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  • 2801.
    Coldevin, Nicole
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Lindström, Carolina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Att undervisa i att skriva faktatexter: Fyra lärares arbetssätt2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2802.
    Colding, Johan
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Analysis of hunting options by the use of general food taboos1998In: Ecological Modelling, ISSN 0304-3800, E-ISSN 1872-7026, Vol. 110, no 1, p. 5-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A hypothetical model was built, using the STELLA II software program, to test several hunting options for a human hunting group. Different outcomes of possible hunting modes are analysed, such as a change in hunting rate, prey hunted, or species avoided or not avoided by taboos. The model consists of five sectors that reflect a short food chain in an upper Amazonian ecosystem. There is a vegetation sector, a predator sector, and two sectors consisting of browsers and grazers. The last sector represents a human group, known as the Ecuador Achuar. The critical factor analysed is how differences in hunting rate affect a target resource, and how this resource may be affected by general food taboos. The major results of the model are that general food taboos may not be an adaptive short term strategy for hunters, but that a 'moderate' hunting mode may be the most effective option for the human group. Since the model is a simplification of the real world, no general conclusions for management should be drawn from the results.

  • 2803.
    Colding, Johan
    Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Creating incentives for increased public engagement in ecosystem management through urban commons2011In: Adapting Institutions: Governance, Complexity and Social-Ecological Resilience / [ed] Boyd, E. and Folke, C., Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press , 2011, 1, p. 101-124Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Over half the world's population currently lives in urban areas; by 2030, nearly five billion people are expected to live in cities (Ash et al. 2008). Between 2010 and 2030, the amount of the built mass on the earth is predicted to double, creating ever-greater demands on the services that nearby and distant ecosystems provide (Grimm et al. 2008). With a greater proportion of humans living in metropolitan areas, urban ecosystems will experience increased land-use and land-cover change. Currently, urbanisation endangers more species and is more geographically ubiquitous than any other human activity; urban sprawl is rapidly transforming critical habitats of global value, such as the Atlantic Forest Region of Brazil, the Cape of South Africa and coastal Central America (Elmqvist et al. 2008). Urbanisation leads not only to increased homogenisation of fauna and flora (McKinney 2002) but also to an impoverished biology in metropolitan areas, which arguably serves as a constant reminder of the presumed unimportance of biodiversity and so may contribute to ‘environmental generational amnesia’ among the greater public (Miller 2005). To gain the much-needed broad-based public support for a sustainable use of ecosystems, both within and outside cities, the places where people live and work need to offer opportunities for meaningful interactions with functioning ecosystems (Rosenzweig 2003, Miller 2005, Andersson et al. 2007, Colding 2007). In this respect, and to help mitigate the growing disconnection of urban residents from nature (Pyle 1978, 1993), the dynamics of property rights determining human relationships to land can have powerful ramifications and be worthy of scholarly analysis to provide propositions about both the manner in which land ownership in cities evolves (Webster 2003) and its potential outcomes, such as the provision of the ecosystem services critical to human well-being (Daily 1997, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005). It is increasingly recognised that today's institutions match current changes in ecosystems and their dynamics poorly (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005, Folke et al. 2007).

  • 2804.
    Colding, Johan
    The Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    ‘Ecological land-use complementation’ for building resilience in urban ecosystems2007In: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 81, no 1-2, p. 46-55Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2805.
    Colding, Johan
    Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ecologists as the new management elite?2000In: Conservation ecology, ISSN 1195-5449, E-ISSN 1195-5449, Vol. 4, no 2, p. XXV-XXVIArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 2806.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Ekosystem sliter i städer2011In: Miljöforskning : Formas tidning för ett uthålligt samhälle, ISSN 1650-4925, no 9Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Trots att grönområden har stor betydelse för städers klimat och för människors välbefinnande är kunskap om detta bristfällig bland stadsplanerare. Pollinering av växter och grödor, fröspridning eller vatten- och luftrening är arbete som naturen utför och som vi är beroende av i våra samhällen. Hur man med hjälp av ekosystemtjänster kan planera och bygga mer hållbara städer studeras i ett stort internationellt projekt SUPER (Sustainable Urban Planning for Ecosystems Services and Resilience).

  • 2807.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekosystem sliter i städer2011In: Miljöforskning : Formas tidning för ett uthålligt samhälle, ISSN 1650-4925, no 9Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Trots att grönområden har stor betydelse för städers klimat och för människors välbefinnande är kunskap om detta bristfällig bland stadsplanerare. Pollinering av växter och grödor, fröspridning eller vatten- och luftrening är arbete som naturen utför och som vi är beroende av i våra samhällen. Hur man med hjälp av ekosystemtjänster kan planera och bygga mer hållbara städer studeras i ett stort internationellt projekt SUPER (Sustainable Urban Planning for Ecosystems Services and Resilience).

