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  • 301.
    E Block, Hanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Forssell, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Hur påverkas den autonoma och kontrollerade motivationen av budgetlös styrning?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Based on the self-determination theory shed light on how the autonomous and controlled motivation  affects the employees in companies using beyond budgeting regarding to decentralization , management by objectives and reward systems.

    Method: This study has a hermeneutic perspective with a base of social constructivism. The theory and the empirical material have been approached iteratively with the help of abduction method. The design of the study is a case study with a qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews.The interview guide is used as the basis for categorization of empirical data which the analysis is based upon.  

    Result & Conclusion: The study suggests that decentralization and management by objectives using beyond budgeting primarily affects the autonomic motivation. Current reward system did not show any unequivocal results but some indications that there was a risk that a controlled motivation could arise. 

    Suggestions for future research:  For further research in Beyond Budgeting, we propose to investigate the reward system from a management perspective and the impact on their motivation and to investigate whether there is a connection between the principles behind the functioning of decentralization and motivation.

    Contribution of the thesis: From a theoretical point of view, this study contributes to decentralization and management by objectives primarily affects the autonomous motivation while the reward system may contribute to controlled motivation. Practical contribution shows that decentralization and management by objectives within Beyond Budgeting increases the possibility of personal responsibility and decision-making, this should companies work more actively with.

  • 302.
    E Cascante Quirós, María Jesús
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Schlothauer, Natalia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    From Sole-Creation to Co-Creation: Social Marketing Value Creation through Corporate-NPO Collaboration2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the structure of social marketing within a collaboration between non-profit organisations (NPOs) and business organisations as well as whether this collaboration facilitates the process of social marketing for the NPOs. For this purpose, Austin and Seitanidi´s (2012a, 2012b, 2014) Collaborative Value Creation (CVC) framework was applied to social marketing as value outcome by combining it with Andreasen and Kotler´s (2003) model of the social marketing process in NPOs.

    Method: A qualitative study was conducted based on secondary and primary data. Hereby, primary data was gathered from a total of seven NPOs and twelve respondents across Sweden by the use of face-to-face and phone interviews.

    Result & Conclusions: Two main findings were identified in this study. Firstly, within the process of social marketing in a corporate-NPO collaboration the NPOs predominantly plan and design the campaigns independently. Hereby, it is shown that the NPO´s organisational model of operation influences the collaboration structure. Secondly, it is demonstrated that the corporate-NPO collaboration facilitates the NPOs social marketing process.

    Suggestions for future research: Further investigations of NPOs could be undertaken by distinguishing between their organisational model and area of operation in order to complement the presented theoretical model of the social marketing process in the corporate-NPO collaboration. Additionally, the perspective of business organisations could be considered.

    Contribution of the thesis: The present study contributes to literature by providing a theoretical model based of the social marketing process in the corporate-NPO collaboration. It demonstrates that this collaboration facilitates the social marketing process of the NPOs.

  • 303.
    E Do Pilar Lemos, Vanessa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Berghold, Jannicke
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Revisorns identifikation med klienten respektive professionen - Hur påverkas valet av förhandlingsstrategi?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

     Title: The auditor's identification with the client and the profession - How does it effect the

     choice of negotiating strategy?

     Level: Final assignment for Bachelor Degree in Business Administration

    Author: Jannicke Berghold and Vanessa Do Pilar Lemos

    Supervisor: Jan Svanberg

    Date: 2016 – January

    Aim: The auditor´s choice of negotiating strategy in cases of disagreement with the client

    regarding the reporting objectives, has proven to have a significant impact on the final

    statements to be presented to the public. As stakeholders of these companies largely base their

    investment decisions on these reports, it is very important that the individual client doesn’t

    influence the auditor at negotiation. Social Identity Theory predicts that individuals identify

    with multiple amounts of social groups, which sometimes possess significantly different

    interests and values. Scientists believe that the individual is more or less prone to follow these

    groups depending on how strong this identification is. Furthermore, new research in the field

    suggest that individual decision-making above all depends on which of these identities that are

    salient in the individual's mind at the moment of decision. With this study we intend to

    examine how the auditor's identification with the client influences how she choses negotiating

    strategy, and whether the effect changes when professional identity is made salient.

    Method: This study was conducted by a collection of primary data through an experimental

    survey. Sample population comprised 3,600 authorized and certified auditors in Sweden.

    Response data has been collected using questionnaires program SUNET survey, then compiled

    and analyzed in SPSS Statistics.

    Result & Conclusions: The study showed that a strong clientidentification contributed to that

    the auditor was likely with the use of a negotiation strategy that is slimy to the client, when the

    identification towards the client was weak. Furthermore, we saw that when professional

    identity was made salient, so respondents were less inclined to use such strategies. Our results

    show that the strength of client identification affect the auditor's choice of negotiating strategy,

    additionally appears the effect of a prominent professional identity also influence the auditor's

    election

    5

    Suggestions for future research: Since the great shortfall in our study may have contributed

    to a misleading result, we suggest that future researchers conducting a study like this, would do

    so under more controlled conditions. This to ensure a higher response rate and to increase the

    possibility of generalized conclusions. One proposal, when the time aspect does not present a

    problem, would be to complete the questionnaire with an option that allows the researcher to

    get more in-depth insight into the respondents' answers.

    Contribution of the thesis: We hope that our study will make a valuable contribution to the

    negotiation literature. This by our adaptation of the new approach to the auditor's negotiation

    with the client by studying whether the choice of negotiating strategy differs depending on

    which of the auditor's multiple social identities that are most prominent in the moment of

    decision

  • 304.
    E Gustavsson, Bodil
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Hansson, Erika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Budgetlös styrning: En kvalitativ studie med avseende på tre av Beyond Budgeting-modellens principer.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 305.
    E Kwang, Martin Sone
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    The influence of marketing mix, on the student’s choice of University – Two State Universities in Sweden.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of the study is to determine if the traditional services marketing mix influence the students, when selecting a university.

    Methodology: The work adopts a case study approach using qualitative method in the collection of data via the use of structural interviews. The sampled populations were the university’s administrations and the students. An inductive approach is applied in the data analysis.

    Result & Conclusion: Findings from the study show that, the HE uses different marketing mix strategies in the recruitment of students. The study also found out that the marketing mix elements have a positive impact in the student’s choice of a university. The programme, Promotional mix, place, price, people and Physical Evidence are directly related to the student’s choice of the HE.

    Implication of the studies

    There are two implication of the studies, one for the university and the other for the students. It is essential for the universities to understand the needs, motive of the students, the current and future job market demands. Also, the students need to be informed about the different universities offerings coupling with the current and future job demands.

     

    Limitations of the study: Time factor, the non-probability sampling method are some of the limitation of this study.

    Suggestion for future Research: The effects of University choice to the student’s satisfactions.

    Contribution of the Research: The research provides know-how on the HE marketing in Sweden and the student’s choice of the University.

  • 306.
    E Pham, Toan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Organizational barriers during the development of Information management systems2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    To understand why organizational barriers exist during the development of information management systems or enterprise applications. . This study investigates if organizational barriers actually occur and if so, how we can understand these phenomena.

    Method

    Deductive research and exploratory research. Secondary research is evaluated how it is applicable in practice. Qualitative research was applied across multiple subsidiaries. Standardized interviews were conducted among 30 interviewees. As it is exploratory research, this is sufficient to present certain patterns and indications. To support this method, Criterion-based sampling has been applied to ensure appropriate units for this study.

