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  • 2801.
    Chen, Qiaoran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Wang, Yu
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Intervention strategies used by University of Gavle when dealing with alcohol problems2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims at exploring the intervention strategies directed to reduce alcohol drinking in Hogskolan in Gavle. Although many students consume alcohol in different settings such as parties and gathering, few of them can understand the whole picture of the school’s intervention strategies. As shown by the research, the social workers in health center attempt to form a collective relationship with students and use the open-ended questions when conducting the counseling. Meanwhile, the employees who are responsible for school bar not only try to create a safer environment based on Responsible Alcohol Drinking but also apply prevention strategies including a high alcohol price and a long waiting line. According to the overall situation in the community, a meeting has been organized among different sectors regarding health center, student union, and municipalities. The topics of the meetings are not only about the current situation in this region but also about the cooperative strategies of each sector. To take a closer look at the school’s alcohol methods, we interviewed two social workers at the health center as well as two employees in the students’ union who are mainly responsible for school bar.

  • 2802. Chen, R.
    et al.
    Wang, M.
    Wang, S.
    Liang, Hao
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Hu, X.
    Sun, X.
    Zhu, J.
    Ma, L.
    Jiang, M.
    Hu, J.
    Li, J.
    A low cost surface plasmon resonance biosensor using a laser line generator2015In: Optics Communications, ISSN 0030-4018, E-ISSN 1873-0310, Vol. 349, p. 83-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the instrument designed by using a common surface plasmon resonance biosensor is extremely expensive, we established a portable and cost-effective surface plasmon resonance biosensing system. It is mainly composed of laser line generator, P-polarizer, customized prism, microfluidic cell, and line Charge Coupled Device (CCD) array. Microprocessor PIC24FJ128GA006 with embedded A/D converter, communication interface circuit and photoelectric signal amplifier circuit are used to obtain the weak signals from the biosensing system. Moreover, the line CCD module is checked and optimized on the number of pixels, pixels dimension, output amplifier and the timing diagram. The micro-flow cell is made of stainless steel with a high thermal conductivity, and the microprocessor based Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) temperature-controlled algorithm was designed to keep the constant temperature (25 °C) of the sample solutions. Correspondingly, the data algorithms designed especially to this biosensing system including amplitude-limiting filtering algorithm, data normalization and curve plotting were programmed efficiently. To validate the performance of the biosensor, ethanol solution samples at the concentrations of 5%, 7.5%, 10%, 12.5% and 15% in volumetric fractions were used, respectively. The fitting equation ΔRU=-752987.265+570237.348×RI with the R-Square of 0.97344 was established by delta response units (ΔRUs) to refractive indexes (RI). The maximum relative standard deviation (RSD) of 4.8% was obtained. 

  • 2803.
    Chen, Xiayu
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Lu, Yufang
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Women’s experiences after a myocardial infarction: A descriptive litterature review2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2804.
    Chen, Yanguang
    et al.
    Department of Geography, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China.
    Jiang, Bin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Hierarchical scaling in systems of natural cities2018In: Entropy, ISSN 1099-4300, E-ISSN 1099-4300, Vol. 20, no 6, article id 432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hierarchies can be modeled by a set of exponential functions, from which we can derive a set of power laws indicative of scaling. The solution to a scaling relation equation is always a power law. The scaling laws are followed by many natural and social phenomena such as cities, earthquakes, and rivers. This paper reveals the power law behaviors in systems of natural cities by reconstructing the urban hierarchy with cascade structure. Cities of the U.S.A., Britain, France, and Germany are taken as examples to perform empirical analyses. The hierarchical scaling relations can be well fitted to the data points within the scaling ranges of the number, size and area of the natural cities. The size-number and area-number scaling exponents are close to 1, and the size-area allometric scaling exponent is slightly less than 1. The results show that natural cities follow hierarchical scaling laws very well. The principle of entropy maximization of urban evolution is then employed to explain the hierarchical scaling laws, and differences entropy maximizing processes are used to interpret the scaling exponents. This study is helpful for scientists to understand the power law behavior in the development of cities and systems of cities. © 2018 by the authors.

  • 2805.
    Chen, Zhe
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Yang, Ni
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Women’s experiences of preeclampsia in pregnancy: A descriptive literature review2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2806.
    Chen, Ziyuan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Hua, Dong
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Evaluation of impact of organizational culture in workplace: an empirical study of Handelsbanken2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 points / 22,5 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A well established organization culture is necessary for the success of a company. In this study, we choose Handelsbanken to demonstrate how an international company develops its culture, and find out what are the important characteristics of that culture.

    It was concluded that a successful company must have a well established organization culture, which can not only adapt to different outside environment but also bring solidarities in organizations. Further more, there is no culture is better or worse, there is only the culture that is most appropriate and efficient for the company.

    This thesis demonstrates how an international company develops its culture, therefore, it will be valuable for those who want to create or improve their organization cultures.

