen i Sverige att de haft arbetsrelaterade besvär under senaste året. Även om eliminationsstrategin delvis varit framgångrik är den otillräcklig eller inadek-vat i dagens arbetsliv där nyckelfaktorer för framgång är motivation, samarbete och kreativitet. För att nå ett hållbart arbetsliv är det troligt att det behövs strategier och åtgärder från andra och nya utgångspunkter. Begreppet ”frisk arbetsplats” har definierats som en organisation/företag som maximerar integrationen av ar-betstagarnas mål med företagets mål. PATH-modellen visar genom en syntes av forskning från olika discipliner hur en frisk arbetsplats kan uppnås. För att, enligt modellen, nå verksamhetseffekter av olika personalfrämjande åtgärder är det nödvändigt med en väl utvecklad kommunikation mellan anställda och ledning. Det pågående GodA-projektet syftar till att undersöka om arbetsplatstrategier i linje med PATH-modellen le-der till bättre hälsa och välbefinnande bland de anställda så väl som organisatoriska förbättringar. Föreliggande delstudie undersöker i vilken grad den s.k. ”GodA-metoden” för bearbetning av medarbetarundersökningar kan påverka kommunikationsförmågan i företaget.

  • 277.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Vingård, Eva
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Determinanter för psykisk hälsa och välbefinnande på arbetet – en litteraturöversikt.2015Ingår i: Book of Abstracts: FALF 2015 : Conference10-12 June 2015, 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det har konstaterats att det generellt är fördelaktigt för hälsan att vara i arbete och att det finns stark evidens att arbete, trots sina risker, reducerar risken att drabbas av depression liksom förbättrar generell psykisk hälsa. Psykisk hälsa är ett icke-kontextuellt begrepp vilket kan definieras som ett tillstånd då individen är fri från psykisk ohälsa, utvecklas och mår bra (flourish) med höga nivåer av emotionellt, psykologiskt och socialt välbefinnande. Begreppet välbefinnande i arbetet är allomfattande, det relaterar till den fysiska miljön, arbetsrelaterade risker, organisering av arbete och arbetsuppgifter, relationer med kollegor, personlig hälsa och arbetsförmåga och även familjerelaterade påfrestningar. Det kan dessutom ses som en viktig determinant av produktivitet på individ-, företags- och samhällsnivå.

    “Friskfaktorer” för psykisk hälsa på arbetet är faktorer och omständigheter på arbetet som kan ha en preventiv och främjande effekt på arbetstagarna psykiska hälsa och välbefinnande. Dessa faktorer kan vara inverterade riskfaktorer och fungera som buffrare mot negativa konsekvenser av riskfaktorer. De kan också vara faktorer som av sig själva ger positiva hälsovinster för individ och arbetsplats. En kunskapsöversikt över indikatorer för en god arbetsmiljö har nyligen gjorts, men till vår kännedom saknas en översikt som berör psykisk hälsa på arbetet. Således, var syftet med föreliggande studie att fastställa kunskapsläget vad gäller determinanter för psykisk hälsa och välbefinnande på arbetet.

  • 278.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Vingård, Eva
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Determinants for positive mental health and wellbeing at work – a literature review2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    There is strong evidence that work itself, despite its risks, reduces the risk of depression and improves mental health. Mental health is a non-contextual concept which can be defined as the absence of mental illness, and with the opportunity to develop and flourish. The concept of wellbeing at work is inclusive, relating to the physical environment, work-related risks, organization of work and tasks, relationships with colleagues, personal health and work ability and even family-related stress. The large numbers of work-related mental unhealthy call for actions in improving working conditions, but which are the important determinants to be influenced?  Hence, the aim of this study was to review current knowledge concerning determinants for mental health and wellbeing at work.

    Methods

    A comprehensive literature search was conducted in nine scientific databases for articles published 2000 and forward. The exclusion by titles were made by one of the researcher, the further selection was made by two researchers independently.

    Results

    Of the 4262 found unique publications 27 were included encompassing 7 reviews,

    12 cohort-, 5 cross-sectional-, and 3 qualitative studies.

    Results

    Of the 4262 found unique publications 27 were included encompassing 7 reviews, 12 cohort-, 5 cross-sectional-, and 3 qualitative studies.The most frequently investigated determinants for mental health and wellbeing at work were, in descending order:

    • Style of leadership: transformative, transactional, positive, employee oriented, ethical, supportive as well as managers own wellbeing
    • Empowerment; Autonomy; Control at work; Participation
    • Possibilities for own development
    • Positive work climate- Social support from supervisor
    • Communication supervisor-employee
    • Clear goals
    • Appreciation from supervisors, colleagues, customers
    • Work time control; Enough time
    • Effort-reward balance
    • Intellectually stimulating
    • Job security

    Conclusion

    Independent of study design leadership is the most investigated factor, which can be interpreted as a sign of its influence on the mental health of the employees. Beside the explicit influence of leadership styles on the employees’ mental health, several studies show an implicit influence, e.g. (enabling) support at work, skilled communication, empowerment, control, treated with respect and intellectual stimulation.Working conditions arise in the interaction between the individual and the organization, not least psychosocial conditions. Prevention and establishment of good working conditions cannot be put on the individual; it must be organized in the workplace for the employees in that special context.

