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  • 301.
    Aldén, Rebecka
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Werme, Sandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans agerande och faktorer som kan påverka beslutsfattandet om att anmäla vid misstänkt barnmisshandel.: En litterarurstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet: var att beskriva sjuksköterskans agerande och vilka faktorer som kan påverka beslutet om att anmäla eller inte vid misstanke om barnmisshandel samt att granska kvaliteten avseende de metodologiska aspekterna urval- och datainsamlingsmetod i studiens ingående artiklar.

    Metod: Deskriptiv litteraturstudie baserad på femton vetenskapliga artiklar som söktes från databaserna Pubmed och Cinahl.

    Resultat: Sjuksköterskor känner sig osäkra när tecken/symtom var otydliga och avvaktade för att samla information innan hon eller han bestämde sig för att anmäla. Sjuksköterskor var bekväma i sina observationer när arbetsplatsen stod bakom beslut om att anmäla misstanke om barnmisshandel. Faktorer som visade sig påverka sjuksköterskans beslut om att anmäla var utbildning, kunskap, samarbete, riktlinjer, självförtroende, attityder och inställning.

    Slutsats: Screening för barnmisshandel, tydliga riktlinjer, mer stöd från kollegor samt utbildning inom området behövs.

  • 302.
    Alegria Alvarez, Li
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Jämställdhet i politisk debatt: en argumentationsanalys av riksdagsdebatt2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study involves an analysis of arguments on parental allowance debates and sex legislation debates. The debates that will be analyzed are the following; allowance, equality bonus, stricter punishment for the purchase of sexual services and men's violence against women, violence and oppression, and violence in same-sex relationships.

    This empirical research is a qualitative study in its entirety, as for the method is an argumentation analysis. The arguments which the debates contain will be analyzed from a gender perspective.

    The theoretical question is: What is considered equality as a gender perspective?

    The empirical question is: How did parliament debates the issue of parental and prostitution laws issue from a gender perspective?

    The debates about genus and gender equality perspective have been a crucial issue in the Swedish Parliament. That women and men are equal or unequal has been heavily emphasized in the debates.

    My study aims at an in depth investigation in these debates based on an analysis of arguments. Moreover, I have evaluated what gender combined with democracy and democratic self-determination entails. I have structured my analysis up by various arguments and analyzed these arguments on the basis of the perspectives above.

    My conclusion is that the first two debates were treated particularly in the genus and the gender equality perspective and there was a possibility to connect the theories in relevant argumentations/discussions. However, complex problems emerged in the last two debates, stricter penalty regarding the purchase of sexual services, violence against women, violence and oppression, and violence in same-sex relationships where gender and equality issues have been avoided to be treated. Generally occurring from the bourgeois side than from the opposition.

  • 303.
    Aleksandrov, A. A.
    et al.
    St Petersburg State University, Russia.
    Deinekina, T. S.
    St Petersburg State University, Russia.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lyskov, Eugene B.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    ВЛИЯНИЕ НАБЛЮДЕНИЯ ЗА ДВИЖЕНИЕМ НА ВОССТАНОВЛЕНИЕ РАБОТОСПОСОБНОСТИ ПОСЛЕ ФИЗИЧЕСКОГО УТОМЛЕНИЯ [The influence of movement's observation on recuperation after physical fatigue]2014In: Zurnal vyssej nervnoj deâtel'nosti im. I.P. Pavlova, ISSN 0044-4677, Vol. 64, no 5, p. 481-487Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study aim was to investigate effects of mental activity, accompanied by mu-rhythm depression, on recuperation after physical fatigue. In a study participants performed 11 one minute bouts of static hand grip intermitted by 2 minutes rest pauses. During pauses participants watched video with either dynamic hand grips (biological movements) or deformation of geometric figure (control). Obtained data showed there was a significant depression of mu-rhythm during biological movement's observation. There was significant fatigue of subjects in an exercise with physical activity, but there was no reliable influence of performed mental activity on recovery after fatigue.

  • 304.
    Alexander, Weman
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ida, Westerberg
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kvinnors upplevelser av det första året efter en Gastric bypass operation.: En kvalitativ blogganalys2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att beskriva kvinnors upplevelser av livet första året efter en Gastric bypass operation. Metoden var en kvalitativ blogganalys av beskrivande design som använde sig av ett ändamålsurval med inklusion- exklusionkriterier. Åtta kvinnor deltog i studien. Det insamlande materialet analyserades genom en manifest innehållsanalys. 

    Syftet med studien var att beskriva kvinnors upplevelser av livet första året efter en Gastric bypass operation. Metoden var en kvalitativ blogganalys av beskrivande design som använde sig av ett ändamålsurval med inklusion- exklusionkriterier. Åtta kvinnor deltog i studien. Det insamlande materialet analyserades genom en manifest innehållsanalys. 

    Slutsatsen var att ingen av informanterna ångrade ingreppet då de upplevde att operationen var den enda vägen ur tillståndet. Informanterna upplevde att stödet och attityderna från sjukvården var sämre än väntat samt att informationen om vad som väntade efter operation var till och från var bristfällig. Attityden från omgivningen men även ibland från vården upplevdes som dålig och informanterna kändes sig missförstådda, inte tagna på allvar och ibland utanförskap.

  • 305.
    Alexandra, Svedström
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies.
    The ZAZI campaign´s Facebook page: A field study of the use of Facebook in the ZAZI campaign in South Africa2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Titel: The ZAZI campaign’s Facebook page- A field study of the use of Facebook in the ZAZI campaign

    Level: Bachelor thesis, C-level

    Area: Media and Communication Studies

    Author: Alexandra Svedström, V14MKand

    Supervisor: Associate professor Eva Åsén Ekstrand, Department of Media and Communication Studies

    Date: The field study will be conducted during March - May in 2014

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the motives and attitudes of a group of South African women and men (aged between 20 to 30 years) have towards responding to the questions set on the ZAZI campaign’s Facebook page that may involve private and sensitive information. It also seeks to examine whether the questions that ZAZI campaign sets are consistent with the informant’s attitudes and motives.

    Rationale: The result may be used to improve the campaign whose ultimate goal is to prevent the spread of HIV / AIDS by strengthening women's self-efficacy and confidence.

    Questions: What are the selected informant’s motives for using Facebook in general? What attitudes and motives do the selected South African Facebook users have toward commenting on the questions on the ZAZI campaigns Facebook page? How are the selected informants’ attitudes and motives consistent with the type of questions the campaign set?

    Method: Content analysis and focus groups.

    Result: The study indicate that the motives for writing on the ZAZI campaign's Facebook page differs depending on socio-economic status and that the campaign should vary the content of the questions so all women's motives become satisfied. The page appears, for those groups with a lack of socio-economic status, to serve as a platform that encourages and create conversations about private matters.

    Keywords: Health campaign, Facebook, Internet, social media, South Africa, focus groups, ZAZI campaign, uses and gratification, self-efficacy, HIV

  • 306.
    Alfaro Zavala, Juan Wilfredo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Improving Error Performance in Bandwidth-Limited Baseband Channels2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Channel coding has been largely used for the purpose of improving error performance on a communications system. Typical methods based on added redundancy allow for error detection and correction, this improvement however comes at a cost of bandwidth. This thesis focuses on channel coding for the bandwidth-limited channel where no bandwidth expansion is allowed.

    We first discuss the idea of coding for the bandwidth-limited channel as seen from the signal space point of view where the purpose of coding is to maximize the Euclidian distance between constellation points without increasing the total signal power and under the condition that no extra bits can be added. We then see the problem from another angle and identify the tradeoffs related to bandwidth and error performance.

    This thesis intends to find a simple way of achieving an improvement in error performance for the bandwidth-limited channel without the use of lattice codes or trellis-coded modulation.

    The proposed system is based on convolutional coding followed by multilevel transmission. It achieved a coding gain of 2 dB on Eb/No or equivalently, a coding gain of approximately 2.7 dB on SNRnorm without increase in bandwidth. This coding gain is better than that obtained by a more sophisticated lattice code Gosset E8 at the same error rate.

  • 307.
    Alfredsson, Elin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Kulturella aktiviteters betydelse för äldres känsla av sammanhang: En enkätundersökning på två äldreboenden i Mellansverige2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there was any association between participation in cultural activities and sense of coherence among seniors living in two nursing homes.

    Methods: A questionnaire based on Antonovskys SOC-13-questionaire was used, with added self-formulated questions including gender, age, level of physical function and participation in cultural activities. The questionnaire was distributed to 76 people 65 years and older without dementia at two nursing homes in central Sweden and 40 respondents answered the questionnaire. The material was processed and analyzed in the statistic computer program SPSS, where descriptive statistics were prepared and a chi-square analysis and logistic regression analysis was performed.

    Results: No statistically significant relationship between participation in cultural activities and sense of coherence could be seen. However, there was a correlation between the level of function and SOC scores. The lower level of function, i.e. the more help the respondent needed in everyday life, the lower sense of coherence.