    Results & conclusion

    In a competitive environment, subcultural groups tend to be formed to protect similar interests. Rewards were based on power and achievements. By forcing accomplishment of the implementation of the information management system, groups would be rewarded. Others would be negatively affected. Therefore individuals and groups would act on behave of their own even if they would harm co-workers with their actions. Especially, groups without decision power were highly affected by these negative effects. Organizational politics controls the organization’s power. Counter-implementation strategies were identified; when groups tried to act on behave of the shareholder and customers to influence the decision-makers. After many delays, they were unable to prevent the integration of a new Information management system. 

  • 307.
    E Roberts, Ellen
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Kvarfordh, Josefine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Motivation via belöningssystem: Påverkar belöningssystem personalens motivation?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Empowerment deals with increasing employee motivation and job satisfaction by delegating responsibility and sharing information within the organization. This can be done through various tools including reward systems, which is one of the most effective tools within empowerment. This study is searching for understanding around how reward systems can influence employee motivation.

     

    Method: The study takes a hermeneutic and social constructionist perspective. We conducted a qualitative research strategy using semi-structured interviews to collect the empirical data. The theoretical framework consists of secondary data from researchers who have previously touched the subject. We sought logical parallels between the theory and the empirical data.

     

    Result & Conclusions: Our study has found both similarities and differences between existing theory and our interpretation of the empirical data. Our empirical results have strengthened the assumption that reward systems reinforce staff motivation. However, our results differ from existing theory which discuss which reward systems best encourages increased motivation. According to the prevailing theory, should non-financial rewards motivate more than financial rewards.

     

    Suggestions for future research: We recommend examining how companies can use non-financial reward systems and still keep their staff motivated.

     

    Contribution of the thesis: we believe that other students may find this interesting for future studies as our empirical results differed from the existing theory. We also believe that the results can be interesting for an enterprise.

     

    Key words: Empowerment, reward systems, motivation, total reward and decentralization.

  • 308.
    E Taji, Nabil
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Zaatra, Samed
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    The influence of culture on the selection process of international market and entry mode2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: The influence of culture on the selection process of international market and entry mode.

    Level: Master Thesis in Business Management

    Authors: Samed Zaatra & Nabil Al-Taji

    Supervisor: Professor Ehsanul Huda Chowdhry, Ph.D.

    Examiner: Professor Maria Fregidou-Malama, Ph.D.

    Date: June 2017

    Aim: The study aims to investigate the influence of cultural similarities when business entities decide to expand their business and enter a new market and it also focuses on the selecting process of the entry modes in regard to the cultural similarity.

    Methodology: Qualitative case study conducting semi-structured interviews as a main source for the primary data and support it with the pervious and current theoretical framework as the secondary data collection. 

    Findings: Many factors have an influence on the selection process of entry mode, and they are all connected to each other in some way. The main important factors are the level of risk and level of commitment. The cultural differences and similarities have an influence on the selection process of entry mode, which the more similarities, the lower risk, and vice versa.

    Contribution: This Study provides better understanding of the effect of culture similarity & entry modes. This study also contributes to the general business environment by which, all companies despite the fact of the size or the product line they have, they all should be aware of many opportunities and threats surrounding them when deciding to enter a new market. The study generates a viewpoint of using the similarity as a motivation for starting a business in a similar market.   

    Result & Conclusions:  We figured out in this research that the culture similarity has no influence on the motive behind expanding and entering new markets since the motive for companies to expand is the growth of market share, sales, and profit. On the other hand, cultural similarities and low physical distance along with an opportunity in the market is a significant motive that pushes companies toward expanding, and it will increase the companies’ experiences and the possibility of success in the culturally different market and a market with a high physical distance.

    Limitations: This study approach is qualitative, i.e. a limited number of companies are investigated. On the other hand, the small amount of the secondary data that was available in regards the topic was rear. Also, regarding the geographical distance between the country that we conducted the study at ‘Sweden’ and ‘Egypt’ where the headquarter of Dawlia21 is, also we only Skype interviews, it would be more reliable if it were face to face interviews.

    Suggestions for future research: Cultural similarity would be the main topic to consider in the field of investigation as long as there are not too many academic articles about it, so we suggest for more focus on the area of cultural similarities. The second part that would be an interesting to study would be the African market as a general and each country as accurate because we believe as researchers that the time will come, and this market will improve and get better on the economic and business levels.

  • 309.
    E Zander, Ronja
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Ödling, Evelina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Kunskapsspridning ur ett medarbetarperspektiv: Sociala faktorer och dess påverkan av den tysta kunskapens spridning vid outsourcing2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    Title: Knowledge sharing from an employee perspective- Social factors effect on the spread of tacit knowledge at outsourcing

    Level: Final assignment for Bachelor Degree in Business Administration

    Author: Evelina Ödling and Ronja Zander

    Supervisor: Stig Sörling and Thomas Källquist

    Date: 2016 - January

    Aim: It has become increasingly common that organizations use external co-workers for temporary tasks and activities, that is, they choose to outsource parts of their operations. This has proven to be important to how the organizations knowledge capital is affected and, consequently, how knowledge is spread between the internal and external co-workers. Tacit knowledge is most affected by outsourcing, and there are social factors that affect co-workers motivation to share their knowledge. The purpose of this study is therefore to illustrate how knowledge is spread between internal and external co-workers with regard to tacit knowledge and social factors.

    Method: The study was conducted from a qualitative approach and a multiple case study which different types of employment have been studied. Social constructionism has implemented our theory of science and the hermeneutics the knowledge approach we decided to take account with the focus on interpretation and understanding. The empirical collection consists of semi-structured interviews with ten employees when we chose to proceed from an employee perspective. The theoretical framework builds on previous research about our area of interest and has acted as a base of our interview guide. The interview guide has then been used as a template to categorize empirical data and to analyze the empirical outcome.

    Result & Conclusions: We have according to the social factors in this study noticed that reflexitivity and the socio-psychological factor, focusing on the internal motivation is what affects the spread of the tacit knowledge between internal and external co-workers.Suggestions for future research: When the research on knowledge sharing between different forms of employment are limited, we suggest that further research should focus on studying different project groups or teams to create a deeper qualitative study.

    Contribution of the thesis: By highlighting the spread of knowledge between internal and external co-workers and converging multiple social factors in the same study, we have provided a theoretical contribution to the current research. The study has also generated a distribution pattern that shows that the internal co-workers spread their knowledge to both internal and external co-workers, while spread from external to internal is weak. This can be classified as the study´s practical contribution and the measures that organizations may need to use so that knowledge are spread between all co-workers.

