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  • 251. Lundqvist, Lars-Olov
    et al.
    Zetterlund, Christina
    Richter, Hans O.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Effects of Feldenkrais Method on Chronic Neck/Scapular Pain in People With Visual Impairment: A Randomized Controlled Trial With One-Year Follow-Up2014Ingår i: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0003-9993, E-ISSN 1532-821X, Vol. 95, nr 9, s. 1656-1661Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To determine whether the Feldenkrais method is an effective intervention for chronic neck/scapular pain in patients with visual impairment. Design: Randomized controlled trial with an untreated control group. Setting: Low vision center. Participants: Patients (N=61) with visual impairment (mean, 53.3y) and nonspecific chronic (mean, 23.8y) neck/scapular pain. Interventions: Participants were randomly assigned to the Feldenkrais method group (n=30) or untreated control group (n=31). Patients in the treatment group underwent one 2-hour Feldenkrais method session per week for 12 consecutive weeks. Main Outcome Measures: Blind assessment of perceived pain (visual analog scale [VAS]) during physical therapist palpation of the left and right occipital, upper trapezius, and levator scapulae muscle areas; self-assessed degree of pain on the Visual, Musculoskeletal, and Balance Complaints questionnaire; and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey bodily pain scale. Results: Patients undergoing FeldenIcrais method reported significantly less pain than the controls according to the VAS and Visual, Musculoskeletal, and Balance Complaints questionnaire ratings at posttreatment follow-up and 1-year follow-up. There were no significant differences regarding the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey bodily pain scale ratings. Conclusions: Feldenkrais method is an effective intervention for chronic neck/scapular pain in patients with visual impairment. 

  • 252.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Stress and daily physical activity in chronic neck-shoulder pain2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims Chronic work-related stress is a risk factor for the development of chronic musculo-skeletal pain and cardiovascular disease. The link between stress and chronic diseases is probably mediated by the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and the hypothalamus-pituatary-adrenal (HPA) axis; however the character and level of deviations in these regulatory systems have  not been sufficiently examined in persons with neck-shoulder pain (NSP).

    Physical activity has shown a wide range of benefits extending to musculoskeletal health (1), while inactive behavior may contribute to chronic muscle pain (2). The development of NSP is associated with perceived stress (3) and altered regulation of physiological stress systems, mainly with increased sympathetic and/or reduced parasympathetic activation (4, 5). The role of daily physical activity in the development and maintenance of NSP is still largely unknown. Therefore, we investigated daily physical activity, autonomic regulation and symptoms among persons with chronic NSP and healthy controls, by using long-term ambulatory monitoring in daily life.

    Methods In field studies, we investigated the relations between autonomic regulation, patterning of physical activity and stress perception in persons with chronic NSP (trapezius myalgia or tension neck syndrome, exhausted syndrome with somatic pain component) and symptom-free controls. Physical activity was objectively monitored by accelerometry or inclinometry, whereas heart rate variability (HRV) as an indicator of ANS regulation were recorded in parallel with  self- ratings of pain, stress and fatigue during several working days. Results Subjects with muscle pain showed relatively higher perceived stress and increased fatigue levels. Sleep quality was lower in patients in comparison with controls. Daily physical activity in chronic NSP was characterized by a different activity pattern than the control group. Particularly, lower activity levels and more time lying in the evening were observed. Increased heart rate and diminished HRV were observed in NSP as compared to controls. Correlations revealed a negative relationship between hour-to-hour changes in physical activity and HRV. Between subjects, physical activity was positively associated to HRV.

    Conclusion The groups with chronic NSP showed reduced physical activity, especially in the evening. Higher heart rate and reduced HRV reflected chronic stress in terms of autonomic imbalance among those with NSP. Positive correlations between physical activity and HRV indicate a reduced parasympathetic activation in individuals with lower levels of physical activity in daily life. We suggest that chronic stress and physical activity might be important factors in chronic NSP. Interventions with increasing daily physical activity are warranted.

    References

    1.         Powell KE, Paluch AE, Blair SN. Physical Activity for Health: What Kind? How Much? How Intense? On Top of What? Annu Rev Public Health. 2011;32(1):349-65.

    2.         van Weering M, Vollenbroek-Hutten MMR, Kotte EM, Hermens HJ. Daily physical activities of patients with chronic pain or fatigue versus asymptomatic controls. A systematic review. Clin Rehabil. 2007;21(11):1007-23.

    3.         Bongers P, Ijmker S, van den Heuvel S, Blatter B. Epidemiology of work related neck and upper limb problems: Psychosocial and personal risk factors (Part I) and effective interventions from a bio behavioural perspective (Part II). J Occup Rehabil. 2006;16(3):272-95.

    4.         Hallman DM, Lindberg L-G, Arnetz BB, Lyskov E. Effects of static contraction and cold stimulation on cardiovascular autonomic indices, trapezius blood flow and muscle activity in chronic neck–shoulder pain. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2011;111(8):1725-35.

    5.         Gockel M, Lindholm H, Alaranta H, Viljanen A, Lindquist A, Lindholm T. Cardiovascular functional disorder and stress among patients having neck-shoulder symptoms. Ann Rheum Dis. 1995;54(6):494-7.

     

  • 253.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Directly measured physical activity and heart rate variability among workers with and without musculoskeletal disorders2015Ingår i: / [ed] University of Limerick, 2015, s. 74-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Aberration in autonomous nervous system regulation may play an important role in the development of work related musculoskeletal disorders (MSD). Recent studies indicated that sympathetic activity was increased relative to vagal effects in subjects with MSD, as measured through heart rate variability (HRV). However, the cause of this physiological change is difficult to determine, since several factors influence HRV, almost importantly the pattern of daily physical activity (PA).The aim of this study was to identify possible differences in PA between workers with and without MSD, and assess associations between HRV and PA. Methods: Twenty-six workers with MSD (41 years, 13 females) and twenty-four matched symptom-free controls from an industry in mid-Sweden participated in the study. ECG was monitored by the First Beat system whereas PA was recorded by a tri-axial accelerometer ActivPAL attached to thigh. GPS data were collected to identify the spatial location of the participants

    Results

    The groups showed similar distributions of total time spent at work, at home and "elsewhere". The lowest PA levels were found at work for both groups. Leisure time PA "elsewhere" was significantly lower among subjects with MSD than among controls. Time domain HRV variables were clearly correlated with PA levels and showed trend differences (0.05<p<0.1) between the MSD and the control group during sedentary and physically active periods.

    Conclusions

    Workers with MSD showed a different pattern of leisure time PA compared with symptom-free workers. These PA differences may have contributed in explaining the difference in autonomic activity, as measured through HRV, observed between the two groups, and even in previous studies of similar groups.

  • 254.
    Lövgren, Anna
    et al.
    Clinical Oral Physiology, Department of Odontology Faculty of Medicine, University of Umeå, Umeå, Sweden.
    Österlund, Catharina
    Clinical Oral Physiology, Department of Odontology Faculty of Medicine, University of Umeå, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lampa, Ewa
    Clinical Oral Physiology, Department of Odontology Faculty of Medicine, University of Umeå, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ilgunas, Aurelija
    Clinical Oral Physiology, Department of Odontology Faculty of Medicine, University of Umeå, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hellström, Fredrik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    A high prevalence of TMD is related to somatic awareness and pain intensity among healthy dental students2018Ingår i: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 76, nr 6, s. 387-393Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Dental students have been identified as a group with high risks of developing both temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and psychosocial conditions. Our primary aim was to evaluate the cross-sectional prevalence of TMD diagnoses, as defined in the Diagnostic Criteria (DC)/TMD, among dental students. The secondary aim was to evaluate the prevalence and association of behavioural and psychosocial factors in relation to DC/TMD diagnoses.

    Materials and methods: The study was conducted among undergraduate dental students during the second semester of their third year at the Department of Odontology, Medical Faculty, Umeå University, Sweden. Three consecutive cohorts were recruited during August in 2013, 2014, 2015. In total, 54 students were included and examined according the DC/TMD procedure.

    Results and conclusions: The prevalence of any DC/TMD diagnosis was 30%. The most prevalent TMD diagnosis was myalgia. Individuals with a TMD-pain diagnosis (i.e. myalgia or arthralgia) reported significantly higher pain intensity levels according to the Graded Chronic Pain Scale (GCPS) as compared to individuals without TMD-pain (Fisher’s exact test p < .001, two-sided). In addition, individuals with any TMD scored significantly higher jaw functional limitations according to the Jaw Functional Limitation Scale 20 (JFLS-20, p < .001) and oral parafunctions according to the Oral Behavior Checklist (OBC, p = .005) as compared to individuals without TMD. The psychosocial factors evaluated did not differ between individual with or without a TMD diagnosis. The majority of the dental students reported symptoms that are already identified as risk factors for developing TMD and pain conditions. However, longitudinal data are needed to evaluate how this evolves over time.

