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  • 301.
    Al-Barwari, Mona
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Hamed, Zabi
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Enkelt, Snabbt & Rätt: En studie av Försäkringskassans omorganisation2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetet syftar till att beskriva och analysera de interna effekterna av en omorganisation. Detta bygger på en kvalitativ undersökning då vi ansåg att den var den mest relevanta metoden för studien. För att kunna fördjupa sig i ämnet från nära håll och bygga undersökningen på åsikter från de internt berörda parterna. Vi använde oss av ett flertal organisationsböcker som innehåller teorier om förändring och förändringsarbete. Information till empiriska delen av arbetet är hämtad från intervjuer med personer på ledningsnivå men också med övriga medarbetarna. Vi hade dessutom en formell verksamhetsstrategi för förändringsarbetet till vårt förfogande som vi kunde utgå ifrån.  Slutsatsen blev att Försäkringskassans verksamhet var byggd för en annan tid och behövde förändras. Detta var inte lika självklart behov för medarbetarna som för ledningen. Många i personalen är emot förnyelsearbetet och främst p.g.a. sättet förändringen genomfördes på då det var ett toppstyrt genomförande. Idén om det nya systemet bygger på tre ord: Enkelt, Snabbt & Rätt.

  • 302.
    Albert, Frederic
    et al.
    Laboratoire de Neurobiologie Humaine, Université de Provence, Marseille, France.
    Bergenheim, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Surgery, Central Hospital Karlstad, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Ribot-Ciscar, Edith
    Laboratoire de Neurobiologie Humaine, Université de Provence, Marseille, France.
    Roll, Jean-Pierre
    Laboratoire de Neurobiologie Humaine, Université de Provence, Marseille, France.
    The Ia afferent feedback of a given movement evokes the illusion of the same movement when returned to the subject via muscle tendon vibration2006In: Experimental Brain Research, ISSN 0014-4819, E-ISSN 1432-1106, Vol. 172, no 2, p. 163-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to further investigate the contribution of primary muscle spindle feedback to proprioception and higher brain functions, such as movement trajectory recognition. For this purpose, complex illusory movements were evoked in subjects by applying patterns of muscle tendon vibration mimicking the natural Ia afferent pattern. Ia afferent messages were previously recorded using microneurographic method from the six main muscle groups acting on the ankle joint during imposed "writing like" movements. The mean Ia afferent pattern was calculated for each muscle group and used as a template to pilot each vibrator. Eleven different vibratory patterns were applied to ten volunteers. Subjects were asked both to copy the perceived illusory movements by hand on a digitizing tablet and to recognize and name the corresponding graphic symbol. The results show that the Ia afferent feedback of a given movement evokes the illusion of the same movement when it is applied to the subject via the appropriate pattern of muscle tendon vibration. The geometry and the kinematic parameters of the imposed and illusory movements are very similar and the so-called "two-thirds power law" is present in the reproduction of the vibration-induced illusory movements. Vibrations within the "natural" frequency range of Ia fibres firing (around 30 Hz) produce clear illusions of movements in all the tested subjects. In addition, increasing the mean frequency of the vibration patterns resulted in a linear increase in the size of the illusory movements. Lastly, the subjects were able to recognize and name the symbols evoked by the vibration-induced primary muscle spindle afferent patterns in 83% of the trials. These findings suggest that the "proprioceptive signature" of a given movement is associated with the corresponding "perceptual signature". The neural mechanisms possibly underlying the sensory to perceptual transformation are discussed in the general framework of "the neuronal population vector model".

  • 303. Albert, Frederic
    et al.
    Ribot-Ciscar, Edith
    Fiocchi, Michel
    Bergenheim, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Belastningsskadecentrum.
    Roll, Jean-Pierre
    Proprioceptive feedback in humans expresses motor invariants during writing.2005In: Experimental Brain Research, ISSN 0014-4819, E-ISSN 1432-1106, Vol. 164, no 2, p. 242-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proprioceptive feedback from populations of muscle spindle afferents feeds the brain with information relating to the instantaneous velocity and direction of ongoing movements. In this paper, we investigate whether the invariant relationship between the velocity and curvature of a trajectory, i.e. the two-thirds power law, is reflected in this muscle spindle feedback. Sixty unitary muscle spindle afferents from six ankle muscle groups were recorded using intraneural microelectrodes during imposed "writing-like" movements. The movements had kinematic parameters obeying the two-thirds power law and were imposed so that the tip of the foot followed trajectories forming four different letters and six numbers. The responses of the muscle spindle afferent populations were analysed using the population vector model. The results demonstrate that the neuronal trajectories attained from populations of muscle spindles clearly depict the path and kinematic parameters and express the movement invariants, i.e. the trajectory segmentation into units of action and the two-thirds power law. The central vs peripheral origin of such constraints involved in the motor system is discussed.

  • 304.
    Alberti, Åsa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies.
    Gustafsson, Lina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies.
    Betalningssättens påverkan på e-handelskonsumenters köpbeslut: en undersökning bland högskolestudenter2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Titel: Betalningssättens påverkan på e-handelskonsumenters köpbeslut – en enkätundersökning

    Bakgrund: Trygghet och betalningssäkerhet är två frågor som ständigt är aktuella inom e-handeln och möjligheten att välja mellan olika betalningssätt är en av de faktorer som kan påverka e-handelskonsumentens köpbeslut. I den här uppsatsen undersöker vi vilken inverkan den möjligheten har på olika aspekter av köpbeslutet.

    Syfte: Vårt syfte är att undersöka om möjligheten att välja mellan olika betalningssätt påverkar e-handelskonsumentens, i form av högskolestudenters, köpbeslut och om så är fallet vilka betalningssätt e-handlare bör erbjuda för att köpbeslutet inte ska påverkas negativt.

    Metod: Med utgångspunkt i tidigare studier har vi sammanställt en enkät med frågor kring konsumenters syn på olika betalningssätt i samband med e-handel. Enkäten skickades ut till programstudenter på högskolan i Gävle. Urvalet utgjordes av ett icke-slumpmässigt urval. Av 1008 tillfrågade svarade 227 st vilket ger en svarsfrekvens på 22,5%. Resultaten av enkäten har sammanställts och presenteras i diagram och med dessa som utgångspunkt har vi studerat svarsfrekvenser och försökt att finna samband som kan ge en indikation om vilka betalningssätt som är mest önskvärda bland e-handelskonsumenter.

    Analys och slutsats: Möjligheten att välja mellan olika betalningssätt påverkar e-handelskonsumentens köpbeslut på flera sätt. Rätt använt är det en faktor som kan reducera den upplevda risken, öka det upplevda förtroendet och öka de upplevda fördelarna. Att erbjuda flera betalningssätt är ett sätt att bygga förtroende. Alltför komplicerade betalningssystem kan dock leda till att kunder väljer att avstå köp. Som e-handlare bör man därför försöka att tillgodose båda sidorna, de som prioriterar säkerhet och de som prioriterar bekvämlighet.

    Förslag till fortsatt forskning: Vi presenterar en utökad modell över köpprocessen. Med utgångspunkt i den hade man kunnat undersöka andra aspekters påverkan på köpbeslutet. Ytterligare ett förslag är att upprepa enkätundersökningen med en annan metod för att försöka öka svarsfrekvensen.

    Uppsatsens bidrag: Uppsatsen undersöker sambandet mellan möjligheten att välja mellan olika betalningssätt och e-handelskonsumentens köpbeslut och introducerar en utökad modell över e-handelskonsumentens köpprocess.

    Nyckelord: betalningssätt, upplevd risk, e-handel, köpprocessen, online-betalning och internetstrategi.

  • 305.
    Albertsson, Andreas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Eliasson, Ulrika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Ledares hantering av sociala aspekter i en Lean Production-kontext2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med studien är att skapa förståelse för hur ledare i en Lean Production- kontext hanterar effekter på medarbetares arbetsmiljö och hälsa utifrån de sociala nyckelaspekterna kontroll, krav, social support och erkännande/belöning.

    Metod: Studien utgår ifrån en hermeneutisk vetenskapstradition och antar ett social konstruktionistiskt synsätt. Med en abduktiv ansats kopplas teori och empiri samman i en kvalitativ fallstudie. Studien är uppbyggd kring semistrukturerade intervjuer och observationer.

    Studiens bidrag: Studien skapar förståelse för hur ledare hanterar effekter på medarbetarnas arbetsmiljö och hälsa utifrån de valda nyckelaspekterna kontroll, krav, social support och erkännande/belöning. Den belyser även vikten av att balansera dessa för att åstadkomma en så effektiv hantering som möjligt. Studien uppmärksammar också effekter på ledares arbetssituation i form av hög arbetsbelastning, samt att det i studien finns ett upplevt gap mellan ledare och medarbetare gällande kommunikation och engagemang.