  • 2807.
    Chen, Ziyuan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Liao, Zijun
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    The Connection Between External Environment and Internal Strategy: a case study of Scandinavian Airlines System2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A variety of factors are the reasons for adjusting or changing company’s strategy, such as the change of customer demand, company’s internal financial factors, the influence of external environment and so on. This research is to find out the link between the change of external environment and the adjustment of internal strategy. Choose the suspension of one flight in SAS as the case to state this point. Show the strategy change of SAS when they were facing the serious impact of financial crisis.

    SAS as the biggest airline in North Europe it could be a typical firm to investigate this kind of situation. A deep-interview and reading the published reports of SAS are the main data collection approached. Some resources were from the internet because it is real-time news and the reports from the company are published on their website. The interviewee is from the top of the company who is familiar this area and has full experience in international business. The study used lots of theories from different books and journals to integrate the information that we collected to analysis and achieve our final conclusion.

    After analyzed the study it found the SAS used the retrenchment strategy as their new international strategy to reverse the negative situation. The financial crisis affected the customer demand badly not just in China also around the world and forced them to change the strategy. The report ultimate believed there were still a lot of other factors, beside the financial crisis, caused the adjustment of strategy in SAS.

  • 2808.
    CHENG, YUAN
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Xu, Xiangyun
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Value creation by doing better procurement2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2809.
    Cheng, Yuelong
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Ma, Xiaoying
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Cyclic Redundancy Check for Zigbee-Based Meeting Attendance Registration System2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The research accomplished in this dissertation is focused on the design of effective solutions to the problem that error codes occur in the ZigBee-based meeting attendance registration system. In this work, several different check algorithms are compared, and the powerful error-detecting Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) algorithm is studied. In view of the features of the meeting attendance registration system, we implement the check module of CRC-8. This work also considers the data reliability. We assume use retransmission mechanism to ensure the validity and completeness of transmission data. Finally, the potential technical improvement and future work are presented.

  • 2810.
    Chenyuan, Diao
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Xiaoyang, Li
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Solar Heating Industry in China and Sweden2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2811.
    Chevalier, Jean-Luc
    et al.
    CSTB, France.
    Davies, Hywel
    Hywel Davies Consultance, UK.
    Sjöström, Christer
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Trinius, Wolfram
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Virk, Gurvinder Singh
    Massey Univ., NZ.
    Smart-ECO - Developing a Construction Sector Vision and Related Requirements for Sustainable Eco-buildings2008In: Durability of Building Materials & Components 11: Globality and Locality in Durability (vol. 4), Istanbul: Istanbul Technical University , 2008, p. 1671-1677Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU project Smart-ECO brings together experienced organizations spanning the full range of stakeholders covering the area of sustainable building. These include universities, R&D organizations, companies developing, supplying and using innovative technologies, consultants, users, government and policy makers. Smart-ECO uses this core partnership together with a wider stakeholder group community to focus on global issues of sustainable building to identify and evaluate priorities for current and future RTD activities. Activities and policies are due to be mapped to identify gaps and to focus future efforts. Innovative technologies, as well as improvements of the construction process, and their introduction into the building sector will be considered in relation to sustainable development, life performance, ambient intelligence, and other relevant stakeholder concerns.

    The project focuses on routes and means to enable the uptake of efficient technological and non-technological innovation that in turn enable the building and construction sector to meet the requirement for sustainable building. The current situation and the vision of a more sustainable built environment sets the frame for the appreciation of the long term effectiveness of Eco-buildings and innovative technologies, especially renewable energy systems. Together, the vision and relevant EC policies will serve as a reference framework for the analysis of life performance aspects of innovative technologies applied to realise more energy efficient and more sustainable buildings.

    This paper presents and discusses the process of establishing a reliable vision for sustainable buildings and related performance requirements.

  • 2812.
    Chi, Cheng
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Wenbo, Tang
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    The effect of physical activity on the quality of life in patients with type-2 diabetesThe effect of physical activity on the quality of life in patients with type-2 diabetes: – A descriptive literature review2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2813.
    Chi, Yuan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Chen, Zhe
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Why Chinese business students want to study at the University of Gävle: A case study: Zhuhai College of Jilin University2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The purpose of the study is to understand the different education systems between Zhuhai College of Jilin University and University of Gävle. So that we can figure out what attract Chinese business students to study in University of Gävle and what is valuable for these business students.

    Method: Data collected by using the interviews, literature review. Inductive approach is used to analyze the information. Case study approach is used to analyze the general and current situation of Chinese students choosing to study oversea. 

    Result & Conclusions: Combining the knowledge of literature reviews and interviews’ data, we listed the push factors and pull factors are affecting Chinese business student’s decision to study aboard. In the case, the push factors and pull factors have big impact on the business students of Zhuhai College of Jilin University to make a decision to study at University of Gävle.

    Suggestions for future research: Since the backgrounds of our interviewees are similar who are Chinese students and have study experiences in Sweden, and there might be some deviations for our qualitative analysis. Also, the numbers of interviewees are limited. Moreover, the interviews are only useful in an exploratory study such as ours and the richness of the finding can be enhanced in further study. Therefore, we think it will be better to maintains more interviewees in the research in this aspect which can be more critical on this kind of international students’ study.