  • 255.
    Marsh, John E.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöpsykologi.
    Ljung, Robert
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöpsykologi.
    Jahncke, Helena
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    MacCutcheon, Douglas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöpsykologi.
    Pausch, Florian
    Institute of Technical Acoustics, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Ball, Linden J.
    School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK 3.
    Vachon, François
    École de psychologie, Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
    Why are background telephone conversations distracting?2018Ingår i: Journal of experimental psychology. Applied, ISSN 1076-898X, E-ISSN 1939-2192, Vol. 24, nr 2, s. 222-235Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Telephone conversation is ubiquitous within the office setting. Overhearing a telephone conversation-whereby only one of the two speakers is heard-is subjectively more annoying and objectively more distracting than overhearing a full conversation. The present study sought to determine whether this "halfalogue" effect is attributable to unexpected offsets and onsets within the background speech (acoustic unexpectedness) or to the tendency to predict the unheard part of the conversation (semantic [un]predictability), and whether these effects can be shielded against through top-down cognitive control. In Experiment 1, participants performed an office-related task in quiet or in the presence of halfalogue and dialogue background speech. Irrelevant speech was either meaningful or meaningless speech. The halfalogue effect was only present for the meaningful speech condition. Experiment 2 addressed whether higher task-engagement could shield against the halfalogue effect by manipulating the font of the to-be-read material. Although the halfalogue effect was found with an easy-to-read font (fluent text), the use of a difficult-to-read font (disfluent text) eliminated the effect. The halfalogue effect is thus attributable to the semantic (un)predictability, not the acoustic unexpectedness, of background telephone conversation and can be prevented by simple means such as increasing the level of engagement required by the focal task. 

  • 256.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Cost-efficient assessment of biomechanical exposures in occupational studies2013Ingår i: Eighth International Conference on Prevention of Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders; Abstracts, 2013, s. 31-34Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 257.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Burdorf, Alex
    Department of Public Health, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Järvholm, Bengt
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University.
    Knardahl, Stein
    Department of Work Psychology and Physiology, National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo, Norway.
    Proper, Karin
    f National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven; and VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Punnett, Laura
    Department of Work Environment, University of Massachusetts Lowell, USA.
    Straker, Leon
    School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Søgaard, Karen
    Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Occupational epidemiology: six guiding principles for future studies of physical work load and its effects on health and performance2015Ingår i: Proceedings of the 19th Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, Melbourne 9-14 August 2015 / [ed] Gitte Lindgaard & Dave Moore, 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 258.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hygge, Staffan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöpsykologi.
    Can cognitive activities during breaks in repetitive manual work accelerate recovery from fatigue? A controlled experiment2014Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 11, artikel-id e112090Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Neurophysiologic theory and some empirical evidence suggests that fatigue caused by physical work maybe more effectively recovered during “diverting” periods of cognitive activity than during passive rest; a phenomenon of great interest in working life. We investigated the extent to which development and recovery of fatigue during repeated bouts of an occupationally relevant reaching task was influenced by the complexity of a cognitive activity between these bouts. Eighteen male volunteers performed three sessions, consisting of six 7-min bouts of reaching alternating with 3minutes of a memory test differing in complexity between sessions. Throughout the session, recordings were made of upper trapezius muscle activity using electromyography (EMG), heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) using electrocardiography,arterial blood pressure, and perceived fatigue (Borg CR10 scale and SOFI). A test battery before, immediately after and 1 hour after the work period included measurements of shoulder elevation strength (MVC), pressure pain threshold (PPT) over the trapezius muscles, and a submaximal isometric contraction. As intended, perceived fatigue, HRV, and EMG amplitude increased during the physical work bouts. Recovery did occur between the bouts, but fatigue accumulated throughout the work period. Neither EMG changes nor recovery of perceived fatigue during breaks were influenced by cognitive task complexity, while heart rate and HRV recovered the most during breaks with the most difficult task. Recovery of perceived fatigue after the 1 hour work period was also most pronounced for the most difficult cognitive condition, while MVC and PPT showed ambiguous patterns, and EMG recovered similarly after all three cognitive protocols. Thus, we could confirm that cognitive tasks between bouts of fatiguing physical work can,indeed, accelerate recovery of central components of fatigue, even if benefits may be moderate. Our results encourage further research into combinations of physical and mental tasks in an occupational context.

  • 259.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hygge, Staffan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöpsykologi.
    Jahncke, Helena
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mixter, Susanna
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Kombination av fysiska och mentala arbetsuppgifter: en modell för effektiv arbetsrotation?2018Ingår i: FALF konferens 2018 Arbetet – problem eller potential för en hållbar livsmiljö?: Program och Abstracts / [ed] Lindberg, Per, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2018, s. 56-57Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Fysisk variation i arbetet anses allmänt av både forskare och praktiker att vara en förutsättning för god hälsa. Både för hög och för låg belastning kan med tiden leda till sämre välbefinnande och prestation. Den gällande föreskriften om belastningsergonomi (AFS 2012:2) anger specifikt att problem med repetitivt, styrt och bundet arbete ska förebyggas genom ökad variation, ”till exempel genom arbetsväxling, arbetsutvidgning eller pauser.” Samtidigt visar flera aktuella forskningsöversikter om variation och arbetsrotation att det vetenskapliga stödet för att dessa initiativ verkligen leder till bättre hälsa är otillräckligt. En anledning kan vara att de idéer till ökad variation som studerats har varit ineffektiva, till exempel därför att de arbetsuppgifter man växlat mellan har varit snarlika till sin belastning, eller att man, som i många studier av pauser, endast kunnat intervenera under en mindre del av arbetsdagen av hänsyn till produktionen. En modell för arbetsrotation med potential för att både säkra en hållbar produktion och leda till god fysisk och mental variation skulle kunna vara att kombinera fysiskt belastande arbets-uppgifter med produktiva uppgifter som ställer mentala krav, men inte är fysiskt krävande. Vid Forte-centret har vi under ett antal år arbetat med denna modell ur olika perspektiv.Det här symposiet ger en överblick över vår forskning. Vi kommer att sammanfatta det internationella forskningsläget, både om variation i stort och specifikt om kombinationer av fysiskt och mentalt belastande arbetsuppgifter. Vi kommer även att presentera en ny princip för hur man kan arbeta med belastning, variation och återhämtning: Guldlocks-principen. Vi kommer att visa resultat från våra egna studier av förekomsten av omväx-lande fysiska och mentala arbetsuppgifter i detaljhandel och industri, och vilka mönster av omväxling de anställda föredrar. Vidare kommer vi att gå igenom våra studier av stress och trötthetsutveckling då man kombinerar repetitivt fysiskt arbete med en mental uppgift av olika svårighetsgrader. Sammantaget kommer symposiet att visa både vilken forskning vi och andra bedrivit på området och vilka forskningsbehov som kvarstår för att svara på om en arbetsrotation som kombinerar fysiska och mentala arbetsuppgifter kan vara effektiv, både vad gäller hälsoeffekter och produktion.

  • 260.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Jackson, Jennie
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Punnett, Laura
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Work Environment, University of Massachusetts Lowell, USA.
    Statistical performance of observational work sampling for assessment of categorical exposure variables: A simulation approach illustrated using PATH data2014Ingår i: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 58, nr 3, s. 294-316Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. Observational work sampling is often used in occupational studies to assess categorical biomechanical exposures and occurrence of specific work tasks. The statistical performance of data obtained by work sampling is, however, not well understood, impeding informed measurement strategy design. The purpose of this study was to develop a procedure for assessing the statistical properties of work sampling strategies evaluating categorical exposure variables, and to illustrate the usefulness of this procedure to examine bias and precision of exposure estimates from samples of different sizes.

    Methods. From a parent data set of observations on 10 construction workers performing a single operation, the probabilities were determined for each worker of performing four component tasks and working in four mutually exclusive trunk posture categories (neutral, mild flexion, severe flexion, twisted). Using these probabilities, 5000 simulated data sets were created via probability-based re-sampling for each of six sampling strategies, ranging from 300 to 4500 observations. For each strategy, mean exposure and exposure variability metrics were calculated at both the operation- and task-levels and, for each of these, bias and precision were assessed across the 5000 simulations.