    Förslag till fortsatt forskning: Utifrån studien läggs följande förslag fram som exempel till vidare forskning: Hur kan ledare i en Lean Production-kontext hantera kommunikationen med medarbetare för att den skall fungera bättre, samt att beröm och feedback skall nå fram? Hur- och vem ska hantera effekterna som uppkommer på ledares arbetsmiljö och hälsa, i en Lean Production-kontext? 

  • 306.
    Albertsson, Hanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Läs- och skrivsvårigheter och matematiksvårigheter: En sambandsstudie gällande några specialpedagogers uppfattningar2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att utröna hur några verksamma specialpedagoger upplever ett eventuellt samband mellan läs- och skrivsvårigheter och matematiksvårigheter med fokus på hur detta eventuella samband kan yttra sig samt hur det går att underlätta i matematikämnet för elever med denna typ av problematik. För att finna ett resultat har kvalitativa intervjuer genomförts med fyra pedagoger som alla verkar inom det specialpedagogiska fältet. Resultatet visar att pedagogerna är splittrade i sina uppfattningar gällande omfattningen av samband men att alla pedagoger upplever ett visst mått av samband, vilket de anser kan ta sitt uttryck i matematikämnet främst i form av problem med problemlösning. Vidare är pedagogerna överens om att det går att underlätta för dessa elever med hjälp av konkreta/laborativa material, kompensatoriskt arbete samt genom att möta individen där denne befinner sig.

  • 307.
    Albin, Maria
    et al.
    Institutet för miljömedicin, Karolinska institutet, Stockholm.
    Abrahamsson, Kenneth
    Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Luleå tekniska universitet, Luelå.
    Lagerlöf, Elisabeth
    Info2you.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Symposium: Hållbart arbetsliv i framtidens Europa – lägesrapport och utmaningar inför nästa EU ramprogram FP92018In: FALF KONFERENS 2018 Arbetet – problem eller potential för en hållbar livsmiljö?   10-12 juni 2018 Gävle: Program och abstracts / [ed] Lindberg, Per, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2018, p. 98-99Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under senaste året har det inom EU pågått ett rådslag om en europeisk pelare för sociala rättigheter som syftat till ett fungerande samspel mellan social trygghet och ekonomisk förändring. Ett toppmöte för rättvisa jobb och tillväxt ägde rum i Göteborg hösten 2017, som fokuserade på hur man kan främja inkluderande tillväxt, skapa rättvisa jobb och främja lika möjligheter för alla kvinnor och män. Vid mötet redovisades också erfaren-heter av arbetslivspolitik och praktiska insatser från olika EU länder.

    Uppmärksamhet ägnades också områden som nya arbetsformer, förutsättningar för flexibilitet och trygghet, samspelet mellan löner, arbetsförhållanden, arbetsmiljö. Vidare berördes balansen mellan social trygghet och socialt skydd å ena sidan och produktivitet, ekonomisk utveckling och tillväxt å den andra. De bestående skillnaderna mellan män och kvinnor avseende anställning, arbetsförhållanden, karriärmöjligheter, lön och pension uppmärksammades också. Effekter av att befolkningen åldras eller av automatisering och digitalisering var ett annat policyområde. Sammantaget lyfte toppmötet fram strategiska frågor för den framtida arbetslivsforskningen på europeiskt plan – i denna utmaning ligger också att öka samspelet mellan forskning i Sverige och forskning i Europa.

    Svensk arbetslivsforskning behöver synas mer i ett europeiskt sammanhang och europeisk forskning och kunskapsutveckling bör bättre tas tillvara i Sverige. Med stöd av VINNOVA startades år 2013 en påverkansplattform för att lyfta fram hållbart arbetsliv som ett centralt och övergripande område i EU:s åttonde ramprogram för forskning, Horisont 2020. Motiven därtill är uppenbara; digitalisering, globalisering och en ny demografi med ökad livslängd och migration. Vi lever också i en tid med snabbare om-ställning i arbetslivet och där de traditionella arbetsmarknadsrelationerna tenderar att luckras upp.

    Syftet med denna session är dels att rapportera vad som gjorts i det Vinnova-finansierade projektet om hållbart arbetsliv i EU som nu avslutas under 2018, dels lyfta och dryfta idéer och förslag om vilken roll hållbart arbetsliv kan spela inom FP 9 – det nästa ramprogrammet som startar 2021. När det gäller det första syftet handlar det om att utveckla kontakter med EU:s institutioner som DG research, Eurofound och EU_OSHA, liksom med de europeiska arbetsmiljöforskningsinstitutionerna via PEROSH, samt forskarnätverk och parter i Europa. En annan metod har varit att ge förslag på områden som borde lyftas fram i kommande utlysningar, vilket har skett genom workshops i Bryssel och annorstädes. Vi har också verkat för att svenska forskare i ökad utsträckning kan medverka i EU-finansierade projekt, exempelvis genom att ta initiativ till forsknings-program eller delta som partner i nätverk som koordineras av forskare på europeiskt plan. Sedan något år tillbaka har en diskussion startats om FP9 – EU:s nionde ramprogram för forskning. Diskussionen utgår från professor Mariana Mazzucatos rapport Mission Oriented Research & Innovations in the European Union: A problem-solving approach to fuel innovation-led growth. Vid seminariet ges också en lägesbild om vad som är på gång i detta sammanhang både via formella och informella kanaler. Sessionen bygger vidare på en workshop som projektet genomförde i Stockholm i början av november 2017 – se:

    - www.sustainablework220.se

    - https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/info/files/mazzucato_report_2018.pdf

  • 308.
    Alcheikh, Ahmad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Advantages and Challenges of Hemp Biodiesel Production: A comparison of Hemp vs. Other Crops Commonly used for biodiesel production2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Reducing reliance on a fossil fuel is a major challenge to many advanced and developing economies. This is due to the fact that fossil fuel, a finite resource, is depleting at a rapid rate with increasing demand. Additionally, the burning of fossil fuel is responsible for the current climate change, as a result of produced greenhouse gas emissions. Lastly, developing alternative renewable fuels improves energy security and decreases vulnerability of fuel supply. This thesis work explores the advantages and challenges of hemp biodiesel production. The aim of this research is to present a comprehenive evaluation of these advantages and disadvantages in the way of large-scale production of biodiesel produced from hemp oil. The thesis work relies on relavent research paper in the field and reports from the industry. Industrial hemp, a variant of the Cannabis Sativa plant (Cannabis Sativa Linn), is an important industrial and nutritional crop. Hemp seed oil can be used to produce biodiesel though the process of transesterification. Oil from hemp seeds presents a viable feedstock option for biodiesel production. Hemp provides a competitively high yield compared to similar crops. Biodiesel from hemp seed oil exhibits superior fuel quality with the exception of the kinetic viscosity and oxidation stability parameters, which can be improved with the introduction of chemical additives. Hemp remains a “niche” crop in the food supply chain, which makes it prohibitively expensive a primary feedstock in biodiesel production. Legal and perception challenges remain a major challenge in the way of wide-scale hemp biodiesel production. 

  • 309.
    Alcoverro Colom, Pau
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    A new energy model for the Lakshadweep islands: Change from a diesel-based model to a hybrid model with renewable energy systems considering the ecological fragility of the islands2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 310.
    Alderman Andersson, Yvonne
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap.
    Avstå eller avbryta livsuppehållande behandling - Intensivvårdssjuksköterskans delaktighet i beslutsprocessen2009Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 311.
    Aldén, Rebecka
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Werme, Sandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans agerande och faktorer som kan påverka beslutsfattandet om att anmäla vid misstänkt barnmisshandel.: En litterarurstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet: var att beskriva sjuksköterskans agerande och vilka faktorer som kan påverka beslutet om att anmäla eller inte vid misstanke om barnmisshandel samt att granska kvaliteten avseende de metodologiska aspekterna urval- och datainsamlingsmetod i studiens ingående artiklar.

    Metod: Deskriptiv litteraturstudie baserad på femton vetenskapliga artiklar som söktes från databaserna Pubmed och Cinahl.

    Resultat: Sjuksköterskor känner sig osäkra när tecken/symtom var otydliga och avvaktade för att samla information innan hon eller han bestämde sig för att anmäla. Sjuksköterskor var bekväma i sina observationer när arbetsplatsen stod bakom beslut om att anmäla misstanke om barnmisshandel. Faktorer som visade sig påverka sjuksköterskans beslut om att anmäla var utbildning, kunskap, samarbete, riktlinjer, självförtroende, attityder och inställning.

    Slutsats: Screening för barnmisshandel, tydliga riktlinjer, mer stöd från kollegor samt utbildning inom området behövs.