  • 2808.
    Colding, Johan
    Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Local Assessment of Stockholm: Revisiting the Stockholm Urban Assessment2013In: Urbanization, Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services: Challenges and Opportunities: A Global Assessment / [ed] Thomas Elmqvist, Michail Fragkias, Julie Goodness, Burak Güneralp, Peter J. Marcotullio, Robert I. McDonald, Susan Parnell, Maria Schewenius, Marte Sendstad, Karen C. Seto, and Cathy Wilkinson, New York: Springer Netherlands , 2013, 1, p. 313-335Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the year 2003, the Stockholm Urban Assessment (SUA) was selected as a sub-global assessment within the global Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA, Ecosystems and human well-being: synthesis. Island Press, Washington, DC, 2005). This chapter revisits SUA and fills in important knowledge gaps in the assessment as well as provides insights on urban resilience building. The chapter applies a critical perspective on the present urban development trajectory of the Stockholm metropolitan area. It emphasizes the need to understand ways in which informally managed green spaces contribute to ecological functions in urban settings. The chapter provides a background of the Stockholm region and the current challenges it faces, followed by a synthesis of the major insights conveyed in SUA related to informal ecosystem management. The chapter concludes by proposing policy recommendations of general implications for urban resilience building.

  • 2809.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholms universitet.
    Local institutions, biological conservation and management of ecosystem dynamics2001Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis analyze local institutions and management practices related to natural resources and ecosystem dynamics, with an emphasis on "traditional ecological knowledge" systems. Papers I, II and III analyze ‘resource and habitat taboos’ (RHTs) with the objective to synthesize knowledge about informal institutions behind resource management. Papers IV and V focus on resource management practices and social mechanisms with a capacity to confer resilience in ecosystems. Ecological resilience is the buffering capacity of ecosystems to incorporate disturbance and yet continue to provide biodiversity and ecological services critical to societal development. Cases for the synthesis were mainly derived from the literature. Examples of RHTs could be grouped in six different categories depending on their potential management and conservation functions. These included both use-taboos and non-use taboos. The former regulates access to, and methods and withdrawal of subsistence resources. These appear to be closely related to traditional ecological knowledge, as it is defined in this thesis. The latter prohibits human use of species and habitats, and is closely related to religious and cosmological belief systems. As discussed, both groups of taboos can be comparable to ethics of academic conservation biology, although rationales behind such ethics differ. RHTs have effects that may contribute to the conservation of habitats, local subsistence resources, and ‘threatened’, ‘endemic’ and ‘keystone’ species, although some may run contrary to conservation and notions of sustainability. It is asserted that under certain circumstances, RHTs, and possibly other types of informal institutions may offer advantages relative to formal measures of conservation. These benefits include non-costly, voluntary compliance features. Results of papers IV and V revealed that there exists a diversity of traditional practices for ecosystem management. These include multiple species management, resource rotation, ecological monitoring, succession management, landscape patchiness management, and practices of responding to and managing pulses and ecological surprises. Social mechanisms behind these practices included a number of adaptations for the generation, accumulation, and transmission of knowledge; dynamics of institutions; mechanisms for cultural internalization of traditional practices; and the development of appropriate world views and cultural values. These traditional systems had certain similarities to adaptive management with its emphasis on feedback learning, and its treatment of uncertainty and unpredictability to ecosystems. Furthermore, there existed practices that seem to reduce social-ecological crises in the events of large-scale natural disturbance. These included practices that create small-scale ecosystem renewal cycles, practices that spread risks, and practices for nurturing sources of ecosystem renewal. These practices are linked to social mechanisms such as flexible user rights and land tenure. It is concluded that ecological monitoring appears to be a key element in the development of many of the practices. Management practices in local communities are framed by a social context, with informal institutions and other social mechanisms, and supported by a worldview that does not de-couple people from their dependence on natural systems. Since management of ecosystems is associated with uncertainty about their spatial and temporal dynamics and due to incomplete knowledge about such dynamics, these practices may provide useful ‘rules of thumb’ for resource management with an ability to confer resilience and tighten environmental feedbacks of resource exploitation to local levels. To link local institutions in cross-scale polycentric co-management arrangements may be a viable option for improving current resource management systems.

  • 2810.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Super: Sustainable urban planning for ecosystem services and resilience2010In: The URBAN-NET Research Anthology, p. 35-40Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2811.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Sweden; Department of History, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Super: Sustainable urban planning for ecosystem services and resilience2010In: URBAN-NET Research Anthology / [ed] June Graham, Edinburgh: Scotland & Northern Ireland Forum for Environmental Research (SNIFFER) , 2010, p. 35-40Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2812.
    Colding, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    The role of ecosystem services in contemporary urban planning2011In: Urban Ecology: patterns, processes and applications / [ed] Jari Niemelä, Jürgen H. Breuste, Thomas Elmqvist, Glenn Guntenspergen, Philip James, and Nancy E. McIntyre, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press , 2011, p. 228-237Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban sprawl is often characterised as a serious land use problem. It refers to the spread of urban congestion into adjoining suburbs and rural areas, often resulting in the loss of ecosystems and their services. This chapter reviews two of the most prevalent planning strategies proposed to combat urban sprawl, i.e. smart growth (or new urbanism) and green infrastructure planning. The former is predominantly derived from a frustration over the failure of American planning projects, and is increasingly adopted among planners in North American and European metropolitan regions. The latter is predominantly proposed by ecologists and biodiversity conservationists, and has shaped conservation planning in many countries. Both planning strategies propose compact urban development as a way to combat adverse effects of urban sprawl. However, and as pointed out in this chapter, many types of ecosystem services are generated in the developed landscape, also in sprawling suburban settings. It is also important to account for ecosystem services in smart growth projects and to engage a wider set of urban residents in management of these services in order to mitigate ecological illiteracy. The chapter elucidates some of the key characteristics and propositions of both approaches and provides examples of urban designs that hold potential to work as frameworks in contributing to sustainable governance of ecosystem services.