    Results. Estimates of exposure variability were substantially more uncertain at all sample sizes than estimates of mean exposures and task proportions. Estimates at small sample sizes were also biased. With only 600 samples, proportions of the different tasks and of working with a neutral trunk posture (the most common) were within 10% of the true target value in at least 80% of all the simulated data sets; rarer exposures required at least 1500 samples. For most task-level mean exposure variables and for all operation- and task-level estimates of exposure variability, performance was low, even with 4500 samples. In general, the precision of mean exposure estimates did not depend on the exposure variability between workers.

    Conclusions. The suggested probability-based simulation approach proved to be versatile and generally suitable for assessing bias and precision of data collection strategies using work sampling to estimate categorical data. The approach can be used in both real and hypothetical scenarios, in ergonomics as well as in other areas of occupational epidemiology and intervention research. The reported statistical properties associated with sample size are likely widely relevant to studies using work sampling to assess categorical variables.

  • 261.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Lewis, Charlotte
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Fysisk variation och belastningsbesvär i arbetet2016Rapport (Refereegranskat)
  • 262.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Liv, Per
    Centre for Research and Development, Uppsala University / Region Gävleborg, Gävle, Sweden.
    Influence of task proportion errors on the effectiveness of task-based job exposure modeling2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background.Job-based exposure estimation using the occupational mean (JBM) is associated with substantial error. Many studies have therefore estimated job exposures from workers’ tasks, i.e. task-based modeling (TBM), typically by combining individual workers’ task proportions (TP) in the job with a general task exposure matrix. Studies of postures and muscle activity have, however, shown that TBM may be ineffective; one possible reason being that TPs are not correct. The present simulation study investigated the influence of random and systematic TP error on TBM performance.

    Methods.We constructed two virtual two-task jobs with task exposure contrasts of 0.2 and 0.8. In both, TPs and task exposures mimicked likely occupational scenarios. We then simulated four cases of TP error: no error, random error, bias, and bias and random error. For each case, we varied the TP error size, and compared the absolute errors of TBM- and JBM-based job exposures for 10,000 virtual workers.

    Results.For the low-contrast job, TBM with error-free TPs was, on average, only 6% more efficient than JBM, and the probability of TBM leading to a more correct job exposure than JBM was 56%. TP errors had negligible effects on effectiveness. With error-free TPs in the high-contrast job, TPM was 75% more efficient than JBM, and led to more correct job exposures for 71% of all workers. TP errors decreased TBM performance, down to being 34% better than JBM when both random and systematic errors were “large”; 62% of all individuals being more correctly assessed by TBM.

    Discussion.For jobs with limited task exposure contrast, TBM was essentially equivalent to JBM, while TP errors had marginal impact. In high-contrast jobs, TBM was more effec-tive, but was also more sensitive to both random and systematic TP errors. This may feed further discussion of the cost-efficiency of TBM in occupational settings.

  • 263.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Liv, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Wahlström, Jens
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Cost-efficient measurement strategies for posture observations based on video recordings2013Ingår i: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 44, nr 4, s. 609-617Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment of workingpostures by observation is a common practice in ergonomics. The present studyinvestigated whether monetary resources invested in a video-based posture observationstudy should preferably be spent in collecting many video recordings of thework and have them observed once by one observer, or in having multipleobservers rate postures repeatedly from fewer videos. The study addressed thisquestion from a practitioner’s perspective by focusing two plausible scenarios:documenting the mean exposure of one individual, and of a specific occupationalgroup. Using a data set of observed working postures among hairdressers, empiricalvalues of posture variability, observer variability, and costs for recordingand observing one video were entered into equations expressing the total costof data collection and the information (defined as 1/SD) provided by theresulting estimates of two variables: percentage time with the arm elevated<15 degrees and >90 degrees. Sixteen measurement strategies involving 1-4observers repeating their posture ratings 1-4 times were examined for budgetsup to €2000.  For both posture variablesand in both the individual and group scenario, the most cost-efficient strategyat any specific budget was to engage 3-4 observers and/or having observer(s)rate postures multiple times each. Between 17% and 34% less information wasproduced when using the commonly practiced approach of having one observer ratea number of video recordings one time each. We therefore recommend observationalposture assessment to be based on video recordings of work, since this allowsfor multiple observations; and to allocate monetary resources to repeated observationsrather than many video recordings.

  • 264.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Sample size and statistical performance in studies of sedentary behaviour – a novel approach based on compositional data analysis2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Sedentary behaviour studies often describe the extent of sitting by a time proportion; typically per cent time spent sitting. Proportions are examples of so-called “compositional data,” since they add up to a constrained sum (i.e. 100%). Compositional data differ from non-compositional data in aspects of essential importance to their analy-sis and interpretation, including how to address variability. Compositional data analysis (CDA) acts in a space of logarithmically transformed ratios of proportions, rather than on the proportions per se. We compared the statistical properties of confidence intervals (CI) of group mean values of sitting-time proportions obtained using standard procedures and CDA, exemplified by sample sizes required to obtain a specified precision.

    Methods. Sitting and non-sitting time proportions calculated from whole-day accelerom-eter recordings in 25 office workers were used as a heuristic example. Variability between subjects was assessed using standard statistics and CDA. In both cases, the size and shape of a 95% CI on the estimated mean sitting-time proportion of n subjects was assessed for different sizes of the mean and values of n.

    Results. While standard CIs at a specific n are independent of the mean value and sym-metric, CDA-derived CIs are asymmetric, except at a mean of 50%, and wider at “medium” than at “extreme” mean values. In the example, a 95% CI of ±5% around the mean was ob-tained using n=26 subjects according to standard procedures. However, using CDA, upper 95% CI limits of +5% were obtained with n=5 for a mean value of 90%, but required n=58 when the mean value was 60%. Similar-sized lower 95% CI limits of -5% were obtained with n=13 and n=63 at 90% and 60% means, respectively.

    Discussion. CDA-based estimates of sample sizes differed markedly from estimates based on standard statistics. Properties and implications of CDA in sedentary behaviour research deserve further consideration.

  • 265.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöpsykologi.
    Ergonomics observation: development of efficient methods based on cognitive psychology2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 266.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Vingård, EvaArbets- och miljömedicin, Uppsala universitet.
    Inkluderande arbetsliv2009Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 267.
    Meinertz Dantoft, Thomas
    et al.
    Danish Research Centre for Chemical Sensitivities, Copenhagen University Hospital, Gentofte, Denmark; Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark .
    Andersson, Linus
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Nordin, Steven
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Skovbjerg, Sine
    Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Capital Region, Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Chemical intolerance2015Ingår i: Current Rheumatology Reviews, ISSN 1573-3971, E-ISSN 1875-6360, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 167-184Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical intolerance (CI) is a term used to describe a condition in which the sufferer experiences a complex array of recurrent unspecific symptoms attributed to low-level chemical exposure that most people regard as unproblematic. Severe CI constitutes the distinguishing feature of multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS). The symptoms reported by CI subjects are manifold, involving symptoms from multiple organs systems. In severe cases of CI, the condition can cause considerable life-style limitations with severe social, occupational and economic consequences. As no diagnostic tools for CI are available, the presence of the condition can only be established in accordance to criteria definitions. Numerous modes of action have been suggested to explain CI, with the most commonly discussed theories involving the immune system, central nervous system, olfactory and respiratory systems as well as altered metabolic capacity, behavioral conditioning and emotional regulation. However, in spite of more than 50 years of research, there is still a great deal of uncertainties regarding the event(s) and underlying mechanism(s) behind symptom elicitation. As a result, patients are often misdiagnosed or offered health care solutions with limited or no effect, and they experience being met with mistrust and doubt by health care professionals, the social care system and by friends and relatives. Evidence-based treatment options are currently unavailable, however, a person-centered care model based on a multidisciplinary treatment approach and individualized care plans have shown promising results. With this in mind, further research studies and health care solutions should be based on a multifactorial and interdisciplinary approach.

  • 268.
    Meinertz Dantoft, Thomas
    et al.
    Danish Research Centre for Chemical Sensitivities, Copenhagen University Hospital, Gentofte, Denmark; Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Skovbjerg, Sine
    Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Capital Region, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Andersson, Linus
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lind, Nina
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nordin, Steven
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Brix, Susanne
    Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Inflammatory mediator profiling of n-butanol exposed upper airways in individuals with multiple chemical sensitivity2015Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 11, artikel-id e0143534Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) is a chronic condition characterized by reports of recurrent symptoms in response to low level exposure to various chemical substances. Recent findings suggests that dysregulation of the immune system may play a role in MCS pathophysiology.