    Contribution of the study: This paper not only introduce some organization theories and theories that can be widely used in education development, but also put forward some ideas that can be used in Zhuhai College of Jilin University in the future. This paper argues some aspects that Chinese education system can be improved in the future from students’ points of view. During the process of developing the education, students also play an important part, and they will directly reflect the condition of the schools.

  • 2814.
    Chi, Yuan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Quan, Yaqi
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Service Quality Perspective and Customer Satisfaction:: Xingya Technical Communication Company2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The purpose of this study is to investigate the evaluation and conceptualization of service quality and its interactive impacts for customer satisfaction. This study provides some positive and constructive proposal to make up the service gap ,and provides preliminary results supported by SERVQUAL model to measure the mutual interactions between service quality and customer satisfaction. Service quality and customer satisfaction have been studied by the help of quality dimensions and some suggestions are offered for improving service quality.

    Methods: The primary data have been collected through interviews and questionnaires. The secondary data has been collected through literature review. Case study approach is used to identify the current relationship between service quality and consumer satisfaction.

    Result and Conclusions: We used five service quality dimensions to measure service quality and customer satisfaction. After survey is conducted, it has been clear that there are two dimensions (Empathy and Responsiveness) made a significant service gap between our target company and the key customer groups. The gap is the Differentiated service and the Service promptness.

    We also give our suggestions to make up the gap.            

    • Providing differentiated services.
    • Scheduling to the workload rather than to workers’ traditional schedules
    • Empowering as many staffs as possible to deal with the problems and providing initial training on how to solve most common problems
    • Customer segmentation, providing the characteristic services to customers.
    • Providing characteristic services to customers

    Contributions of the thesis / Value: We believe that this thesis will help Xingya Technical Communication Company (XTCC) to become more aware of service quality and constantly updated the service to overcome the customer complaints. And after the study, we find that the service quality dimensions (Empathy and Responsiveness) are the controversial issues. We think this study can provide some useful information for this research area.

    Implications: This survey contributes to the topic both at practical and theoretical levels. We also put forward our suggestions for the target service provider in order to help them improve service quality in the future.

  • 2815.
    Chiadò Piat, V.
    et al.
    Politecnico di Torino, Torino, Italy.
    Pankratova, Iryna
    Narvik University College, Narvik, Norway.
    Piatnitski, A.
    Narvik University College, Narvik, Norway; P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute RAS, Moscow, Russian Federation.
    Localization effect for a spectral problem in a perforated domain with Fourier boundary conditions2013In: SIAM Journal on Mathematical Analysis, ISSN 0036-1410, E-ISSN 1095-7154, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 1302-1327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is aimed at homogenization of an elliptic spectral problem stated in a perforated domain, Fourier boundary conditions being imposed on the boundary of perforation. The presence of a locally periodic coefficient in the boundary operator gives rise to the effect of localization of the eigenfunctions. Moreover, the limit behavior of the lower part of the spectrum can be described in terms of an auxiliary harmonic oscillator operator. We describe the asymptotics of the eigenpairs and derive estimates for the rate of convergence. 

  • 2816.
    Chienh, Robin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Sjuksköterskans erfarenheter inom nutritionsomvårdnad: En litteraturstudie med deskriptiv design2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Malnutrition is common among elderly people in Sweden. There are clear guidelines on what kind of intervention should be made, yet there are few actions being taken. This shows a sign of inadequate organisation and management, or lack of expertise in staff performing nutrition nursing care.

    Aim

    The aim for this study is to describe nurses’ experience in nutritional nursing care. And describe the article’s data collection method.

    Method

    A descriptive literature study based on 10 scientific articles.

    Result

    Nurses had limited knowledge and skills in nutrition nursing care and therefore could not identify patients who were malnourished. They were also reluctant to use screening instruments because they do not know how to use it. The nurse has a major responsibility to perform nutritional nursing care, which at the same time must prioritize other tasks. The results were divided into three sections, which are listed under the headings: Insufficient Knowledge, Attitude, Responsibility and Priorities

    Conclusion

    Studies show that nurses have insufficient knowledge in nutrition care and use of screening instruments to identify malnourished patients. The Nurse needs more training in nutrition care and how to use screening instruments to better respond and treat malnourished patients.