  • 279.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Vingård, Eva
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Determinants for positive mental health and wellbeing at work – a literature review2015Ingår i: The Proceedings of the 19th Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association - Melbourne, 9-14 August, 2015, 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In general it can be stated that it is beneficial for your health to be employed. There is strong evidence that work itself, despite its risks, reduces the risk of depression and improves mental health(Waddell & Burton, 2006; van der Noordt, IJzelenberg, Droomers, & Proper, 2014).Mental health, like mental illness, is avaguely defined concept.Mental healthis a non-contextual concept which canbedefined asthe absence ofmental illness, and with the opportunity to developand flourish with high levels ofemotional,psychological and socialwell-being(Keyes, 2005).The concept ofwellbeingat workis inclusive.Itrelates tothe physical environment,work-relatedrisks, organization of work andtasks, relationships with colleagues,personalhealth and work ability and evenfamily-relatedstress(Suomaa, Yrjänheikki, Savolainen, & Jokiluoma, 2011). It canalso be seenas an importantdeterminantofproductivityat the individual, corporate and community levels(Schulte & Vainio, 2010).

    "Healthy factors" for mental health in the workplace are factors and circumstances at work that may have a preventive and/or promotional effect on mental health and wellbeing of the workers. These factors can be reversed risk factors and serve as a resource (buffer) against negative consequences of various risks at work. They may also be factors that, by themselves, create positive health benefits for the individual and the workplace. The large numbers of work-related mental unhealthy call for action in improving working conditions, but which are the important determinants of positive mental health and wellbeing at work to be influenced? A review of indicators for healthy workplaces has recently been performed (Lindberg & Vingård, 2012), but we have not found any comprehensive review concerning mental health at work. Hence, the aim of this study was to review current knowledge concerning determinants for mental health and wellbeing at work.

  • 280.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Vingård, Eva
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Indicators of healthy work environments – a systematic review2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    The interest in medical science has until now mainly focused on pathogenesis, how and why certain individuals become diseased. Despite legislation in the field of work environment, a century of labour inspections, and the efforts of thousands of occupational health consultants still 21% of the Swedish women and 15% of the Swedish men report to have had work-related disorders during the last twelve months. A different, and additional, way of approaching the problem of work related morbidity is to look at and learn from what constitutes healthy work environments and what might be key indicators of such sustainable work environments.

     

    Aim

    The purpose of this study was to systematically review the scientific literature and search for indicators of healthy work environments. Healthy work environments were defined as work environments that on both short and long term do not cause work-related morbidity.

     

    Method

    Eight major national and international databases for scientific publication were searched for research addressing indicators of healthy work environments using different combinations of keywords like healthy, good, work, workplace, work force, worksite, organization, work environment, business, indicator, and predictor. The search was limited to years 1990 – 2011, humans, and the languages English, Danish, German, Norwegian, and Swedish.

     

    Results

    Altogether 19 768 publications were found. After excluding duplicates, non-relevant publications, or publications that did not comply with the inclusion criteria 22 peer-reviewed publications remained. Only one study explicitly addressing indicators of healthy work environments was found, suggesting that the presence of stress management programs in an organization might serve as indicator of a ‘good place to work’. Such organizations were more likely also to offer programs that encouraged employee well-being, safety and skill development than those without stress management programs. The other 21, mostly explorative, studies either investigated employee´s views on what constitute a healthy workplace, or were guidelines for how to create such workplaces. The nine most pronounced factors considered as important for a healthy workplace emerging from these studies were:  collaboration/teamwork; growth and development; recognition; employee involvement; positive, accessible and fair leader; autonomy/empowerment; appropriate staffing; skilled communication; and safe physical work. 

     

    Conclusions

    This systematic review demonstrates a lack of consensus about the concept of a healthy work environment/workplace/work organization as well as a shortage of studies concerning healthy work places, especially longitudinal ones. The factors considered important for a healthy workplace needs further investigation in order to draw any confirmative conclusions.