    Conclusion: Functional level seems to have greater impact on an individual's sense of coherence than participation in cultural activities in the given study population.

  • 308.
    Alfredsson, Pierre
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Wikström, Linnéa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Styrelsens könsfördelning och dess effekt på företagets hållbarhetsprestation: en kvantitativ studie om förhållandet mellan BGD och CSP hos europeiska bolag2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The study is carried out in order to investigate whether there is a link between BGD (Board Gender Diversity) and total CSP (Corporate Social Performance) as well as between BGD and the environmental and social dimension respectively.

     

    Method: In this study we adopt a positivist research philosophy with a hypothetical-deductive approach. Two samples with different board systems are studied. 403 European companies in total are studied. 121 companies with a two-tier board system and 282 companies with a one-tier board system. The quantitative research strategy is based on a longitudinal design implemented between 2008-2017. All data was collected through Thomson Reuters Datastream and then analyzed using SPSS.

     

    Result & Conclusions: The study finds a significant positive relationship between BGD and total CSP as well as between BGD and the environmental dimension and the social dimension respectively. Companies with higher BGD seems to be more likely to invest in CSR. The relationship is found within the two-tier board system as well as the one-tier board system. However, the impact of BGD is stronger within the one-tier board system.

     

    Contribution of the thesis: The study provides new knowledge about the relationship between BGD and total CSP as well as between BGD and the environmental dimension and the social dimension. The study is among the first to make a comparison between the two-tier board system and the one-tier board system. The result is relevant in view of the increasing demands on companies to act sustainably as well as the ongoing debate on whether the EU should introduce mandatory gender quotas on boards.

     

    Suggestions for future research: Further research at country and industry level is needed as the relationship may differ between different countries and industries, thus affecting the logic behind mandatory gender quotas. Future research is also proposed to include the third board system, mixed board structure. Furthermore, the proposal to look more closely at the corporate risk and its importance within various board systems, partly with regard to the companies’ sustainability performance, but also with regard to BGD, is given. Finally, it is proposed that future research could investigate the individual CSP dimensions more closely in order to determine what may be behind BGDs greater impact on the social dimension.

     

  • 309.
    Alftberg, Ann-Kristin
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    British or American English?: attitudes, awareness and usage among pupils in a secondary school2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to find out which variety of English pupils in secondary school use, British or American English, if they are aware of their usage, and if there are differences between girls and boys. British English is normally the variety taught in school, but influences of American English due to exposure of different media are strong and have consequently a great impact on Swedish pupils. This study took place in a secondary school, and 33 pupils in grade 9 participated in the investigation. They filled in a questionnaire which investigated vocabulary, attitudes and awareness, and read a list of words out loud. The study showed that the pupils tend to use American English more than British English, in both vocabulary and pronunciation, and that all of the pupils mixed American and British features. A majority of the pupils had a higher preference for American English, particularly the boys, who also seemed to be more aware of which variety they use, and in general more aware of the differences between British and American English.

  • 310.
    Alftberg, Ann-Kristin
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences.
    Vad lär man sig i idrott och hälsa?: en studie om högstadieelevers lärande i ämnet2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att ta reda på vad eleverna upplever att de lärt sig i ämnet idrott och hälsa, samt om kunskapen motsvarar syften och mål i den nationella kursplanen för ämnet. Studien genomfördes i form av en enkätundersökning bland 59 elever i år 9. Resultatet visar att elevernas kunskap motsvarar målen i kursplanen i vissa moment, medan detta inte uppfylls i andra moment. Färdigheter inom olika idrotter och social utveckling är det som eleverna särskilt upplever att de lärt sig/utvecklat genom idrottsundervisningen, medan den psykiska aspekten av hälsa har hamnat i skymundan, tillsammans med kunskaper inom bland annat dans, friluftsliv och livräddning. Enligt detta kan konstateras att elevernas kunskap i sin helhet inte motsvarar syften och mål i kursplanen i tillräckligt hög grad, samt att undervisningen i idrott och hälsa fokuserar mer på utövande av fysisk aktivitet än övriga syften och mål i den nationella kursplanen.

  • 311.
    Alftberg, Helene
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap.
    Vårdpreventivt arbetssätt för att förhindra undernäring hos äldre – Intervjuer med vårdpersonal inom tre vårdnivåer2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to describe nursing staffs’ perceptions of risks for malnutrition and preventive efforts thereof, for patients 70 years and older, at different care levels within one municipality. Descriptive design was used and twelve participants included; two district nurses, one physiotherapist and one occupational therapist from a health care centre, two registered nurses, one unit director and one physiotherapist from a nursing home in the municipality and four registered nurses from an internal medicine hospital ward. Interviews and qualitative content analysis was used resulting in four categories Conditions of risks for malnutrition, Ensuring nutritional intake, Structured way to work and Collaboration and responsibilities. The participants’ described diseases, disabilities and lost of apprehension concerning weight constituting malnutrition risks. Meals and meal environment influence nutritional intake. Risk assessments, interventions and evaluations mirrored structured way of working. Collaboration with colleagues, other professionals and care levels were highlighted together with responsibilities. Physicians’ participation in malnutrition preventions needs clarification. Improvements like documentation of the nutritional status among the elderly and reports between the different levels of care are needed to ensure safe nutritional care.

     

  • 312.
    Alftberg, Linda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Flodström, Evelina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Man måste brinna för att tända glöd i andra.: Kvinnliga ledare i arbetslivet.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Society is facing rapid and continuous change. In order to participate in the development, organizations need to take advantage of all the knowledge and skills available in the labor market. Women leaders in top positions are still in the minority but do as good a job as their male colleagues. She brings different dynamics and a new dimension in the work culture but is nevertheless excluded from the mightiest rooms. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the organizational factors that determine and facilitate for women to take on leadership positions. Through semi-structured interviews with six women leaders, the material has resulted in a thematic analysis with four themes. These themes are the workplace culture, impersonation, conditions and driving forces. The result confirms earlier research showing the importance of a healthy corporate culture to shape and develop tomorrow’s passionate women leaders.

  • 313.
    Alftberg, Martina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Garneryd, Veronica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Det viktiga mötet: En observationsstudie kring hur samspelstiden fördelas mellan barn och pedagog under en verksamhetsförlagd dag i förskolan2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Under de senaste årtionden har den svenska förskolan genomgått stora förändringar där barnantalet ökat i takt med att pedagogerna blivit tilldelade alltmer uppdrag utanför barngruppen. Samtidigt som förskolans läroplan ställer höga krav, där pedagogen har till uppgift att möta varje enskilt barn i ett socialt samspel och tillvarata det unika hos varje individ (Skolverket, 2016). Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka samspelstillfällen mellan barn och pedagog under en verksamhetsförlagd dag i förskolan, samt undersöka hur omgivningen kan påverka interaktionen däremellan. Studien är kvalitativ och materialet har inhämtats via skuggning av tio barn samt en gruppintervju med två verksamma pedagoger i förskolan. Resultatet visar på stora variationer mellan barnens samspelstid tillsammans med pedagog. Vidare framkommer det hur faktorer i omgivningen kan orsaka avbrott i samspelet, vilket i sin tur resulterar i kortare sammanhållande interaktionstider för det enskilda barnet. 

  • 314.
    Algerstam, Veronica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Andersson, Agnes
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    A Narrative Study About International Adopted Young Adults' Experiences Regarding Identity Development2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study was based on three interviews with three internationally adopted young adults. The aim of the study was to explore how international adopted young adults have experienced their identity development in a retrospective perspective in relation to family and friends. To answer the research-questions semi-structured qualitative inter­views have been performed. A narrative method was chosen to explore how the parti­cipants' described their experiences. Topics that appeared in the result where topics such as family relationships, the society’s influence on the participants and connections to other adoptees. The conclusions of this study were that com­muni­cation and connections to family was an essential factor in the subjects' identity develop­ment. The informants feeling of belonging was affected by society´s influence on appearances and it was important for the participants to have someone in their life that they could talk to and get support from.  

  • 315.
    Al-hedr, Hkmat
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Palomera, Giordano
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Erfarenheter av egenvård hos vuxna personer med Diabetes typ 2: En litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Diabetes typ 2 ökar globalt, riskfaktorer för utvecklingen är bland annat ärftlighet och levnadssätt. Främsta behandlingen är egenvård i form av regelbunden motion och hälsosam kosthållning.

     

    Syfte: Syftet med litteraturstudien var att beskriva erfarenheter av egenvård hos vuxna personer med Diabetes typ 2.

     

    Metod: En beskrivande litteraturstudie som inkluderade 15 artiklar, vilka svarade på litteraturstudiens syfte. Genom databaserna MEDLINE via PubMed och CINAHL söktes artiklar fram systematiskt, varav en var manuell sökning.