  • 2817.
    Chilo, Johannes
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Heinola, Niina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Luftomsättningsmätning med avklingningsmetoden: fältmätningar med CO2 som spårgas.: Studie i en 3-plansvilla med självdragsventilation.2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the result of a study commissioned by the owners of a house of 1972 with natural ventilation. Discussion with the owners has revealed that they suspect that the ventilation is not adequate. If the ventilation is not working properly it can cause health problems for people through increased levels of humidity and air pollution. Boverket requires that the minimum air change rate should be 0.5 per hour or an outdoor air flow of 0.35 l/s per m2 in new- and reconstruction of buildings. The purpose of the study is to calculate air circulation by using tracer gas dilution method with CO2 as tracer gas accordance with ISO 12569: 2012. The aim is also to compile the legal requirements, guidelines and recommendations that apply to the air exchange and air flow indoors. The study is limited to the living space of the house. Tracer gas method is performed in four bedrooms, two WC and a bathroom; all with exhaust ventilation. WC, bathroom and one of the bedroom achieved the recommended requirement for air change rate. The bedroom with the lowest air change rate did not reach the recommendation probably due to the horizontal and longer air channel. Bedroom, with the exhaust ventilation canal beside the warm canal from the fire place, had faster air change when the fireplace is heated. The bedroom, with the exhaust ventilation canal isolated from the warm canal from the fire place, remained unaffected. Data collection of temperature, relative humidity and CO2 was measured in four bedrooms over two nights. One night with the door closed and one night with a open door. The air quality was better with the door open than with the door closed. CO2concentration did not reach harmful levels due to the large room volume. Tracer gas method in total living area had to be interrupted because homogeneous mixture of CO2 could not be achieved. The study shows that natural ventilation systems are sensitive to weather conditions. The air change rate in the building did not reach the recommendations. The positions of the ventilations are improperly according to the requirements of the Boverket and Folkhälsomyndigheten. They recommend that the supply ventilation should provide fresh air to bedroom and livingrooms, but in this study the building have exhaust ventilation in the bedrooms instead. The recommendation to the house owners is to not prevent the ventilations flow in while making reconstruction. For example, when replacing to new windows should supply ventilation be installed to increase the air supply. Ventilation systems should be reviewed by a ventilation expert if a conversion to a mechanical ventilation system is possible to ensure a good and healthy indoor environment. To enhance the outdoor air supply should the windows and doors open regularly. We recommend future studies to take measurements over longer periods and in different seasons

  • 2818.
    Chilo, José
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Feature Extraction for Low-Frequency Signal Classification2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of the International Monitoring System (IMS) for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) has led to a rapid revival of interest in infrasound. Furthermore, the installation of low-frequency sensors at seismic sites has increased in recent years, providing researchers with large and heterogeneous data-sets in near real-time. New techniques are needed to better process all of this data and to extract meaningful information quickly for various applications. In particular, there is a need to find distinct features in the infrasonic signals that allow one to distinguish low level nuclear tests from seismic events.

    In this thesis three methods for feature extraction from infrasound and other types of low frequency signal data are discussed: (1) discrete wavelets transforms (DWTs); (2) time scale spectra (TSSs) using continuous wavelet transforms (CWTs); and (3) empirical mode decomposition (EMD). The dimensionality of the feature space can range from a few to thousands. For processing high-dimensional data we use multi-modal data space to find low-dimensional structures. The advantage of this space is that multiple metrics of similarity are converted into one single Euclidean space.

    The overall goal of our research is a system for automatic identification and classification of low-frequency signals in real-time that is easy to implement in hardware. In this thesis we present our design and implementation of the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) on FPGAs for processing a continuous flow of data to obtain optimal extraction of feature information. FPGA simulation and implementation has been realized by using the polyphase structure, the filter reuse method and techniques such as pipelining and basic operations on the QUARTUS II platform. VHDL has been used to describe the functionality of the discrete wavelet transform and ModelSim has been used for the functional verification.

    Advancements in electronics provide a vital new option for implementation of low-frequency smart sensors that can perform signal processing close to the sensors and transmit the data wirelessly. These smart sensors can improve the efficiency of an automatic classification system and reduce the cost of actual infrasound microphones. The design of a digital wireless data acquisition system using a QF4512 programmable signal converter from Quickfilter Technologies, a MSP430 microcontroller from Texas Instruments and a F2M03GLA Bluetooth module from Free2move for infrasonic records is also presented in this thesis. The digital wireless data acquisition system has passed extensive laboratory and field tests (e.g. with man-made explosions).

    A study of using a miniature 3-axis fluxgate magnetometer to get fingerprints from ferrous objects is also presented in this thesis. In this experiment, distinguishing features of iron samples of four different shapes were determined using wavelet methods. Systematic differences were observed between the signatures of the four shaped iron samples.

  • 2819.
    Chilo, José
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Filtering extracting features from infrasound data2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     

    The goal of the research presented in this thesis is to extract features, to filter and get fingerprints from signals detected by infrasound, seismic and magnetic sensors. If this can be achieved in a real time system, then signals from various events can be detected and identified in an otherwise torrent data.

    Several approaches have been analyzed. Wavelet transform methods are used together with ampligram and time scale spectrum to analyze infrasound, seismic and magnetic data. The energy distribution in the frequency domain may be seen in wavelet scalograms. A scalogram displays the wavelet coefficients as a function of the time scale and of the elapsed time. The ampligram is a useful method of presentation of the physical properties of the time series. The ampligram demonstrate the amplitude and phase of components of the signal corresponding to different spectral densities. The ampligram may be considered as an analogy to signal decomposition into Fourier components. In that case different components correspond to different frequencies. In the present case different components correspond to different wavelet coefficient magnitudes, being equivalent to spectral densities. The time scale spectrum is a forward wavelet transform of each row (wavelet coefficient magnitude) in the ampligram. The time scale spectrum reveals individual signal components and indicates the statistical properties of each component: deterministic or stochastic.