  • 2813. Colding, Johan
    Träd i staden minskar luftföroreningar2016In: Svenska dagbladetArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2814.
    Colding, Johan
    Beijerinstitutet, Stockholm, Sverige; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholms universitet, Stockholm.
    Urbana samfälligheter för hållbar fysisk planering2010In: Det urbana landskapet: Konferens 17–18 september 2009 på Kungliga vetenskapsakademin, Stockholm, ordnad av Svenska IALE i samarbete med Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholms universitet, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, SLU Uppsala och Centrum för biologisk mångfald (CBM), samt Stockholms läns landstings regionplanekontor och Riksantikvarieämbetet / [ed] Ebba Lisberg-Jensen, Uppsala: Centrum för biologisk mångfald , 2010, p. 55-59Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2815.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    An urban ecology critique on the "Smart City" model2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 164, p. 95-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this letter is to raise some critical concerns and gaps in the booming literature on Smart Cities; concerns that we think deserve greater attention from scientists, policy makers and urban planners. Using an urban ecology lens, we provide some reflections that need to forgo any wider-scale implementation of the Smart City-model with the goal to enhance urban sustainability. We discuss that the Smart City literature must better include analysis around social sustainability issues for city dwellers. Focus here should start on health issues and more critical analysis about whom the Smart City is for. Also, the literature must address issues of resilience and cyber security, including how Smart City solutions may affect the autonomy of urban governance, personal integrity and how it may affect the resilience of infrastructures that provide inhabitants with basic needs, such as food, energy and water security. A third major gap in this literature is how smart city developments may change human-nature relations. Focus here should start on how Smart City technologies may hinder or support children’s learning towards a stronger psychological connection with nature. Discussions are also needed on how the Smart City model may affect pro-environmental behavior more broadly.

  • 2816.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, The Royal Swedish Academy of Science; Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Resilience and Sustainable Development2017In: Dreams and Seeds: The role of campuses in sustainable urban development / [ed] Schewenius, M., Keränen, P., al Rawaf, R., Stockholm: Stockholm Resilience Centre and Metropolia University of Applied Sciences , 2017, 1, p. 28-29Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2817.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of History, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The potential of ‘Urban Green Commons’ in the resilience building of cities2013In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 86, p. 156-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While cultural diversity is increasing in cities at a global level as a result of urbanization, biodiversity is decreasing with a subsequent loss of ecosystem services. It is clear that diversity plays a pivotal role in the resilience building of ecosystems; however, it is less clear what role cultural diversity plays in the resil- ience building of urban systems. In this paper we provide innovative insights on how common property sys- tems could contribute to urban resilience building. Through a review of recent findings on urban common property systems and the relevant literature, we deal with urban green commons (UGCs) and discuss their potential to manage cultural and biological diversity in cities. We describe three examples of UGCs, i.e. col- lectively managed parks, community gardens, and allotment areas, with a focus on their institutional characteristics, their role in promoting diverse learning streams, environmental stewardship, and social– ecological memory. We discuss how UGCs can facilitate cultural integration through civic participation in urban land-management, conditions for the emergence of UGCs, the importance of cognitive resilience building, and what role property-rights diversity plays in urban settings. We conclude by elucidating some key insights on how UGCs can promote urban resilience building.

  • 2818.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Stockholm Resilience Center, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The Role of University Campuses in Reconnecting Humans to the Biosphere2017In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, no 12, article id 2349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we explore the potential for integrating university campuses in a global sustainability agenda for a closer reconnection of urban residents to the biosphere. This calls for a socio-cultural transition that allows universities and colleges to reconnect to the biosphere and become active stewards of the Earth System. Recognizing their pivotal role of fostering coming generations of humans, university campuses represent a unique socio-cultural setting to promote sustainable development in practice. Among others, this involves the nurturing of biodiversity and ecosystem services in the Antropocene era, which is characterized by ongoing climate change and massive loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. We explore the traditional campus setting, its role as a community for rejuvenating town planning and its role as a governance authority that may promote or retard sustainable development with an ecological focus. We explore the “sustainable” university and describe the campus as an ecosystem and how a resilient campus can be designed to meet the novel and critical challenges of the Anthropocene. We conclude by providing some policy recommendations for higher educational institutes to speed up their ambitions in the area of sustainable biosphere management.

  • 2819.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of History, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bendt, Pim
    The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Snep, Robbert
    Alterra, Wageningen UR, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    van der Knaap, Wim
    Wageningen University, Land Use Planning Group, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; African Centre for Cities, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, South Africa.
    Urban green commons: Insights on urban common property systems2013In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 1039-1051Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to shed new light on urban common property systems. We deal with urban commons in relation to urban green-space management, referring to them as urban green commons. Applying a property-rights analytic perspective, we synthesize information on urban green commons from three case-study regions in Sweden, Germany, and South Africa, and elaborate on their role for biodiversity conservation in urban settings, with a focus on business sites. Cases cover both formally established types of urban green commons and bottom-up emerged community-managed habitats. As our review demonstrates, the right to actively manage urban green space is a key characteristic of urban green commons whether ownership to land is in the private, public, the club realm domain, or constitutes a hybrid of these. We discuss the important linkages among urban common property systems, social–ecological learning, and management of ecosystem services and biodiversity. Several benefits can be associated with urban green commons, such as a reduction of costs for ecosystem management and as designs for reconnecting city-inhabitants to the biosphere. The emergence of urban green commons appears closely linked to dealing with societal crises and for reorganizing cities; hence, they play a key role in transforming cities toward more socially and ecologically benign environments. While a range of political questions circumscribe the feasibility of urban green commons, we discuss their usefulness in management of different types of urban habitats, their political justification and limitation, their potential for improved biodiversity conservation, and conditions for their emergence. We conclude by postulating some general policy advice.