    Key words: Outsourcing, knowledge sharing, external/internal co-workers, tacit knowledge, social factors

  • 310.
    Eckersten, Henrik
    et al.
    Department of Crop Production Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bolinder, Martin
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Johnsson, Holger
    Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kätterer, Thomas
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mårtensson, Kristina
    Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Collentine, Dennis
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Economics. Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Tidåker, Pernilla
    Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Research Institutes of Sweden (RISE), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Marstorp, Håkan
    Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nitrogen leaching and soil organic carbon sequestration of a Barley crop with improved N use efficiency - A regional case study2017In: Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica - Section B, ISSN 0906-4710, E-ISSN 1651-1913, Vol. 67, no 7, p. 615-627Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential of modified spring barley crops with improved nitrogen (N) use efficiency to reduce nitrogen (N) leaching and to increase soil organic carbon (SOC) storage was assessed at the regional scale. This was done using simulation model applications designed for reporting according to the Helcom (Helsinki Commission) and Kyoto protocols. Using model simulations based on modified crops N dynamics and SOC were assessed for three agro-ecological regions (latitudes ranging 55°20′–60°40′ N) in Sweden over a 20-year period. The modified N use properties of spring barley were implemented in the SOILNDB model (simulating soil C, N, water and heat, and plant N dynamics) by changing the parameters for root N uptake efficiency and plant N demand within a range given by previous model applications to different crops. A doubling of the daily N uptake efficiency and increased N demand (by ca 30%) reduced N leaching by 24%–31%, increased plant N content by 9%–12%, depending on region. The effects of the modified crop on SOC was simulated with the ICBM model, resulting in an increased SOC content (0–25 cm depth) by 57–79 kg C ha−1 y−1. The results suggest that a modified crop might reduce N leaching from spring barley area, in a range similar to the targets of relevant environmental protection directives, a result which held more in the northern than southern regions. The simulated SOC increase on a hectare basis was highest for the central region and least for the most northern region. For the total agricultural area the share of spring barley area was small and more crops would need to be modified to reach the emission reduction targets.

  • 311.
    Eckersten, Henrik
    et al.
    Department of Crop Production Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Marstorp, Håkan
    Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Collentine, Dennis
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Economics. Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Johnsson, Holger
    Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kätterer, Thomas
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ecosystem C and N dynamics affected by a modified spring barley trait with increased nitrogen use - a simulation case study2018In: Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica - Section B, ISSN 0906-4710, E-ISSN 1651-1913, Vol. 68, no 3, p. 230-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To what extent might a crop with increased plant N uptake efficiency and/or N demand increase plant biomass and soil carbon storage, decrease N leaching, and reduce the need for N fertilisation? This was assessed for a fertilised sandy loam site in central Sweden cultivated with spring barley for a four year period using a process based crop and soil simulation model (SOILN) calibrated to fit observations of field experiments with non-modified crops. Crop properties were changed in accordance with previous model applications to other crops with higher N uptake and utilisation efficiencies, to resemble potential effects of breeding. For the modified crops a doubling of daily uptake efficiency of soil mineral N and/or increase of radiation use efficiency by 30%, increased plant biomass by 3%-30%, decreased N leaching by 1%-30% and increased soil organic carbon (SOC) content by 1-12 g C m-2 year-1. The larger changes were mainly due to increased uptake efficiency. Fertilisation of the modified spring barley crop could be reduced while still producing the same plant biomass as the non-modified crop. The plant biomass to N leaching ratio of the modified crops increased. The simulated changes in plant biomass and SOC were sensitive to weather conditions suggesting that in situ experiments would need to cover a large range of weather conditions to evaluate the performance of new crop traits under climatic variability. The study suggests a strong need that field experiments are accompanied with model applications, when exploring the potential of the modified crops under variable conditions.

  • 312.
    Edehult, Cecilia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Riaz, Jahangir
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    The startup landscape: Sweden and the United States2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 313.
    Edelsvard, Olof
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Nordström, Olof
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Anpassning av kontorslokal till olika verksamheters behov och arbetssätt2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 314.
    Edin, Matilda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Sandström, Veronica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Den svenska mäklartjänsten är inte dyr - en jämförelse med England och Holland2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    ABSTRACT

    Titel: Den svenska mäklartjänsten är inte dyr – en jämförelse med England och Holland

     

    Nivå: C-uppsats i ämnet företagsekonomi

     

    Författare: Veronica Sandström och Matilda Edin

     

    Handledare: Tommy Gerdemark

     

    Datum: 2011 – 03

     

    Syfte: Allmänheten har idag en övervägande negativ bild av den svenska mäklarkåren. Mäklarens arvode i form av provision är uppenbart en av orsakerna till det dåliga ryktet. Syftet med denna uppsats är utifrån detta att öka förståelsen för den svenska mäklartjänstens innehåll och värde. Ytterst vill vi genom att informera stärka branschens rykte och ändra allmänhetens uppfattning om fastighetsmäklare. Detta gör vi genom att jämföra den svenska mäklartjänsten med två andra Europeiska länders mäklartjänster för att se om den svenska mäklartjänsten kan ses som dyr. Länderna vi valt att jämföra med är England och Holland.

     

    Metod: Vi har använt oss av en kvalitativ metod och varit i kontakt med ett flertal mäklarfirmor samt berörda organisationer, stiftelser och företag i Sverige, England och Holland. Kontakterna har mestadels skett via mail, men även en personlig intervju på plats i Holland har genomförts. Resterande data till vår empiri har samlats in via hemsidor. Empirin har vi tolkat utifrån ett hermeneutiskt perspektiv och kopplat samman med teoridelen i analysavsnittet.

     

    Resultat & slutsats: På grund av de skillnader vi funnit länderna emellan gällande utbildning, mäklartjänstens utförande, inblandade parter, lagreglering och mäklarens arvode har vi dragit slutsatsen att den svenska mäklartjänsten inte bör ses som dyr i jämförelse med England och Holland. De tre ländernas mäklare tar i princip ut lika mycket i arvode från uppdragsgivaren, trots att den svenska mäklaren utför mer omfattande arbetsuppgifter än vad den engelska och holländska mäklaren gör, då dessa lämnar över det juridiska ansvaret till en tredje part.

     

    Förslag till fortsatt forskning: I vår jämförelse begränsade vi oss till att enbart jämföra den svenska mäklartjänsten med två Europeiska länder, det skulle därför vara intressant att genomföra en studie med fler jämförelseländer. Ett annat alternativ vore att jämföra mäklartjänsten med andra servicetjänster i Sverige. Vidare kan studier om hur stor del av det dåliga ryktet som beror på provisionens storlek vara ett intressant uppslag.

     

    Uppsatsens bidrag: Uppsatsen har bidragit med att ge en ökad förståelse för mäklartjänsten och dess ersättning samt gett ett bidrag till att försöka förbättra ryktet. Uppsatsen tydliggör de skillnader och likheter som finns mellan Sverige, England och Holland vad gäller mäklartjänsten.

     

    Nyckelord: Fastighetsmäklartjänst, rykte, Holland, England, värde för pengar, dyr. 3

    ABSTRACT

    Title: The Swedish real estate service is not expensive – a comparison with United Kingdom and the Netherlands

     

    Level: Final assignment for Bachelor Degree in Business Administration

     

    Author: Veronica Sandström and Matilda Edin

     

    Supervisor: Tommy Gerdemark

     

    Date: 2011 - 03

     

    Aim: The Real estate agents reputation among the public in Sweden is not the greatest and the commission is one of reasons for that. The purpose of this bachelor thesis was therefore to increase the understanding of the Swedish real estate service contents and value. Ultimately with this thesis we wanted to strengthen the real estate business reputation and try to change the public perception of the real estate agents by providing information. We did this by comparing the Swedish brokerage service with two European countries brokerage service to see if the Swedish one is to be seen as expensive. The countries we chose to compare with were United Kingdom and the Netherlands.