    Next step is to distinguish between different sources of infrasound on-line. This will require signal classification after detection is made. The implementation of wavelet – neural network in hardware may be a first choice. In this work the Independent Component Analysis is presented to improve the quality of the infrasonic signals by removing background noise before the hardware classification. The implementation of the discrete wavelet transform in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is also included in this thesis using Xilinx System Generator and Simulink software.

    A study of using infrasound recordings together with a miniature 3-axis fluxgate magnetometer to find meteorites as soon as possible after hitting the earth is also presented in this work.

  • 2820.
    Chilo, José
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Low-Frequency Signal Classification: Filtering and extracting features from infrasound data2008Book (Other academic)
  • 2821.
    Chilo, José
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Horvath, György
    Lindblad, Thomas
    Olsson, Roland
    A Flexible Electronic Nose for Odor Discrimination Using Different Methods of Classification2009In: IEEE NPSS Real Time Conference 2009, New York: IEEE , 2009, p. 317-320Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ovarian cancer is one of the leading causes of death front cancer in women. The lifetime risk is around 1.5%, which makes it the second most common gynecologic malignancy (the first one being breast cancer). To have a definitive diagnose, a surgical procedure is generally required and suspicious areas (samples) will be removed and sent for microscopic and other analysis. This paper describes the result of a pilot study in which an electronic nose is used to "smell" the aforementioned samples, analyze the multi-sensor signals and have a close to real-time answer on the detection of cancer. Besides being, fast. the detection method is inexpensive and simple. Experimental analysis using real ovarian carcinoma samples shows that the use of proper algorithms for analysis of the multi-sensor data front the electronic nose yielded surprisingly good results with more than 77% classification rate. The electronic nose used in this pilot study was originally developed to be used as a "bomb dog" and can distinguish between e.g. TNT. Dynamex. Prillit. However, it was constructed to be a flexible multi-sensor device and the individual (16) sensors call easily be replaced/exchanged. This is suggestive for further investigations to obtain even better results with new, specific sensors. In another pilot experiment, headspace of an ovarian carcinoma sample and a control sample were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Significant differences in chemical composition and compound levels were recorded, which would explain the different response obtained with the electronic nose.

  • 2822.
    Chilo, José
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Horvath, György
    Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hosp. Gothenburg.
    Lindblad, Thomas
    Department of Physics, Royal Institute of Technology.
    Olsson, Roland
    Department of Computer Science, Ostfold University College, N-1757 Halden, Norway.
    Electronic Nose Ovarian Carcinoma Diagnosis Based on Machine Learning2009In: Advances in Data Mining: Applications and Theoretical Aspects, Berlin: Springer Berlin / Heidelberg , 2009, p. 13-23Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2823.
    Chilo, José
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Jabor, Abbas
    Liszka, L.
    Eide, Å.J.
    Lindblad, T.
    Bergkvist, L.P.
    Stahlsten, T.
    Andersson, B.L.
    Karasalo, I.
    Cederholm, A.
    Filtering and extracting features from infrasound data2005In: Real Time Conference, 2005, 2005, p. 451-455Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2824.
    Chilo, José
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Jabor, Abbas
    Liszka, L.
    Ejde, Å.J.
    Lindblad, Th.
    Persson, L.
    Infrasonic and Seismic Signals from Earthquake and Explosions in Arequipa, Perú2006In: Western Pacific Geophysics Meeting., 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2825.
    Chilo, José
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Jabor, Abbas
    Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lizska, Ludwik
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics in Umeå, Sweden.
    Eide, Åge J.
    Ostfold University College, Halden, Norway.
    Lindblad, Thomas
    Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Obtaining “images” from iron objects using a 3-axis fluxgate magnetometer2007In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 580, no 2, p. 1105-1109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Magnetic objects can cause local variations in the Earth's magnetic field that can be measured with a magnetometer. Here we used tri-axial magnetometer measurements and an analysis method employing wavelet techniques to determine the "signature" or "fingerprint" of different iron objects. Clear distinctions among the iron samples were observed. The time-dependent changes in the frequency powers were extracted by use of the Morlet wavelet corresponding to frequency bands from 0.1 to 100 Hz.