  • 281.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Vingård, Eva
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Indicators of healthy work environments - a systematic review2012Ingår i: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, nr Suppl. 1, s. 3032-3038Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to systematically review the scientific literature and search for indicators of healthy work environments. A number of major national and international databases for scientific publication were searched for research addressing indicators of healthy work environments. Altogether 19,768 publications were found. After excluding duplicates, non-relevant publications, or publications that did not comply with the inclusion criteria 24 peer-reviewed publications remained to be included in this systematic review. Only one study explicitly addressing indicators of healthy work environments was found. That study suggested that the presence of stress management programs in an organization might serve as indicator of a 'good place to work', as these organizations were more likely to offer programs that encouraged employee well-being, safety and skill development than those without stress management programs. The other 23 studies either investigated employee's views of what constitute a healthy workplace or were guidelines for how to create such a workplace. Summarizing, the nine most pronounced factors considered as important for a healthy workplace that emerged from these studies were, in descending order: collaboration/teamwork: growth and development of the individual; recognition; employee involvement; positive, accessible and fair leader; autonomy and empowerment; appropriate staffing; skilled communication; and safe physical work.

  • 282.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Vingård, Eva
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Indicators of healthy work environments: a systematic review2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 283.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Vingård, Eva
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Kunskapsöversikt: den goda arbetsmiljön och dess indikatorer2012Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande kunskapssammanställning försöker mot bakgrund av den traditionellt riskorienterade synen på arbetsmiljö, definiera begreppet god arbetsmiljö, hur det har operationaliserats i den vetenskapliga litteraturen samt vad som kan vara indikatorer på god arbetsmiljö. God arbetsmiljö kan definieras som något mer än en neutral arbetsmiljö, som en arbetsmiljö som har positiva, gynnsamma effekter på individen. Ett liknande begrepp, som dock går något längre, är ”frisk arbetsplats”, definierat som en arbetsplats med en arbetsmiljö som har gynnsamma effekter på både individ och verksamhet. Rapporten argumenterar för att begreppet frisk arbetsplats införs som begrepp i den svenska arbetsmiljödiskursen.

     

    Kunskapsöversiktens systematiska litteraturgenomgång pekar på ett antal faktorer som anses känneteckna god arbetsmiljö. De mest frekvent omnämnda faktorerna är: positiva, tillgängliga och rättvisa ledare; utvecklad kommunikation; samarbete/teamarbete; positivt, socialt klimat; medinflytande/delaktighet; autonomi/empowerment; rolltydlighet med tydliga förväntningar och mål; erkännande; att utvecklas och växa i arbetet; lagom arbetstempo och arbetsbelastning; administrativt och/eller personligt stöd i arbetet; bra fysisk arbetsmiljö samt bra relationer till intressenterna. Någon eller några heltäckande indikatorer för god arbetsmiljö kunde dock inte identifieras.

     

    Rapporten konstaterar att kunskapsläget gällande god arbetsmiljö är ofärdigt men inte ostabilt. De beteendevetenskapliga disciplinerna, i synnerhet positiv psykologi, intar en ledande position vad gäller forskning och utveckling inom området, medan biomekanisk och fysiologisk forskning kring gynnsamma fysiska belastningar i arbetslivet är näst intill obefintlig. Det finns stort behov av fortsatt forskning kring olika aspekter på god arbetsmiljö, i synnerhet utveckling av mätinstrument inklusive indikatorer, testning av mer komplexa modeller för friska arbetsplatser, liksom metoder för implementering. I det praktiska arbetsmiljöarbetet finns dock goda skäl att redan idag, som ett komplement till traditionell riskelimination, ta denna ingång till bättre arbetsmiljö på allvar.

  • 284.
    Liv, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Umeå universitet, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Efficient strategies for collecting posture data using observation and direct measurement2012Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Relationships between occupational physical exposures and risks of contracting musculoskeletal disorders are still not well understood; exposure-response relationships are scarce in the musculoskeletal epidemiology literature, and many epidemiological studies, including intervention studies, fail to reach conclusive results. Insufficient exposure assessment has been pointed out as a possible explanation for this deficiency. One important aspect of assessing exposure is the selected measurement strategy; this includes issues related to the necessary number of data required to give sufficient information, and to allocation of measurement efforts, both over time and between subjects in order to achieve precise and accurate exposure estimates. These issues have been discussed mainly in the occupational hygiene literature considering chemical exposures, while the corresponding literature on biomechanical exposure is sparse. The overall aim of the present thesis was to increase knowledge on the relationship between data collection design and the resulting precision and accuracy of biomechanical exposure assessments, represented in this thesis by upper arm postures during work, data which have been shown to be relevant to disorder risk.

    Four papers are included in the thesis. In papers I and II, non-parametric bootstrapping was used to investigate the statistical efficiency of different strategies for distributing upper arm elevation measurements between and within working days into different numbers of measurement periods of differing durations. Paper I compared the different measurement strategies with respect to the eventual precision of estimated mean exposure level. The results showed that it was more efficient to use a higher number of shorter measurement periods spread across a working day than to use a smaller number for longer uninterrupted measurement periods, in particular if the total sample covered only a small part of the working day. Paper II evaluated sampling strategies for the purpose of determining posture variance components with respect to the accuracy and precision of the eventual variance component estimators. The paper showed that variance component estimators may be both biased and imprecise when based on sampling from small parts of working days, and that errors were larger with continuous sampling periods. The results suggest that larger posture samples than are conventionally used in ergonomics research and practice may be needed to achieve trustworthy estimates of variance components.