  • 312.
    Alegria Alvarez, Li
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Jämställdhet i politisk debatt: en argumentationsanalys av riksdagsdebatt2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study involves an analysis of arguments on parental allowance debates and sex legislation debates. The debates that will be analyzed are the following; allowance, equality bonus, stricter punishment for the purchase of sexual services and men's violence against women, violence and oppression, and violence in same-sex relationships.

    This empirical research is a qualitative study in its entirety, as for the method is an argumentation analysis. The arguments which the debates contain will be analyzed from a gender perspective.

    The theoretical question is: What is considered equality as a gender perspective?

    The empirical question is: How did parliament debates the issue of parental and prostitution laws issue from a gender perspective?

    The debates about genus and gender equality perspective have been a crucial issue in the Swedish Parliament. That women and men are equal or unequal has been heavily emphasized in the debates.

    My study aims at an in depth investigation in these debates based on an analysis of arguments. Moreover, I have evaluated what gender combined with democracy and democratic self-determination entails. I have structured my analysis up by various arguments and analyzed these arguments on the basis of the perspectives above.

    My conclusion is that the first two debates were treated particularly in the genus and the gender equality perspective and there was a possibility to connect the theories in relevant argumentations/discussions. However, complex problems emerged in the last two debates, stricter penalty regarding the purchase of sexual services, violence against women, violence and oppression, and violence in same-sex relationships where gender and equality issues have been avoided to be treated. Generally occurring from the bourgeois side than from the opposition.

  • 313.
    Aleksandrov, A. A.
    et al.
    St Petersburg State University, Russia.
    Deinekina, T. S.
    St Petersburg State University, Russia.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lyskov, Eugene B.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    ВЛИЯНИЕ НАБЛЮДЕНИЯ ЗА ДВИЖЕНИЕМ НА ВОССТАНОВЛЕНИЕ РАБОТОСПОСОБНОСТИ ПОСЛЕ ФИЗИЧЕСКОГО УТОМЛЕНИЯ [The influence of movement's observation on recuperation after physical fatigue]2014In: Zurnal vyssej nervnoj deâtel'nosti im. I.P. Pavlova, ISSN 0044-4677, Vol. 64, no 5, p. 481-487Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study aim was to investigate effects of mental activity, accompanied by mu-rhythm depression, on recuperation after physical fatigue. In a study participants performed 11 one minute bouts of static hand grip intermitted by 2 minutes rest pauses. During pauses participants watched video with either dynamic hand grips (biological movements) or deformation of geometric figure (control). Obtained data showed there was a significant depression of mu-rhythm during biological movement's observation. There was significant fatigue of subjects in an exercise with physical activity, but there was no reliable influence of performed mental activity on recovery after fatigue.

  • 314.
    Alexander, Weman
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ida, Westerberg
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kvinnors upplevelser av det första året efter en Gastric bypass operation.: En kvalitativ blogganalys2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att beskriva kvinnors upplevelser av livet första året efter en Gastric bypass operation. Metoden var en kvalitativ blogganalys av beskrivande design som använde sig av ett ändamålsurval med inklusion- exklusionkriterier. Åtta kvinnor deltog i studien. Det insamlande materialet analyserades genom en manifest innehållsanalys. 

    Syftet med studien var att beskriva kvinnors upplevelser av livet första året efter en Gastric bypass operation. Metoden var en kvalitativ blogganalys av beskrivande design som använde sig av ett ändamålsurval med inklusion- exklusionkriterier. Åtta kvinnor deltog i studien. Det insamlande materialet analyserades genom en manifest innehållsanalys. 

    Slutsatsen var att ingen av informanterna ångrade ingreppet då de upplevde att operationen var den enda vägen ur tillståndet. Informanterna upplevde att stödet och attityderna från sjukvården var sämre än väntat samt att informationen om vad som väntade efter operation var till och från var bristfällig. Attityden från omgivningen men även ibland från vården upplevdes som dålig och informanterna kändes sig missförstådda, inte tagna på allvar och ibland utanförskap.

  • 315.
    Alexandra, Svedström
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies.
    The ZAZI campaign´s Facebook page: A field study of the use of Facebook in the ZAZI campaign in South Africa2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Titel: The ZAZI campaign’s Facebook page- A field study of the use of Facebook in the ZAZI campaign

    Level: Bachelor thesis, C-level

    Area: Media and Communication Studies

    Author: Alexandra Svedström, V14MKand

    Supervisor: Associate professor Eva Åsén Ekstrand, Department of Media and Communication Studies

    Date: The field study will be conducted during March - May in 2014

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the motives and attitudes of a group of South African women and men (aged between 20 to 30 years) have towards responding to the questions set on the ZAZI campaign’s Facebook page that may involve private and sensitive information. It also seeks to examine whether the questions that ZAZI campaign sets are consistent with the informant’s attitudes and motives.

    Rationale: The result may be used to improve the campaign whose ultimate goal is to prevent the spread of HIV / AIDS by strengthening women's self-efficacy and confidence.

    Questions: What are the selected informant’s motives for using Facebook in general? What attitudes and motives do the selected South African Facebook users have toward commenting on the questions on the ZAZI campaigns Facebook page? How are the selected informants’ attitudes and motives consistent with the type of questions the campaign set?

    Method: Content analysis and focus groups.

    Result: The study indicate that the motives for writing on the ZAZI campaign's Facebook page differs depending on socio-economic status and that the campaign should vary the content of the questions so all women's motives become satisfied. The page appears, for those groups with a lack of socio-economic status, to serve as a platform that encourages and create conversations about private matters.

    Keywords: Health campaign, Facebook, Internet, social media, South Africa, focus groups, ZAZI campaign, uses and gratification, self-efficacy, HIV

  • 316.
    Alfaro Zavala, Juan Wilfredo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Improving Error Performance in Bandwidth-Limited Baseband Channels2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Channel coding has been largely used for the purpose of improving error performance on a communications system. Typical methods based on added redundancy allow for error detection and correction, this improvement however comes at a cost of bandwidth. This thesis focuses on channel coding for the bandwidth-limited channel where no bandwidth expansion is allowed.

    We first discuss the idea of coding for the bandwidth-limited channel as seen from the signal space point of view where the purpose of coding is to maximize the Euclidian distance between constellation points without increasing the total signal power and under the condition that no extra bits can be added. We then see the problem from another angle and identify the tradeoffs related to bandwidth and error performance.

    This thesis intends to find a simple way of achieving an improvement in error performance for the bandwidth-limited channel without the use of lattice codes or trellis-coded modulation.

    The proposed system is based on convolutional coding followed by multilevel transmission. It achieved a coding gain of 2 dB on Eb/No or equivalently, a coding gain of approximately 2.7 dB on SNRnorm without increase in bandwidth. This coding gain is better than that obtained by a more sophisticated lattice code Gosset E8 at the same error rate.

  • 317.
    Al-Fayadh Mean, Sophada
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Public Health and Sport Science.
    Hur motiverar Studenthälsan universitetsstudenter till minskad alkoholkonsumtion?: - En kvalitativ intervjuundersökning2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

     

    Mean, A.F. S. (2019). How Student Health Center motivate university students to reduce alcohol consumption? A qualitative interview study was carried out at three selected Swedish universities and four professionals employed were included in this empirical study. Bachelor thesis in Public Health Science. Department of Occupational and Public Health Science. Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies. University of Gävle, Sweden.

     

    Background: Universities and Student Health Centers are arenas that works with motivation methods to reduce student’s alcohol consumption during studies. Previous studies have discussed social norms, alcohol culture and pointed out that nearly half of all Swedes between 18-25 years are university students. Over the years, this age group has had a higher alcohol intake compared to other periods in life. High alcohol consumption can affect health and all three sustainable aspects: social, economic and environmental sustainability that according to SDGs is to be achieved at year end 2030.

    The Aim of study: was to investigate how Student Health Centers motivate students to reduce alcohol consumption. Method: A qualitative interview study was carried out at three selected Swedish universities and four professionals’ employees at Student health centers were included in this investigation. Result: The Student Health Centers used a number of different evidence-based methods and strategies with motivational interview to motivate university students to reduce their alcohol consumption. Motivational work was focused on both individuals and groups. Motivational work based on personal experiences and the implementation of motivational conversations with students were accordance with students´ health status and their alcohol issues.

    Discussion: Students search motivational counseling not because of perceived alcohol problem, but due to stress factors and similar problems. A change in attitudes towards less alcohol intake among young adults could be reached due to increased awareness and knowledge of alcohol harm and alcohol-free drinks alternatives.

    Conclusion: The main task of the student Health Service is to try to reach all university students by using different motivational methods and tools. The main goal is to increase health promotion, reduce alcohol risk, prevent alcohol abuse and injuries at universities and colleges. Further qualitative research is needed to be able to identify patterns of underlying stress factors and alcohol-related ill-health among university students on a larger number of Universities and Student Health Centers.