     

    Method: In this study, we used a qualitative approach. We were in contact with several brokerage firms and involved organizations, foundation and businesses in Sweden, United Kingdom and the Netherlands. The contact with the business was mostly through email, but a personal interview in the Netherlands was also conducted. The remaining data for our empirical work, we collected independently via websites. After that we construed the empirical data based on a hermeneutic perspective, linking it together with the theoretical part in the analysis.

     

    Result & Conclusions: Because of the differences found between the countries regarding educations, brokerage service, the involved parties, legal regulations and the real estate agents fees, we have concluded that the Swedish brokerage services should not be seen as expensive in comparison with UK and the Netherlands. The clients cost for the brokerage service is basically the same amount in all three countries, even though the Swedish broker performs more extensive tasks than the other two countries does because they hand over the legal responsibility to a third party.

     

    Suggestions for future research: Since we restricted ourselves to only compare the Swedish brokerage with two European countries, it would be interesting to conduct a study with more countries as well. Another suggestion is to compare the brokerage service with other services in Sweden. Furthermore, it would be interesting to do a research on how much the commission affects the bad reputation.

     

    Contribution of the thesis: The thesis has contributed to an increased understanding of the Swedish brokerage service and its compensation. We also made a contribution to improve the real estate agents reputation. The thesis also clarifies the differences and similarities between the countries brokerage services.

     

    Key words: Real estate brokerage service, Reputation, United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Value for money, Expensive.

  • 315.
    Edling, Josefine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Sundman, Malin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    God bestyrkandesed: Bestyrkanden av hållbarhetsrapporter vid Nasdaq OMX Stockholm2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is partly to determine the proportion of the listed companies that have chosen to report sustainability, assure them, and furthermore to explain whether if there is a correlation between certain factors and the companies chosen to provide a sustainability report and to assure and also the extent of the assurance and furthermore to develop a concept to describe the praxis of assurance. 

  • 316.
    Edman Andersson, Niklas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Gustafsson, Josefine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Fastighetsmäklarens roll som opartisk mellanman: en studie om tjänstekvalitet2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna uppsats är att utreda hur tjänstekvaliteten påverkas av fastighetsmäklarens roll som opartisk mellanman. Studien har genomförts med syfte att ge ett bidrag till debatten om huruvida fastighetsmäklarens opartiska roll påverkar den enskilde konsumenten.

    Metod: Studien genomfördes med en kvalitativ metod. Samtliga intervjuer var personliga och alla utom en genomfördes med inspelningsutrustning. Urvalet föll på en rad sakkunniga inom fastighetsmäklarbranschen samt ett antal verksamma fastighetsmäklare. Intervjusvaren sammanfattades sedan och blev det empiriska underlaget. All empirisk data kopplades sedan till vår teoretiska referensram för att utgöra studiens analysdel.

    Resultat & slutsats: De slutsatser vi dragit av denna studie är att den av kunden upplevda tjänstekvaliteten påverkas negativ av fastighetsmäklarens roll som opartisk mellanman. Vi har funnit att kundernas förväntningar i många fall inte stämmer överens med den tjänst som fastighetsmäklarna tillhandahåller. Den av kunden upplevda tjänstekvaliteten får stå tillbaka för ett starkt konsumentskydd samt en, i relation till andra länder, billig och effektiv fastighetsöverlåtelse. Fastighetsmäklarens roll som opartisk mellanman bygger på en bra idé då den skapar gynnsamma förutsättningar för effektiva fastighetsaffärer. Den tjänsteutformning som gäller idag fungerar tillfredställande men har stora utvecklingsmöjligheter. Ett tydliggörande av fastighetsmäklarens rättigheter och skyldigheter gentemot parterna skulle kunna bidra till en bättre tjänstekvalitet samt mer realistiska förväntningar hos kunderna.

    Förslag till fortsatt forskning: Denna uppsats består endast av en kvalitativ undersökning med fastighetsmäklare och branschexperter. Vi föreslår därför undersökningar genom kvantitativa studier om vad fastighetsmäklarnas kunder upplever är bra kvalitet för tjänsten samt vilka deras förväntningar är. Vi föreslår även undersökningar om vad de danska konsumenterna anser är bra kvalitet gällande tjänsten samt en jämförelse med svenska konsumenter.

    Uppsatsens bidrag: Uppsatsen har bidragit till att belysa den problematik som finns gällande fastighetsmäklarens opartiska roll som mellanman. Detta är ett inlägg i den debatt som förs kring ämnet. Vår förhoppning är att denna studie kan komma att bidra till en större inblick i varför fastighetsmäklarens roll bör tydliggöras i lag för att i högre grad gynna konsumenterna. Vår förhoppning är att denna studie tas emot med intresse.

  • 317.
    Edorsson, Erika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Ström, Johanna
    Kundlojalitet via sociala medier: En kvalitativ studie om hur tjänsteföretag arbetar med kundlojalitet på sociala medier2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet är att utifrån de tre faktorerna kundnöjdhet, kundengagemang och tillit öka förståelsen för hur tjänsteföretag arbetar med kundlojalitet på sociala medier.

    Metod: Studien genomfördes med en kvalitativ forskningsmetod och präglas av en induktiv forskningsansats. Studiens data är insamlad genom elva semistrukturerade intervjuer som bearbetats genom tematisk analys.

    Resultat & slutsats: Studien visar att samtliga företag arbetar med kundlojalitet på sociala medier utifrån de tre faktorerna kundnöjdhet, kundengagemang och tillit. Att besvara kommentarer och hålla hög svarsfrekvens var de främsta arbetssätten som framkom under faktorn kundnöjdhet. Tävlingar, inlägg som väcker känslor och säsongsbaserade inlägg användes för att skapa kundengagemang. I arbetet med tillit visar företagen upp sitt hållbarhetsarbete och arbetar för att minska osäkerhet.

    Uppsatsens bidrag: Studien teoretiska bidrag är en ökad förståelse för hur tjänsteföretag arbetar med kundlojalitet utifrån de tre aspekterna kundnöjdhet, kundengagemang och tillit. Studien har även bidragit på ett praktiskt plan genom att belysa för tjänsteföretag vilka arbetssätt som kan vara bra att använda sig av i arbetet mot att skapa kundlojalitet via sociala medier.

    Förslag till vidare forskning: För att upplysa företag ytterligare om hur de kan arbeta på sociala medier för att skapa kundlojalitet anser vi att vidare forskning kan utföras från ett kundperspektiv. Detta kan bidra med information från en ny synvinkel och även styrka resultatet av denna studie. Vi ser även att forskare i framtiden kan utvidga den geografiska avgränsningen för ett mer generaliserbart resultat.

  • 318.
    Edström, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Edman, Lisa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Prestationsmätningar med individperspektiv: - En fallstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

     

    Title: Performance measurement with individual perspective – A case study

     

    Level: Final assignment for Bachelor Degree in Business Administration

     

    Author: Lisa Edman och Anna Edström

     

    Supervisor: Tomas Källquist och Stig Sörling

     

    Date: 2014-05

     

    Aim: The aim of this study is to illustrate and create a greater understanding for how management in organizations can use performance measurements with an individual perspective and what value it brings to the organization.