    Papers III and IV focused on method development. Paper III examined procedures for estimating statistical power when testing for a group difference in postures assessed by observation. Power determination was based either on a traditional analytical power analysis or on parametric bootstrapping, both of which accounted for methodological variance introduced by the observers to the exposure data. The study showed that repeated observations of the same video recordings may be an efficient way of increasing the power in an observation-based study, and that observations can be distributed between several observers without loss in power, provided that all observers contribute data to both of the compared groups, and that the statistical analysis model acknowledges observer variability. Paper IV discussed calibration of an inferior exposure assessment method against a superior “golden standard” method, with a particular emphasis on calibration of observed posture data against postures determined by inclinometry. The paper developed equations for bias correction of results obtained using the inferior instrument through calibration, as well as for determining the additional uncertainty of the eventual exposure value introduced through calibration.

    In conclusion, the results of the present thesis emphasize the importance of carefully selecting a measurement strategy on the basis of statistically well informed decisions. It is common in the literature that postural exposure is assessed from one continuous measurement collected over only a small part of a working day. In paper I, this was shown to be highly inefficient compared to spreading out the corresponding sample time across the entire working day, and the inefficiency was also obvious when assessing variance components, as shown in paper II. The thesis also shows how a well thought-out strategy for observation-based exposure assessment can reduce the effects of measurement error, both for random methodological variance (paper III) and systematic observation errors (bias) (paper IV).

  • 285.
    Liv, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Svendsen, Susanne Wulff
    Dansih Ramazzini Centre, Herning Hospital, Denmark.
    Accuracy and precision of variance components in occupational posture recordings: a simulation study of different data collection strategies2012Ingår i: BMC Medical Research Methodology, ISSN 1471-2288, E-ISSN 1471-2288, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 58-58Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Information on exposure variability, expressed as exposure variance components, is of vital use in occupational epidemiology, including informed risk control and efficient study design. While accurate and precise estimates of the variance components are desirable in such cases, very little research has been devoted to understanding the performance of data sampling strategies designed specifically to determine the size and structure of exposure variability. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy and precision of estimators of betweensubjects, between-days and within-day variance components obtained by sampling strategies differing with respect to number of subjects, total sampling time per subject, number of days per subject and the size of individual sampling periods.

    Methods. Minute-by-minute values of average elevation, percentage time above 90degrees and percentage time below 15degrees were calculated in a data set consisting of measurements of right upper arm elevation during four full shifts from each of 23 car mechanics. Based on this parent data, bootstrapping was used to simulate sampling with 80 different combinations of the number of subjects (10, 20), total sampling time per subject (60, 120, 240, 480 minutes), number of days per subject (2, 4), and size of sampling periods (blocks) within days (1, 15, 60, 240 minutes). Accuracy (absence of bias) and precision (prediction intervals) of the variance component estimators were assessed for each simulated sampling strategy.

    Results. Sampling in small blocks within days resulted in essentially unbiased variance components. For a specific total sampling time per subject, and in particular if this time was small, increasing the block size resulted in an increasing bias, primarily of the between-days and the within-days variance components. Prediction intervals were in general wide, and even more so at larger block sizes. Distributing sampling time across more days gave in general more precise variance component estimates, but also reduced accuracy in some cases.

    Conclusions. Variance components estimated from small samples of exposure data within working days may be both inaccurate and imprecise, in particular if sampling is laid out in large consecutive time blocks. In order to estimate variance components with a satisfying accuracy and precision, for instance for arriving at trustworthy power calculations in a planned intervention study, larger samples of data will be required than for estimating an exposure mean value with a corresponding certainty

  • 286.
    Locks, Francisco
    et al.
    Laboratory of Clinical and Occupational Kinesiology (LACO), Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, Brazil.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Birk Jørgensen, Marie
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Association between objectively measured static standing and low back pain - a cross-sectional study among blue-collar workers2018Ingår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 61, nr 9, s. 1196-1207Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to investigate the cross-sectional association between objectively measured total time and temporal patterns of static standing (short bouts: 0-5 min; moderate bouts: >5-10 min; and long bouts: >10 min) during work and leisure and low back pain (LBP) among 698 blue-collar workers. Workers reported LBP on a 0-10 scale. The association between time spent on static standing and LBP was tested with linear regression. A positive association with LBP intensity was found for long bouts of static standing (β = 0.27) during total day (work + leisure), and total static standing time at leisure (β = 0.12). No significant associations were found for static standing during work and LBP intensity. These findings indicate that particularly long bouts of static standing over the entire day contribute to LBP in blue-collar workers.