     

    Resultat: Resultatet visade att personer kände oro vid diagnostisering av Diabetes typ 2. Oron minskade när personerna accepterade sjukdomen och tog ansvar genom egenvård. Personer förklarade att de behövde upprätthålla egenvårdsåtgärder för att det skulle ske en livsstilsförändring, dock beskrevs det som svårt. Även om personer påbörjat sin väg mot livsstilsförändring kunde de stöta på svårigheter att hantera sociala sammanhang, vilket var ett hinder i deras vardag. Närstående till personer kunde också upplevas som ett hinder, men främst ansågs de närstående vara ett stort stöd. Personer beskrev också sjuksköterskan som ett viktigt stöd, framförallt med motivation. Andra personer beskrev istället att sjuksköterskan endast utförde praktiska procedurer.

     

    Slutsats: Utifrån litteraturstudiens resultat kan sjuksköterskan få en uppfattning av personernas erfarenheter. Detta kan underlätta för sjuksköterskan att främja hälsa genom att ge anpassad information och vård. Om personer får en sådan hjälp kan de ta eget ansvar för sin behandling och därav påbörja sin egenvård. Genom att personerna upprätthåller sin egenvård kan de i längden förbättra sin livskvalitet.

  • 316.
    Ali, Fadi
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Urban classification by pixel and object-based approaches for very high resolution imagery2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, there is a tremendous amount of high resolution imagery that wasn’t available years ago, mainly because of the advancement of the technology in capturing such images. Most of the very high resolution (VHR) imagery comes in three bands only the red, green and blue (RGB), whereas, the importance of using such imagery in remote sensing studies has been only considered lately, despite that, there are no enough studies examining the usefulness of these imagery in urban applications. This research proposes a method to investigate high resolution imagery to analyse an urban area using UAV imagery for land use and land cover classification. Remote sensing imagery comes in various characteristics and format from different sources, most commonly from satellite and airborne platforms. Recently, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have become a very good potential source to collect geographic data with new unique properties, most important asset is the VHR of spatiotemporal data structure. UAV systems are as a promising technology that will advance not only remote sensing but GIScience as well. UAVs imagery has been gaining popularity in the last decade for various remote sensing and GIS applications in general, and particularly in image analysis and classification. One of the concerns of UAV imagery is finding an optimal approach to classify UAV imagery which is usually hard to define, because many variables are involved in the process such as the properties of the image source and purpose of the classification. The main objective of this research is evaluating land use / land cover (LULC) classification for urban areas, whereas the data of the study area consists of VHR imagery of RGB bands collected by a basic, off-shelf and simple UAV. LULC classification was conducted by pixel and object-based approaches, where supervised algorithms were used for both approaches to classify the image. In pixel-based image analysis, three different algorithms were used to create a final classified map, where one algorithm was used in the object-based image analysis. The study also tested the effectiveness of object-based approach instead of pixel-based in order to minimize the difficulty in classifying mixed pixels in VHR imagery, while identifying all possible classes in the scene and maintain the high accuracy. Both approaches were applied to a UAV image with three spectral bands (red, green and blue), in addition to a DEM layer that was added later to the image as ancillary data. Previous studies of comparing pixel-based and object-based classification approaches claims that object-based had produced better results of classes for VHR imagery. Meanwhile several trade-offs are being made when selecting a classification approach that varies from different perspectives and factors such as time cost, trial and error, and subjectivity.

          Classification based on pixels was approached in this study through supervised learning algorithms, where the classification process included all necessary steps such as selecting representative training samples and creating a spectral signature file. The process in object-based classification included segmenting the UAV’s imagery and creating class rules by using feature extraction. In addition, the incorporation of hue, saturation and intensity (IHS) colour domain and Principle Component Analysis (PCA) layers were tested to evaluate the ability of such method to produce better results of classes for simple UAVs imagery. These UAVs are usually equipped with only RGB colour sensors, where combining more derived colour bands such as IHS has been proven useful in prior studies for object-based image analysis (OBIA) of UAV’s imagery, however, incorporating the IHS domain and PCA layers in this research did not provide much better classes. For the pixel-based classification approach, it was found that Maximum Likelihood algorithm performs better for VHR of UAV imagery than the other two algorithms, the Minimum Distance and Mahalanobis Distance. The difference in the overall accuracy for all algorithms in the pixel-based approach was obvious, where the values for Maximum Likelihood, Minimum Distance and Mahalanobis Distance were respectively as 86%, 80% and 76%. The Average Precision (AP) measure was calculated to compare between the pixel and object-based approaches, the result was higher in the object-based approach when applied for the buildings class, the AP measure for object-based classification was 0.9621 and 0.9152 for pixel-based classification. The results revealed that pixel-based classification is still effective and can be applicable for UAV imagery, however, the object-based classification that was done by the Nearest Neighbour algorithm has produced more appealing classes with higher accuracy. Also, it was concluded that OBIA has more power for extracting geographic information and easier integration within the GIS, whereas the result of this research is estimated to be applicable for classifying UAV’s imagery used for LULC applications.

  • 317.
    Ali, Fatima
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Liljenmalm, Therése
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Voluntary mediation for crime prevention – a qualitative study of professionals working for the Council for Crime Prevention inGävle2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract:

    The  aim  of  this  study  was  to  examine  which  attitudes  professionals  who  are  involved  in voluntary mediation in  Gävle, have towards voluntary mediation  as a  preventative  working method.

    The  empirical  material  used  in  this  study,  has  been  gathered  through  semi-structured interviews with staff members of the so called Crime Preventers in Gävle (Brottsförebyggarna I Gävle, BIG) and staff members from the police and social services. These interviews helped to get a deeper understanding and detailed information about the attitudes towards restorative justice  and  voluntary  mediation.  The  theoretical  framework  that  was  used  was  social constructionism and restorative justice theory.

    The  Crime  Preventers  (BIG)  in  Gävle  are  keeping  the  method  and  process  up  to  date  by further  educating  themselves  within  the  subject  via  conferences,  workshops  and  similar activities. There seems to be a preference for working more with mediation, since currently the activity of the voluntary process is decreasing due to a decrease in suitable criminal cases for mediation.

    The results from this study however indicate that attitudes toward mediation, as a process and method  on  a  voluntary  basis,  are  highly  appreciated  amongst  those  who  are  continuously working with it.   However, further research on the subject is desired to develop it better and gain more from its positive effects.

  • 318.
    Ali Mohamed, Khadar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Applying Value at Risk (VaR) analysis to Brent Blend Oil prices2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this study is to compare four different models to VaR in terms of accuracy, namely Historical Simulation (HS), Simple Moving Average (SMA), Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) and Exponentially Weighted Historical Simulation (EWHS).

    These VaR models will be applied to one underlying asset which is the Brent Blend Oil using these confidence levels 95 %, 99 % and 99, 9 %. Concerning the return of the asset the models under two different assumptions namely student t-distribution and normal distribution will be studied

  • 319.
    Ali, Rafef
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Matematik och estetiska lärprocesser: en studie om ämnesintegration av estetiska verktyg i matematikundervisning.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med undersökningen var att observera hur lärarna arbetar med matematik i årskurserna F-3, med fokus på hur estetiska verktyg används i matematikundervisningen. Studien är baserad på klassobservationer i två årskurser i de tidigare skolåren F-3 samt elev- och lärarintervjuer och ämnade lyfta estetiska lärprocesser samt hur de spelar in på elevernas upplevelser vad gäller ämnesintegration i matematikundervisning. Resultaten visar att estetiska verktyg används mer med yngre elever och mindre ju äldre eleverna blir. Lärarna i denna studie påpekade att ett ämnesövergripande arbetssätt och att blanda in olika sinnen främjar elevernas inlärning. Majoriteten av de intervjuade lärarna betonade att det gäller att hitta en balans mellan olika metoder för att skapa en varierad undervisning. 

  • 320.
    Ali, Shaher Yar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Strategies For Pakistan Textiles Industry To Sustain The Business2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the challenges faced by Pakistan Textiles industry as an emerging market from MNCs of Bangladesh, China and India and to find out the appropriate strategies which should adopted by the managers of this industry to counter these challenges.

    Method: In this research qualitative data is used that is gathered through unstructured interview and questioners have been used to have desirable results.

    Results & Conclusion: It is reflected from results that internal problems of Pakistan textiles industry such as energy crisis, high input cost, political instability, low return on investment are the main problems of this industry. To counter these challenges, their strategic approach should be Collaboration in product development and strategic alliance with attacking firms.

    Suggestion for Future Research: This research is focused on the Problems and challenges faced by Pakistan Textiles Industry. For the future studies research could be done to find out the strategies for the firms from Pakistan Textiles industry to do the business in international market and how these companies can compete in International Market with presence of other MNCs of the world.

    Contribution of the Thesis: This study provides action plans for the managers of Pakistan textiles industry to design and implement the strategies that build core competencies such as high quality products for their firms. It can also be helpful for researchers and students those are interested to develop the strategies for the firms from emerging markets.