  • 2820.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Colding, Magnus
    Colding Digital Teknik AB, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    The smart city model: A new panacea for urban sustainability or unmanageable complexity?2018In: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, ISSN 2399-8083Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite several calls in this journal of debating the rapid growth of the literature on “smart cities”, such a debate has in large been absent. Smart cities are often un-critically launched as a sustainable way of developing cities. When cities become increasingly complex as its features are wired into the Internet, theories for their understanding is lagging behind. As it is prospected that a greater number of people and things will become connected by Information and Computer Technology, the complexity of urban systems will over time increase. Historical insights reveal that as complexity in societies increase, growth in energy consumption tends to follow. In this paper, we discuss whether complexity carried too far could lead to diminishing returns of energy saving and create unmanageable urban systems. As part of initiating such a debate, this commentary asks whether the smart cities development has a bearing on the issue whether a society can erode its capacity of sustaining itself? We pose this question against the backdrop that no one actually knows what type of society the smart cities model in the end will generate.

  • 2821.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Colding, Magnus
    Colding Digital Teknik AB, Sweden.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    The smart city model: A new panacea for urban sustainability or unmanageable complexity?2018In: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, ISSN 2399-8083Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite several calls in this journal of debating the rapid growth of the literature on ‘‘smart cities’’, such a debate has in large been absent. Smart cities are often un-critically launched as a sustainable way of developing cities. When cities become increasingly complex as its features are wired into the Internet, theories for their understanding is lagging behind. As it is prospected that a greater number of people and things will become connected by Information and Computer Technology, the complexity of urban systems will over time increase. Historical insights reveal that as complexity in societies increase, growth in energy consumption tends to follow. In this paper, we discuss whether complexity carried too far could lead to diminishing returns of energy saving and create unmanageable urban systems. As part of initiating such a debate, this commentary asks whether the smart cities development has a bearing on the issue whether a society can erode its capacity of sustaining itself? We pose this question against the backdrop that no one actually knows what type of society the smart cities model in the end will generate.

  • 2822.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    Centre for Research on Natural Resources and the Environment and Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Centre for Research on Natural Resources and the Environment and Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Comment on Ruttan, L. M. and Borgerhoff Mulder, M. (1999) Are East African Pastoralists Truly Conservationists?1999In: Current Anthropology, ISSN 0011-3204, E-ISSN 1537-5382, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 638-639Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2823.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    Department of Systems Ecology, Center for Research on Natural Resources and the Environment, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Department of Systems Ecology, Center for Research on Natural Resources and the Environment, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Social taboos: "Invisible" systems of local resource management and biological conservation2001In: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, E-ISSN 1939-5582, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 584-600Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social taboos exist in most cultures, both Western and non-Western. They are good examples of informal institutions, where norms, rather than governmental juridical laws and rules, determine human behavior. In many traditional societies throughout the world, taboos frequently guide human conduct toward the natural environment. Based on a survey of recent literature, we synthesize information on such taboos. We refer to them as "resource and habitat taboos" (RHTs). Examples are grouped in six different categories depending on their potential nature conservation and management functions. We compare RHTs with contemporary measures of conservation and identify and discuss some key benefits that may render them useful in partnership designs for conservation and management. We conclude that many RHTs have functions similar to those of formal institutions for nature conservation in contemporary society but have not been sufficiently recognized in this capacity. We suggest that designs for conservation of biological diversity and its sustainable use in developing countries focus more on informal institutions, like social taboos, because they may offer several advantages compared to conventional measures. These include non-costly, voluntary compliance features implicit in the taboo system.

  • 2824.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The relations among threatened species, their protection, and taboos1997In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 1, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyzed the role of taboos for the protection of species listed as "threatened" by the World Conservation Union (IUCN), and also for species known to be endemic and keystone. The study was limited to taboos that totally avoid or prohibit any use of particular species and their populations. We call them specific-species taboos. Through a literature review, 70 currently existing examples of specific-species taboos were identified and analyzed. The species avoided were grouped into biological classes. Threat categories were determined for each species, based on the IUCN Red Data Book. We found that ≃ 30% of the identified taboos prohibit any use of species listed as threatened by IUCN. Of the specific-species taboos, 60% are set on reptiles and mammals. In these two classes, ≃ 50% of the species are threatened, representing all of the threatened species in our analysis, with the exception of one bird species. Both endemic and keystone species that are important for ecosystem functions are avoided by specific-species taboos. Specific-species taboos have important ecological ramifications for the protection of threatened and ecologically important populations of species. We do not suggest that specific-species taboos are placed on species because they are, or have been, endangered; instead, we emphasize that species are avoided for a variety of other reasons. It is urgent to identify and analyze resource practices and social mechanisms of traditional societies, such as taboos, and to investigate their possible ecological significance. Although it may provide insights of value for conservation, not only of species,