  • 287.
    Lodin, Camilla
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Karolinska Institutet, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Richter, Hans
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Eye- and neck/shoulder-discomfort during visually demanding experimental near work2012Ingår i: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, nr Suppl. 1, s. 3388-3392Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Frequent use of digital information technology has an impact on eye- and neck/shoulder-discomfort. Studies with cross sectional and intervention design indicate an association between the two symptom categories. Still, whether visually demanding near work, per se, contributes to increased neck/shoulder discomfort remains a question of debate. The aim of this laboratory study was to assess if visually demanding experimental near work affects eye- and neck/shoulder-discomfort when the posture was adjusted for comfort and no movements were allowed. Thirty-three healthy subjects performed a visually demanding computer screen task (viewing task) under four different optical lens conditions: binocular -3.5 D and monocular -3.5 D, +3.5 D and ±0 D. During the experiment subjects were seated in an office chair (with neck support) that was individually adjusted for comfort. At baseline and after each viewing task, subjects reported their perceived eye- and neck/shoulderdiscomfort on Borg’s CR-10 scale. Results show a significant increase of eye discomfort between baseline and the first viewing task, and a significant increase in neck/shoulder discomfort from baseline throughout the first three viewing tasks. Further analysis is required to determent whether the neck/shoulder discomfort was induced by the demanding near work or the static posture, or a combination.

  • 288.
    Lodin, Camilla
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Richter, Hans
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Ratings of visual- and neck/shoulder discomfort during demanding simulated near work2012Ingår i: NES2012, the 44th Annual International Nordic Ergonomics and Human Factors Society Conference, 2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 289.
    Lodin, Camilla
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Richter, Hans
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Sustained periods of binocular load may affect trapezius muscle activity2011Ingår i: Wellbeing and innovations through ergonomics: Proceedings of NES2011 / [ed] Juha Lindfors, Merja Savolainen, Seppo Väyrynen, Oulu, Finland: Nordic Ergonomics Society , 2011, s. 158-163Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between activity in ocular muscles and activity in neck and scapular muscles that stabilizes gaze is well known. However, it is uncertain if ocular load per se contributes to increased muscle activity in the neck and scapular area. Sixty-six participants performed a fixation task under three different conditions: binocular with minus lenses (-3.5D) and monocular with minus lens (-3.5D) and neutral lens (±0D). Ocular accommodation and trapezius muscle EMG were measured. Multiple regression analysis showed that response diopters accounted for 11.6% (p=0.009) of the variance in EMG in the binocular condition. In the monocular conditions, there were no significant relationships.

  • 290.
    Long, Jennifer
    et al.
    School of Optometry and Vision Science, UNSW, Australia.
    Richter, Hans
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Visual ergonomics at work and leisure2014Ingår i: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 47, nr 3, s. 419-420Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 291.
    Long, Jennifer
    et al.
    School of Optometry and Vision Science, UNSW Sydney 2052 AUSTRALIA.
    Richter, Hans
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Visual ergonomics on-the-go2019Ingår i: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 63, nr 3, s. 321-324Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 292. Long, Jennifer
    et al.
    Toomingas, Allan
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Glimne, Susanne
    Helland, Magne
    Hemphälä, Hillevi
    Horgen, Gunnar
    Logadottir, Asta
    Nylén, Per
    Osterhaus, Werner
    Richter, Hans
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Schiotz Thorud, Hanne-Mari
    Vuorenmaa, Nina
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Zetterlund, Christina
    Örebro Universitet.
    A definition of visual ergonomics2014Ingår i: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 45, nr 4, s. 1263-1264Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 293.
    Luger, Tessy
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Bosch, Tim
    TNO Leiden.
    Douwes, Marjolein
    TNO Leiden.
    Veeger, Dirkjan
    VU University Amsterdam.
    Hoozemans, Marco
    VU University Amsterdam.
    de Looze, Michiel
    TNO Leiden.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Influence of posture variation in a repetitive manual task on maximal acceptable work pace and perceived exertion2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. It is generally agreed that constrained postures during assembly work can lead to musculoskeletal disorders in the neck and shoulders. In a controlled experiment, we investigated the extent to which more variation of upper arm postures in a one-hour repetitive task influences maximal acceptable work pace (MAWP), perceived exertion (RPE), kinematics and muscle activity.