     

    Method: This Study applied a qualitative research method in the form of a case study. Primary data has been collected through 15 qualitative half structured interviews, the respondents comprised of all the managers in the organization. Secondary data has been collected mainly from scientific journals. The primary data has been subsequently linked with the theoretical framework for the discussion and analysis. Through the analysis the results of the study has emerged.

     

    Result & Conclusions: How management operates with performance measurements at an individual level is a balancing act. The balancing act consists of continuously follow-ups with the ambition to motivate employees to develop their performance and to control employees with the performance measurements which could lead to the experience for the individuals to feel monitored in a way that could lead to employees feeling a lack of motivation.

     

    Suggestions for future research: In this study all the respondents possessed a manager position. I our point of view it would be interesting to further study the conception about performance measurements through an individual perspective by the employees in on organization without a manager position.

     

    Contribution of the thesis: There are both advantages and disadvantages to the use of performance measurements for each individual. The success of the use depends on how management communicates the outcomes of the performance measurements to each individual.

  • 319.
    Edvinsson, Frida
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Källänge, Emma
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Spelansvar - Framtiden inom spelbranschen2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med detta arbete är att utifrån ett etiskt och moraliskt synsätt beskriva hur spelbolagen balanserar faktorerna lönsamhet och spelansvar. Detta är genomfört med en avgränsning till två svenska spelbolag, Svenska Spel och ATG. Mer specifika frågeställningar för studien är:

     

    -          Hur arbetar spelbolagen med sin marknadsföring med hänsyn till spelansvar?

    -          Hur balanserar Spelbolagen faktorerna lönsamhet och spelansvar?

    -          Vilka åtgärder mot spelmissbruk har spelbolagen och hur ser den framtida utvecklingen ut av dessa?

     

    Metod: I denna studie har vi använt oss av en kvalitativ metod i form av fem stycken telefonintervjuer. Respondenterna är utvalda för att få en god uppfattning om hur spelbolagen står i denna fråga och för att få en syn i hur relevanta respondenter utomstående från spelbolagen ser på Svenska Spel och ATG gällande detta syfte.

     

    Resultat och slutsats: Undersökningen visar att de två utvalda spelbolagen har ett genomarbetat spelansvar. Deras marknadsföring har idag ändrat fokus från en aggressiv marknadsföring och är numer inriktad mot glädjen och gemenskapen i att spela. Spelbolagen överväger noga vilka spel de väljer att marknadsföra och inte, där snabba spel väljs bort. Balansen mellan lönsamhet och spelansvar finns det olika synvinklar på, men generellt sett klarar Svenska Spel och ATG av denna balans väl. Spelbolagens åtgärder mot spelmissbruk är många, där åldersgräns är den viktigaste och den åtgärd som funnits längst. Utvecklingen av framtida åtgärder beror främst på hur forskningen kring spelberoende kommer att utvecklas.

     

    Förslag till fortsatta studier: Vi anser att det skulle vara intressant att undersöka hur spelare ser på spelbolagen och deras spelansvarsåtgärder. Detta skulle komplettera denna studie och tillsammans skulle de ge en helhet över synen på dagens spelansvarsåtgärder och det etiska och moraliska i spelbolags arbete med spelansvar och lönsamhet. Vi skulle även vilja se mer forskning kring vilka av spelbolagens spelansvarsåtgärder som verkligen hjälper.

     

    Uppsatsens bidrag: Denna uppsats har bidragit till en ökad insyn i hur Svenska Spel och ATG balanserar faktorerna lönsamhet och spelansvar ur ett etiskt och moraliskt synsätt.

  • 320.
    Edvinsson, Jessica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Lindahl, Isabelle
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Konsumenters motivationsfaktorer till eWOM utifrån ett företagsperspektiv: En kvalitativ studie om företags arbete för ett starkare varumärke2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Enligt litteraturen kommunicerar människor idag inte bara via nya kanaler utan även merEn bidragande faktor till detta är framfarten av sociala medier som skapar nya kommunikationsmöjligheter. Syftet med vår studie är att undersöka hur företag utifrån konsumenters motivationsfaktorer Jagfaktorn, Mottagarfaktorn, Budskapsfaktorn och Produktfaktorn arbetar för att stärka sitt varumärke genom eWOM. 

    Metod: För att samla in data till studien använde vi oss utav en kvalitativ metod och genomförde 10 stycken semi-strukturerade intervjuer. Vårt urval baserades på respondenter som arbetade med marknadsföring på respektive företag samt att företaget arbetade mot konsumenter, det vill säga Business to consumer (B2C). Vi sammanställde empirin i en tabell utefter de fyra motivationsfaktorerna för att lättare kunna göra en analys som slutligen mynnar ut i en slutsats. 

    Resultat & slutsats: En intressant upptäckt med vår studie är att företag istället för att ta hänsyn till konsumenters motivationsfaktorer utgår från vad de själva anser vara viktigt. Detta visas tydligast av företagens rankning av motivationsfaktorerna.

    Förslag till fortsatt forskning: Ett förslag till vidare forskning är att genomföra denna studie ur konsumenters synvinkel för att sedan koppla samman de två resultaten. En annan intressant aspekt är att undersöka om det möjligtvis finns fler motivationsfaktorer för eWOM än Jagfaktorn, Mottagarfaktorn, Budskapsfaktorn och Produktfaktorn.

    Uppsatsens bidrag: Vår studie har bidragit till litteraturen genom att beskriva och skapa förståelse för, utifrån företags perspektiv, konsumenters motivationsfaktorer till eWOM. Även hur företag arbetar med att bjuda in konsumenter till eWOM.

  • 321.
    Ehlin, Dag
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Tarschis, Richard
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Vad motiverar svenska ungdomars val vid köp av vin?: En kvantitativ undersökning om de viktigaste aspekterna vid valet av vin för Generation Y.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Title: What motivates Swedish Millennials’ choices when buying wine? 

    Level: Bachelor thesis in Business Administration, final assignment. 

    Authors: Richard Tarschis and Dag Ehlin 

    Supervisor: Jonas Kågström 

    Date: 2018 – January 

    Aim: The purpose of this work is to analyze which driving forces affect the Swedish Millennials’ choices in the purchasing process of wine. 

    Method: We used a quantitative research method in the form of a web-based survey that was sent out via Facebook and email with a total of 254 respondents. These data were then analyzed in the SPSS statistical software through cluster analysis, factor analysis and correlation analysis. The selection was aimed at Swedish men and women from Generation Y.

     Results & Conclusion: The results showed that the two most important driving forces were the emotional aspect as well as Word of Mouth. We also found that hedonism is a driving force for buying wine in general rather than for buying a specific wine. 

    Contribution of the thesis: The study contributes to an understanding of what driving forces are the basis for purchasing decisions of a particular wine for the younger part of Swedish Generation Y. For marketers, this means knowledge about which marketing strategies they should use to reach the target group in question. 

    Suggestions for future research: Future research should focus on replicating the study with a representative sample, a selection that is evenly distributed between all ages of the generation. It would also be interesting to replicate the study in neighboring countries such as Norway and Finland.

     Key Words: Consumer behavior, motivational factors, purchasing process, wine consumption, Millennials, Sweden.