  • 2825.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The Role of Golf Courses in Biodiversity Conservation and Ecosystem Management2009In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 12, p. 191-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We assessed the ecological value of golf courses based on a quantitative synthesis of studies in the scientific literature that have measured and compared biota on golf courses to that of biota in green-area habitats related to other land uses. We found that golf courses had higher ecological value in 64% of comparative cases. This pattern was consistent also for comparisons based on measures of species richness, as well as for comparisons of overall measures of birds and insectsthe fauna groups most widely examined in the studies. Many golf courses also contribute to the preservation of fauna of conservation concern. More broadly, we found that the ecological value of golf courses significantly decreases with land types having low levels of anthropogenic impact, like natural and nature-protected areas. Conversely, the value of golf courses significantly increases with land that has high levels of anthropogenic impact, like agricultural and urban lands. From an ecosystem management perspective, golf courses represent a promising measure for restoring and enhancing biodiversity in ecologically simplified landscapes. Furthermore, the review suggests that golf courses hold a real potential to be designed and managed to promote critical ecosystem services, like pollination and natural pest control, providing an opportunity for joint collaboration among conservation, restoration and recreational interests.

  • 2826.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Center for Research on Natural Resources and the Environment, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Center for Research on Natural Resources and the Environment, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The taboo system: Lessons about informal institutions for nature management2000In: Georgetown International Environmental Law Review, ISSN 1042-1858, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 413-445Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2827.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    The Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    The Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Elmqvist, Tomas
    The Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Social institutions in ecosystem management and biodiversity conservation2003In: Tropical Ecology, ISSN 0564-3295, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 25-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This synthesis addresses local institutions and associated management practices related to natural resources and ecosystem dynamics, with an emphasis on traditional ecological knowledge systems. Traditional practices for ecosystem management include multiple species management, resource rotation, ecological monitoring, succession management, landscape patchiness management and practices of responding to and managing pulses and ecological surprises. There exist practices that seem to reduce social-ecological crises in the events of large-scale natural disturbance such as creating small-scale ecosystem renewal cycles, spreading risks and nurturing sources of ecosystem reorganization and renewal. Ecological knowledge and monitoring among local groups appears to be a key element in the development of many of the practices. The practices are linked to social mechanisms such as flexible user rights and land tenure; adaptations for the generation, accumulation and transmission of ecological knowledge; dynamics of institutions; mechanisms for cultural internalization of traditional practices; and associated worldviews and cultural values. We dive deeper into the role of informal social institutions in resource management, such as many taboo systems. We find that taboos may contribute to the conservation of habitats, local subsistence resources and 'threatened', 'endemic' and 'keystone' species, although some may run contrary to conservation and notions of sustainability. It is asserted that under certain circumstances, informal institutions may offer advantages relative to formal measures of conservation. These benefits include non-costly, voluntary compliance features. Since management of ecosystems is associated with uncertainty about their spatial and temporal dynamics and due to incomplete knowledge about such dynamics, local management practices and associated institutions may provide useful 'rules of thumb' for resource management with an ability to confer resilience and tighten environmental feedbacks of resource exploitation to local levels.

  • 2828.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish Sub-Global Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, Sweden; Resilience Alliance, Sweden; Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Jakob
    Centre for Transdisciplinary Environmental Research, Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Folke, Carl
    Resilience Alliance, Sweden; Beijer International Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Transdisciplinary Environmental Research, Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Incorporating Green-Area User Groups in Urban Ecosystem Management2006In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 237-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze the role of urban green areas managed by local user groups in their potential for supporting biodiversity and ecosystem services in growing city-regions, with focus on allotment areas, domestic gardens, and golf courses. Using Stockholm, Sweden, as an example city-region, we compile GIS data of its spatial characteristics and relate these data to GIS data for protected areas and "green wedges" prioritized in biodiversity conservation. Results reveal that the three land uses cover 18% of the studied land area of metropolitan Stockholm, which corresponds to more than twice the land set aside as protected areas. We review the literature to identify ecosystem functions and services provided by the three green areas and discuss their potential in urban ecosystem management. We conclude that the incorporation of locally managed lands, and their stewards and institutions, into comanagement designs holds potential for improving conditions for urban biodiversity, reducing transaction costs in ecosystem management, and realizing local Agenda 21.

  • 2829.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; he Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; .
    Lundberg, Jakob
    he Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Stefan
    The Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Erik
    Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Golf courses and wetland fauna2009In: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, E-ISSN 1939-5582, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 1481-1491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Golf courses are often considered to be chemical‐intensive ecosystems with negative impacts on fauna. Here we provide evidence that golf courses can contribute to the support and conservation of wetland fauna, i.e., amphibians and macroinvertebrates. Comparisons of amphibian occurrence, diversity of macroinvetebrates, and occurrence of species of conservation concern were made between permanent freshwater ponds surveyed on golf courses around Sweden's capital city, Stockholm, and off‐course ponds in nature‐protected areas and residential parklands. A total of 71 macroinvertebrate species were recorded in the field study, with no significant difference between golf course ponds and off‐course ponds at the species, genus, or family levels. A within‐group similarities test showed that golf course ponds have a more homogenous species composition than ponds in nature‐protected areas and ponds in residential parkland. Within the macroinvertebrate group, a total of 11 species of odonates were identified, with no difference detected between the categories of ponds, nor any spatial autocorrelation. Significant differences were found between pond categories in the occurrence of five species of amphibians, although anuran occurrence did not differ between ponds. The great crested newt (Triturus cristatus) was significantly associated with golf course ponds, but the smooth newt (Triturus vulgaris) was not. We found no evidence of any correlation between pond size and occurrence of amphibians. Among the taxa of conservation concern included in the sample, all amphibians are nationally protected in Sweden, with the internationally threatened T. cristatus more frequently found in golf course ponds. Among macroinveterbrates of conservation status, the large white‐faced darter dragonfly (Leucorrhinia pectoralis) was only detected in golf course ponds, and Tricholeiochiton fagesi (Trichoptera) was only found in one off‐course pond. GIS results revealed that golf courses provide over a quarter of all available permanent, freshwater ponds in central greater Stockholm. We assert that golf courses have the potential to contribute to wetland fauna support, particularly in urban settings where they may significantly contribute to wetland creation. We propose a greater involvement of ecologists in the design of golf courses to further bolster this potential.