  • 318.
    Alfredsson, Elin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Kulturella aktiviteters betydelse för äldres känsla av sammanhang: En enkätundersökning på två äldreboenden i Mellansverige2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there was any association between participation in cultural activities and sense of coherence among seniors living in two nursing homes.

    Methods: A questionnaire based on Antonovskys SOC-13-questionaire was used, with added self-formulated questions including gender, age, level of physical function and participation in cultural activities. The questionnaire was distributed to 76 people 65 years and older without dementia at two nursing homes in central Sweden and 40 respondents answered the questionnaire. The material was processed and analyzed in the statistic computer program SPSS, where descriptive statistics were prepared and a chi-square analysis and logistic regression analysis was performed.

    Results: No statistically significant relationship between participation in cultural activities and sense of coherence could be seen. However, there was a correlation between the level of function and SOC scores. The lower level of function, i.e. the more help the respondent needed in everyday life, the lower sense of coherence.

    Conclusion: Functional level seems to have greater impact on an individual's sense of coherence than participation in cultural activities in the given study population.

  • 319.
    Alfredsson, Pierre
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Wikström, Linnéa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Styrelsens könsfördelning och dess effekt på företagets hållbarhetsprestation: en kvantitativ studie om förhållandet mellan BGD och CSP hos europeiska bolag2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The study is carried out in order to investigate whether there is a link between BGD (Board Gender Diversity) and total CSP (Corporate Social Performance) as well as between BGD and the environmental and social dimension respectively.

     

    Method: In this study we adopt a positivist research philosophy with a hypothetical-deductive approach. Two samples with different board systems are studied. 403 European companies in total are studied. 121 companies with a two-tier board system and 282 companies with a one-tier board system. The quantitative research strategy is based on a longitudinal design implemented between 2008-2017. All data was collected through Thomson Reuters Datastream and then analyzed using SPSS.

     

    Result & Conclusions: The study finds a significant positive relationship between BGD and total CSP as well as between BGD and the environmental dimension and the social dimension respectively. Companies with higher BGD seems to be more likely to invest in CSR. The relationship is found within the two-tier board system as well as the one-tier board system. However, the impact of BGD is stronger within the one-tier board system.

     

    Contribution of the thesis: The study provides new knowledge about the relationship between BGD and total CSP as well as between BGD and the environmental dimension and the social dimension. The study is among the first to make a comparison between the two-tier board system and the one-tier board system. The result is relevant in view of the increasing demands on companies to act sustainably as well as the ongoing debate on whether the EU should introduce mandatory gender quotas on boards.

     

    Suggestions for future research: Further research at country and industry level is needed as the relationship may differ between different countries and industries, thus affecting the logic behind mandatory gender quotas. Future research is also proposed to include the third board system, mixed board structure. Furthermore, the proposal to look more closely at the corporate risk and its importance within various board systems, partly with regard to the companies’ sustainability performance, but also with regard to BGD, is given. Finally, it is proposed that future research could investigate the individual CSP dimensions more closely in order to determine what may be behind BGDs greater impact on the social dimension.

     

  • 320.
    Alftberg, Ann-Kristin
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    British or American English?: attitudes, awareness and usage among pupils in a secondary school2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to find out which variety of English pupils in secondary school use, British or American English, if they are aware of their usage, and if there are differences between girls and boys. British English is normally the variety taught in school, but influences of American English due to exposure of different media are strong and have consequently a great impact on Swedish pupils. This study took place in a secondary school, and 33 pupils in grade 9 participated in the investigation. They filled in a questionnaire which investigated vocabulary, attitudes and awareness, and read a list of words out loud. The study showed that the pupils tend to use American English more than British English, in both vocabulary and pronunciation, and that all of the pupils mixed American and British features. A majority of the pupils had a higher preference for American English, particularly the boys, who also seemed to be more aware of which variety they use, and in general more aware of the differences between British and American English.

  • 321.
    Alftberg, Ann-Kristin
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences.
    Vad lär man sig i idrott och hälsa?: en studie om högstadieelevers lärande i ämnet2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att ta reda på vad eleverna upplever att de lärt sig i ämnet idrott och hälsa, samt om kunskapen motsvarar syften och mål i den nationella kursplanen för ämnet. Studien genomfördes i form av en enkätundersökning bland 59 elever i år 9. Resultatet visar att elevernas kunskap motsvarar målen i kursplanen i vissa moment, medan detta inte uppfylls i andra moment. Färdigheter inom olika idrotter och social utveckling är det som eleverna särskilt upplever att de lärt sig/utvecklat genom idrottsundervisningen, medan den psykiska aspekten av hälsa har hamnat i skymundan, tillsammans med kunskaper inom bland annat dans, friluftsliv och livräddning. Enligt detta kan konstateras att elevernas kunskap i sin helhet inte motsvarar syften och mål i kursplanen i tillräckligt hög grad, samt att undervisningen i idrott och hälsa fokuserar mer på utövande av fysisk aktivitet än övriga syften och mål i den nationella kursplanen.

  • 322.
    Alftberg, Helene
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap.
    Vårdpreventivt arbetssätt för att förhindra undernäring hos äldre – Intervjuer med vårdpersonal inom tre vårdnivåer2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to describe nursing staffs’ perceptions of risks for malnutrition and preventive efforts thereof, for patients 70 years and older, at different care levels within one municipality. Descriptive design was used and twelve participants included; two district nurses, one physiotherapist and one occupational therapist from a health care centre, two registered nurses, one unit director and one physiotherapist from a nursing home in the municipality and four registered nurses from an internal medicine hospital ward. Interviews and qualitative content analysis was used resulting in four categories Conditions of risks for malnutrition, Ensuring nutritional intake, Structured way to work and Collaboration and responsibilities. The participants’ described diseases, disabilities and lost of apprehension concerning weight constituting malnutrition risks. Meals and meal environment influence nutritional intake. Risk assessments, interventions and evaluations mirrored structured way of working. Collaboration with colleagues, other professionals and care levels were highlighted together with responsibilities. Physicians’ participation in malnutrition preventions needs clarification. Improvements like documentation of the nutritional status among the elderly and reports between the different levels of care are needed to ensure safe nutritional care.

     

  • 323.
    Alftberg, Linda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Flodström, Evelina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Man måste brinna för att tända glöd i andra.: Kvinnliga ledare i arbetslivet.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Society is facing rapid and continuous change. In order to participate in the development, organizations need to take advantage of all the knowledge and skills available in the labor market. Women leaders in top positions are still in the minority but do as good a job as their male colleagues. She brings different dynamics and a new dimension in the work culture but is nevertheless excluded from the mightiest rooms. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the organizational factors that determine and facilitate for women to take on leadership positions. Through semi-structured interviews with six women leaders, the material has resulted in a thematic analysis with four themes. These themes are the workplace culture, impersonation, conditions and driving forces. The result confirms earlier research showing the importance of a healthy corporate culture to shape and develop tomorrow’s passionate women leaders.

  • 324.
    Alftberg, Martina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Garneryd, Veronica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Det viktiga mötet: En observationsstudie kring hur samspelstiden fördelas mellan barn och pedagog under en verksamhetsförlagd dag i förskolan2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Under de senaste årtionden har den svenska förskolan genomgått stora förändringar där barnantalet ökat i takt med att pedagogerna blivit tilldelade alltmer uppdrag utanför barngruppen. Samtidigt som förskolans läroplan ställer höga krav, där pedagogen har till uppgift att möta varje enskilt barn i ett socialt samspel och tillvarata det unika hos varje individ (Skolverket, 2016). Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka samspelstillfällen mellan barn och pedagog under en verksamhetsförlagd dag i förskolan, samt undersöka hur omgivningen kan påverka interaktionen däremellan. Studien är kvalitativ och materialet har inhämtats via skuggning av tio barn samt en gruppintervju med två verksamma pedagoger i förskolan. Resultatet visar på stora variationer mellan barnens samspelstid tillsammans med pedagog. Vidare framkommer det hur faktorer i omgivningen kan orsaka avbrott i samspelet, vilket i sin tur resulterar i kortare sammanhållande interaktionstider för det enskilda barnet. 

  • 325.
    Algerstam, Veronica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Andersson, Agnes
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    A Narrative Study About International Adopted Young Adults' Experiences Regarding Identity Development2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study was based on three interviews with three internationally adopted young adults. The aim of the study was to explore how international adopted young adults have experienced their identity development in a retrospective perspective in relation to family and friends. To answer the research-questions semi-structured qualitative inter­views have been performed. A narrative method was chosen to explore how the parti­cipants' described their experiences. Topics that appeared in the result where topics such as family relationships, the society’s influence on the participants and connections to other adoptees. The conclusions of this study were that com­muni­cation and connections to family was an essential factor in the subjects' identity develop­ment. The informants feeling of belonging was affected by society´s influence on appearances and it was important for the participants to have someone in their life that they could talk to and get support from.  