  • 322.
    Ehrlin, Mathias
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Estmyr, Elvira
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Könsfördelningen i styrelser och dess samband med utdelningsnivån i börsnoterade företag: En kvantitativ studie utförd på svenska börsnoterade företag2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: "Gender distribution in boards and it’s relation to dividend level in listed companies, A quantitative study conducted in Swedish publicly listed companies"

    Level: Final assignment for Bachelor Degree in Business Administration

    Authors: Mathias Ehrlin and Elvira Estmyr

    Supervisor: Peter Lindberg

    Date: 2017 - September

    Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate if there’s a relation between the level of dividends and the proportion of women in listed companies’ boards and if the level of dividends is related to other factors including firm specific- and board specific variables. In previous research, the majority of firm-specific factors have been found to be related to the dividend level. On the other hand, there is less research for board-specific factors, our unique contribution is to investigate Sweden, which is one of the countries with the highest level of gender distribution in the boards of listed companies.

    Method: The study applies quantitative method with deductive approach. Data from 2014 is collected mainly through the sources Thomson Reuters Datastream/Eikon, Retriever database and the books "“Styrelser och revisorer, i Sveriges börsföretag”". At the statistical tests and analysis, the data was split up. Bivariate analysis and regression analysis is carried out on all companies in our study and also these tests are executed on only those companies that have made a dividend payout for the period. Standard multiple regression is applied. Finally, we reject or confirm hypotheses based on the significant results we receive.

    Result & Conclusions: The study shows a positive correlation between profitability and dividend level when analyzing all companies in our study. This result is well in line with previous research. Other variables do not reach significance, which may depend on the size of the population and the observation period that this study takes into account. No relationship can be confirmed or rejected for the proportion of women in boards and the dividend level. The aim of this study is therefore left unanswered.Suggestions for future research: The study leads to increased curiosity for continued research in the field and to analyze more variables and on a larger scale. For example, more board-specific variables can be investigated such as the size and gender of the Board of Directors to see if there is a relationship between these and the dividend level. It would also be interesting to have broadened the study to investigate the impact these factors have on dividend policy and other possible aspects.

    Contribution of the thesis: The contribution the thesis entails primarily is that it provides more intel to the fact that future research should be of a larger scale, as this would then hopefully give more significant results. In addition, the study provides an understanding of how a change in profitability impacts the dividend level. In our opinion, we provide greater understanding of the subject for future research but also for private investors and companies.

    Keywords: Dividend, Dividend level, Company, Proportion of Women, Board, Board of directors, Sweden, Listed companies, Board-specific factors, Firm-specific factors, Board composition.

  • 323.
    Ehrling, Robert
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Bokedal, Fredrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Avkastningskrav i allmännyttiga bostadsaktiebolag.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    ABSTRACT

     

    Titel: Avkastningskrav i allmännyttiga bostadsaktiebolag

     

    Nivå: C-uppsats i ämnet företagsekonomi

     

    Författare: Fredrik Bokedal & Robert Ehrling

     

    Handledare: Peter Lindberg

     

    Datum: 2014 – Augusti

     

    Syfte: I samband med den lagändring som skedde 2011 ändrades principerna för hur de allmännyttiga bostadsbolagen skall bedriva sin verksamhet. Numera ställs krav på affärsmässighet och att bolagen ska tillämpa långsiktiga avkastningskrav på verksamheten. Utifrån de nya principerna ansåg vi att det var intressant att undersöka hur de allmännyttiga bostadsbolagen har tagit till sig detta och att ingen tidigare studie har behandlat de ställda nivåerna på avkastning i avkastningskraven och hur väl de uppfyller avkastningskraven. Syftet med studien är att undersöka vilka allmännyttiga bostadsbolag som har avkastningskrav samt hur de är formulerade. Studien syftar även till att undersöka och visa om allmännyttornas avkastningsnivåer i avkastningskraven är väl avvägda mot dess faktiska riskexponering gentemot andra placeringsalternativ. Samt hur väl de allmännyttiga bostadsbolagen uppfyller avkastningskraven.

     

    Metod: I studien har en kvantitativ metod tillämpats. Det empiriska materialet består av en enkätundersökning som har besvarats av samtliga 290 kommuner i Sverige. För att utreda om avkastningskraven är väl avvägda mot dess faktiska riskexponering har jämförelsedata använts från analysverktyget Datscha och genom vetenskapliga tidsskrifter. För att besvara frågan om bostadsbolagen uppfyller avkastningskraven har nyckeltal inhämtats från databasen Retriever.

     

    Resultat & slutsats: Studiens resultat visar att det finns en stor spridning hur de allmännyttiga bostadsaktiebolagens avkastningskrav definieras. Nivåerna på avkastning skiljer sig markant och är till stor del inte riskanpassad. Mer än hälften av bolagen uppfyller inte sina avkastningskrav.

     

    Förslag till fortsatt forskning: En kvalitativ studie om hur avkastningskraven fastställs för de allmännyttiga bostadsaktiebolagen.

     

    Uppsatsens bidrag: En övergripande bild om kommunernas avkastningskrav för de allmännyttiga bostadsbolagen.

     

    Nyckelord: Avkastningskrav, direktavkastning, totalavkastning, allmännyttan. 

  • 324.
    Eismar, Jonathan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Hellström, Tove
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Hur kan framtida underhållskostnader hanteras av bostadsrättsföreningar?: En dokumentstudie gällande räkenskapsår 20142016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den praktiska effekten av BFN:s införande av K-regelverk är att många bostadsrättföreningar förväntas ett redovisningsmässigt underskott, förutsättningsvis att inte medlemsavgifterna höjs för att kompensera de ökade avskrivningarna. Diskussionerna kring att bostadsrättsföreningarna inte får gå med förlust har fått omfattande utrymme i media, dock menar forskare att det istället är av större vikt att redogöra för bostadsrättsföreningarnas förmåga att möta löpande utgifter och dess behov av att avsätta medel för framtida underhåll. Syftet med den genomförda studien är att undersöka och förklara bostadsrättsföreningarnas hantering av underhåll samt vilka konsekvenser detta kan tänkas medföra. Studiens syfte är även att undersöka och förklara vilka faktorer som påverkar bostadsrättsföreningarnas hantering av underhåll. För att kunna besvara syftet har studien utgått från tre forskningsfrågor. Hur har bostadsrättsföreningarna valt att hantera utgifter för löpande/planerat underhåll och avsättning till framtida underhåll under räkenskapsår 2014? Hur har bostadsrättsföreningarna hanterat gränsdragningen mellan aktivering och kostnadsföring? Vilka konsekvenser kan hanteringen av utgifter för löpande/planerat underhåll och framtida underhåll tänkas medföra för bostadsrättsföreningen, nuvarande bostadsrättsägare och framtida bostadsrättsägare? Vilka faktorer kan tänkas påverka eventuella skillnader eller likheter i bostadsrättsföreningarnas hantering av löpande/planerat underhåll och avsättning till framtida underhåll?

    För att besvara syftet har en kvantitativ metod tillämpats tillsammans med en deduktiv forskningsansats. Empirisk data har samlats in genom en dokumentstudie av årsredovisningar och presenterats i form av diagram och tabeller. Det empiriska resultatet har därefter analyserats mot vedertagna teorier och tidigare forskning.