  • 321.
    Ali, Shang
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Gerdin, Elin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Modalitetsmarkörer - "det handlar om att ta språket i besittning": En studie av gymnasieelevers användning och lärares erfarenheter av modalitetsmarkörer i skrift2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att undersöka elevlösningar och att ta del av verksamma gymnasielärares erfarenheter rörande elevers användning av modalitetsmarkörer i skrift ger en bild av kvinnliga och manliga gymnasieelevers hållningar gentemot satsers innehåll och eventuella likheter och skillnader skribenterna emellan. Föreliggande studies huvudsyfte är att undersöka frekvens och funktion hos modalitetsmarkörer i elevlösningar hämtade från 2015 års nationella prov i kursen svenska 3 i gymnasiet. Till syftet hör även att granska eventuella likheter och skillnader i frekvens och funktion hos modalitetsmarkörer mellan de kvinnliga och de manliga skribenterna. Studiens bisyfte är att undersöka tillfrågade gymnasielärares erfarenheter rörande kvinnliga respektive manliga elevers användning av modalitetsmarkörer i skrift. För att uppnå syftet formulerat för denna studie kombineras och kompletteras en kvantitativ metod med en kvalitativ metod. Den kvantitativa metoden utgörs av en sammanställning och granskning av frekvens och funktion hos modalitetsmarkörer i 60 elevlösningar jämnt fördelade mellan könen. Studiens kvalitativa metod omfattas av kvalitativa intervjuer med en hög grad av strukturering i kombination med öppna frågor med tre legitimerade svensklärare. Resultaten visar på en låg frekvens av modalitetsmarkörer i både de kvinnliga och de manliga elevlösningarna. Majoriteten av samtliga modalitetsmarkörer signalerar en låg grad av sannolikhet och har således en trolighetsfunktion i satsen. Frekvensen och funktionen hos modalitetsmarkörerna skiljer sig på så vis marginellt mellan de kvinnliga och de manliga skribenternas texter. Den låga frekvensen och trolighetsfunktionen som den mest framträdande i elevers texter bekräftas ytterligare av studiens informanter, vilka vidare delar erfarenheten att modalitetsmarkörer är en viktig komponent i ett nyanserat förhållningssätt. Fynden från den kvantitativa materialbearbetningen och den kvalitativa materialbearbetningen överensstämmer således. Någon större språklig variation utifrån faktorn socialt konstruerat kön kan inte fastställas utifrån de kvantitativa och kvalitativa resultat som presenteras i denna studie.

  • 322.
    Alikhani, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    A GIS-based crowdsourcing iPhone Application to Report Necessities, Civic Issues, and Public Events2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Civic issues in a society can be reported through a crowdsourcing web application. People can download the application on their smartphones and report the issues such as a pothole or broken streetlight. The report is submitted by taking a photo of the issue and additional information is entered. At first, the reports are submitted to a call center and after analyzing they will be transferred to organizations responsible for this type of events. In such a crowdsourcing project it is very vital to motivate people to participate in the project. The reports are supplied by users and without an acceptable number of users the application would be useless. In addition, having the exact location of a report is very helpful to facilitate the process of solving civic issues. Positioning with smartphones is not very accurate as they do not have strong and accurate GPSs. Therefore, there is a need to improve the accuracy of the positioning process and consequently accuracy of the spatial data. The aim of this thesis is to investigate how to employ GIS to help reporting civic issues and how to design an interesting client interface for such an application, in order to motivate user to download and use it. The goal is also to find out shortcomings and weaknesses of the positioning with smartphones and find a way to improve its accuracy.Some of successful similar applications’ structures and their interfaces were reviewed. In addition, a survey among existing users of crowdsourcing applications has been done in order to find out how to design the application to be interesting for users. Furthermore, some techniques and methods were chosen in order to improve the GPS accuracy especially in the places with a low GPS signal strength. These methods exploit WLAN and some of embedded features in a smartphone such as microphone, camera, accelerometer, gyroscope to improve the positioning accuracy. In the end, along reporting civic issues the user is able to report and get information about cheap and appropriate necessities and public events in different geographical areas through a map-based application. Furthermore, he or she is benefited by some location-based services such as online-food or taxi. The client application’s interface was designed for iPhone.This GIS-based mobile application would be an appropriate alternative for the old reporting methods like phone call or mail. Nevertheless, reporting civic issues itself, cannot be necessarily a strong motivation to attract the user to download and use the application. Therefore, desired feedbacks of the crowd need to be found out in order to encourage them to spend their time for the application. User needs to get motivated to use the application and considered additional parts can be very helpful to reach this aim.

  • 323.
    Alin, David
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Media and communication studies.
    Larsson, Adam
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Media and communication studies.
    Bockmanuskriptet: En kritisk diskursanalys om en alldeles speciell bock2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: The Goat Manuscript - A critical discourse analysis about a special goat

    Author: Adam Larsson and David Alin

    Supervisor: Ylva Habel

    Subject: Media and communication studies

    Purpose: The purpose of this study has been to investigate Aftonbladets news reporting regarding the Gävle Christmas goat between 1996, 2001, 2005, 2009 and 2016.

    Theoretical points of departure: The study is based on theories regarding news evalu-ation.

    Objectives and focus: The study has the following questions:In what ways may Lotten Gustafsson Reinius concept "tradition manuscript" have relevance to Aftonbladets news reporting on the Gävle Christmas goat?Has Aftonbladets journalism about the Gävle goat changed in a discoursively way?Is it possible to identify specific discursive patterns in the texts?

    Method: In order to answer the survey's questions, critical discourse analyzes according to Theu Van Dijk´s method have been conducted. The analyzes have mapped the news texts micro disciplinary- and macro-courses.

    Material: The study material consists of 14 articles from Aftonbladet published in pa-per form and digital edition from 1996, 2001, 2005, 2009 and 2016.

    Result: Aftonbladets reporting regarding the Gävle Christmas goat has changed over the last 20 years, where journalists uses a more neutral position in the news reporting. The research proves that more people who represent different organizations gets to speak about the accidents. The way journalists refer to the goat has changed and the way me-dia refer to the perpetrator has changed.

    Keywords: Gävle Christmas goat, yule goat, straw goat, discourse, discourse analysis, journalism, “traditional manuscript”, news evalutation, Aftonbladet

  • 324.
    Alinazari, Shabnam
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Alvinder, Catrin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    I barn och ungas ögonhöjd: En checklista från barn till plan för detaljplanering2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det demokratiska samhället med värderingar om allas lika rätt till inflytande har med Förenta Nationernas barnkonvention lyft frågan om barns rätt att påverka den fysiska planeringen (UNICEF, 2009). Plan- och bygglagen (PBL) gör ingen skillnad på barn eller vuxna vilket innebär att de ska ses som jämlika medborgare inom samhällsbyggnadsprocesser (SFS, 2010:900). Detta utgör den lagbestämda grunden till varför barn, precis som vuxna, ska ha samma rätt att påverka beslut som rör deras närmiljö. En barnchecklista kan tydliggöra att ett barnperspektiv tillämpas inom planeringsprocesser och frågorna utgår vanligen från vuxnas tolkningar av vad som bör innefattas (Boverket, 2000). Denna studie har uppmärksammat den brist på medverkan av barn och unga som ofta finns i planeringssammanhang och det finns därigenom utrymme för förbättringar. Studien har därför valt att fokusera på att få barnens röster hörda genom att undersöka vilka faktorer i miljön som är viktiga för dem. Detta har legat som grund till att utarbeta en ny checklista där deras värderingar varit grundläggande för frågornas utformande. För att uppnå detta anordnades workshops och enkätundersökningar med grupper av barn från lågstadiet upp till gymnasiet. Eftersom åldersspannen varierade mellan 9-18 år anpassades metoderna efter deras kognitiva förmåga.

    Resultatet från studien visade att barnen ansåg att det fanns flera faktorer i miljön som påverkar deras subjektiva upplevelse. Detta innefattade bland annat hur byggnader med dess utbredning och placering påverkar dem men även hur viktigt det är med bra gång- och cykelvägar för att främja för deras rörelsefrihet. Det betonades även hur bevarandevärden där exempelvis en enkel kulle för pulkaåkning eller en skogsdunge att busa i var viktigt att inte planera bort. Det slutgiltiga resultatet blev checklistan: Från barn till plan. Den är tänkt att fungera som ett arbetsverktyg med öppna frågor, vilket ger planeraren utrymme att belysa barnperspektivets tillämpning inom detaljplanering. Resultatet visade även på stor kunskap, intresse och medvetenhet hos barn och unga gällande den byggda miljön. De bör därför ses som självständiga kompetenta individer inom samhällsplanering med röster värda att höras.