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine baseline and low dose n-butanol-induced upper airway inflammatory response profiles in MCS subjects versus healthy controls.

    METHOD: Eighteen participants with MCS and 18 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Epithelial lining fluid was collected from the nasal cavity at three time points: baseline, within 15 minutes after being exposed to 3.7 ppm n-butanol in an exposure chamber and four hours after exposure termination. A total of 19 cytokines and chemokines were quantified. Furthermore, at baseline and during the exposure session, participants rated the perceived intensity, valence and levels of symptoms and autonomic recordings were obtained.

    RESULTS: The physiological and psychophysical measurements during the n-butanol exposure session verified a specific response in MCS individuals only. However, MCS subjects and healthy controls displayed similar upper airway inflammatory mediator profiles (P>0.05) at baseline. Likewise, direct comparison of mediator levels in the MCS group and controls after n-butanol exposure revealed no significant group differences.

    CONCLUSION: We demonstrate no abnormal upper airway inflammatory mediator levels in MCS subjects before or after a symptom-eliciting exposure to low dose n-butanol, implying that upper airways of MCS subjects are functionally intact at the level of cytokine and chemokine production and secretory capacity. This suggests that previous findings of increased cytokine plasma levels in MCS are unlikely to be caused by systemic priming via excessive upper airway inflammatory processes.

  • 269.
    Mikaelsson, Lars-Åke
    et al.
    Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Larsson, Johan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Integrated planning for sustainable building production: an evolution over three decades2017Ingår i: Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, ISSN 1392-3730, E-ISSN 1822-3605, Vol. 23, nr 2, s. 319-326Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews the authors'€™ work on Integrated Planning (IP) as a construction site management tool. IP integrates the different planning skills used by site managers, construction workers and craftspersons into an interactive group which manages a production planning process from the earliest stages to the end of a building project. The studies reviewed in this paper, performed over the last three decades, tested, longitudinally evaluated and refined the IP model for use in modern sustainable building sites. The refined model, Integrated Planning for Sustainable Building Production (SBP), includes the factors: leadership, health and safety, quality management and environmental management.

  • 270.
    Mixter, Susanna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Alternations between physical and mental tasks – a viable option for job rotation?2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 271.
    Mixter, Susanna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Jahncke, Helena
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University.
    Does the difficulty of a memory task interspersed between bouts of repetitive work influence recovery?2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Controlled experiments suggest that active breaks with mental activity interspersed between physical work bouts can lead to more effective recovery from fatigue than passive rest. However, most of these studies investigated a highly stereotyped physical task until exhaustion. Research investigating the effects of mental breaks in tasks of higher occupational relevance is limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent to which a working memory task performed at three difficulty levels would enhance recovery of perceived fatigue after a repetitive physical work task.

    Methods. 12 women (mean age 26.4) performed 10 work cycles each comprising seven minutes of pipetting (to model repetitive work) followed by three minutes devoted to a working memory task. Three difficulty levels (MT1, MT2, MT3) of the memory task were tested on three different days in a randomized order across participants. During the last minute of pipetting and after the memory task, participants rated fatigue on the Borg CR-10 scale. Before, during and after each experiment, salivary a-amylase was measured.

    Results. Perceived fatigue in the right shoulder during the last minute of pipetting increased with time (p<0.001) but did not significantly differ between types of MT (p=0.314). Perceived fatigue in the right shoulder just after the memory task also increased with time (p<0.001), and in a pattern differing between MT types (time*MT: p=0.042), while MT type showed no significant main effect (p=0.169). Post-hoc tests showed that MT3 led to better recovery than MT1 (effect of MT: p=0.041; time*MT: p=0.025). Salivary a-amylase increased with time (p=0.001) but showed no significant effects of MT type (p=0.214).

    Discussion. Our results indicate that recovery of perceived fatigue after a repetitive task was better when performing a difficult — as compared to an easy — memory task. This effect was not accompanied by any differences in a-amylase response.

  • 272.
    Monnier, Andreas
    et al.
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; Swedish Armed Forces, Regional Medical Service Mälardalen, Berga, Sweden.
    Djupsjöbacka, Mats
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Larsson, Helena
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; Swedish Armed Forces, Headquarters, Medical Services, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Norman, Kjell
    Swedish Armed Forces, 1st Marine Regiment, 2nd Amphibious Battalion, Berga, Sweden.
    Äng, Björn O.
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; Centre for Clinical Research Dalarna, Falun, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Risk factors for back pain in marines; A prospective cohort study2016Ingår i: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 17, nr 1, artikel-id 319Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It is recognised that back pain (BP) is a debilitating medical problem in the soldier community, which limits operational readiness as well as work ability. As such, identification of risk factors is a necessity for effective preventive actions, but also regarded as important from a safety perspective. The aim of this prospective cohort study was therefore to identify risk factors for back pain and BP limiting work ability in active duty marines within a 6 and 12-month period. Methods: Demographic characteristics, health-related factors and occupational exposure information, as gathered from questionnaires, as well as clinical test of movement control among 137 Swedish marines were regressed with multivariable logistic regressions, and strength of associations was presented as odds ratio (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI). BP within 6 and 12 months were used as primary outcomes, whereas BP limiting work ability within 6 and 12 months served as secondary outcomes. Results: Previous BP and tall body height (≥1.86 m) emerged as risk factors for back pain within 6 months (OR 2.99, 95 % CI 1.22-7.30; OR 2.81, 95 % CI 1.16- 6.84, respectively), and 12 months (OR 6.75, 95 % CI 2.30-19.80; 2.75, 95 % CI 1.21-6.29, respectively). Previous BP was also identified as risk factor for BP limiting work ability within 12 months (OR 6.64, 95 % CI 1.78-24.78), and tall body height emerged as a risk within both six (OR 4.30, 95 % CI 1.31-14.13) and 12 months (OR 4.55, 95 % CI 1.53-13.57) from baseline. Conclusions: Marines with a history of BP are at risk of further BP episodes, which, thus, emphasise the importance of early BP preventive actions. Tall body height also emerged as an important risk which may reflect that personal equipment and work tasks are not adapted for the tallest marines. While this should be considered when introducing new work equipment, further studies are warranted to clarify the underlying mechanism of this association.

  • 273.
    Monnier, Andreas
    et al.
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Stockholm ; Swedish Armed Forces, Regional Medical Service Mälardalen, Berga.
    Larsson, Helena
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Stockholm ; Swedish Armed Forces, HR Centre, Stockholm.
    Djupsjöbacka, Mats
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Brodin, Lars-Åke
    Department of Medical Engineering, School of Technology and Health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Huddinge.
    Äng, Björn O
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Stockholm ; Centre for Clinical Research Dalarna, Falun ; Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm.
    Musculoskeletal pain and limitations in work ability in Swedish marines: a cross-sectional survey of prevalence and associated factors2015Ingår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 5, nr 10, artikel-id e007943Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of self-rated musculoskeletal pain and pain limiting work ability in Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) marines, and to study factors potentially associated with pain limiting work ability for the most prevalent pain regions reported.

    Design Population-based, cross-sectional survey.

    Participants There were 272 SAF marines from the main marine battalion in Sweden included in the study.

    Outcomes Self-assessed musculoskeletal pain and pain limiting the marines' work ability within a 6-month period, as obtained from structured questionnaires. The association of individual, health and work-related factors with musculoskeletal pain limiting work ability was systematically regressed with multiple logistic models, estimating OR and 95% CI.

    Results Musculoskeletal pain and pain limiting work ability were most common in the back, at 46% and 20%, and lower extremities at 51% and 29%, respectively. Physical training ≤1 day/week (OR 5.3, 95% CI 1.7 to 16.8); body height ≤1.80 m (OR 5.0, 95% CI 1.6 to 15.1) and ≥1.86 m (OR 4.4, 95% CI 1.4 to 14.1); computer work 1/4 of the working day (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.0 to 10.0) and ≥1/2 (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.1 to 10.1) of the working day were independently associated with back pain limiting work ability. None of the studied variables emerged significantly associated with such pain for the lower extremities.

    Conclusions Our findings show that musculoskeletal pain and resultant limitations in work ability are common in SAF marines. Low frequency of physical training emerged independently associated with back pain limiting work ability. This suggests that marines performing physical training 1 day per week or less are suitable candidates for further medical evaluation and secondary preventive actions. While also associated, body height and computer work need further exploration as underlying mechanisms for back pain limiting work ability. Further prospective studies are necessary to clarify the direction of causality.