    Resultatet från den empiriska undersökningen påvisar hur majoriteten av bostadsrättsföreningarna hanterat underhåll på ett likvärdigt sätt. De bostadsrättsföreningar som tillhör minoriteten visar dock på att en spridning förkommer. Studien visar att 65% av de undersökta föreningarna aktiverat utöver byggnad och mark, trots detta kostnadsför föreningarna utgifter för underhåll i allt större utsträckning. Bostadsrättsföreningarnas årsavgifter och avskrivningar har ökat under 2014. Faktorer såsom storlek, skuldsättningsgrad och ålder påvisar ett samband med bostadsrättsföreningarnas hantering av underhåll, medan marknadssituation och geografiskt läge inte påvisar något samband.

    Ett förslag till framtida forskning är att undersöka om det finns behov för både avskrivningar och avsättning till underhållsfond eller om någon av dessa kan exkluderas från redovisningen. Ett ytterligare förslag är att undersöka de två faktorer som inte påvisat något samband i följande studie samt andra faktorer som kan tänkas påverka bostadsrättsföreningarnas hantering av underhåll.

  • 325.
    Ejdemo Wahlman, Johanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Pålsson, Ann-Charlotte
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Kreditbedömning av kunskapsföretag2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet är att få fram vad bankerna tittar på vid en kreditbedömning. Skiljer sig kreditbedömningsprocessen åt om det är ett företag som har tillgångar mot ett som generellt inte har tillgångar, i det här fallet kunskapsföretag. Vilka är de viktigaste faktorerna i en kreditbedömning?

    Metod: Det har gjorts en kvalitativ studie, induktiv ansats och semistrukturerade intervjuer har genomförts på fyra olika bankkontor i Gävle. Efter intervjuerna har data renskrivits direkt och skickats ut till respondenterna för godkännande. Det godkända materialet har sedan sammanställts. Teorin har samlats in via litteratur och vetenskapliga artiklar. Empiri och teori har sen analyserats för att se om det finns likheter och skillnader inom områdena.

    Resultat och slutsats: Undersökningen visar att bankerna har samma kreditbedömningsprocess för kunskapsföretag som för andra företag. Resultaten visar också att nyckeltalen jämför olika referensmått beroende på bransch. Inga speciella nyckeltal granskas för kunskapsföretag vilket gör att humankapitalet blir svårbelyst. Trots att marknaden för kunskapsintensiva företag är på uppgång verkar inte bankerna ha något behov av att anpassa kreditbedömningsprocessen eftersom kreditbehovet för företagsgruppen generellt är lågt.

    Förslag till fortsatt forskning: Det skulle vara intressant att se om kunskapsföretagen har fortsatt att öka. Det skulle också vara intressant att se om bankerna ändrar sin kreditbedömningsprocess i framtiden.

    Uppsatsens bidrag: Bankernas tillvägagångssätt i kreditbedömningsprocessen anpassas inte till typen av företag. Nyckeltalen som granskas bedöms utifrån olika referensmått, vilket är en anpassning till bransch, men för kunskapsföretag saknas möjligheten att kunna omvandla värdet av humankapitalet till hårda värden. Detta gör analysen besvärligare och svårare att få konsekvent.

  • 326.
    Ekander, Hanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Johansson, Hanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Employer Branding: En fallstudie om hur Landstinget Gävleborg uppfattas som arbetsgivare ur de anställdas perspektiv2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Titel: Employer Branding- En fallstudie om hur Landstinget Gävleborg uppfattas som arbetsgivare ur de anställdas perspektiv

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie är att få en förståelse om hur arbetsgivare inom den offentliga sektorn och deras arbetsgivarvarumärke kännetecknas utifrån de anställdas perspektiv.

    Metod: Vår studie har utförts genom en kvalitativ metod eftersom syftet med uppsatsen handlar om att skapa en förståelse. Empiriskt material har samlats in genom semistrukturerade intervjuer med tio sjuksköterskor från Gävle Sjukhus. Utifrån vår teori har vi funnit teman som användes för att presentera empiri och analys. Dessa teman har valts för att skapa en röd tråd genom arbetet. Avslutningsvis presenteras slutsatsen som innehåller de resultat vi har funnit med studien. 

    Slutsats: Den slutsats vi kommit fram till är att vi upplever att Landstinget Gävleborgs arbetsgivarvarumärke har brister för att attrahera potentiell arbetskraft och bibehålla sin nuvarande. Vi har även sett tendenser att respondenternas svar i undersökningen överensstämmer med den teori vi presenterat om Generation Y.

    Uppsatsens bidrag: Studien visar på hur viktigt det är även inom den offentliga sektorn att ha ett starkt arbetsgivarvarumärke för att konkurrera om de bästa medarbetarna samt förståelsen om Generation Y:s värderingar och attityder till arbete. 

    Nyckelord: Arbetsgivarvarumärke, Employer Branding, varumärke, varumärkesvärde, varumärkes attribut

  • 327.
    Ekberg, Carl
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Overgaard, Malin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Frivillig personalomsättning, orsaker och åtgärder: En fallstudie om hur första linjens chefer kan minska frivillig personalomsättning bland medarbetare inom vård och omsorg.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: There is a variety of studies that deal with the issue of voluntary turnover and its causes. More in-depth studies are required in order to gain increased understanding of what causes voluntary turnover. The aim of this thesis is to gain increased understanding of how first line managers in health and social care corporations can engage in, and influence coworkers in order to reduce voluntary turnover. In order to fulfill its purpose this thesis will answer why coworkers are considering leaving the organization, what actions managers can take to reduce turnover intentions among coworkers and what impact turnover among managers have on staff turnover within the organization.

    Method: In this thesis a qualitative case study (single case) was carried out on an organization that operates within the health and social care industry. The main method used to gather data is semi structured interviews (n=11) with individuals in various positions within the organization. In order to obtain a deep holistic view of the case the interviews are supplemented with a survey conducted by coworkers (n=137), document analysis and observations. The data was analyzed using pattern-matching technique and the reporting of data has been based on the study's research questions. The subjects in this thesis are coworkers, and various managers within the organization.

    Result & Conclusions: Several causes for, and actions to prevent voluntary turnover has been highlighted. Turnover among first line managers turned out to have an impact on all the causes highlighted in the study. 

    Contribution of the thesis: The thesis contributes with increased understanding of what causes, and how first line managers can prevent, voluntary turnover. The importance of balance between working life and privacy has been highlighted. The thesis confirms previous research that emphasizes the relevance of turnover among managers in order to reduce staff turnover.

    Suggestions for future research: Suggestions for future research is to explore causes in organizations with low turnover within the same context, how local commitment can replace organizational commitment and how turnover among first line managers can be reduced in order to reduce turnover among staff. 

  • 328.
    Ekberg, Charlotte
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Building a strong brand with marketing communications at the cognitive, affective, and behavioral level. - Case Södertörn University 2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how Södertörn University may build a stronger brand through marketing communications. The paper discussed each stage of the buying process. With models like these it is possible to measure the number of consumers who occupy the different stages.

    Method: The data was collected in a non-random convenience selection at the Stockholm fair for higher education with 21 000 visitors. I used a survey questionnaire. The number of respondents was 409 respondents. My method of investigation is quantitative. It is measurable so that communication goals can be set. In order to build a stronger brand I analyzed prospective students and their awareness of Södertörn University. The study has a positivistic view and a deductive approach.