  • 326.
    Algesjö Rautiainen, Sarah
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology.
    Strand, Annika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology.
    Vad händer när jag inte finns längre?: Föräldrars föreställningar om framtiden för sina intellektuellt funktionsnedsatta barn2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate what thoughts and strategies parents of people with intellectual disabilities had concerning their children’s future, and if whether societal attitudes had an impact on these thoughts. A qualitative study was conducted through focus group discussions. The results were categorized through a thematic analysis, and the results were analysed using SOC and coping theories. The parents' fears were of societal changes and cutbacks to the welfare system. The participants were reluctant thinking about the future, a form of avoidant coping. They also used problem-focused coping by improvements to the child's current situation and through organized advocacy work. An important conclusion was that parents of people with intellectual disabilities felt a strong worry regarding their children's future when they themselves would be gone. This due to a lack of sense of coherence caused by perceived shortcomings in societal structures and negative attitudes from society.

  • 327.
    Al-hedr, Hkmat
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Palomera, Giordano
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Erfarenheter av egenvård hos vuxna personer med Diabetes typ 2: En litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Diabetes typ 2 ökar globalt, riskfaktorer för utvecklingen är bland annat ärftlighet och levnadssätt. Främsta behandlingen är egenvård i form av regelbunden motion och hälsosam kosthållning.

     

    Syfte: Syftet med litteraturstudien var att beskriva erfarenheter av egenvård hos vuxna personer med Diabetes typ 2.

     

    Metod: En beskrivande litteraturstudie som inkluderade 15 artiklar, vilka svarade på litteraturstudiens syfte. Genom databaserna MEDLINE via PubMed och CINAHL söktes artiklar fram systematiskt, varav en var manuell sökning.

     

    Resultat: Resultatet visade att personer kände oro vid diagnostisering av Diabetes typ 2. Oron minskade när personerna accepterade sjukdomen och tog ansvar genom egenvård. Personer förklarade att de behövde upprätthålla egenvårdsåtgärder för att det skulle ske en livsstilsförändring, dock beskrevs det som svårt. Även om personer påbörjat sin väg mot livsstilsförändring kunde de stöta på svårigheter att hantera sociala sammanhang, vilket var ett hinder i deras vardag. Närstående till personer kunde också upplevas som ett hinder, men främst ansågs de närstående vara ett stort stöd. Personer beskrev också sjuksköterskan som ett viktigt stöd, framförallt med motivation. Andra personer beskrev istället att sjuksköterskan endast utförde praktiska procedurer.

     

    Slutsats: Utifrån litteraturstudiens resultat kan sjuksköterskan få en uppfattning av personernas erfarenheter. Detta kan underlätta för sjuksköterskan att främja hälsa genom att ge anpassad information och vård. Om personer får en sådan hjälp kan de ta eget ansvar för sin behandling och därav påbörja sin egenvård. Genom att personerna upprätthåller sin egenvård kan de i längden förbättra sin livskvalitet.

  • 328.
    Ali, Fadi
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Urban classification by pixel and object-based approaches for very high resolution imagery2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, there is a tremendous amount of high resolution imagery that wasn’t available years ago, mainly because of the advancement of the technology in capturing such images. Most of the very high resolution (VHR) imagery comes in three bands only the red, green and blue (RGB), whereas, the importance of using such imagery in remote sensing studies has been only considered lately, despite that, there are no enough studies examining the usefulness of these imagery in urban applications. This research proposes a method to investigate high resolution imagery to analyse an urban area using UAV imagery for land use and land cover classification. Remote sensing imagery comes in various characteristics and format from different sources, most commonly from satellite and airborne platforms. Recently, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have become a very good potential source to collect geographic data with new unique properties, most important asset is the VHR of spatiotemporal data structure. UAV systems are as a promising technology that will advance not only remote sensing but GIScience as well. UAVs imagery has been gaining popularity in the last decade for various remote sensing and GIS applications in general, and particularly in image analysis and classification. One of the concerns of UAV imagery is finding an optimal approach to classify UAV imagery which is usually hard to define, because many variables are involved in the process such as the properties of the image source and purpose of the classification. The main objective of this research is evaluating land use / land cover (LULC) classification for urban areas, whereas the data of the study area consists of VHR imagery of RGB bands collected by a basic, off-shelf and simple UAV. LULC classification was conducted by pixel and object-based approaches, where supervised algorithms were used for both approaches to classify the image. In pixel-based image analysis, three different algorithms were used to create a final classified map, where one algorithm was used in the object-based image analysis. The study also tested the effectiveness of object-based approach instead of pixel-based in order to minimize the difficulty in classifying mixed pixels in VHR imagery, while identifying all possible classes in the scene and maintain the high accuracy. Both approaches were applied to a UAV image with three spectral bands (red, green and blue), in addition to a DEM layer that was added later to the image as ancillary data. Previous studies of comparing pixel-based and object-based classification approaches claims that object-based had produced better results of classes for VHR imagery. Meanwhile several trade-offs are being made when selecting a classification approach that varies from different perspectives and factors such as time cost, trial and error, and subjectivity.

          Classification based on pixels was approached in this study through supervised learning algorithms, where the classification process included all necessary steps such as selecting representative training samples and creating a spectral signature file. The process in object-based classification included segmenting the UAV’s imagery and creating class rules by using feature extraction. In addition, the incorporation of hue, saturation and intensity (IHS) colour domain and Principle Component Analysis (PCA) layers were tested to evaluate the ability of such method to produce better results of classes for simple UAVs imagery. These UAVs are usually equipped with only RGB colour sensors, where combining more derived colour bands such as IHS has been proven useful in prior studies for object-based image analysis (OBIA) of UAV’s imagery, however, incorporating the IHS domain and PCA layers in this research did not provide much better classes. For the pixel-based classification approach, it was found that Maximum Likelihood algorithm performs better for VHR of UAV imagery than the other two algorithms, the Minimum Distance and Mahalanobis Distance. The difference in the overall accuracy for all algorithms in the pixel-based approach was obvious, where the values for Maximum Likelihood, Minimum Distance and Mahalanobis Distance were respectively as 86%, 80% and 76%. The Average Precision (AP) measure was calculated to compare between the pixel and object-based approaches, the result was higher in the object-based approach when applied for the buildings class, the AP measure for object-based classification was 0.9621 and 0.9152 for pixel-based classification. The results revealed that pixel-based classification is still effective and can be applicable for UAV imagery, however, the object-based classification that was done by the Nearest Neighbour algorithm has produced more appealing classes with higher accuracy. Also, it was concluded that OBIA has more power for extracting geographic information and easier integration within the GIS, whereas the result of this research is estimated to be applicable for classifying UAV’s imagery used for LULC applications.

  • 329.
    Ali, Fatima
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Liljenmalm, Therése
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Voluntary mediation for crime prevention – a qualitative study of professionals working for the Council for Crime Prevention inGävle2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract:

    The  aim  of  this  study  was  to  examine  which  attitudes  professionals  who  are  involved  in voluntary mediation in  Gävle, have towards voluntary mediation  as a  preventative  working method.

    The  empirical  material  used  in  this  study,  has  been  gathered  through  semi-structured interviews with staff members of the so called Crime Preventers in Gävle (Brottsförebyggarna I Gävle, BIG) and staff members from the police and social services. These interviews helped to get a deeper understanding and detailed information about the attitudes towards restorative justice  and  voluntary  mediation.  The  theoretical  framework  that  was  used  was  social constructionism and restorative justice theory.

    The  Crime  Preventers  (BIG)  in  Gävle  are  keeping  the  method  and  process  up  to  date  by further  educating  themselves  within  the  subject  via  conferences,  workshops  and  similar activities. There seems to be a preference for working more with mediation, since currently the activity of the voluntary process is decreasing due to a decrease in suitable criminal cases for mediation.

    The results from this study however indicate that attitudes toward mediation, as a process and method  on  a  voluntary  basis,  are  highly  appreciated  amongst  those  who  are  continuously working with it.   However, further research on the subject is desired to develop it better and gain more from its positive effects.

  • 330.
    Ali Mohamed, Khadar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Applying Value at Risk (VaR) analysis to Brent Blend Oil prices2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this study is to compare four different models to VaR in terms of accuracy, namely Historical Simulation (HS), Simple Moving Average (SMA), Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) and Exponentially Weighted Historical Simulation (EWHS).