  • 2830.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    Beijerinstitutet för ekologisk ekonomi, Stockholm; Stockholm resilience centre, Stockholms unviersitet, Stockholm.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH arkitekturskolan .
    Andersson, Erik (Contributor)
    Gren, Åsa (Contributor)
    Borgström, Sara (Contributor)
    Ekosystemtjänster i Stockholmsregionen: Ett underlag för diskussion och planering2013Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2831.
    Coleman, Simon
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Effekten av intuitiva och avsiktliga tankeprocesser på individers förutfattande meningar2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined how individuals' preconceptions are influenced by cognitive processes, based on the cognitive two-system theory. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether and how System 1 and System 2 activation affected individuals' preconceptions. The hypothesis was that System 1 activation allowed preconceptions to influence individuals’ judgement more than System 2 activation. The design was a 2 x 2 factorial design analyzed with a mixed ANOVA. A query battery, with specific questions to activate respective condition (System 1/System 2), was used as a measuring instrument. The participants were 40 students at Gävle University. The result showed partial support for the hypothesis, but may be considered as weak due to an interaction effect between conditions.

  • 2832.
    Colic, Ivana
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Betydelsen av nätverk i småföretag: en kvalitativ studie av ett byggföretag2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     

    Aim: The purpose of this thesis is to describe and discuss the importance of networking in small companies and how networking helps growth and survival of the company.

     

    Method: The method for collecting data has been qualitative and has been done by personal interviews with the company, and their partners, associated with this thesis. A focus group and observation at the workplace have also been used.

     

    Result and Conclusion: The network is of great importance for a company’s foundation and survival because a single individual always needs to compliment their knowledge and resources with other actors in the company’s surroundings. In the company examined it was found that a close relationship with another company played a major role in the companies’ activity.

     

    Within marketing the company focuses on satisfied customers to spread the word. This type of marketing, word-of-mouth, creates new relationships in the form of new customers, but can also contribute in other ways. A positive word-of-mouth can help the company create relationships with other actors within the network, for example distributors, workforce or partners.

     

    Suggestions for future research: To examine whether a co-operation between small constructions firms necessary to be part off to survive.

     

    Contribution of the thesis: In this thesis the importance of networking in a small construction company has been shown. I have been able to show what the firms relationships within the network looks like and how networking contributes to growth and survival of the firm. I have also been able to show how relationships are formed with customers by positive word-of-mouth. The positive word-of-mouth is the firms’ primary form of marketing and a tool to create new relationships.

  • 2833.
    Colic, Ivana
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Jaderian, Taniel
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Marknadsföringsteorier i små företag: – ett vinnande koncept?2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: A traditional assumption among managers has been that small businesses function the same way as big businesses but in a smaller scale. Welsh and White have written the article “A small business is not a little big business”, and their perception is that the very size of small businesses creates special conditions for small firms. The aim of this thesis is to illustrate the requirements for marketing in small businesses.

    Method: The scientific study in this thesis is based on a hermeneutist stand point.

    We have studied marketing at a university level and have from this been able to draw certain conclusions and opinions on the subject. We have however also relied largely on the material we have collected about marketing, from discussions with co-authors and others that have been involved directly with the thesis. Our analysis on this subject comes mainly from and is based on collected articles, literature and interviews. The final analysis is also largely based on our own personal interpretation and understanding of the material used to gather the information used in this thesis.

    Result and conclusion: We have in our analysis shown how participating firms use marketing. The theories we have used such as SWOT – analysis, market segmentation, targeting, positioning, marketing mix, are all applicable and we believe that they are fully usable. We have furthermore been able to show that several of the companies already use many of these theories, but that there lacks a greater understanding behind the use of marketing. The participating firms have the basic requirements and conditions to market themselves. Although their strategy is not always thought through and there is a lack of understanding for the marketing concepts.

    Suggestions for future research: To thoroughly analyze one or several small businesses and thereby it is possible to find specific suggestions for marketing adapted to a small firms inadequate knowledge of marketing, resource limitation and size of the company.

    Contribution of the thesis: The aim of this thesis is to illustrate the requirements for marketing in small businesses. We have been able to state that small firms often have good conditions, despite lacking marketing knowledge and slight resources. This is often seen as a problem in small businesses, although these flaws do not have a negative impact on a firm’s profitability and survival. The marketing theories that we applied to the participating seven firms have been shown to be applicable. It is also shown that participating firms already use marketing theories, but not as a known strategy.