  • 325.
    Alizadeh, Mahmoud
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. KTH, Teknisk informationsvetenskap.
    Characterisation, Modelling and Digital Pre-Distortion Techniques for RF Transmitters in Wireless Systems2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless systems have become an inevitable part of modern technologies serving humankind. The rapid growth towards large dimensional systems, e.g. 5th generation (5G) technologies, incurs needs for improving the performance of the systems and considering aspects to make them as far as possible environmentally friendly in terms of power efficiency, cost, and so on. One of the key parts of every wireless communication system is the radio frequency (RF) power amplifier (PA), which consumes the largest percentage of the total energy. Hence, accurate models of RF PAs can be used to optimize their design and to compensate for signal distortions. This thesis starts with two methods for frequency-domain characterisation to analyse the dynamic behaviour of PAs in 3rd-order non-linear systems. Firstly, two-tone signals superimposed on large-signals are used to analyse the frequency-domain symmetry properties of inter-modulation (IM) distortions and Volterra kernels in different dynamic regions of RF PAs in a single-input single-output (SISO) system. Secondly, three-tone signals are used to characterise the 3rd-order self- and cross-Volterra kernels of RF PAs in a 3 × 3 multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system. The main block structures of the models are determined by analysing the frequency-domain symmetry properties of the Volterra kernels in different three-dimensional (3D) frequency spaces. This approach significantly simplifies the structure of the 3rd-order non-linear MIMO model.

    The following parts of the thesis investigate techniques for behavioural modelling and linearising RF PAs. A piece-wise modelling technique is proposed to characterise the dynamic behaviour and to mitigate the impairments of non-linear RF PAs at different operating points (regions). A set of thresholds decompose the input signal into several sub-signals that drive the RF PAs at different operating points. At each operating point, the PAs are modelled by one sub-model, and hence, the complete model consists of several sub-models. The proposed technique reduces the model errors compared to conventional piece-wise modelling techniques.

    A block structure modelling technique is proposed for RF PAs in a MIMO system based on the results of the three-tone characterisation technique. The main structures of the 3rd- and higher-order systems are formulated based on the frequency dependence of each block. Hence, the model can describe more relevant interconnections between the inputs and outputs than conventional polynomial-type models.

    This thesis studies the behavioural modelling and compensation techniques in both the time and the frequency domains for RF PAs in a 3 × 3MIMO system. The 3D time-domain technique is an extension of conventional 2D generalised memory polynomial (GMP) techniques. To reduce the computational complexity, a frequency-domain technique is proposed that is efficient and feasible for systems with long memory effects. In this technique, the parameters of the model are estimated within narrow sub-bands. Each sub-band requires only a few parameters, and hence the size of the model for each sub-band is reduced.

  • 326.
    Alizadeh, Mahmoud
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Amin, Shoaib
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Measurement and analysis of frequency-domain Volterra kernels of nonlinear dynamic 3x3 MIMO systems2017In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 66, no 7, p. 1893-1905Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) frequency-domain Volterra kernels of nonlinear order 3 are experimentally determined in bandwidth-limited frequency regions. How the effect of higher nonlinear orders can be reduced and how this affects the estimated errors are discussed. The magnitude and phase of the kernels areKramers-Kronig consistent. The self- and cross-kernels have different symmetries and the kernels are therefore determined and analyzed in different regions in the 3D frequency space. By analyzing the properties along certain paths in the 3D frequency space, the block structures for the respective kernels are determined. These block structures contain the significant blocks of the general block structures for third-order kernels. The device under test is a MIMO transmitter for radio frequency signals.

  • 327.
    Alizadeh, Mahmoud
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. KTH, Teknisk informationsvetenskap.
    Händel, Peter
    KTH, Teknisk informationsvetenskap.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Basis Function Decomposition Approach in Piece-Wise Modeling for RF Power Amplifiers2018In: 6th Telecommunications forum TELFOR 2018, Belgrade: Telecommunications society , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a new approach is proposed to decompose the basis functions in a piece-wise modeling technique for nonlinear radio frequency (RF) power amplifiers. The proposed technique treats the discontinuity problem of the model output at the joint points between different operating points, whereas preserves the linear and nonlinear properties of the original model within each region. Experimental results show that the proposed technique outperforms the conventional piece-wise model in terms of model errors.

  • 328.
    Alizadeh, Mahmoud
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. KTH, Teknisk informationsvetenskap.
    Händel, Peter
    KTH, Teknisk informationsvetenskap.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Behavioural modelling and digital pre-distortion techniques for RF PAs in a 3x3 MIMO system2018In: International journal of microwave and wireless technologies, ISSN 1759-0795, E-ISSN 1759-0787Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern telecommunications are moving towards (massive) multi-input multi-output systems in 5th generation (5G) technology, increasing the dimensionality of the system dramatically. In this paper, the impairments of radio frequency (RF)power amplifiers (PAs) in a 3x3 MIMO system are compensated in both time and frequency domains. A three-dimensional(3D) time-domain memory polynomial-type model is proposed as an extension of conventional 2D models. Furthermore, a 3D frequency-domain technique is formulated based on the proposed time-domain model to reduce the dimensionality of the model, while preserving the performance in terms of model errors. In the 3D frequency-domain technique, the bandwidth of a system is split into several narrow sub-bands, and the parameters of the system are estimated for each subband. This approach requires less computational complexity, and also the procedure of the parameters estimation for each sub-band can be implemented independently. The device-under-test (DUT) consists of three RF PAs including input and output cross-talk channels. The proposed techniques are evaluated in both behavioural modelling and digital pre-distortion(DPD) perspectives. The results show that the proposed DPD technique can compensate the errors of non-linearity and memory effects by about 23.5 dB and 7 dB in terms of the normalized mean square error and adjacent channel leakage ratio, respectively.

  • 329.
    Alizadeh, Mahmoud
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. Department of Signal Processing, ACCESS Linnaeus Center, The Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    A two-tone test for characterizing nonlinear dynamic effects of radio frequency amplifiers in different amplitude regions2016In: Measurement, ISSN 0263-2241, E-ISSN 1873-412X, Vol. 89, p. 273-279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new two-tone test method for radio frequency power amplifiers is presented. The test signal is a two-tone probing-signal superimposed on large-signals of different amplitude. The amplifier is, thus, excited in different amplitude regions. The amplitude and phase of the 3rd order intermodulation (IM) products are measured vs. frequency spacing and probing-signal amplitude in each region. The IM magnitude is a measure of the nonlinearity, while the frequency dependence and asymmetry are measures of the memory effects in the different regions. A Doherty and a class-AB amplifier were tested. For both amplifiers the IM magnitude increased by ∼15 dB from the lowest to the highest amplitude region. For the Doherty amplifier the behavior of the IM products vs. frequency spacing was similar in all regions, indicating similar memory effects. For the class-AB amplifier the IM vs. frequency spacing was significantly different in the different regions, which indicates different memory effects.

  • 330.
    Alizadeh, Mahmoud
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Händel, Peter
    Department of information science and engineering Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Characterization of Volterra Kernels for RF Power Amplifiers Using a Two-Tone Signal and a Large-Signal2018In: 2018 International Conference on Communications, COMM 2018 - Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018, Vol. 1, p. 351-356Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 3rd-order Volterra kernels of a radio frequency (RF) power amplifier (PA) are characterized using a large-signal and a two-tone probing-signal. In this technique, the magnitude and phase asymmetries of the kernels of the PA excited by the probing-signal are analyzed in different amplitude regions of the large-signal. The device under test is a class-AB PA operating at 2.14 GHz. The maximum sweeping frequency space of the probing-signal is 20 MHz. The results indicate that the Volterra kernels of the PA show different behaviors (frequency dependency and asymmetry) in different regions.

  • 331.
    Alizadeh, Mahmoud
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. KTH.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Händel, Peter
    KTH.
    Isaksson, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    A new Block-Structure Modeling Technique for RF Power Amplifiers in a 2x2 MIMO System2017In: 13th International Conference on Advanced Technologies, Systems and Services in Telecommunications (TELSIKS) / [ed] Milovanovic, B. D.; Doncov, N. S.; Stankovic, Z. Z.; Dimitrijevic, T. Z., IEEE , 2017, p. 224-227Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new block-structure behavioral model is proposed for radio frequency power amplifiers in a 2x2 multiple-input multiple-output system including input cross-talk. The proposed model forms kernels of blocks of different nonlinear order that correspond to the significant frequency response of measured frequency domain Volterra kernels. The model can therefore well describe the input-output relationships of the nonlinear dynamic behavior of PAs. The proposed model outperforms conventional models in terms of model errors.