    These VaR models will be applied to one underlying asset which is the Brent Blend Oil using these confidence levels 95 %, 99 % and 99, 9 %. Concerning the return of the asset the models under two different assumptions namely student t-distribution and normal distribution will be studied

  • 331.
    Ali, Rafef
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Matematik och estetiska lärprocesser: en studie om ämnesintegration av estetiska verktyg i matematikundervisning.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med undersökningen var att observera hur lärarna arbetar med matematik i årskurserna F-3, med fokus på hur estetiska verktyg används i matematikundervisningen. Studien är baserad på klassobservationer i två årskurser i de tidigare skolåren F-3 samt elev- och lärarintervjuer och ämnade lyfta estetiska lärprocesser samt hur de spelar in på elevernas upplevelser vad gäller ämnesintegration i matematikundervisning. Resultaten visar att estetiska verktyg används mer med yngre elever och mindre ju äldre eleverna blir. Lärarna i denna studie påpekade att ett ämnesövergripande arbetssätt och att blanda in olika sinnen främjar elevernas inlärning. Majoriteten av de intervjuade lärarna betonade att det gäller att hitta en balans mellan olika metoder för att skapa en varierad undervisning. 

  • 332.
    Ali, Rony
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science.
    Värmeåtervinning - styrning för frånluftsvärmepump i flerbostadshus2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 333.
    Ali, Shaher Yar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Strategies For Pakistan Textiles Industry To Sustain The Business2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the challenges faced by Pakistan Textiles industry as an emerging market from MNCs of Bangladesh, China and India and to find out the appropriate strategies which should adopted by the managers of this industry to counter these challenges.

    Method: In this research qualitative data is used that is gathered through unstructured interview and questioners have been used to have desirable results.

    Results & Conclusion: It is reflected from results that internal problems of Pakistan textiles industry such as energy crisis, high input cost, political instability, low return on investment are the main problems of this industry. To counter these challenges, their strategic approach should be Collaboration in product development and strategic alliance with attacking firms.

    Suggestion for Future Research: This research is focused on the Problems and challenges faced by Pakistan Textiles Industry. For the future studies research could be done to find out the strategies for the firms from Pakistan Textiles industry to do the business in international market and how these companies can compete in International Market with presence of other MNCs of the world.

    Contribution of the Thesis: This study provides action plans for the managers of Pakistan textiles industry to design and implement the strategies that build core competencies such as high quality products for their firms. It can also be helpful for researchers and students those are interested to develop the strategies for the firms from emerging markets.

  • 334.
    Ali, Shang
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Gerdin, Elin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Modalitetsmarkörer - "det handlar om att ta språket i besittning": En studie av gymnasieelevers användning och lärares erfarenheter av modalitetsmarkörer i skrift2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att undersöka elevlösningar och att ta del av verksamma gymnasielärares erfarenheter rörande elevers användning av modalitetsmarkörer i skrift ger en bild av kvinnliga och manliga gymnasieelevers hållningar gentemot satsers innehåll och eventuella likheter och skillnader skribenterna emellan. Föreliggande studies huvudsyfte är att undersöka frekvens och funktion hos modalitetsmarkörer i elevlösningar hämtade från 2015 års nationella prov i kursen svenska 3 i gymnasiet. Till syftet hör även att granska eventuella likheter och skillnader i frekvens och funktion hos modalitetsmarkörer mellan de kvinnliga och de manliga skribenterna. Studiens bisyfte är att undersöka tillfrågade gymnasielärares erfarenheter rörande kvinnliga respektive manliga elevers användning av modalitetsmarkörer i skrift. För att uppnå syftet formulerat för denna studie kombineras och kompletteras en kvantitativ metod med en kvalitativ metod. Den kvantitativa metoden utgörs av en sammanställning och granskning av frekvens och funktion hos modalitetsmarkörer i 60 elevlösningar jämnt fördelade mellan könen. Studiens kvalitativa metod omfattas av kvalitativa intervjuer med en hög grad av strukturering i kombination med öppna frågor med tre legitimerade svensklärare. Resultaten visar på en låg frekvens av modalitetsmarkörer i både de kvinnliga och de manliga elevlösningarna. Majoriteten av samtliga modalitetsmarkörer signalerar en låg grad av sannolikhet och har således en trolighetsfunktion i satsen. Frekvensen och funktionen hos modalitetsmarkörerna skiljer sig på så vis marginellt mellan de kvinnliga och de manliga skribenternas texter. Den låga frekvensen och trolighetsfunktionen som den mest framträdande i elevers texter bekräftas ytterligare av studiens informanter, vilka vidare delar erfarenheten att modalitetsmarkörer är en viktig komponent i ett nyanserat förhållningssätt. Fynden från den kvantitativa materialbearbetningen och den kvalitativa materialbearbetningen överensstämmer således. Någon större språklig variation utifrån faktorn socialt konstruerat kön kan inte fastställas utifrån de kvantitativa och kvalitativa resultat som presenteras i denna studie.

  • 335.
    Ali, ZAKI
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Electronics.
    Självbalansering av MinSeg2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 336.
    Al-idani, Dua
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology.
    Habib, Daniella
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Criminology.
    Skolgång i samhällets vård: En intervjustudie om unga vuxnas erfarenheter av sin skolgång under placeringstiden2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to understand how young adults whom previously had been in out-of-home care retrospectively described their schooling. Five young adults between the ages of 21-26 were interviewed in a qualitative study. The theory KASAM helped identify the resources and factors that influenced the informants’ sense of coherence. The results showed that the informants were put in out-of-home care at different ages and had different experiences with their studies while in care. They received help from adults in regards to their studies, which had a positive impact on their schooling. Some informants had negative experiences from their schooling while in care caused by bullying, mental health issues and having to move multiple times. Because of our small sample we could not generalize the results. What the informants had in common was the fact that they had college-level education or were planning to receive it.

  • 337.
    Alieva, Jamila
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    von Haartman, Robin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Digital collaboration within the supply chain: new booster for hidden lean potential2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the hidden lean potential exposed by manufacturers’ usage of enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems. The potential can be classified into three types: unlocked lean potential in a connected ERP system, unlocked lean potential in an un-connected ERP system, and the lean potential for further unlocking in companies that do not use ERP systems when collaborating with suppliers/customers. Empirical data is obtained from two cases of manufacturing companies in Sweden and one ERP system company. The findings indicate that hidden lean potential can be unlocked through digital collaboration within the supply chain.

  • 338.
    Alikhani, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    A GIS-based crowdsourcing iPhone Application to Report Necessities, Civic Issues, and Public Events2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Civic issues in a society can be reported through a crowdsourcing web application. People can download the application on their smartphones and report the issues such as a pothole or broken streetlight. The report is submitted by taking a photo of the issue and additional information is entered. At first, the reports are submitted to a call center and after analyzing they will be transferred to organizations responsible for this type of events. In such a crowdsourcing project it is very vital to motivate people to participate in the project. The reports are supplied by users and without an acceptable number of users the application would be useless. In addition, having the exact location of a report is very helpful to facilitate the process of solving civic issues. Positioning with smartphones is not very accurate as they do not have strong and accurate GPSs. Therefore, there is a need to improve the accuracy of the positioning process and consequently accuracy of the spatial data. The aim of this thesis is to investigate how to employ GIS to help reporting civic issues and how to design an interesting client interface for such an application, in order to motivate user to download and use it. The goal is also to find out shortcomings and weaknesses of the positioning with smartphones and find a way to improve its accuracy.Some of successful similar applications’ structures and their interfaces were reviewed. In addition, a survey among existing users of crowdsourcing applications has been done in order to find out how to design the application to be interesting for users. Furthermore, some techniques and methods were chosen in order to improve the GPS accuracy especially in the places with a low GPS signal strength. These methods exploit WLAN and some of embedded features in a smartphone such as microphone, camera, accelerometer, gyroscope to improve the positioning accuracy. In the end, along reporting civic issues the user is able to report and get information about cheap and appropriate necessities and public events in different geographical areas through a map-based application. Furthermore, he or she is benefited by some location-based services such as online-food or taxi. The client application’s interface was designed for iPhone.This GIS-based mobile application would be an appropriate alternative for the old reporting methods like phone call or mail. Nevertheless, reporting civic issues itself, cannot be necessarily a strong motivation to attract the user to download and use the application. Therefore, desired feedbacks of the crowd need to be found out in order to encourage them to spend their time for the application. User needs to get motivated to use the application and considered additional parts can be very helpful to reach this aim.

  • 339.
    Alin, David
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Media and communication studies.
    Larsson, Adam
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Media and communication studies.
    Bockmanuskriptet: En kritisk diskursanalys om en alldeles speciell bock2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: The Goat Manuscript - A critical discourse analysis about a special goat

    Author: Adam Larsson and David Alin

    Supervisor: Ylva Habel

    Subject: Media and communication studies

    Purpose: The purpose of this study has been to investigate Aftonbladets news reporting regarding the Gävle Christmas goat between 1996, 2001, 2005, 2009 and 2016.