    Methods. 13 participants (6 females, 7 males; age 26 (SD 3) years) performed a pick-and-place task for one hour, using their dominant hand to movie pins between two targets. We compared three conditions in which the hand was moved: (1) horizontally, at an intended upper arm elevation of 30°; (2) obliquely, at an upper arm elevation between 20° and 40°; and (3) vertically, at an upper arm elevation between 10° and 50°. Using a psychophysical approach — with imposed work paces changing every two minutes (7-13 cycles/min) — we arrived at the MAWP of each participant. Postures of the arm, trunk and shoulder were recorded throughout, as was the activity of selected muscles (not reported here). Participants reported their RPE (Borg CR-10) at baseline and at MAWP.

    Results. The kinematics data confirmed that the conditions had similar average upper arm elevations (32.3° (SD 1.0°) but differed in variation (arm elevation SD: 5.2°, 8.1°, 10.9°). Increased posture variation did not lead to changes in MAWP (10.7, 10.6, 10.8 cycles/min), though it did lead to slightly lower RPE values (average increase from baseline: 5.4, 4.8, 4.7).

    Discussion.Increased biomechanical variation has been suggested to reduce the risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders. Even though our data suggest that there may be a trend towards a positive effect of variation on work perception, the increase in posture variation imposed here was not sufficient to influence performance. Further analyses of arm, shoulder and trunk kinematics and muscle activity patterns may reveal biomechani-cal differences of interest between the protocols.

  • 294.
    Luger, Tessy
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Bosch, Tim
    TNO, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Hoozemans, Marco
    Department of Human Movement Sciences, Faculty of Behavioural and Movement Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
    Douwes, Marjolein
    TNO, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Veeger, DirkJan
    Department of Human Movement Sciences, Faculty of Behavioural and Movement Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
    de Looze, Michiel
    Department of Human Movement Sciences, Faculty of Behavioural and Movement Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
    Changing variation by work station design2017Ingår i: Industrial and Systems Engineering at Work, ISSN 2168-9210, Vol. 49, nr 8, s. 53-54Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 295.
    Luger, Tessy
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Bosch, Tim
    TNO, Leiden, the Netherlands.
    Hoozemans, Marco
    Department of Human Movement Sciences, Faculty of Behavioural and Movement Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Douwes, Marjolein
    TNO, Leiden, the Netherlands.
    Veeger, DirkJan
    Department of Human Movement Sciences, Faculty of Behavioural and Movement Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    de Looze, Michiel
    TNO, Leiden, the Netherlands.
    Influence of posture variation on shoulder muscle activity, heart rate, and perceived exertion in a repetitive manual task2017Ingår i: IISE Transactions on Occupational Ergonomics and Human Factors, ISSN 2472-5838, Vol. 5, s. 47-64Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Repetitive light assembly work is associated with an increased risk for developing work-related musculoskeletal disorders. More exposure variation, for instance by redesigning the workstation, is generally proposed as an effective intervention. Purpose: We investigated the effect of upper arm posture variation in a one-hour repetitive pick-and-place task on shoulder muscle activity, heart rate and perceived exertion, measured on the Borg CR-10 scale and in terms of maximal acceptable work pace (MAWP). Methods: Thirteen healthy participants performed the task in three workstation designs where the hand was moved either horizontal (H30/30), diagonal (D20/40), or vertical (V10/50) with a mean upper arm elevation of ~30°. In a fourth design, the hand was moved horizontally at ~50° mean arm elevation (H50/50). Results: As intended, upper arm posture variation, measured by the upper arm elevation SD and range of motion, differed between H30/30, D20/40, and V10/50. However, MAWP (10.7 cycles·min-1 on average across conditions; determined using a psychophysical approach), average upper trapezius activity (54% reference voluntary exertion [RVE]), and heart rate (69 bpm) did not differ between these workstation designs. In H50/50, MAWP was lower (9.3 cycles·min-1), while trapezius activity (78% RVE) and perceived exertion (Borg CR-10) tended to be higher. Conclusions: Our results indicate that posture variation to the extent achieved in the current experiment leads to less effects on muscle activity and perceived exertion than a moderate change in working height.

  • 296.
    Luger, Tessy
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Bosch, Tim
    TNO, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Hoozemans, Marco
    Faculty of Behavioural and Movement Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
    Douwes, Marjolein
    TNO, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Veeger, DirkJan
    Faculty of Behavioural and Movement Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
    de Looze, Michiel
    Faculty of Behavioural and Movement Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
    Posture variation and maximal acceptable work pace during repetitive work2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. It is generally agreed that work postures can lead to musculoskeletal disorders in the neck and shoulders. We investigated the extent to which more variation of upper arm postures in a repetitive task influences maximal acceptable work pace (MAWP), muscle activity, and perceived exertion.