  • 274.
    Neumann, W. Patrick
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada.
    Winkel, Jörgen
    Department of Sociology and Work Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Palmerud, Gunnar
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Innovation and employee injury risk in automotive disassembly operations2018Ingår i: International Journal of Production Research, ISSN 0020-7543, E-ISSN 1366-588X, Vol. 56, nr 9, s. 3188-3203Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineering innovations in car disassembly systems are studied for affects on system operators’ risk of repetitive strain injury (RSI). Objective instrumented measures of injury risk factors with synchronized video-based task analyses were used to examine changes in operators’ RSI risk during two cases of engineering innovation: 1) a shift in industrial model from traditional extracting saleable parts to line-based full material recovery, and 2) the prospective effects of a simulated “Lean” inspired process improvement in the line system.

    Both cases of innovation showed significantly increased movement speeds and reduced muscular recovery opportunities, implying increased RSI risk. This case study reveals a mechanism by which innovation may increase RSI risks for operators. Managers responsible for engineering innovation should ensure their teams have the tools and mandate necessary to control injury hazards as part of the development and design process. These cases suggest how failure to manage RSI hazards in the innovation process may allow increases of injury risks that can compromise operational performance. This “innovation pitfall” has implications for operator health and organizational sustainability. Alternative pathways are discussed.

  • 275.
    Nordhall, Linda
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap.
    Relationship between Work-related Identity and Stress and the Mediating Role of Work-life Balance2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, the relationship between work identity (emotion and cognition components) and work-related stress was investigated, and if work-life balance (WLB) and its components family-work conflict (FWC) and work-family conflict (WFC), might mediate this relationship. The study included 104 participants recruited via Facebook. The results showed: (1) Positive relationship between the cognitive component in the work-related identity and work-related stress; and (2) Negative relationship between the emotional component of the work-related identity and work-related stress. WLB was also shown to mediate the relation between the cognitive component in the work-related identity and work-related stress, accounted for by the WFC-component of WLB.

  • 276.
    Nordhall, Ola
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och psykologi, Psykologi. Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Knez, Igor
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och psykologi, Psykologi.
    Motivation and Justice at Work: The Role of Emotion and Cognition Components of Personal and Collective Work Identity2018Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, artikel-id 2307Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of personal and collective work identity (including emotion and cognition components), in predicting work motivation (operationalized as work self-determined motivation) and organizational justice (operationalized as organizational pay justice). Digitized questionnaires were distributed bye-mail to 2905 members, teachers, of a Swedish trade union. A total of 768 individuals answered the questionnaire and by that participated in this study. Personal-compared to collective work identity was shown to positively associate with self-determined motivation accounted for by the emotion component of personal work identity. Collective compared to personal work identity was reported to positively associate with organizational pay justice accounted for by the cognition component of collective work identity. All this suggests that both work-related motivation and organizational justice might be, to some extent, accounted for by the psychological mechanisms of work identity and that, as predicted, different types of work identity, play different significant roles in predicting motivation and justice at work. More precisely, the emotion component of work identity was more pronounced in personal work-bonding relationships, and the cognitive component, of work identity in contrast, was more pronounced in collective work-bonding relationships.

  • 277.
    Nordhall, Ola
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och psykologi, Psykologi. Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Knez, Igor
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och psykologi, Psykologi.
    Saboonchi, Fredrik
    Department of Medicine and Public Health, Swedish Red Cross University College, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Predicting general mental health and exhaustion: the role of emotion and cognition components of personal and collective work-identity.2018Ingår i: Heliyon, ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 4, nr 8, artikel-id e00735Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate relationships between emotion and cognition components of personal and collective work-identity and self-reported general mental health and exhaustion, in Swedish teachers (N = 768). In line with our predictions, we showed that the emotion component of personal work-identity and the cognition component of collective work-identity associated positively with general mental health and negatively with exhaustion. The reverse result was found, however, for the cognition component of personal work-identity and emotion component of collective work-identity. In general, all this indicates that person-work bonding might, to some degree, account for general mental health and exhaustion in employees. In particular, the findings suggest that general mental health and exhaustion may vary symmetrically across the: (1) Type of person-work bonding (personal vs. collective work-identity); and (2) Type of psychological component (emotion vs. cognition) involved in personal- and collective work-identity.

  • 278.
    Nordhall, Ola
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och psykologi, Psykologi. Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Knez, Igor
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och psykologi, Psykologi.
    Saboonchi, Fredrik
    Department of Medicine and Public Health, Swedish Red Cross University College.
    Teachers´personal work-identity predicts emotional exhaustion and work motivation: amediating role of job demands and resources2018Ingår i: FALF KONFERENS 2018: Arbetet – problem eller potential för en hållbar livsmiljö?, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2018Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Teachers´ psychological job demands (large class sizes, low social support, and expectations to care for pupils, parents and colleagues) are positively related to their emotional exhaustion. Teachers´ psychological job resources (autonomy, mastery of skills, and experiences of their work as incentive and interesting) are positively related to work motivation and engagement, which can be defined as the positive antipode of emotional exhaustion. In addition, job demands and resources may, in general terms, explain the relationships between the employee and different work motivation- and mental illness outcomes.

    Furthermore, teachers´ personal work-identity comprises cognitive- (coherence, correspondence, mental time, reflection, agency) and emotional- (attachment, belongingness, closeness) components, differently associated with various work-related outcomes. Our previous results show that the cognitive component positively relates to emotional exhaustion, and the emotional one positively relates to self-determined work motivation. These relationships have up to date not been theoretically and practically related to organizational/job characteristic factors, such as, job demands and resources.

     

    Aims

    Firstly, we investigated if a positive relationship between teachers´ cognitive personal work-identity and emotional exhaustion was mediated by psychological job demands. Secondly, we checked for if a positive relationship between teachers´ emotional personal work-identity and self-determined work motivation was mediated by psychological job resources.

    Methods

    768 members, representing eleven different local teachers´ trade unions, working in the south and middle part of Sweden replied to a digitized questionnaire measuring cognitive- and emotional components of personal work identity, job demands (prosocial extra-role performances) and resources (educational inspirations), emotional exhaustion and self-determined work motivation. Two mediation analyzes were performed by PROCESS macro for SPSS (version 2.16.3), model 4.

     

    Results

    A positive relationship between teachers´ cognitive personal work- identity and emotional exhaustion was mediated by psychological job demands: completely standardized indirect effects: β= .04, 95% CI [.0180, .0650].

    Also, a positive relationship between teachers´ emotional personal work- identity and self-determined work motivation was positively mediated by psychological job resources: completely standardized indirect effect: β= .09, 95% CI [.0569, .1178].

    This suggests that, when teachers think (cognitive component of work-identity) more of their work, they will be more emotionally exhausted, but when they feel (emotional component of work-identity) more of their work they will be more motivated to work. Psychological job demands and resources may however and to some extent explain these relationships, respectively.

  • 279.
    Nordin, Steven
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Aldrin, Lina
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Linus
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Effects of negative affectivity and odor valence on chemosensory and symptom perception and perceived ability to focus on a cognitive task2017Ingår i: Perception, ISSN 0301-0066, E-ISSN 1468-4233, Vol. 46, nr 3-4, s. 431-446Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to gain understanding for the impact of negative affectivity (NA) and odor valanceon perceptual aspects during low-level odorous exposure. Fifty-five young adults who were eitherrelatively low or high in NA (anxiety, depression, and somatization) were randomized forexposure to either limonene (pleasant odor) or pyridine (unpleasant odor). In an exposurechamber, they took part in baseline, blank and stable exposure sessions, during which theyrated odor intensity, impact on ability to focus on an imagined cognitive task, and intensity ofsymptoms. The results showed higher ratings of negative impact on ability to focus duringexposure to the unpleasant odor compared with the pleasant odor, and an association betweenNA and symptom intensity, with 18% of the variance in symptom intensity explainedby somatization. The association between NA and symptom intensity was found to be drivenby the factor sex. These results imply (a) that prior findings of odorous exposure that interferenegatively with work performance may be due to impact of an unpleasant odor on ability to focuson cognitive tasks and (b) that there are associations between NA, sex, and symptoms that maypartly be referred to attentiveness to and interpretation of bodily sensations.