    Theoretical points of departure: The study is based on theories regarding news evalu-ation.

    Objectives and focus: The study has the following questions:In what ways may Lotten Gustafsson Reinius concept "tradition manuscript" have relevance to Aftonbladets news reporting on the Gävle Christmas goat?Has Aftonbladets journalism about the Gävle goat changed in a discoursively way?Is it possible to identify specific discursive patterns in the texts?

    Method: In order to answer the survey's questions, critical discourse analyzes according to Theu Van Dijk´s method have been conducted. The analyzes have mapped the news texts micro disciplinary- and macro-courses.

    Material: The study material consists of 14 articles from Aftonbladet published in pa-per form and digital edition from 1996, 2001, 2005, 2009 and 2016.

    Result: Aftonbladets reporting regarding the Gävle Christmas goat has changed over the last 20 years, where journalists uses a more neutral position in the news reporting. The research proves that more people who represent different organizations gets to speak about the accidents. The way journalists refer to the goat has changed and the way me-dia refer to the perpetrator has changed.

    Keywords: Gävle Christmas goat, yule goat, straw goat, discourse, discourse analysis, journalism, “traditional manuscript”, news evalutation, Aftonbladet

  • 340.
    Alinazari, Shabnam
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Alvinder, Catrin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    I barn och ungas ögonhöjd: En checklista från barn till plan för detaljplanering2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det demokratiska samhället med värderingar om allas lika rätt till inflytande har med Förenta Nationernas barnkonvention lyft frågan om barns rätt att påverka den fysiska planeringen (UNICEF, 2009). Plan- och bygglagen (PBL) gör ingen skillnad på barn eller vuxna vilket innebär att de ska ses som jämlika medborgare inom samhällsbyggnadsprocesser (SFS, 2010:900). Detta utgör den lagbestämda grunden till varför barn, precis som vuxna, ska ha samma rätt att påverka beslut som rör deras närmiljö. En barnchecklista kan tydliggöra att ett barnperspektiv tillämpas inom planeringsprocesser och frågorna utgår vanligen från vuxnas tolkningar av vad som bör innefattas (Boverket, 2000). Denna studie har uppmärksammat den brist på medverkan av barn och unga som ofta finns i planeringssammanhang och det finns därigenom utrymme för förbättringar. Studien har därför valt att fokusera på att få barnens röster hörda genom att undersöka vilka faktorer i miljön som är viktiga för dem. Detta har legat som grund till att utarbeta en ny checklista där deras värderingar varit grundläggande för frågornas utformande. För att uppnå detta anordnades workshops och enkätundersökningar med grupper av barn från lågstadiet upp till gymnasiet. Eftersom åldersspannen varierade mellan 9-18 år anpassades metoderna efter deras kognitiva förmåga.

    Resultatet från studien visade att barnen ansåg att det fanns flera faktorer i miljön som påverkar deras subjektiva upplevelse. Detta innefattade bland annat hur byggnader med dess utbredning och placering påverkar dem men även hur viktigt det är med bra gång- och cykelvägar för att främja för deras rörelsefrihet. Det betonades även hur bevarandevärden där exempelvis en enkel kulle för pulkaåkning eller en skogsdunge att busa i var viktigt att inte planera bort. Det slutgiltiga resultatet blev checklistan: Från barn till plan. Den är tänkt att fungera som ett arbetsverktyg med öppna frågor, vilket ger planeraren utrymme att belysa barnperspektivets tillämpning inom detaljplanering. Resultatet visade även på stor kunskap, intresse och medvetenhet hos barn och unga gällande den byggda miljön. De bör därför ses som självständiga kompetenta individer inom samhällsplanering med röster värda att höras.

  • 341.
    Alizadeh, Mahmoud
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. KTH, Teknisk informationsvetenskap.
    Characterisation, Modelling and Digital Pre-Distortion Techniques for RF Transmitters in Wireless Systems2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless systems have become an inevitable part of modern technologies serving humankind. The rapid growth towards large dimensional systems, e.g. 5th generation (5G) technologies, incurs needs for improving the performance of the systems and considering aspects to make them as far as possible environmentally friendly in terms of power efficiency, cost, and so on. One of the key parts of every wireless communication system is the radio frequency (RF) power amplifier (PA), which consumes the largest percentage of the total energy. Hence, accurate models of RF PAs can be used to optimize their design and to compensate for signal distortions. This thesis starts with two methods for frequency-domain characterisation to analyse the dynamic behaviour of PAs in 3rd-order non-linear systems. Firstly, two-tone signals superimposed on large-signals are used to analyse the frequency-domain symmetry properties of inter-modulation (IM) distortions and Volterra kernels in different dynamic regions of RF PAs in a single-input single-output (SISO) system. Secondly, three-tone signals are used to characterise the 3rd-order self- and cross-Volterra kernels of RF PAs in a 3 × 3 multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system. The main block structures of the models are determined by analysing the frequency-domain symmetry properties of the Volterra kernels in different three-dimensional (3D) frequency spaces. This approach significantly simplifies the structure of the 3rd-order non-linear MIMO model.

    The following parts of the thesis investigate techniques for behavioural modelling and linearising RF PAs. A piece-wise modelling technique is proposed to characterise the dynamic behaviour and to mitigate the impairments of non-linear RF PAs at different operating points (regions). A set of thresholds decompose the input signal into several sub-signals that drive the RF PAs at different operating points. At each operating point, the PAs are modelled by one sub-model, and hence, the complete model consists of several sub-models. The proposed technique reduces the model errors compared to conventional piece-wise modelling techniques.

    A block structure modelling technique is proposed for RF PAs in a MIMO system based on the results of the three-tone characterisation technique. The main structures of the 3rd- and higher-order systems are formulated based on the frequency dependence of each block. Hence, the model can describe more relevant interconnections between the inputs and outputs than conventional polynomial-type models.

    This thesis studies the behavioural modelling and compensation techniques in both the time and the frequency domains for RF PAs in a 3 × 3MIMO system. The 3D time-domain technique is an extension of conventional 2D generalised memory polynomial (GMP) techniques. To reduce the computational complexity, a frequency-domain technique is proposed that is efficient and feasible for systems with long memory effects. In this technique, the parameters of the model are estimated within narrow sub-bands. Each sub-band requires only a few parameters, and hence the size of the model for each sub-band is reduced.

  • 342.
    Alizadeh, Mahmoud
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Amin, Shoaib
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Measurement and analysis of frequency-domain Volterra kernels of nonlinear dynamic 3x3 MIMO systems2017In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 66, no 7, p. 1893-1905Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) frequency-domain Volterra kernels of nonlinear order 3 are experimentally determined in bandwidth-limited frequency regions. How the effect of higher nonlinear orders can be reduced and how this affects the estimated errors are discussed. The magnitude and phase of the kernels areKramers-Kronig consistent. The self- and cross-kernels have different symmetries and the kernels are therefore determined and analyzed in different regions in the 3D frequency space. By analyzing the properties along certain paths in the 3D frequency space, the block structures for the respective kernels are determined. These block structures contain the significant blocks of the general block structures for third-order kernels. The device under test is a MIMO transmitter for radio frequency signals.

  • 343.
    Alizadeh, Mahmoud
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. KTH, Teknisk informationsvetenskap.
    Händel, Peter
    KTH, Teknisk informationsvetenskap.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Basis Function Decomposition Approach in Piece-Wise Modeling for RF Power Amplifiers2018In: 6th Telecommunications forum TELFOR 2018, Belgrade: Telecommunications society , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a new approach is proposed to decompose the basis functions in a piece-wise modeling technique for nonlinear radio frequency (RF) power amplifiers. The proposed technique treats the discontinuity problem of the model output at the joint points between different operating points, whereas preserves the linear and nonlinear properties of the original model within each region. Experimental results show that the proposed technique outperforms the conventional piece-wise model in terms of model errors.

  • 344.
    Alizadeh, Mahmoud
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. KTH, Teknisk informationsvetenskap.
    Händel, Peter
    KTH, Teknisk informationsvetenskap.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Behavioural modelling and digital pre-distortion techniques for RF PAs in a 3x3 MIMO system2018In: International journal of microwave and wireless technologies, ISSN 1759-0795, E-ISSN 1759-0787Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern telecommunications are moving towards (massive) multi-input multi-output systems in 5th generation (5G) technology, increasing the dimensionality of the system dramatically. In this paper, the impairments of radio frequency (RF)power amplifiers (PAs) in a 3x3 MIMO system are compensated in both time and frequency domains. A three-dimensional(3D) time-domain memory polynomial-type model is proposed as an extension of conventional 2D models. Furthermore, a 3D frequency-domain technique is formulated based on the proposed time-domain model to reduce the dimensionality of the model, while preserving the performance in terms of model errors. In the 3D frequency-domain technique, the bandwidth of a system is split into several narrow sub-bands, and the parameters of the system are estimated for each subband. This approach requires less computational complexity, and also the procedure of the parameters estimation for each sub-band can be implemented independently. The device-under-test (DUT) consists of three RF PAs including input and output cross-talk channels. The proposed techniques are evaluated in both behavioural modelling and digital pre-distortion(DPD) perspectives. The results show that the proposed DPD technique can compensate the errors of non-linearity and memory effects by about 23.5 dB and 7 dB in terms of the normalized mean square error and adjacent channel leakage ratio, respectively.