  • 332. Al-Khamisi, Rami
    et al.
    Sjöberg, Stefan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Social mobilisering och nya sociala rörelser2018In: Samhällsarbete: aktörer, arenor och perspektiv / [ed] Sjöberg, S. & Turunen, P., Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2018, 1, p. 277-295Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Författarna diskuterar nya sociala förortsrörelser som försöker motverka den sociala exkludering och gentrifiering som blir allt mer synlig. Dessa rörelser kräver social upprustning av miljonprogrammen och inkludering i demokratiska beslutsprocesser. De har vuxit fram genom organisering underifrån av människor som bor och vuxit upp i området. I detta kapitel ligger fokus på den förortsbaserade organisationen Megafonen som arbetar med social mobilisering av medborgarna på Järvafältet i Stockholm, för att bidra till framväxandet av en social rörelse mot social exkludering och för ökat medborgarinflytande, social upprustning och social rättvisa. Som framtida utmaningar för mobiliserande samhällsarbete lyfter författarna den s.k. rörelsejuridiken.  Författarna förespråkar ett samhällsarbete som bygger påmedvetandegörande , skapande av kollektiv identitet och samhörighet, stödjande av aktivering och deltagande, samt mobilisering av de utsatta grupperna själva för social förändring.

  • 333.
    Allaire, G.
    et al.
    Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau Cedex, France.
    Pankratova, Iryna
    Narvik University College, Narvik, Norway.
    Piatnitski, A.
    Lebedev Physical Institute RAS, Moscow, Russia.
    Homogenization and concentration for a diffusion equation with large convection in a bounded domain2012In: Journal of Functional Analysis, ISSN 0022-1236, E-ISSN 1096-0783, Vol. 262, no 1, p. 300-330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider the homogenization of a non-stationary convection–diffusion equation posed in a bounded domain with periodically oscillating coefficients and homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions. Assuming that the convection term is large, we give the asymptotic profile of the solution and determine its rate of decay. In particular, it allows us to characterize the “hot spot”, i.e., the precise asymptotic location of the solution maximum which lies close to the domain boundary and is also the point of concentration. Due to the competition between convection and diffusion, the position of the “hot spot” is not always intuitive as exemplified in some numerical tests.

  • 334.
    Allaire, G.
    et al.
    Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau Cedex, France.
    Pankratova, Iryna
    Narvik University College, Narvik, Norway; Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau Cedex, France.
    Piatnitski, A.
    Narvik University College, Narvik, Norway; Lebedev Physical Institute RAS, Moscow, Russia.
    Homogenization of a nonstationary convection-diffusion equation in a thin rod and in a layer2012In: SeMA Journal, ISSN 1575-9822, Vol. 58, no 1, p. 53-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper deals with the homogenization of a non-stationary convection-diffusion equation defined in a thin rod or in a layer with Dirichlet boundary condition. Under the assumption that the convection term is large, we describe the evolution of the solution’s profile and determine the rate of its decay. The main feature of our analysis is that we make no assumption on the support of the initial data which may touch the domain’s boundary. This requires the construction of boundary layer correctors in the homogenization process which, surprisingly, play a crucial role in the definition of the leading order term at the limit. Therefore we have to restrict our attention to simple geometries like a rod or a layer for which the definition of boundary layers is easy and explicit.

  • 335.
    Allansson, Jens
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Åkerson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Beslutsunderlag gällande fastighetsinvesteringar2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 336.
    Allard, Caroline
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Religious studies.
    Från djävulsdyrkan och kyrkobränder till idoldyrkan och ut ur kyrkan: black metal som väg till religiös livsåskådning2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här är en kvalitativ undersökning på hur en del använder black metal som en väg till religiös livsåskådning. Den är baserad på semistrukturerade intervjuer med fem män som är fans eller musiker inom black metal. Syftet är att studera hur dessa människor använder black metal och dess uttryck som en arena för religiös praktik. Dessa intervjuer är sedan analyserade med hjälp av teorierna re-enchantment och occulture. Studien visar på att black metal är en individuationsprocess där unga fans börjar att bygga upp sin personlighet och lär sig att både bearbeta och hantera känslor. Studien visar även på de negativa aspekterna av subgenren, så som kyrkobränder och mord, som uppkommit inom kultiska miljöer. Med dess resultat visar det att deltagarnas sökande efter en religiös livsåskådning som mötte upp med deras känslor och behov, var influerat av black metal. 

  • 337.
    Allelin, Majsa
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Kallifatides, Markus
    Handelshögskolan i Stockholm.
    Sjöberg, Stefan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Skyrman, Viktor
    Handelshögskolan i Stockholm.
    Välfärdsmodellens omvandling: det privata kapitalets utvidgning i den offentliga sektorn2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den universella välfärdsmodell, som tillämpats i Sverige sedan andra världskriget, vägleddes av ambitionen att hålla marknadsintressen utanför välfärden för att undvika ojämlik tillgång och kvalitet samt för att stärka den demokratiska styrningen av välfärdssektorn. Sverige präglades därmed av en välutvecklad offentlig sektor med god tillgång till offentlig service.Den här rapporten kan dock genom omfattande statistiska studier visa hur den svenska välfärdsmodellen sedan 80-talet och framåt har genomgått genomgripande förändringar. Resultaten är bland annat:

    • Antalet privata aktörer i välfärdssektorn ökar som en följd av politiskt skapade välfärdsmarknader.

    • Gemensamma skattemedlen finansierar i högre grad privata välfärdstjänster, som i allt större utsträckning utförs av stora koncernägda aktiebolag, liksom dessa företags vinster.

    • Omfattande privatiseringar av gemensamt ägande har genomförts.

    • Andelen offentligt anställda har minskat med 10 procentenheter och antalet statsanställda har halverats, medan antalet sysselsatta i privat välfärdsverksamhet fyrdubblats.

    • En högre andel skatter går i allt större utsträckning till att finansiera välfärdsverksamhet som bedrivs av det privata näringslivet.

    • Offentlig sektors totala andel av samhällsekonomin har minskat från 60 procent till 50 procent av BNP.

    Dessa resultat tyder sammanfattningsvis på att den svenska välfärdsmodellen har genomgått kritiska förändringar vars följder inneburit att en omfattande omfördelning av makt, resurser och inflytande har skett från den demokratiskt styrda gemensamma sektorn – till den marknadsstyrda privata sektorn. Den svenska universella välfärdsmodellen som en gång hyllades har ersatts av en allt mer marknadsliberal modell. Bland konsekvenserna finns försämrad jämlikhet i tillgången till exempelvis skola, vård och omsorg, mindre ekonomisk omfördelningspolitik och mindre demokratisk styrning. Samtidigt går en allt växande andel av medborgarnas skattepengar till de privata välfärdsföretagens vinster.

  • 338.
    Allelin, Majsa
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Kallifatides, Markus
    Handelshögskolan i Stockholm.
    Sjöberg, Stefan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Skyrman, Viktor
    Handelshögskolan i Stockholm.
    Ägande- och förmögenhetsstrukturen och dess förändring sedan 19802018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten visar, genom omfattande studier av en mängd tidigare genomförda undersökningar om ägande och förmögenhetsförhållanden i Sverige, att koncentrationen av makt och ägande har blivit allt mer ojämlik. Resultaten är bland annat att:

    • Ungefär hälften av den samlade svenska ekonomin ägsnumera från utlandet.

    • Det utländska ägandet på Stockholmsbörsen har ökat från 4 procent år 1979 till 39,4 procent 2016.

    • Det offentliga bolagsägandet har minskat och antalet anställda i statliga företag har halverats från 310 000 år 1980 till 158 000 år 2015.

    • Det institutionella ägandet har ökat och utgör cirka 20 procent av ägandet i de börsnoterade bolagen.

    • Det så kallade riskkapitalet har vuxit kraftfullt i omfattning och störst i sektorn är Wallenbergkontrollerade EQT.

    • I de stora börsnoterade bolagen på Stockholmsbörsen har den största ägarens andel av röstetalet ökat från i genomsnitt 26,8 procent till 31,2 procent av bolagsstämmans röster.

    • De 15 största finansfamiljerna styrde år 2017 bolag värda 4 935 miljarder kronor. Som jämförelse var Sveriges totala BNP samma år 4 604 miljarder kronor.

    • Familjen Wallenberg kontrollerade företag värderade till närmare 2 000 miljarder kronor.

    • Vad gäller de samlade förmögenheterna så har den allra rikaste procentens andel av de samlade förmögenheterna fördubblats från 20,5 procent 1978 till 39,6 procent 2006 och har fortsatt öka sedan dess.

    • Antalet svenska miljardärer har ökat från 83 personer 2001 till 178 år 2016.

    För att samhällsutvecklingen ska kunna vändas i riktning mot ökad jämlikhet krävs det att den breda vänstern tar kampen för att återskapa former för reglering och begränsningar av kapitalets makt både i Sverige men också internationellt i en allt mer globaliserad värld. Utvecklandet av ett nytt gemensamt projekt, som utgör ett verkligt alternativ till den ojämlikhetsskapande marknadsliberalismen, är av avgörande betydelse för socialdemokratins framtid.