  • 2826.
    Chilo, José
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Karlsson, Carl
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Ängskog, Per
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Elofsson, Carl
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Stenumgaard, Peter
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Characterizing electromagnetic interference in vicinity to a railway freight train2009In: Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. on EMC/EMECO, Saint-Petersburg, 2009, p. 23-26Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2827.
    Chilo, José
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Karlsson, Carl
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Ängskog, Per
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Stenumgaard, Peter
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    APD measurements for characterization and evaluation of radio interference in steel mill2009In: Proceedings IEEE nternational Symposiumon EMC, Kyoto, 2009, p. 625-628Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2828.
    Chilo, José
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Karlsson, Carl
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Ängskog, Per
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Stenumgaard, Peter
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    EMI disruptive effect on wireless industrial communication systems in a paper plant2009In: Proc. IEEE EMC Symp. Austin-Texas, 2009, p. 221-224Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that industrial and factory environments present considerable challenges for wireless communications. Because every industrial environment is different, and may offer a unique set of obstacles to effective wireless communication, a site characterization is needed at first step in determining improvements of existent wireless technologies to increase the reliability. In this work electric field strength and APD measurements have been performed to characterize electromagnetic interference in an industrial paper plant. Common characteristics of the industrial environments affecting wireless communication were identified. Additionally, results show high interference levels at the frequencies for the DECT band 1880-1890 MHz. The interference level is correlated to the working mode of the electrical engines used in the process.

  • 2829.
    Chilo, José
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Karlsson, Carl
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Ängskog, Per
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Stenumgaard, Peter
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Impulsive noise measurement methodologies for APD determination in M2M environments2009In: Proc. IEEE EMC Symp. Austin-Texas, 2009, p. 151-154Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless communications in industrial environments are maintained under persistent adverse conditions, such as noise, fading and many electromagnetic interference sources. These electromagnetic interferences exhibit usually impulsive characteristics and it can seriously degrade the performance of the current wireless systems. Over the last few years, the amplitude probability distribution (APD) had been formally written into CISPR16 as a measure of the emitted electromagnetic energy from electrical equipment. In this approach we present two APD measurement methods. The first method based on 12-bit A/D converter and the second one based on in-phase and quadrature components of the impulsive noise at frequencies between 20 and 3000 MHz. Electromagnetic interference measurements in three different industrial environments were performed using the developed methods with promising results.

  • 2830.
    Chilo, José
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Kinser, Jason
    Lindblad, Thomas
    Discrimination of Nuclear Explosions Sites by Seismic Signals using Intrinsic Mode Functions and Multi-Modal Data Space2008In: IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 2008, p. 895-898Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2831.
    Chilo, José
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindblad, Thomas
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A Low Cost Digital Data Acquisition System for Infrasonic Records2007In: 4th IEEE Workshop on Intelligent Data Acquisition and Advanced Computing Systems: Technology and Applications, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE , 2007, p. 35-37Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2832.
    Chilo, José
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Lindblad, Thomas
    Data Acquisition and Digital Filtering for Infrasonic Records on Active Volcanoes2007In: Sensors & transducers, ISSN 1726-5479, Vol. 77, no 3, p. 1058-1064Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2833.
    Chilo, José
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Lindblad, Thomas
    Obtaining images from iron objects using a 3-axis fluxgate magnetometer2006In: International Conference on Imaging Techniques in Subatomic Physics, Astrophysics, Medicine, Biology and Industry, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Magnetic objects can cause local variations in the Earth's magnetic field that can be measured with a magnetometer. Here we used triaxial magnetometer measurements and an analysis method employing wavelet techniques to determine the "signature" or "fingerprint" of different iron objects. Clear distinctions among the iron samples were observed. The time-dependent changes in the frequency powers were extracted by use of the Morlet wavelet corresponding to frequency bands from 0.1 to 100 Hz. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 2834.
    Chilo, José
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindblad, Thomas
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Real-Time Signal Processing of Infrasound Data Using 1D Wavelet Transform on FPGA Device2007In: 2007 15TH IEEE-NPSS REAL-TIME CONFERENCE, VOLS 1 AND 2, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE , 2007, p. 170-174Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Infrasound is a low frequency acoustic phenomenon typically in the frequency range 0.01 to 20 Hz. Data collected from infrasound microphones are presented online by the infrasound monitoring system operating in Northern Europe, Swedish-Finnish Infrasound Network (SFIN). Processing the continuous flow of data to extract optimal feature information is important. Using wavelet decomposition as a tool for removing noise from the real-time signals is an alternative. The purpose of this paper is to present the design and FPGA implementation of Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) for real-time infrasound data processing, in which only two FIR filters, a high-pass and a low-pass filter, are used. With the filter reuse method and techniques such as pipeline, basic operations, by the VHDL on the platform QUARTUS II, FPGA simulation and implementation are fulfilled. This implementation takes advantage from the low sampling rate used by the infrasound monitoring system that is only 18 Hz.