  • 280.
    Nordlöf, Hasse
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Different ways of defining and measuring company size when studying its effects on OHS: A literature study2014Ingår i: 11th International Symposium on Human Factors in Organisational Design and Management, Nordic Ergonomics Society , 2014, s. 587-593Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective and method: Company size is a proxy for other variables affecting occupational health and safety (OHS) performance. The aim of this literature study was twofold: to give an overview on how it empirically has been shown that smaller and larger companies differ from one another in terms of OHS, and to present how earlier studies have defined company size when studying its mediating effects on OHS. A search strategy with search terms was used in the major databases, as well as inspecting the reference list of appropriate studies recovered. A total of 29 articles were included.

    Findings: Examining what empirically has been shown on company size differences in terms of OHS resulted in ten different themes. For example that the OHS standard improves as company size increases, that there is an inverse relationship between company size and injury frequency, and that the rate of absenteeism is lower in small companies. The examined studies were similar, in that they found differences attributed to company size. They differed, however, in the ways they defined company size as a variable in analysis. To define company size as number of employees was the most commonly used approach (27 out of 29 studies). One study used number of man-labor years as definition. One study used the contractors’ annual volume of business in dollars as definition. The scale of measure that was most commonly used as variable for measuring company size was ordinal scale data (23 out of 29 studies). Three studies used ratio scale data. Three studies did not specify scale of measurement.

    Conclusion: It is important to carefully consider what definition and scale of measure to use for the sake of studying the mediating effects of company size on OHS. Some of the less commonly used alternatives could be relevant.

  • 281.
    Nordlöf, Hasse
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Socialmedicin..
    Förutsättningar och möjligheter för företag att prioritera och bedriva arbetsmiljö- och säkerhetsarbete2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Många företag saknar idag ett fungerande systematiskt arbetsmiljöarbete (SAM) som uppfyller lagens krav fullt ut. Istället tycks andra dagliga aktiviteter ha högre prioritet. Detta är en presentation av ett avhandlingsarbete, vars övergripande syfte var att undersöka förutsättningar och möjligheter för tillverkande företag att prioritera och arbeta med säkerheten och arbetsmiljön; med särskilt fokus på yrkesroller, företagsstorlek, säkerhetskultur och finansiella nyckeltal. Fyra delstudier (I–IV) ingår i denna avhandling, vilka är baserade på tre datainsamlingar. En enkät som mätte arbetsmiljöprioritering besvarades av 249 representanter vid 142 tillverkande företag (I & II). Fokusgruppintervjuer genomfördes med 66 arbetare på ett stort ståltillverkningsföretag, där deras erfarenheter och uppfattningar om säkerhet och risker i arbetet diskuterades (III). En enkät som mätte SAM, säkerhetskultur och arbetsmiljöprioritering besvarades av 280 representanter vid 197 tillverkande företag (IV). Information om företagens finansiella nyckeltal hämtades från ett kreditupplysningsföretag. De viktigaste resultaten från de fyra delstudierna kan bland annat sammanfattas med att lönsamheten uppfattades vara det mest prioriterade intresset vid företagen (I), och att avvägningar mellan produktivitet och säkerhet ansågs vara ett hinder för att kunna arbeta på ett säkert sätt (III). Chefer uppfattade generellt att arbetsmiljön prioriterades mer på företagen än vad skyddsombuden gjorde (I & IV). Uppfattningar om arbetsmiljöprioritering skiljde sig dock inte åt beroende på företagsstorlek (II & IV). Ansvaret för säkerheten på arbetet ansågs främst vila hos den enskilda individen, och risktagande betraktades komma ur en kombination av individuella faktorer och yttre omständigheter i arbetsmiljön (III). Att vara ett större företag, ha positiv säkerhetskultur och hög kreditvärdighet visade sig ha samband med att också ha ett bättre utvecklat SAM (IV). På motsvarande sätt, att vara ett mindre företag, ha negativ säkerhetskultur och låg kreditvärdighet befanns ha samband med att också ha ett sämre utvecklat SAM.

  • 282.
    Nordlöf, Hasse
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Socialmedicin.
    Prerequisites and Possibilities for Manufacturing Companies to Prioritize and Manage Occupational Health and Safety2015Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetsmiljölagen kräver att människors hälsa och säkerhet på arbetet ska tryggas genom att risker kontinuerligt ska bedömas och åtgärdas. Många företag saknar idag ett fungerande systematiskt arbetsmiljöarbete (SAM) som uppfyller lagens krav fullt ut. Istället tycks andra dagliga aktiviteter ha högre prioritet.

    Det övergripande syftet med denna avhandling var att undersöka förutsättningar och möjligheter för tillverkande företag att prioritera och arbeta med säkerheten och arbetsmiljön; med särskilt fokus på yrkesroller, företagsstorlek, säkerhet och finansiella nyckeltal.

    Fyra delstudier (I–IV) ingår i denna avhandling, vilka är baserade på tre datainsamlingar. En enkät som mätte arbetsmiljöprioritering besvarades av 249 representanter vid 142 tillverkande företag (I & II). Fokusgruppintervjuer genomfördes med 66 arbetare på ett stort ståltillverkningsföretag, där deras erfarenheter och uppfattningar om säkerhet och risker i arbetet diskuterades (III). En enkät som mätte SAM, säkerhetskultur och arbetsmiljöprioritering besvarades av 280 representanter vid 197 tillverkande företag (IV). Information om företagens finansiella nyckeltal hämtades från ett kreditupplysningsföretag.

    De viktigaste resultaten från de fyra delstudierna kan bland annat sammanfattas med att lönsamheten uppfattades vara det mest prioriterade intresset vid företagen (I), och att avvägningar mellan produktivitet och säkerhet ansågs vara ett hinder för att kunna arbeta på ett säkert sätt (III). Chefer uppfattade generellt att arbetsmiljön prioriterades mer på företagen än vad skyddsombuden gjorde (I & IV). Uppfattningar om arbetsmiljöprioritering skiljde sig dock inte åt beroende på företagsstorlek (II & IV). Ansvaret för säkerheten på arbetet ansågs främst vila hos den enskilda individen, och risktagande betraktades komma ur en kombination av individuella faktorer och yttre omständigheter i arbetsmiljön (III). Att vara ett större företag, ha positiv säkerhetskultur och hög kreditvärdighet visade sig ha samband med att också ha ett bättre utvecklat SAM (IV). På motsvarande sätt, att vara ett mindre företag, ha negativ säkerhetskultur och låg kreditvärdighet befanns ha samband med att också ha ett sämre utvecklat SAM.

    Sammanfattningsvis verkar därmed strukturella, sociala såväl som ekonomiska aspekter vara väsentliga för företags möjligheter att prioritera och arbeta med säkerheten och arbetsmiljön. Detta ger uppslag till rekommendationer för industrin samt vidare forskning.

  • 283.
    Nordlöf, Hasse
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    What is safety culture and risk-taking like at a large steel manufacturing company?2012Ingår i: Work: Proceedings for the 18th Triennial International Ergonomics Association's (IEA) Congress, 2012, Vol. 41 suppl. 1, nr Suppl. 1, s. 5831-5832Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Focus group interviews were conducted at a large steel manufacturing company with 1000 employees, in order to answer the research question: what is the safety culture and risk-taking like at the company, according to employees? Ten focus groups were used for data collection consisting of 6-8 employees each. The participants were operators from production. The interviews lasted 75 min and were digitally recorded and thereafter verbatim transcribed. Descriptive data was also collected from all participants by allowing them to fill out a short questionnaire. The results of this study will be presented at the conference as a poster presentation.

  • 284.
    Nordlöf, Hasse
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Wiitavaara, Birgitta
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Högberg, Hans
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    A cross-sectional study of factors influencing occupational health and safety management practices in companies2017Ingår i: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 95, s. 92-103Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Companies need to ensure a functioning occupational health and safety management (OHSM) system to protect human health and safety during work, but generally there are differences in how successful they are in this endeavor. Earlier research has indicated that factors like company size, safety culture, and different measures of financial performance may be related to the quality of OHSM practices in companies. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether these factors are associated with OHSM practices in companies. A postal questionnaire was used to collect data from a sample of Swedish manufacturing companies, and complementary data regarding the companies were retrieved from a credit bureau database. The statistical analysis was performed with ordinal regression analysis using generalized estimating equations. Different predictor variables were modeled with OHSM practices as the outcome variable, in order to calculate p-values and to estimate odds ratios. Company size, safety culture, and creditworthiness were found to be associated with better, as well as worse, OHSM practices in companies (depending on directionality). Practical implications for industry and future research are discussed.