    Methods. Thirteen healthy subjects (6F/7M; age 26 (SD 3) years) performed a repetitive pick-and-place task using their dominant hand in four one-hour conditions. In three conditions the average upper arm elevation was 30°, and the hand was moved (1) horizontally (H30), (2) diagonally with upper arm elevation between 20° and 40° (D20/40), (3) vertically, with upper arm elevation between 10° and 50° (V10/50). In the fourth condition, the hand was moved horizontally at 50° average upper arm elevation angle (H50). The travelled distance of the hand was the same for all conditions. Using a psychophysical approach with imposed work paces changing every two minutes (7-13 cycles/min), we arrived at the MAWP of each participant after 50 minutes. Postures of the arm were recorded throughout, as well as dominant upper trapezius muscle activity. Participants reported their perceived exertion (Borg CR-10) just after each protocol.

    Results. Kinematic analyses showed that we successfully designed protocols (Figure) differing in posture variation but not in average upper arm elevation angle (H30, D20/40, V10/50), and differing in average upper arm elevation angle but not in posture variation (H30, H50). MAWP was comparable in the conditions with differing posture variation (10.7 cycles/min), but lower in H50, although not significant (9.3 cycles/min). Subjects worked at MAWP with an upper trapezius activity level that did not significantly differ between experimental conditions (median 54% RVE). Dominant trapezius muscle activity at MAWP in H50 (78% RVE) was higher than in H30 (47% RVE), but not significant. Perceived exertion of the upper arm was higher in H50 (2.5) than H30 (1.5), but also not significant.

    Conclusion. Variation in upper arm elevation within the investigated limits did not affect MAWP although upper trapezius activity showed a tendency to increase with more variation. Increased working height tended to increase especially upper trapezius muscle activity and decrease MAWP. Thus, our results indicate that posture variation as applied in the current setting did not lead to significant differences in MAWP or muscle activity variables. More thorough workplace redesigns are apparently needed than those investigated by us to accomplish any major changes in psychophysical outcomes as measured by MAWP. Our results do show that engineers should pay attention to working height when advising companies on work pace.

  • 297.
    Luger, Tessy
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. TNO Leiden, Leiden, The Netherlands; Department of Human Movement Sciences, Faculty of Behavioural and Movement Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, MOVE Research Institute Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Institute of Occupational and Social Medicine and Health Services Research, Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital, Eberhard Karls University Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, USA.
    Bosch, Tim
    TNO Leiden, Leiden, The Netherlands; Department of Human Movement Sciences, Faculty of Behavioural and Movement Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, MOVE Research Institute Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Influence of work pace on upper extremity kinematics and muscle activity in a short-cycle repetitive pick-and-place task2017Ingår i: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 61, nr 3, s. 356-368Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: This study investigated the extent to which controlled changes in work pace in a cyclic pick-and-place task influence upper extremity kinematics and muscle activity, and whether an effect depends on working height. Methods: Thirteen participants performed the task four minutes at each of five work paces ranging from 8 to 12 cycles·min-1 in each of two experimental conditions where the hand was moved horizontally with an average upper arm elevation of 30° and 50°, respectively. For each work cycle, we calculated the average and standard deviation of the upper arm elevation angle and the activity of the trapezius and deltoid muscles, as well as the angular peak velocity. We summarized these seven variables by calculating averages across cycles and cycle-to-cycle variabilities. Results: At 30° arm elevation, pace significantly influenced within-cycle angle variation, cycle-to-cycle variability of the average angle, angular peak velocity, and cycle-to-cycle variability of peak velocity. However, only angular peak velocity increased monotonically across all paces from 8 to 12 cycles·min-1). Average activity in the trapezius and the deltoid were the only muscle activity variables to increase consistently with pace. These effects of work pace did not change with working height. Conclusion: The present study did not find any consistent work pace effect on upper extremity kinematics and muscle activity, in spite of a comprehensive empirical basis compared to previous literature. While our results suggest that work pace may not be of critical concern in an occupational health context, we encourage further studies verifying or disproving this notion.

  • 298.
    Lunde, Lars-Kristian
    et al.
    National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo.
    Koch, Markus
    National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo.
    Knardahl, Stein
    National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo.
    Wærsted, Morten
    National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    Veiersted, Bo
    National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo.
    Musculoskeletal health and work ability in physically demanding occupations: study protocol for a prospective field study on construction and health care workers2014Ingår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 14, artikel-id 1075Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Musculoskeletal disorders have a profound impact on individual health, sickness absence and early retirement, particularly in physically demanding occupations. Demographics are changing in the developed countries, towards increasing proportions of senior workers. These senior workers may have particular difficulties coping with physically demanding occupations while maintaining good health. Previous studies investigating the relationship between physical work demands and musculoskeletal disorders are mainly based on self-reported exposures and lack a prospective design. The aim of this paper is to describe the background and methods and discuss challenges for a field study examining physical demands in construction and health care work and their prospective associations with musculoskeletal disorders, work ability and sickness absence.