  • 2835.
    Chilo, José
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Lindblad, Thomas
    Wireless Data Acquisition System Using Bluetooth Technology for Infrasonic Records2008In: International Scientific Journal of Computing, ISSN 1727-6209, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 18-21Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2836.
    Chilo, José
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Lindblad, Thomas
    Olsson, Roland
    Hansen, Stig-Erland
    Comparison of three feature extraction techniques to distinguish between different infrasound signals2007In: Progress in pattern recognition, London: Springer , 2007, p. 75-82Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2837.
    Chilo, José
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Olsson, Roland
    Hansen, Stig-Erland
    Lindblad, Thomas
    Classification of Infrasound Events with Various Machine Learning Techniques2007In: CITSA 2007 / CCCT 2007: The 4th International Conference on Cybernetics and Information Technologies, Systems and Applications jointly with The 5th International Conference on Computing, Communications and Control Technologies, 2007, p. Vol. II, 191-195Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2838.
    Chilo, José
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Pelegri-Sebastia, José
    Universitat Politècnica de València, Valencia, Spain.
    Cupane, Maria
    University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.
    Sogorb, Tomas
    Universitat Politècnica de València, Valencia, Spain.
    E-nose application to food industry production2016In: IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine, ISSN 1094-6969, E-ISSN 1941-0123, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 27-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food companies worldwide must constantly engage in product development to stay competitive, cover existing markets, explore new markets, and meet key consumer requirements. This ongoing development places high demands on achieving quality at all levels, particularly in terms of food safety, integrity, quality, nutrition, and other health effects. Food product research is required to convert the initial product idea into a formulation for upscaling production with ensured significant results. Sensory evaluation is an effective component of the whole process. It is especially important in the last step in the development of new products to ensure product acceptance. In that stage, measurements of product aroma play an important role in ensuring that consumer expectations are satisfied. To this end, the electronic nose (e-nose) can be a useful tool to achieve this purpose. The e-nose is a combination of various sensors used to detect gases by generating signals for an analysis system. Our research group has investigated the scent factor in some foodstuff and attempted to develop e-noses based on low-cost technology and compact size. In this paper, we present a summary of our research to date on applications of the e-nose in the food industry.

  • 2839.
    Chilo, José
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Schluter, Andreas
    KTH.
    Lindblad, Thomas
    KTH.
    Development of a high-resolution wireless sensor network for monitoring volcanic activity2009In: Geoscience and Remote Sensing / [ed] Pei-Gee Peter Ho, InTech , 2009, p. 53-74Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2840.
    Chilo, José
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Stenumgaard, Peter
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Amplitude Probability Distribution Measurement in Industrial Environments2010In: IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility: Workshop & Tutorial Notes, 2010, p. 642-645Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2841.
    Chilo, José
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Stenumgaard, Peter
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Vulnerability of Radio Technologies Used in Wireless Industry Automation2010In: Proceedings of Gigahertz 2010, Lund / [ed] Henrik Sjöland, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2842.
    Chilo, José
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Thomas, Lindblad
    Hardware implementation of 1D wavelet transform on an FPGA for infrasound signal classification2008In: IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, ISSN 0018-9499, E-ISSN 1558-1578, Vol. 55, no 1, part 1, p. 9-13Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2843.
    Chiragli, Nigar
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Wirman, Therese
    Alkohol bland ungdomar:En litteratur studie: Hantering och identifiering av ungdomars alkoholproblem, missbruk och beroende.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to describe how nurses experience to handle the alcohol issues among young people and how they can identify young people’s alcohol problems, abuse and dependence. Empirical articles were searched in the databases Cinahl, Medline(Pubmed) and Discovery and resulted in the inclusion of 14 scientific articles. The results showed that nurses find it difficult to raise the issues of alcohol with young people, this partly because they feel that they have too little knowledge and that it is an emotional issue to raise. There is help instruments available that nursing staff can use to raise this issues and to identify alcohol problems, abuse and dependence. The usual instruments for use on adolescents are AUDIT, CRAFT and POSIT. It is important that health workers have knowledge about this, so they can identify alcohol problems, abuse or dependence among adolescents in the early stage.

    The conclusion which is found is that alcohol problems, abuse and dependence among adolescents at early ages have increased considerably. Health professionals have lack of knowledge about being able to deal with issues of alcohol. There is little knowledge about how the instruments on alcohol-related issues for adolescents have to be used, which leads that questions not addressed.

  • 2844.
    Chistiakova, Tatiana
    et al.
    Uppsala university, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mattsson, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Carlsson, Bengt
    Uppsala university, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wigren, Torbjörn
    Ericsson.
    Nonlinear system identification of the dissolved oxygen to effluent ammonia dynamics in an activated sludge process2017In: IFAC-PapersOnLine, ISSN 1045-0823, E-ISSN 1797-318X, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 3917-3922Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aeration of biological reactors in wastewater treatment plants is important to obtain a high removal of soluble organic matter as well as for nitrification but requires a significant use of energy. It is hence of importance to control the aeration rate, for example, by ammonium feedback control. The goal of this paper is to model the dynamics from the set point of an existing dissolved oxygen controller to effluent ammonia using two types of system identification methods for a Hammerstein model, including a newly developed recursive variant. The models are estimated and evaluated using noise corrupted data from a complex mechanistic model (Activated Sludge Model no.1). The performance of the estimated nonlinear models are compared with an estimated linear model and it is shown that the nonlinear models give a significantly better fit to the data. The resulting models may be used for adaptive control (using the recursive Hammerstein variant), gain-scheduling control, L2 stability analysis, and model based fault detection.