  • 285.
    Nordlöf, Hasse
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Socialmedicin..
    Wiitavaara, Birgitta
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Högberg, Hans
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Uppsala universitet.
    To measure OHS management practices in manufacturing companies2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Manufacturing companies are bound to manage many different processes in their day-to-day operations. A systematic management of occupational health and safety (OHS) factors is necessary in order to comply with OHS legislation. Work environmental risks should be assessed and controlled, and if not controlled immediately, an action plan should be established and followed up on later. A successful OHS management should reduce hazards in the workplace and protect worker health and safety. But how can we accurately measure how well companies actually comply with OHS legislation? Earlier measures exist, but they often assess the perceptions of the respondent rather than the circumstance of the company. The aim of this study was to develop and utilize a way to measure OHS management practices, by using a self-report-questionnaire distributed to companies.   

    Methods: A questionnaire was developed in several steps. OHS legislation and earlier studies were read in order to identify different relevant indicators for OHS management compliance. These indicators were then compiled, sorted, and narrowed down in order to produce a manageable and relevant list of 13 indicators. A criterion for relevant indicators was that they together should provide appropriate information on whether a company has come far, or not so far, in arranging a systematic OHS management. A yes–no question was formulated for each of the indicators. Three examples of indicators were: whether the company has written routines stating how the OHS management should be carried out or not, whether written risk assessments have been conducted during the last 12 months or not, and whether the company has routines in place for reporting incidents that occur (near-misses and accidents) or not. The indicators and questions were chosen and formulated in order to measure as much of an objective circumstance at the companies as possible. The rationale is that, either the companies have an arrangement for these indicators, or they do not. Questionnaires were sent to a sample of manufacturing companies (n=238) in central Sweden, for one manager and one safety delegate per company to answer.

    Results and discussion: Taken together, the 13 indicators formed an OHS management practices index. A yes-answer for each indicator was counted as 1 and no as 0, and the scores were summed together. Other measures were also collected for this study: companies’ safety culture, overall work environment priority, company profitability, and company size. The OHS management practices index will undergo psychometric testing for validity and reliability, such as test-retest and Cronbach’s alpha test statistic. The development process and usability of the OHS management practices measure will be presented in more detail at the conference. We believe that this novel measure of OHS management practices, as employed in this study, can be of interest for future research within the field of OHS. This approach provides a relatively straightforward way to measure companies’ OHS management practice using questionnaire items.

  • 286.
    Nordlöf, Hasse
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Wiitavaara, Birgitta
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Winblad, Ulrika
    Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Uppsala universitet.
    Wijk, Katarina
    Samhällsmedicin, Landstinget Gävleborg. Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och utbildningsstudier, Uppsala universitet.
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Uppsala universitet.
    A description of reasons for risk-taking at a large steel manufacturing company2013Ingår i: Ergonomics for equality: Nordic Ergonomics Society (NES), Reykjavík, Iceland, 11-14 august 2013, 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Risk-taking in an industrial work environment is a serious matter since it involves the risk for bodily injuries and in worst case death. The aim of this study was to investigate reasons for risk-taking at a large steel manufacturing company in Sweden which employs about 1000 people.

    Methods: Ten focus group interviews were conducted, each consisting of about 6–8 workers. The situation of safety at work was discussed in a semi-structured manner, letting the employees themselves explain the reasons behind risk-taking. The interviews were analyzed with qualitative content analysis.

    Results: Reasons for risk-taking were formed into the following six aspects: 1.Being new-at-work. 2.Being tired. 3.Being nonchalant to the safety risks. 4.Working on routine and being “blind-to-flaws”. 5.Too little staff to do the job. 6.To stress, hurry, and work faster in order to save time. Conclusion: One’s state-of-the-day and external work environment circumstances affects risk-taking.

  • 287.
    Nordlöf, Hasse
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Wiitavaara, Birgitta
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Winblad, Ulrika
    Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Uppsala universitet.
    Wijk, Katarina
    Samhällsmedicin, Landstinget Gävleborg. Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och utbildningsstudier, Uppsala universitet.
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Uppsala universitet.
    En beskrivning av anledningar till risktagande vid ett stort stålindustriföretag2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Risktagande i en industriell arbetsmiljö är allvarligt eftersom det involverar risk för kroppsskada eller i värsta fall död. Syftet med föreliggande studie var att undersöka anledningar till risktagande, beskrivna av arbetare. Studien genomfördes i samarbete med ett stort svenskt stålindustriföretag med cirka 1000 anställda på den berörda orten.

    Metod: Studien hade en kvalitativ och beskrivande studiedesign. Datainsamlingen bestod av tio fokusgruppintervjuer med ca 6–8 arbetare per grupp och deltagarna var anställda i produktionen. Deltagarna rekryterades från samtliga av företagets fem huvudavdelningar för att få ett urval med maximal variation, och det slumpades fram vilka skiftlag som tillfrågades att delta. Intervjuerna hade en längd av 75 minuter och spelades in digitalt med en diktafon. Säkerhet på arbetet diskuterades på ett semi-strukturerat sätt, genom att låta arbetarna själva berätta och förklara anledningar till risktagande. Under intervjuerna lades betoningen på följdfrågor där deltagarna ombads att utveckla sina svar och använda egna exempel. Därutöver samlades bakgrundsdata in om deltagarna genom att de fyllde i ett kort frågeformulär. Intervjuerna transkriberades ordagrant och analyserades med kvalitativ innehållsanalys.

    Resultat: Anledningar till risktagande formades till följande sex aspekter: 1.Att vara ny på jobbet. 2.Att vara trött. 3.Att vara nonchalant inför riskerna. 4.Att arbeta på rutin och vara ”hemmablind”. 5.Att det finns för lite personal för att göra jobbet. 6.Att stressa, skynda sig och arbeta fortare för att spara tid. Ett incitament för anställda att riskera sin egen säkerhet kan till exempel vara att inte använda de avsedda verktygen för att snabbt få igång produktionen igen om ett stopp inträffar. Arbetarna upplevde att ledningen inte vill att produktionen ska gå långsamt, vilket dock användandet av rätt verktyg kan medföra. De upplevde också att ledningen inte vill att tillfälliga personalreduceringar skall påverka produktionstakten. Slutsats: Dels individens dagsform och dels yttre omständigheter i arbetsmiljön påverkar risktagandet.

  • 288.
    Nordlöf, Hasse
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Wiitavaara, Birgitta
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Winblad, Ulrika
    Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Uppsala universitet.
    Wijk, Katarina
    Samhällsmedicin, Landstinget Gävleborg; Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och utbildningsstudier, Uppsala universitet.
    Westerling, Ragnar
    Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Uppsala universitet.
    Safety culture and reasons for risk-taking at a large steel-manufacturing company: Investigating the worker perspective2015Ingår i: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 73, s. 126-135Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Workers in the steel-manufacturing industry face many safety risks due to the nature of the job. How well safety procedures and regulations are followed within an organization is considered to be influenced by the reigning culture of the organization. The aim of this study was to investigate and describe safety culture and risk-taking at a large steel-manufacturing company in Sweden by exploring workers’ experiences and perceptions of safety and risks. Ten focus group interviews were conducted with a total of 66 workers. In the interviews, the situation of safety at work was discussed in a semi-structured manner. The material was analyzed inductively using qualitative content analysis. The analysis resulted in a thorough description of safety culture and risk-taking at the company, based on the following five main categories: 1. Acceptance of risks, one simply has to accept the safety risks of the work environment, 2. Individual responsibility for safety, the responsibility for safe procedures rests to the largest extent on the individual, 3. Trade-off between productivity and safety, these are conflicting entities, wanting to produce as well as wanting to work safely, 4. Importance of communication, it is needed for safety actions to be effective, and 5. State-of-the-day and external conditions, an interplay between these factors affect risk-taking. In sociotechnical systems theory it is acknowledged that there are interactions between social and technical factors in organizations. The findings of this study are interpreted to be in line with a sociotechnical understanding of safety culture and risk-taking.

  • 289.
    Nordlöf, Hasse
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Wijk, Katarina
    Samhällsmedicin, Landstinget Gävleborg; Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och utbildningsstudier, Uppsala universitet.
    Westergren, Karl-Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Perceptions of work environment priorities: Are there any differences by company size? — An ecological study2015Ingår i: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 52, nr 3, s. 697-706Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Earlier studies suggest that the quality of handling occupational health and safety (OHS) activities differs between companies of different sizes. Company size is a proxy variable for other variables affecting OHS performance.

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate if there is an association between company size and perceptions of work environment prioritizations.

    METHODS: Data from 106 small- and medium-sized Swedish manufacturing companies was collected. One manager and one safety delegate at each company rated different aspects of their companies' work environment prioritizations with a 43-item questionnaire. Ratings were aggregated to a summary statistic for each company before analysis.