  • 345.
    Alizadeh, Mahmoud
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. Department of Signal Processing, ACCESS Linnaeus Center, The Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    A two-tone test for characterizing nonlinear dynamic effects of radio frequency amplifiers in different amplitude regions2016In: Measurement, ISSN 0263-2241, E-ISSN 1873-412X, Vol. 89, p. 273-279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new two-tone test method for radio frequency power amplifiers is presented. The test signal is a two-tone probing-signal superimposed on large-signals of different amplitude. The amplifier is, thus, excited in different amplitude regions. The amplitude and phase of the 3rd order intermodulation (IM) products are measured vs. frequency spacing and probing-signal amplitude in each region. The IM magnitude is a measure of the nonlinearity, while the frequency dependence and asymmetry are measures of the memory effects in the different regions. A Doherty and a class-AB amplifier were tested. For both amplifiers the IM magnitude increased by ∼15 dB from the lowest to the highest amplitude region. For the Doherty amplifier the behavior of the IM products vs. frequency spacing was similar in all regions, indicating similar memory effects. For the class-AB amplifier the IM vs. frequency spacing was significantly different in the different regions, which indicates different memory effects.

  • 346.
    Alizadeh, Mahmoud
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Händel, Peter
    Department of information science and engineering Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Characterization of Volterra Kernels for RF Power Amplifiers Using a Two-Tone Signal and a Large-Signal2018In: 2018 International Conference on Communications, COMM 2018 - Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018, Vol. 1, p. 351-356Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 3rd-order Volterra kernels of a radio frequency (RF) power amplifier (PA) are characterized using a large-signal and a two-tone probing-signal. In this technique, the magnitude and phase asymmetries of the kernels of the PA excited by the probing-signal are analyzed in different amplitude regions of the large-signal. The device under test is a class-AB PA operating at 2.14 GHz. The maximum sweeping frequency space of the probing-signal is 20 MHz. The results indicate that the Volterra kernels of the PA show different behaviors (frequency dependency and asymmetry) in different regions.

  • 347.
    Alizadeh, Mahmoud
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. KTH.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Händel, Peter
    KTH.
    Isaksson, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    A new Block-Structure Modeling Technique for RF Power Amplifiers in a 2x2 MIMO System2017In: 13th International Conference on Advanced Technologies, Systems and Services in Telecommunications (TELSIKS) / [ed] Milovanovic, B. D.; Doncov, N. S.; Stankovic, Z. Z.; Dimitrijevic, T. Z., IEEE , 2017, p. 224-227Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new block-structure behavioral model is proposed for radio frequency power amplifiers in a 2x2 multiple-input multiple-output system including input cross-talk. The proposed model forms kernels of blocks of different nonlinear order that correspond to the significant frequency response of measured frequency domain Volterra kernels. The model can therefore well describe the input-output relationships of the nonlinear dynamic behavior of PAs. The proposed model outperforms conventional models in terms of model errors.

  • 348.
    Aljaberi, Saif
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science.
    Majeed, Aram
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science.
    Energisimulering i modulhus: Fallstudie för uppskattning av energiprestanda och därefter energieffektivisera enligt passivhusstandaren2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The Building sector is today an important sector in our society, which means that more people move from the urban area to the big cities, which in turn increases building production. The building and service sector is the largest energy waste in Sweden and internationally, which is about 40% of Sweden's total energy use and 60% of that energy goes to heating. The EU Directive Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD), implemented the concept of near zero-energy houses, which comes into full force in 2020, which means that all newly-built buildings must be energy-efficient with better energy performance than todays buildings. This is in connection with the need of houses/buildings and rental costs continuing to increase. For this reason, Ljusbo Hyreshus AB has invented a solution that includes both climatesmart rental apartments and cheap rental costs, which has attracted more than 20 communes (kommuner in Sweden) to offer land for these apartments. The purpose of this thesis is to find out the energy performance of one of Ljusbo Hyreshus AB's prototype module houses. Furthermore, improvement proposals would be developed to make the module house more energy efficient. The prototype house consisted of a single-storey modularhouse that stay in Söderhamn, which has been chosen in this thesis for further investigations. The house had a total area of 45 m2 and consisted of 3 rooms and kitchen. In this case study, the energy performance has been developed using analysis methods in the form of hand calculations and the energy signature method. Subsequently, the result of the analysis would be validated and would form the basis for later identification of various energy efficiency measures that contributed to the reduction of energy performance in the house and thereby achieved the passive house standard. The result shows that the modularhouse does not fullfil BBR's requirements at present, because the house misses important components which is important for energy performance. For this reason, improvement proposals, specifically regarding the climate shell, on energy efficiency measures have been developed in this report. With the help of these energy efficiency measures, which mainly consist of additional insulation and energy-efficient windows and with an energy-efficient ventilation system with heat recovery (FTX) and an installed air-water heat pump, the passive house standard has been possible to achieve. Future measures, such as the installation of solar cells, have also been examined in the report. This is due to converting the building from a passive house to a plus energy house.

  • 349.
    Alkestrand, Sofie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Marmér, Hedvig
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Hur påverkas kundens val av fastighetsmäklare av mäklarens ålder och yrkeserfarenhet?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim is to review how the customer’s view of the real estate agent’s age and work experience affects the choice of estate agent.

     

    Method: The study has implemented a quantitative investigation with a deductive approach. Through a web-based survey, which was answered by 107 respondents who has or in the future may sell a home via a real estate agent, empirical material has been collected and then processed in the analysis and statistics program Jamovi. In Jamovi, a correlation analysis, a descriptive analysis and an exploratory factor analysis were produced.

     

    Result and conclusion: The study’s results show that it is the real estate agent’s work experience that has the greatest influence on the customer’s choice of estate agent. The real estate agent’s age has to a much lesser extent an influence on this choice. Customers are not inclined to hire estate agent’s that have a low work experience. When work experience and age are put in relation to each other, the results show that the customer consider the ideal real estate agent to belong to the younger age group (under 30 years) when he or she has a greater work experience of five years or more. If the customer has no knowledge of the estate agent’s work experience, he or she prefers the agent who belongs to the age group between 30-45 years.

     

    Contribution of the thesis: The paper contributes to an increased knowledge about how customers choose real estate agents, based on the estate agent’s age and work experience, in Sweden. The study has also contributed to an increased understanding of how these factors relate to each other in this context. The result is useful for real estate agents and future real estate agents as it gives them a better insight into how customers reason when choosing estate agents and how this can affect themselves with regard to their own age and work experience.

     

    Suggestions for future research: Future research should focus on making a representative sample in order to be able to generalize the results on the entire population. This research should only take those customers that previously have sold homes via a real estate agent, into consideration. It would also be interesting to take part of research that examines whether the estate agent’s gender affects the factors and how they relate to each other and whether customers prefer differently if they are not informed about the age of the agent and instead must assess this by themselves based on an image.

  • 350. Al-Khamisi, Rami
    et al.
    Sjöberg, Stefan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Social mobilisering och nya sociala rörelser2018In: Samhällsarbete: aktörer, arenor och perspektiv / [ed] Sjöberg, S. & Turunen, P., Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2018, 1, p. 277-295Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Författarna diskuterar nya sociala förortsrörelser som försöker motverka den sociala exkludering och gentrifiering som blir allt mer synlig. Dessa rörelser kräver social upprustning av miljonprogrammen och inkludering i demokratiska beslutsprocesser. De har vuxit fram genom organisering underifrån av människor som bor och vuxit upp i området. I detta kapitel ligger fokus på den förortsbaserade organisationen Megafonen som arbetar med social mobilisering av medborgarna på Järvafältet i Stockholm, för att bidra till framväxandet av en social rörelse mot social exkludering och för ökat medborgarinflytande, social upprustning och social rättvisa. Som framtida utmaningar för mobiliserande samhällsarbete lyfter författarna den s.k. rörelsejuridiken.  Författarna förespråkar ett samhällsarbete som bygger påmedvetandegörande , skapande av kollektiv identitet och samhörighet, stödjande av aktivering och deltagande, samt mobilisering av de utsatta grupperna själva för social förändring.

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