  • 2834.
    Collentine, Dennis
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för nationalekonomi.
    Composite market design for a Transferable Discharge Permit (TDP) system2006In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 49, no 6, p. 929-946Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a great deal of interest in addressing water quality issues through the use of Transferable Discharge Permit (TDP) systems. Unfortunately, the attempts to start up permit markets that are able to exploit abatement cost differences between sources have not met with the success expected. Two of the reasons for the lack of success have been the problem of transaction costs and in the case of non-point sources (NPS), undefined property rights. The composite market design is a proposal for a TDP system that specifically includes agricultural non-point source (NPS) discharges and addresses both property rights and transaction cost problems. The composite market consists of three interrelated markets each serving a particular function. The two primary markets are coordinated through price information that makes it possible for a catchment-based authority to issue (sell) permits based on the marginal cost of abatement. When the composite market is mature, the total number of permits issued corresponds to a cap on discharges allowed in the catchment. The structure of the composite market allows this system to be phased in over time with existing institutions and limited demands on financing.

  • 2835.
    Collentine, Dennis
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för nationalekonomi.
    Implementation of the WFD in Sweden: Computer models for decision support2004Report (Other academic)
  • 2836.
    Collentine, Dennis
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för nationalekonomi.
    Including non-point sources in a water quality trading permit program2005In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 51, no 3-4, p. 47-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been overwhelming interest in addressing water quality issues through the use of economic instruments. Much of this attention has focused on the cost efficiencies offered by Transferable Discharge Permit (TDP) systems. Unfortunately, the attempts to start up permit markets which are able to exploit abatement cost differences between sources have not met with the success expected. Two of the reasons for the lack of success that have been taken up in analysis of these programs have been the problem of transaction costs and in the case of non-point sources (NPS), undefined property rights. The composite market design is a proposal for a TDP system which specifically includes agricultural non-point source (NPS) dischargers and addresses both property rights and transaction cost problems. The composite market consists of three interrelated markets each serving a particular function. When the composite market is mature, the total number of permits issued represents the cap on discharges allowed in the catchment. The structure of the composite market allows this system to be phased in over time with existing institutions and limited demands on financing.

  • 2837.
    Collentine, Dennis
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för nationalekonomi.
    Phase-in of nonpoint sources in a transferable discharge permit system for water quality management: setting permit prices2005In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 34, no 7, p. 573-578Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The composite market design is a proposal for a transferable discharge permit system that specifically includes agricultural non-point-source dischargers and addresses both property rights and transaction cost problems. The first step to implementation of a composite market scheme is the estimation of a supply curve for abatement measures in the catchment area. Estimation is performed by combining costs with modeled loss reductions from selected best management practices and then using this information to estimate the supply curve for abatement, which in turn can then be used to set permit prices. The Rönneå catchment in southern Sweden is used as a pilot study area for making this type of estimate. Costs for existing measures that reduce nutrient losses from farmland (catch crops and spring planting) are based on existing programs financed by the Swedish Agricultural Board. A set of supply curves is calculated for these measures using retention estimates for seven subcatchments and three soil types in the area. Although existing information is sufficient to calculate partial supply curves and may be used to set permit prices, additional measures should be included as well as an increased number of variables for differentiating site specific reduction costs.

  • 2838.
    Collentine, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Economics. Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Futter, M. N.
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Realising the potential of natural water retention measures in catchment flood management: Trade-offs and matching interests2018In: Journal of Flood Risk Management, ISSN 1753-318X, E-ISSN 1753-318X, Vol. 11, no 1 (SI), p. 76-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural water retention measures (NWRM) are a multifunctional form of green infrastructure that can play an important role in catchment-scale flood risk management. While green infrastructure based on natural processes is increasingly recognised as being complementary to traditional flood control strategies based on grey infrastructure in urban areas, there are a number of outstanding challenges with their widespread uptake. At a catchment scale, it is widely accepted that NWRM in upstream areas based on the concept of ’keeping the rain where it falls’ can help reduce the risk of downstream flooding by enhancing or restoring natural hydrological processes including interception, evapotranspiration, infiltration, and ponding. However, both the magnitude of flood risk reduction and the institutional structures needed for widespread uptake of NWRM are inadequately understood. Implementing NWRM can involve trade-offs, especially in agricultural areas. Measures based on drainage management and short rotation forestry may help ’keep the rain where it falls’ but can result in foregone farm income. To identify situations where the implementation of NWRM may be warranted, an improved understanding of the likely reductions in downstream urban flood risk, the required institutional structures for risk management and transfer, and mutually acceptable farm compensation schemes are all needed.

  • 2839.
    Collentine, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för nationalekonomi.
    Galaz, Victor
    Kallner Bastviken, Sofia
    Ståhl-Delbanco, Annika
    CATCH: A method for structured discussions and a tool for decision support2005In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 34, no 7, p. 579-580Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2840.
    Collentine, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Economics. Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet (SLU), Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Johnsson, Holger
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet (SLU), Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Crop discharge permits for reduction of nitrogen loads to the Baltic Sea2012In: Journal of the American Water Resources Association, ISSN 1093-474X, E-ISSN 1752-1688, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 24-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current international agreements call for a significant reduction of nutrient loads to the Baltic Sea. In one of the signatory countries, Sweden, regulatory authorities have concluded that new measures will be needed to meet national reduction targets. This article evaluates the effect of one possible new measure for reducing nitrogen loads, introducing mandatory discharge permits for crop cultivation as one component of a proposed discharge permit system. Using the framework of the proposed system, expected net load reductions and permit prices are calculated for three crop permit scenarios in a catchment in Southern Sweden. In addition, gross leaching is calculated for a larger region to study the potential for reducing net loads. The article concludes that while permitting reduces loading, achieving reduction targets will require additional measures beyond the scenarios studied.