  • 2845.
    Chith, Hussein
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering. Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Den tillgängliga stationen: Gestaltning av en stationsmiljö på basis av tillgänglighet2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report is about accessibility in a station environment. Studies have been made about how an accessible building should be designed. Accessibility is an important issue when striving for a society with equality as the foundation. Sweden is one of the most accessible countries when speaking about the built environment. A result of prosperity and a well-managed democracy. In spite of this there’s still a lot to do and in some areas the politics for disabled persons has major deficiencies. By continuing to strive against improvements Sweden could actually develop into one of the countries that sets the standard for the rest. Clearer directives from the European Union and the Swedish government during the last years has lead into several new laws and regulations about the design of the built environment. In this report studies have been done about how to attain an accessible surrounding with the focus on the environment in station-buildings. The station that has been studied is Nils Ericsson terminal in Gothenburg, Sweden. The aim has been to highlight good solutions for accessibility and to detect areas where it could be done in a different or perhaps better way. This type of studies is hard to do for a person without any disabilities since there, most often, is an obvious lack of personal relations to the issues. Therefore studies about different types of disabilities and a deeper understanding for the exposed people has been very important for the progression of the work. It has also laid the foundation for understanding the laws and the regulations around accessibility. The results showed that the studied terminal obviously had been designed with a wide thought about making it accessible. There were several solutions for helping the ones in need, for example distinctly marked patterns on the floor. Also, the actions for accessing the terminal had been done with great notice to the surrounding architecture since very few things stood out in contrast. The discussion is mostly about how the different solutions actually worked and fulfilled their purpose.

  • 2846.
    Cho, Y J
    et al.
    The University of Reading, UK.
    Awbi, Hazim B.
    University of Reading, UK.
    Karimipanah, Taghi
    Fresh AB, Sweden.
    The characteristics of wall confluent jets for ventilated enclosures2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2847.
    Cho, Y-J
    et al.
    University of Reading.
    Awbi, Hazim
    University of Reading.
    Karimipanah, Taghi
    Fresh AB, Sweden.
    Theoretical and experimental investigation of wall confluent jets ventilation and comparison with wall displacement ventilation2008In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 43, no 6, p. 1091-1100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports CFD and experimental results of the characteristics of wall confluent jets in a room. The results presented show the behaviour of wall confluent jets in the form of velocity profiles, the spreading rate of jets on the surface, jets decay, etc. The empirical equations derived are compared with other types of air jets. In addition, the flow in wall confluent jets is compared with the flow in displacement ventilation supply, with regards to the vertical and horizontal spreading on the floor. It is concluded that the jet momentum of wall confluent jets can be more conserved than other jets. Thus, wall confluent jets have a greater spread over the floor than displacement flow. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 2848. Cho, Youngjun
    et al.
    Awbi, Hazim B.
    University of Reading, UK.
    Karimipanah, Taghi
    Comparison between wall confluent jets and displacement ventilation in aspect of the spreading rate on the floor2005In: Indoor Air 2005 : proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2849.
    Choi, Jennifer
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Att skapa spelkaraktärer utan att följa den stereotypiska mallen2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom spelvärlden finns det många karaktärer med stereotypiska drag, som t.ex. har skurkar ofta spetsigare drag medan de goda har mjukare former. Dessa karaktärer är skapade för att vi snabbt ska kunna identifiera dem, då människor har en tendens att tolka andra utifrån de stereotypa drag som de finner hos personen. Denna studie undersöker om det är möjligt att skapa en viss typ av spelkaraktär utan att följa den stereotypiska mallen men ändå kunna förmedla vad för typ den är. För att ta reda på det har en litteraturstudie och analys av kända spelkaraktärer genomförts. Utifrån resultatet från dessa har framtagning av karaktären skett i två versioner, en stereotypiskt och en neutralt. Sedan utfördes en enkätundersökning för att ta reda på hur respondenterna uppfattade karaktären. Resultatet visade sig att det var svårt att skapa en viss typ av spelkaraktär utan att ge den stereotypiska drag, i alla fall när den porträtterades med ett neutralt ansiktsuttryck och kroppspråk.

  • 2850.
    Choi, Sunkyung
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Key success factors of supply chain relationships: Multiple-case sutdies in china from buyer's and supplier's perspective2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A global trend is that buyer-supplier relationship is transforming from adversarial competitive to collaborative relationships. To respond dynamic business circumstances, it is important to know what factors enable development of collaborative partnerships with suppliers. This paper analyzes how this applies to buyer-supplier relationship by investigating a multiple-case study of electronic appliances manufactures in China. The author identifies different types of buyer-supplier relationship and gives perspective of differences in-between their relationship motivations and expectations and how these views differ depending on the companies’ level of integration (ownership vs independent suppliers). It is concluded that the key success factors for good buyer-supplier relationships are trust, openness and communication and success factors from western research is valid in Chinese firm as well. Besides, industrial cluster creation is one of the most important success factors for good buyer-supplier relationship in china. Creating a platform for such relationships, management system and support program etc, is necessary to fully utilize these key success factors.

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