  • 339.
    Allelin, Majsa
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Kallifatides, Markus
    Handelshögskolan i Stockholm.
    Sjöberg, Stefan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Skyrman, Viktor
    Handelshögskolan, Stockholm.
    Suhonen, Daniel
    Katalys - Institut för facklig idéutveckling.
    Femton familjer kontrollerar sjuttio procent av börsvärdet2018In: Dagens nyheter, no 14 aprilArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 340.
    Allestad, Petra
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology.
    Svedlund, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology.
    Inkluderas eleverna?: En undersökning av två skolor i en mellanstor kommun i Norge2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med vår studie är att undersöka hur några pedagoger vid två skolor i en mellanstor kommun i Norge arbetar med att få alla elever att bli inkluderade i grundskolans undervisning. I denna uppsats börjar vi med att beskriva vad tidigare forskning kommit fram till vad gäller inkludering i Norge. I studien har vi genomfört kvantitativa observationer i fyra klasser, utifrån dessa observationer har vi sedan genomfört kvalitativa intervjuer med pedagogerna. Detta för att först få en inblick i hur pedagogen undervisar för att inkludera eleverna, sedan intervjuer för att få en insyn i hur pedagogen ser på inkludering i sin undervisning. De pedagoger vi intervjuat anser att planeringen inte skiljer sig mellan elever i behov av särskilt stöd och övriga elever. Detta är enligt vår slutsats på grund av att specialpedagogen planerar undervisningen för dessa elever. Endast en pedagog påstod att den planerar för eleven i behov av stöd vid undervisning i klassrummet. Samtliga pedagoger har arbetat med elever som behövt olika slags stöd. Pedagogerna är överlag positivt inställda till inkludering med förutsättningen att eleven får rätt stöd, som exempelvis i form av en assistent. 

  • 341.
    Allvar, Britta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies.
    Kooperativt lärande i inkluderad idrottsundervisning: en litteraturgranskning2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet är att genom en litteraturgranskning av vetenskapligt publicerade forskningsartiklarundersöka vad peer-tutoring som en form av kooperativt lärande kan innebära för möjlighetentill social interaktion och lärande när elever med funktionsnedsättning inkluderas i enidrottsundervisningssituation. Många elever med funktionsnedsättning är inte inkluderade iidrottsundervisningen som de skulle önska, detta begränsar deras påverkansmöjlighet till godhälsa genom fysisk aktivitet. Kooperativt lärande och peer-tutoring har visat sig gemöjligheter till ökad social interaktion och lärande. Sökmetod: Tio vetenskapligt publiceradeartiklar granskades och tre återkommande områden kunde skönjas. Dessa var socialinteraktion, lärande hos eleverna och lärarens roll i undervisningssituationen. Fem artiklarbaserades på särskild interventionsstudie, fem baserades på tidigare forskning.Artikelsökningen gjordes under våren år 2010 i vetenskapliga databaser: Science direct,SAGE journals, Academic search elite, PsycINFO och ERIC under med kompletterandehandsökning. Krav var att artiklarna skulle handla om kooperativt lärande eller peer-tutoring iinkluderad idrottsundervisning, gälla grundskoleelever och vara engelskspråkig. Resultat: Treområden kunde skönjas i artiklarna, dessa var den sociala interaktionen effekter, lärandegenom peer-tutoring och lärarens roll. Sammanfattning: kooperativt lärande och peertutoringökar möjligheterna till social interaktion mellan eleverna då uppgifternas lösning ärberoende av social interaktion. Kooperativt lärande främjar social interaktion mellan elevermed och utan funktionsnedsättning. Kooperativt lärande och peer-tutoring ökar ävenmöjligheterna för lärandet då den sociala interaktionen gynnar lärande hos elever. Lärarensroll inför och under undervisningen är viktig för utfallet. Inkludering innebär heterogenaklasser vilket är positivt för kooperativt lärande.

  • 342.
    Allvar, Britta
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology. University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för pedagogik.
    Thegel, Linnea
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology. University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för pedagogik.
    15-åriga tjejers uppfattningar om fysisk aktivitet  - en intervjustudie i en niondeklass2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

     

    Den ökade psykiska ohälsan bland tonårstjejer ses som ett problem och tanken om denna utveckling kunde förebyggas med fysisk aktivitet uppstod. Detta eftersom den fysiska aktiviteten har visat sig ha positiva effekter på den psykiska hälsan. Den minskade fysiska aktiviteten hos unga tjejer väckte intresset för hur tjejernas uppfattningar påverkar deras fysiska aktivitet. Hypotesen om att uppfattningar påverkar handlandet formades och tre teman som tros påverka tjejernas uppfattningar om fysisk aktivitet, genus, kultur och media inkluderades. Syftet med studien var att undersöka vilka uppfattningar 15-åriga tjejer har om fysisk aktivitet och hur dessa skiljer sig utifrån deras grad av fysisk aktivitet. Som metod användes fokusgruppintervjuer där deltagarna delades in i tre grupper utifrån deras fysiska aktivitet. Två till fem tjejer ingick i varje grupp. I resultatet framkom att uppfattningarna skiljde sig mellan grupperna. Tjejerna med högst fysisk aktivitet, grupp 1, uppfattade den fysiska aktiviteten som självklar med fokus på prestation. Grupp 2, medelaktiva tjejer, uppfattade också den fysiska aktiviteten som självklar men med fokus på hälsa. De minst aktiva tjejerna, grupp 3, uppfattade inte den fysiska aktiviteten som självklar och uttryckte inte heller något intresse för den fysiska aktiviteten. Slutsatsen blev att tjejernas uppfattningar skiljer sig utifrån deras fysiska aktivitet. För att öka tjejernas fysiska aktivitet bör arbetet därför inriktas på tjejernas uppfattningar om fysisk aktivitet. Genom att förändra tjejernas uppfattningar skulle således den fysiska aktiviteten kunna öka och den psykiska ohälsan troligtvis minska.

     

  • 343.
    Alm, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Distriktssköterskors/Sjuksköterskors reflektioner kring omvårdnad av patienter och stöd till anhöriga inom palliativ vård i hemsjukvården: En intervjustudie med fokus på relationer2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe district nurses’/nurses’ reflections of providing nursing to patients and support to families receiving palliative care within home care. The study had a qualitative approach with a descriptive design. Data were collected using semi-structured interview questions and analyzed using qualitative content analysis.The overarching theme that emerged was: The valuable but limited time on the last trip and consisted of the two main categories: To overcome barriers to providing good care and See opportunities to create good nursing care. Factors that precluded that good nursing could be provided was when district nurses/nurses experienced resistance from patient or relatives, when language difficulties arose or when family relationships were disturbed. The participants described furthermore that good nursing could not be given when families did not accept support offered from district nurses/nurses in order to strengthen the families capacity to manage their situation or in cases when patients had no close relatives as caregivers who could participate in and facilitate care. Conditions to provide good care was experienced when patients were receptive to care and understood their situation, and when district nurses/nurses were able to get a good start with time to get to know the patient. The basis for being able to provide good care consisted of relatives´ willingness to participate in the care of the patient as well as of the nurses’ feeling secure in their role as a result of their long experience. Palliative care in the home is a complex area and is affected by individual circumstances of patients, relatives and the district nurse/nurse as well as structural work-related conditions. To provide good palliative care is one of the greatest challenges for district nurses/nurses in palliative home care.

  • 344.
    Alm, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Vorén, Rose-Marie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Upplevelse av palliativ vård hos patienter behandlade för obotlig cancer på hospice eller inom den slutna vården - en litteraturstudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the experiences of terminal cancer patients’ receiving palliative care in hospice or in an in-patient care unit, and illuminate what these patients believe that good palliative care involves. Method:  The Literature study had a descriptive design and was based on 14 scientific articles that were retrieved from the databases Cinahl, PubMed, PsycInfo and by manual search. The results of the analysis were compiled into 5 categories containing 23 subcategories. Main Result: Patients experienced that the issue of most importance in palliative care was to obtain adequate pain relief without reservation or delay. Good communication and interaction between the nurse and the patient was the basis for good health care to be developed. Trust in health professionals' skills and abilities were essential to patients' perceptions of security. Autonomy was central for the patients’ participation in their health care, and it created a sense of control and meaning. The environment at the hospice had a negative impact on the patients’ self-image and made them lose their identity. Finding meaning in their suffering helped the patients gradually to accept their situation in order to find peace in their knowing of the inevitable. Conclusion: The interpersonal communication and nursing skills is of crucial importance for patients' perceptions of good health care. More research is needed to meet the growing request of qualified professional palliative care.

  • 345.
    Alm Arvidsson, Cecilia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Westin, Madeleine
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Kan skatteregimer ha inverkan på aktiers prisförändring på utdelningsdagen?: En studie om Stockholmsbörsen 1991-952007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats handlar om att studera varför den faktiska prisförändringen på utdelningsdagen skiljer sig från det som teoretiskt borde infalla om privata investerare är de som till sist påverkar prisförändringen. Tidigare studier har gjorts på andra marknader, däribland USA och har grundats på ett progressivt skattesystem. I Sverige kan vi dock observera ett platt skattesystem under den studerade tidsperioden. I jämförelse med tidigare studier kan vi också observera en större variation i skatteregimer.