    Methods and design: This protocol describes a prospective cohort study on 1200 construction and health care workers. Participants will answer a baseline questionnaire concerning musculoskeletal complaints, general health, psychosocial and organizational factors at work, work demands, work ability and physical activity during leisure. A shorter questionnaire will be answered every 6 months for a total of two years, together with continuous sickness absence monitoring during this period. Analysis will prospectively consider associations between self-reported physical demands and musculoskeletal disorders, work ability and sickness absence. To obtain objective data on physical exposures, technical measurements will be collected from two subgroups of N = 300 (Group A) and N = 160 (Group B) during work and leisure. Both group A and B will be given a physical health examination, be tested for physical capacity and physical activity will be measured for four days. Additionally, muscle activity, ground reaction force, body positions and physical activity will be examined during one workday for Group B. Analysis of associations between objectively measured exposure data and the outcomes described above will be done separately for these subpopulations.

    Discussion: The field study will at baseline produce objectively measured data on physical demands in the construction and health care occupations. In combination with clinical measurements and questionnaire data during follow-up, this will provide a solid foundation to prospectively investigate relationships between physical demands at work and development of musculoskeletal disorders, work ability and sickness absence.

  • 299.
    Lundqvist, Lars-Olov
    et al.
    Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Zetterlund, Christina
    Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; The Low Vision Center, Region Örebro County, Örebro, Sweden.
    Richter, Hans
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Reliability and Validity of the Visual, Musculoskeletal, and Balance Complaints Questionnaire2016Ingår i: Optometry and Vision Science, ISSN 1040-5488, E-ISSN 1538-9235, Vol. 93, nr 9, s. 1147-1157Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the reliability and validity of the 15-item Visual, Musculoskeletal, and Balance Complaints Questionnaire (VMB) for people with visual impairments, using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and with Rasch analysis for use as an outcome measure. METHODS: Two studies evaluated the VMB. In Study 1, VMB data were collected from 1249 out of 3063 individuals between 18 and 104 years old who were registered at a low vision center. CFA evaluated VMB factor structure and Rasch analysis evaluated VMB scale properties. In Study 2, a subsample of 52 individuals between 27 and 67 years old with visual impairments underwent further measurements. Visual clinical assessments, neck/scapular pain, and balance assessments were collected to evaluate the convergent validity of the VMB (i.e. the domain relationship with other, theoretically predicted measures). RESULTS: CFA supported the a priori three-factor structure of the VMB. The factor loadings of the items on their respective domains were all statistically significant. Rasch analysis indicated disordered categories and the original 10-point scale was subsequently replaced with a 5-point scale. Each VMB domain fitted the Rasch model, showing good metric properties, including unidimensionality (explained variances ≥66% and eigenvalues <1.9), person separation (1.86 to 2.29), reliability (0.87 to 0.94), item fit (infit MnSq’s >0.72 and outfit MnSq’s <1.47), targeting (0.30 to 0.50 logits), and insignificant differential item functioning (all DIFs but one <0.50 logits) from gender, age, and visual status. The three VMB domains correlated significantly with relevant visual, musculoskeletal, and balance assessments, demonstrating adequate convergent validity of the VMB. CONCLUSIONS: The VMB is a simple, inexpensive, and quick yet reliable and valid way to screen and evaluate concurrent visual, musculoskeletal, and balance complaints, with contribution to epidemiological and intervention research and potential clinical implications for the field of health services and low vision rehabilitation.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially.

  • 300.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Directly measured physical activity and heart rate variability among workers with and without musculoskeletal disorders2015Ingår i: / [ed] University of Limerick, 2015, s. 74-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Aberration in autonomous nervous system regulation may play an important role in the development of work related musculoskeletal disorders (MSD). Recent studies indicated that sympathetic activity was increased relative to vagal effects in subjects with MSD, as measured through heart rate variability (HRV). However, the cause of this physiological change is difficult to determine, since several factors influence HRV, almost importantly the pattern of daily physical activity (PA).The aim of this study was to identify possible differences in PA between workers with and without MSD, and assess associations between HRV and PA. Methods: Twenty-six workers with MSD (41 years, 13 females) and twenty-four matched symptom-free controls from an industry in mid-Sweden participated in the study. ECG was monitored by the First Beat system whereas PA was recorded by a tri-axial accelerometer ActivPAL attached to thigh. GPS data were collected to identify the spatial location of the participants

    Results

    The groups showed similar distributions of total time spent at work, at home and "elsewhere". The lowest PA levels were found at work for both groups. Leisure time PA "elsewhere" was significantly lower among subjects with MSD than among controls. Time domain HRV variables were clearly correlated with PA levels and showed trend differences (0.05<p<0.1) between the MSD and the control group during sedentary and physically active periods.

    Conclusions

    Workers with MSD showed a different pattern of leisure time PA compared with symptom-free workers. These PA differences may have contributed in explaining the difference in autonomic activity, as measured through HRV, observed between the two groups, and even in previous studies of similar groups.

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