    RESULTS: No significant differences in perceptions of priority were found to be associated with company sizes. This is in contrast to earlier studies of objective differences. The respondents in small companies, however, showed significantly greater consensus in their ratings.

    CONCLUSIONS: Company size does not appear to be associated with perceptions of work environment prioritizations. Company size is an important proxy variable to study in order to understand what factors enable and obstruct safe and healthy workplaces. The work presented here should be viewed as an initial exploration to serve as direction for future academic work.

  • 290.
    Nyman, Teresia
    et al.
    MM Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Sweden; School of Technology and health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Kristina
    MM Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; School of Technology and health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Forsman, Mikael
    MM Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    A proposed web-based model for teaching risk assessment methods2015Ingår i: Proceedings 19th Triennial Congress of the IEA, Melbourne 9-14 August 2015, 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades much research has focused on the association between work-related exposures and musculoskeletal disorders, and a number of risk assessment methods for physical ergonomics have been developed (Neumann 2007, Takala, Pehkonen et al. 2010).

    However, recent studies have shown that the knowledge about these methods is very limited among ergonomists in the occupational health services (OHS). The ergonomists often assess risks in the work environment by sole observation, based on his/her own knowledge and experience, without the use of any specific method (K. Eliasson et al., manuscript). Further, a survey investigating the use of evidence based practice within the OHS concluded that there is a need for education and training in reliable and valid methods (Alipour, Nyman et al. 2012).

    Although there already exist both shorter courses and master programs in ergonomics at university level, there is a lack of more informal, easy-to-access educational material on risk assessment methods.

    Web-based education and training often allows self-directed, self-paced instruction and can be considered a good alternative to traditional learning methods for ergonomists wanting to increase their professional competence. However, there is a lack of studies investigating the pros and cons of using e-learning within this field.

    The present study is part of the OBS-project, an on-going project with the overall purpose to evaluate six observational methods for assessment of biomechanical exposures. The six methods are: Assessment of Repetitive Tasks (ART) (Ferreira, Gray et al. 2009), Hand Arm Risk Assessment Method (HARM) (Douwes and de Kraker 2012), Model for assessment of repetitive work by the Swedish Work Environment Authority (SWEA) (The Swedish Work Environment Authority 2011), Occupational Repetitive Actions (OCRA) checklist (Occhipinti and Colombini 2006), Quick Exposure Check (QEC) (David, Woods et al. 2008), and Strain Index (SI) (Moore and Garg 1995).

    The specific objective of this sub-study was to evaluate a web-based pedagogical model targeting OHS professionals aimed at facilitating the teaching and the dissemination of observational risk assessment methods.

  • 291.
    Nyman, Teresia
    et al.
    IMM Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Eliasson, Kristina
    IMM Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; School of Technology and health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Huddinge.
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Rehn, Ida-Märta
    Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council.
    Kjellberg, Katarina
    IMM Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council.
    Palm, Peter
    Department of Medical Sciences Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, and Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden.
    Forsman, Mikael
    IMM Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council .
    A Web-Based Model for Teaching Risk Assessment Methods2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    1.  Introduction

    During the last decades many risk assessment methods for physical ergonomics have been developed. However, recent studies have shown that the knowledge about these methods is very limited among ergonomists in the occupational health services. Although there are both shorter courses and full Master programs on ergonomics on advanced level within the regular educational system (university level), there is a lack of more informal, easy-to-access educational material on different risk assessment methods.

    2.  Methods

    As a part of a larger ongoing project investigating the validity, reliability and usability of six observational methods for risk assessment of repetitive work, a web-based pedagogical model aimed at facilitating the teaching and the dissemination of risk assessment methods has been developed.

    The web-based model consists of recorded lectures and self-supported training using a video library of different work tasks. The model uses a web-based platform originally developed for student-teacher communication in a university setting. The platform supports group discussions and possibilities for interaction with teachers.

    As a part of the project, the model are now being tested, by letting 12 ergonomists from the occupational health services with more than 5 years of experience of ergonomic risk assessments learn six different observational methods for risk assessment of repetitive work. The six methods are:

    1. Occupational Repetitive Actions (OCRA) checklist
    2. Quick exposure checklist Quick Exposure Check (QEC)
    3. Strain Index (SI)
    4. Assessment of Repetitive Tasks (ART)
    5. Hand Arm Risk-assessment Method (HARM)
    6. Model for assessment of repetitive work by the Swedish Work Environment Authority

    After learning the six different methods, the ergonomists are given an evaluation questionnaire, specific for each method. The questionnaires are then used for designing group interviews concerning both the usability of the methods, as well as the web-based pedagogical model.

    3.  Results

    Preliminary questionnaire analyses and interviews indicate that the ergonomists are mainly positive to the present web-based pedagogical model. Group interviews are carried out during spring 2014, and further results will be presented at the conference.

  • 292.
    Palm, Peter
    et al.
    Arbets- och miljömedicin, Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala.
    Eliasson, Kristina
    Sensia Företagshälsovård & Enheten för ergonomi, KTH Stockholm.
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hägg, Göran
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Belastningsergonomisk riskbedömning: Vägledning och metoder2014Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 293.
    Palm, Peter
    et al.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Forsman, Mikael
    IMM Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Birk Jørgensen, Marie
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Madeleine, Pascal
    Department of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Whole workday measurements of arm elevation andassociations with neck shoulder pain among blue-collar workers in the DPHACTOcohort2017Ingår i: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 294.
    Palm, Peter
    et al.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University.
    Forsman, Mikael
    IMM Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    Upper arm elevation in blue‐collar work with and without exclusion of arm elevation during sitting2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 295.
    Palm, Peter
    et al.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University Hospital.
    Josephson, Malin
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University Hospital.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Kjellberg, Katarina
    Unit of Occupational Medicine, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Reliability and criterion validity of an observation protocol for working technique assessments in cash register work2016Ingår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 59, nr 6, s. 829-839Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluated the intra- and inter-observer reliability and criterion validity of an observation protocol, developed in an iterative process involving practicing ergonomists, for assessment of working technique during cash register work for the purpose of preventing upper extremity symptoms. Two ergonomists independently assessed 17 15-min videos of cash register work on two occasions each, as a basis for examining reliability. Criterion validity was assessed by comparing these assessments with meticulous video-based analyses by researchers. Intra-observer reliability was acceptable (i.e. proportional agreement >0.7 and kappa>0.4) for 10/10 questions. Inter-observer reliability was acceptable for only 3/10 questions. An acceptable inter-observer reliability combined with an acceptable criterion validity was obtained only for one working technique aspect ‘Quality of movements’. Thus, major elements of the cashiers’ working technique could not be assessed with an acceptable accuracy from short periods of observations by one observer, such as often desired by practitioners.

  • 296.
    Paquet, Victor
    et al.
    Department of Industrial & Systems Engineering, University at Buffalo, SUNY.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Ability of limited exposure sampling to describe exposure effects of ergonomics interventions2007Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 297.
    Paulin, Johan
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Andersson, Linus
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nordin, Steven
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Characteristics of hyperacusis in the general population2016Ingår i: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 18, nr 83, s. 178-184Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for better understanding of various characteristics in hyperacusis in the general population. The objectives of the present study were to investigate individuals in the general population with hyperacusis regarding demographics, lifestyle, perceived general health and hearing ability, hyperacusis-specific characteristics and behavior, and comorbidity. Using data from a large-scale population-based questionnaire study, we investigated individuals with physician-diagnosed (n = 66) and self-reported (n = 313) hyperacusis in comparison to individuals without hyperacusis (n = 2995). High age, female sex, and high education were associated with hyperacusis, and that trying to avoid sound sources, being able to affect the sound environment, and having sough medical attention were common reactions and behaviors. Posttraumatic stress disorder, chronic fatigue syndrome, generalized anxiety disorder, depression, exhaustion, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, migraine, hearing impairment, tinnitus, and back/joint/muscle disorders were comorbid with hyperacusis. The results provide ground for future study of these characteristic features being risk factors for development of hyperacusis and/or consequences of hyperacusis.

  • 298.
    Persson, Lina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Jahncke, Helena
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Variation i arbetet: växlingar mellan fysiska och mentala arbetsuppgifter: Företag A2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 299.
    Persson, Lina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Jahncke, Helena
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Variation i arbetet: växlingar mellan fysiska och mentala arbetsuppgifter: Företag B2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 300.
    Persson, Lina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Jahncke, Helena
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Variation i arbetet: växlingar mellan fysiska och mentala arbetsuppgifter: Företag C2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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