  • 2841.
    Collentine, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Economics.
    Johnsson, Holger
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Evaluating the effect of climate variation on the cost efficiency of a crop permit policy in Southern Sweden2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2842.
    Collentine, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Economics. Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet (SLU), Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Johnsson, Holger
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet (SLU), Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Evaluating the effect of climate variation on the cost efficiency of a crop permit policy in Southern Sweden2013In: Journal of Water and Climate, ISSN 2040-2244, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 110-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current international agreements call for a significant reduction of nitrogen loads to the Baltic Sea. New measures to reduce nitrogen loads from the agricultural sector and an increased focus on cost efficiency will be needed to meet reduction targets. For policy design and evaluation it is important to understand the impact of weather on the efficiency of abatement measures. One new proposed policy is the use of crop permits based on weather normalized average leaching. This paper describes the use of the Spearman method to determine the efficiency of this policy with annual weather variation. The conclusion is that the values of the Spearman correlation coefficients in the study indicate that using average leaching for the individual crops on specific soil types for calculating crop permit requirements is an efficient policy. The Spearman method is demonstrated to be a simple useful tool for evaluating the impact of weather and is recommended for use in new studies.

  • 2843.
    Collentine, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Economics.
    Johnsson, Holger
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Larsson, Peter
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Markensten, Hampus
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wallin, Mats
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Developing catchment level measures to reduce eutrophication: The crop rotation coefficient calculator in the DSS FyrisCOST2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2844.
    Collentine, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Economics.
    Johnsson, Holger
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Larsson, Peter
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Markensten, Hampus
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wallin, Mats
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Development of cost effective nitrogen management strategies: Scenario evaluation with the DSS FyrisCOST2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2845.
    Collentine, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Economics.
    Johnsson, Holger
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Markensten, Hampus
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Larsson, Peter
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wallin, Mats
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Development of cost effective nitrogen management strategies: Scenario evaluation with the DSS FyrisCOST2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2846.
    Collentine, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Economics.
    Johnsson, Holger
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Markensten, Hampus
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Persson, Kristian
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Larsson, Peter
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    The comparative cost efficiency of three buffer zone programs to reduce phosphorus losses in a small Swedish catchment2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2847.
    Collentine, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Economics.
    Johnsson, Holger
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Persson, Kristian
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Markensten, Hampus
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Larsson, Peter
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    The comparative cost efficiency of three buffer zone programs to reduce phosphorus losses in a small Swedish catchment2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2848.
    Collentine, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Economics.
    Kreuger, Jenny
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Surry, Yves
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Zehaie, Ficre
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Jarvis, Nick
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Evaluating the Environmental and Economic Impact of Taxes on Pesticides: Case Study of a Tax on Toxicity2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regulation of pesticides has often followed a command and control approach. However, economic instruments allow for environmental goals to be used for targeting as well as provide users (farmers) with flexibility in their response. The primary environmental effects of concern from the use of plant pesticides are related to the toxic effects on non-targeted organisms in environmental media. This paper describes a methodology for ex ante evaluation of policy alternatives for reducing the impact on the aquatic environment from pesticide use.

    The proposed methodology consists of several components. It uses the Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) for defining an environmental goal and for evaluation of the environmental effect of policy alternatives, a field based model MACRO-DB for describing the impact of crop management programs and agricultural land use on concentrations of active compounds from pesticide use and the use of economic modelling to determine the effect on farm income from alternative tax schemes. The paper presents an application of this method using empirical data from a small agricultural catchment in Southern Sweden and compares the economic and environmental effects of a differentiated tax on the most toxic class of pesticides and a flat tax on all pesticides. On average the costs of reducing environmental impacts by one unit of PTI were estimated to be €1 009 for the flat tax and €71,5 for the differentiated tax.

  • 2849.
    Collentine, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för nationalekonomi.
    Larsson, Martin
    Hannerz, Nils
    Exploiting Decision Heuristics and IT in the design of a DSS for voluntary agri-environmental programs2004In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 303-315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Low participation rates by farmers in voluntary agri-environmental programs may depend on rationally bounded ex ante estimates of the negative effect of program enrollment on farm income. Uncertainty and the presence of information transaction costs may lead to the use of heuristics by farmers to reduce adoption decision costs. This paper describes how LENNART, a net-based decision support system (DSS), has been designed to exploit the use of heuristics and provide low cost access to information. The model has been developed to evaluate the effects of agronomic measures on farm income and on the leaching of nutrients from cultivated fields. A subsidy program for catch crop cultivation in Southern Sweden served as the basis for development of the DSS and is used throughout the paper for purposes of illustration. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 2850.
    Collentine, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Economics.
    Meacham, Megan
    Comparative analysis of transaction costs for three alternative programs to reduce the discharge of nutrients to the Baltic Sea from wastewater treatment plants2011Report (Other academic)
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