    För att genomföra denna studie formulerar vi två modeller, då vi misstänker att den första modellen kan vara missvisande eftersom att en variabel har många missing values. I båda modellerna använder vi oss av samma beroende variabel, som visar skillnaden mellan den faktiska prisförändringen på aktiers utdelningsdag och det som teoretiskt borde gälla vid respektive skatteregim. Den beroende variabeln har vi själva skapat, utifrån vårt datamaterial, för att besvara vårt syfte med studien. Datamaterialet som används i studien är obalanserat paneldata, och utifrån detta gör vi en regressionsanalys med minsta kvadratmetoden.

    De empiriska resultaten påvisar en låg förklaringsgrad och ingen variabel är signifikant skilt från noll, vilket medför att vi inte kan dra några direkta slutsatser.

  • 346.
    Alm, Caroline
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology.
    Särbegåvade elever i skolan: Ett nytt fält för specialpedagogiken2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    De högpresterande eleverna i skolan har precis som alla andra elever ett behov av bekräftelse, stimulans och utmaningar. Syftet med denna studie är att belysa lärares syn på de duktiga eleverna i skolan. Studien kommer även att beröra lärarnas syn på sin egen kunskap, samt hur de arbetar för att stimulera dessa elever i skolan. Studien ger en översikt av tidigare forskning i ämnet. För att uppnå syftet med studien så genomfördes kvalitativa intervjuer med fem grundskollärare på två olika skolor. I intervjuerna ställdes öppna frågor för att ge respondenterna möjligheten att utveckla sina svar. Resultatet pekar mot att de medverkande pedagogerna upplever en tidsbrist i sitt arbete, att det är svårt att hinna med dessa elever i den utsträckning som önskas. Respondenterna var överens om att diskussionen om de högpresterande eleverna i skolan är viktig. Resultatet visar även att de specialpedagogiska resurserna som finns i skolan enbart går till elever i olika svårigheter och att frustrationen hos pedagogerna ligger i att skapa nya stimulerade och utmanade uppgifter till dessa elever.

  • 347.
    Alm, Erika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för pedagogik.
    Eriksson, Karolin
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för pedagogik.
    En kartläggning av högstadieelevers sömnvanor samt hur detta påverkar deras skolaarbete. En surveystudie ur ett genusperspektiv2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sömnbehovet varierar hos olika individer. Studier visar att ungdomar behöver minst åtta timmars sömn. Under puberteten sker en hormonomställning som gör ungdomar trötta och många ungdomar är inte tillräckligt utvilade vid morgonens skolstart. TV och Internet ses alltmer som ett hot gentemot ungdomars sovvanor då mediekonsumtionen ökar. Studier visar att det är mer vanligt hos killar att föräldrarna är med och bestämmer sovtiden, men även att tjejer anger längre sömntid.  Syftet är att bland elever i årskurs nio se hur vanor innan sänggående påverkar deras sömnvanor och sömnkvalitet samt se hur eleverna upplever att sömnen påverkar skolarbetet. Detta kommer att jämföras utifrån ett genusperspektiv.  En kvantitativ undersökningsmetod i form av elva enkätfrågor har använts och delats ut till elever i årskurs nio. Sammanlagt deltog 135 elever, varav 81 killar och 54 tjejer. Resultatet har sammanställts och slutligen utformats i diagram. Majoriteten av eleverna sover åtta timmar per natt och lägger sig mellan klockan 22.00 och 23.00. Killar går och lägger sig senare än tjejerna. De elever som uppger att de sover bra uppger även sig vara mest utvilade under skoldagen. De elever som studerar minst efter skoltid bestämmer även i större utsträckning själva när de ska lägga sig. Tjejer lägger ner mer tid på skolarbete än killar.  Majoriteten av eleverna störs inte av sin nattsömn, men många tjejer uppger att de upplever stress och oro i samband med sömn.  Anledningen till varför de som sitter vid datorn lägger sig senare kan delvis bero på att datorn ej har någon tidsbegränsning på samma sätt som ett tv-program. Slutsatser kan dras att tjejer i större utsträckning upplever oro och stress då de känner ett stort behov av att kommunicera samtidigt som de har ett större ansvar än killar gällande sovtider. Killar kan i större grad koppla bort skolan på fritiden då de ej lägger ner lika mycket tid på skolarbete och ej upplever oro och stress i samma grad som tjejerna i samband med sömn.

     

  • 348.
    Alm, Jennifer
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Den propre mäklaren: en uppsats om förväntningar på nya mäklares första intryck2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title

    : "The proper real estate agent"- a paper on expectations for new real estate agent's first impression.

    Level

    : Bachelor of Science in Business Administration

    Author

    : Jennifer Alm

    Supervisor

    : Jonas Kågström

    Date

    : 2011– June

    Aim

    : The purpose of this paper is to analyze how hiring managers in the real estate broker understand the jobseeker during interviews. This analysis is based on the recruiters description of the first impression and the non-verbal communication in comparison with relevant theory.

    Method

    : I began my research by studying scientific articles to obtain great knowledge of the subject and write my theory chapter. I then chose to use a qualitative research method, collecting my empirical data by making five interviews. The interviewees were recruiters at brokerage firms. The theory and empirical data was analyzed and then compared to arrive at a conclusion.

    Result & Conclusions

    : Recruiters in the brokerage thinks that the first impression is important and therefore read a lot of information about the applicant with a great first impression and the person´s non-verbal communication. Recruiters believe it is very important to be able to then a great first impression when they consider the jobinterview is very similar the scenario when the brokers meet customers and then has to "sell quickly". There are a number of factors that are key to a successful first impression in recruitment of brokers. What is positive is that the most important factors are those that you can influence- such as handshake, dress, language, eye contact and bodylanguage. While factors such as skin color and physical appearance does not have any relevance in the assessment.

    Suggestions for future research

    : I have in my study only chosen to investigate how the first impression and non-verbal communication affects hiring managers assessment on an interview for a real-estate job. It would be interesting to conduct a study on how other factors such as grades, qualifications, and personality play into the hiring decision.

    Contribution of the thesis

    : I see my study as an aid and a tool for students and other attending interviews for brokerage jobs. Through my results, I can prepare job seekers brokers on what recruiters attach importance in terms of first impressions and non-verbal communication, and thus provide the job seekers a fair chance for a successful interview which may lead to future jobs.

    Key words

    : Job interview, Real estate agent, First impression, Non-verbal communication

  • 349.
    Alm, Lena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Sjöström, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Att leva som barn till förälder med psykisk sjukdom2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this descriptive review was to elucidate how the literature describes how children of parents with mental illness experience and have knowledge about their parent’s illness. The aim was furthermore to describe how the children’s existence is affected, can be improved and why the children so often are invisible. Search through Medline (through PubMed) database and additional manual search was conducted. In total fourteen articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. The chosen method for analysis was qualitative and the results are presented on the basis of different subjects that elucidated the questions at issue. The study shows that children of parents with mental disorder often takes responsibility for the parents disease, a disease that has to be kept a secret and often lead to social isolation for the children. The children often have poor knowledge of the parent’s illness. Due to different obstacles these children are difficult to identify and thereby also difficult to help. The children themselves have clear opinions of what kind of help they want, mainly economic and domestic support, conversational support and information. One of the authors’ conclusions is that new research needs to be done regarding Swedish conditions.

  • 350.
    Alm, Malin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Larsson, Jasmine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Dom skriver rätt, dem skriver fel: En kvantitativ undersökning i felanvändandet av de och dem i text och frågan om talspråk bör tillåtas i skrift2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna uppsats undersöks språkbruket av de/dem/dom hos svenska skolelever i årskurserna 4–6, 8–9 och i olika årskurser inom tre olika gymnasieprogram. 165 elever i grundskolan och gymnasiet har svarat på en enkät utformad för att undersöka kunskapen i distinktionen mellan de/dem. Vi undersöker och diskuterar vad resultaten kan komma att ha för betydelse för användningen av pronomenen och om det skulle vara fördelaktigt att införa ett enhetligt pronomen. Frågan om de och dem borde ersättas av dom har varit en diskussion sedan början av 1900-talet men har blivit än mer ifrågasatt sedan 1950-talet. Frågan diskuteras fortfarande och ännu har ingen lösning eller kompromiss tillämpats. I uppsatsen kommer olika kompromisser som föreslagits att redovisas.  

     

    I denna uppsats undersöks också vad skolans ansvar är när eleverna ska lära sig de skriftliga normerna, specifikt de/dem och hur språket kan komma att se ut om utbildningen fortsätter som den gör idag. 

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