    Result & Conclusions: My study shows that Södertörn University should use marketing communication strategically by using the models. At the cognitive level the most important is to raise brand awareness. Total knowledge is 52% in Stockholm County which is too low. An increase is fatal to raise the number of applicants. At the affective level they have to increase brand attitude. At the Behavioural level they need to increase brand purchase intention and facilitate purchase.

    Suggestions for future research: It would be interesting to use other models of consumer responses too. Next step could be to make interviews with students to be to study how they first got to know the name, and what has affected them in order to choose or not to choose the university.

    Contribution of the thesis: The thesis has actually contributed a lot to Södertörn University. I have used the collected data to make a marketing plan. We now have worked a lot with awareness and seen a great increase in applications.

  • 329.
    Ekbergh, Lina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Forss, Jenny
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Energideklarationer i flerbostadshus i Gävle2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this paper is to investigate how the Energy Performance Certificate have been received and have affected building owner’s work with energy related issues in residential buildings in Gävle.

     

    Method: This paper is based on qualitative interviews with building owners in Gävle. The property owners who have contributed are from the municipal and private rental sector, co-operative economic associations and private housing cooperatives. The interview material has been put together in five different categories with clarifying tables and diagrams.

     

    Result and conclusions: Only three out of seven building owners have completed the Energy Performance Certificates (EPC). All respondents generally think that the EPC is good, but there are several things that they consider negative about the EPC. The majority of the respondents think that they have not made any major changes with the new legislation; they already worked with energy-saving measures before the EPC was carried out.

     

    Suggestions for future research: In the paper we have not considered the tenants and their influence on the energy consumption. It would be interesting to research how the building owners can affect their energy consumption and how aware they are of their habits.

     

    Contribution of the thesis: The paper gives an insight in how the EPC works in reality and how it has been received by building owners in Gävle. Furthermore, the paper have contributed to a general view of what the building owners focus on when it comes to energy relates issues.

     

    Key words: Energy Performance Certificate, Energy consumption

     

  • 330.
    Ekehov, Petra
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Lindgren, Julia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Har kvinnor i styrelsen och CSR-arbete en motverkande effekt på uppkomsten av resultatmanipulering?: En kvantitativ studie om relationen mellan ansvarstagande och resultatmanipulering vid företagsförvärv med stock swap2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Earning management is an opportunistic behavior that occurs in conjunction with acquisitions. Earnings management incentives for acquiring companies may vary depending on whether there are counteracting mechanisms in corporate governance. Researchers have previously pointed out that responsibility is a contradiction to opportunistic behavior and that responsibility is a distinctive feature of women and something that characterizes CSR work. The purpose of the current study is therefore to investigate whether CSR work in corporate governance and the proportion of women in boards reduces the incidence of earning management one year beforea company acquisition with stock swap.

    Method: The study is based on the philosophy of positivism with a hypothetical deductive approach. Secondary data have been retrieved from the Thomson Reuters Eikon database and Thomson Reuters DataStream database through a quantitative approach. A cross-sectional design isused and the sample has been analyzed in multiple regression using Excel and the IBM SPSS statistics program.

    Result & Conclusions: The study shows that CSR work reduces the incidence of earning manipulation prior to acquisitions, which the study's literature survey gave reason to expect. However, we do not find a significant relation between women in boards and earning management prior to company acquisitions.

    Suggestions for future research: Studies that investigate the relationship between CSR and other opportunistic behaviors than earning management. We would also liketo see studies that take greater account of the importance of the number of women presented in boards to show women's distinctive qualities. Mainly in connection with incentives for earning management.

    Contribution of the thesis: From a theoretical perspectivethis study contributes by discussing and empirically investigating relationships between women, CSR and earning management. The study also contributes with an alternative way of investigating CSR in contrast to previous researchthat is primarily using ESG points. From a practical perspective, the study contributes with information that may be important for target companies that are facing acquisitions and stakeholders in stock value analysis.

  • 331.
    Ekelöf, Gabriel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Nordenståhl, Marcus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Utmaningar med ekologiskt ansvarstagande i stora företags leverantörskedjor: - En modellutvecklande studie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Based on concepts from CSR, the purpose is to develop a comprehensive model of the most distinctive challenges of ecological responsibility in supply chains, with a focus on implementation, auditing and communication.

    Method: The study is based on hermeneutic theory and social constructivism. The analysis of the scientific research has resulted in a theoretical frame of reference, where different key aspects are pointed out. The chosen method was a qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews. The empiric data has undergone an adaptation process and been systematized in relation to the theory. An abductive and iterative process influenced the research and working process through an interaction between the theory and the empirical data. To ensure the quality throughout the study, quality criteria were used. The method gave a structuring and categorization of challenges for corporate governance.

    Result & conclusions: The study's results are given in a model of challenges, through an established conceptual framework from empirical data. The theoretical framework presented challenges with ecological responsibility in supply chains.

    Contribution of the thesis: The study contributes theoretically with a conceptualization and a combined theoretical model. A greater knowledge of challenges is given to facilitate methods for sustainable management through new structured categories and conceptual framework from empirical data.

    Suggestions for future research: The study suggests that future research focus on developing models with the same starting points and bases. Through an improved structuring of implementation, auditing and communication with ecological responsibility in supply chains, and through new or existing challenges, this can hopefully be achieved.

  • 332.
    Ekemba, Chinedu
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Emurla, Emin Ali
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Motivating Factors Influencing Consumers’ Brand Preferences for mobile phones: University of Gavle Students.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Motivating factors influencing consumers’ Brand preferences for mobile phones: University of Gavle students

    Level: Final assignment for Master degree in Business Administration (MBA)

    Authors: Chinedu Ekemba and Emurla Emin Ali

    Supervisor: Professor Ehsanul Huda Chowdhury

    Examiner: Professor Maria Fregidou-Malama

    Date: 2017- June

    Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the motivating factors that influence University Gavle students to prefer a particular Mobile phone brand.

    Method: A qualitative study is carried out based on primary data; the primary data was collected through semi-structured interview with twenty of University of Gavle Students by the use of face to face interview.

    Result & Conclusion: The study finds out that, the role of word of mouth as extrinsic factors serves as the highest motivating factor, while prestige serves as intrinsic factors of motivation. Thus, word of mouth and quality are the highest motivating factors that influence University of Gavle students to prefer a particular mobile phone brand. This finding of this research will help mobile phone marketers and managers to develop strategy on how to capture Swedish consumers to prefer their companies brand products.

    Suggestion for future research: Future research could be done by considering different or more widely target groups instead of students of University of Gavle. Different perspectives can be combined in future research thus, further research can be conducted by more broadly with a variety of age groups and in a wider area.

    Also, further research could include comparison between mobile phone brand types and may consider different type of products. This will give understanding of the different segments in mobile phone market, and to determine if these different segments can cause any variety and change of motivating factors.

    Additionally, further research could be conducted in the long time period, thus can be explored in detail benefiting from the longitudinal study and could be include observations to understand long-term variables on mobile phone market and effects of motivating factors. Hence, this could bring more effective conceptualization of influencing factors of smartphone buying consumers and helps to achieve a more in-depth research.

    More so, the same study can be conducted with a combination of different Universities in Sweden. And also, same research can be carried out using quantitative research method for future research.

    Contribution of the Study: This study contributes with knowledge on which motivating factors influence customers brand preferences, and how these factors affect their purchase decision.

  • 333.
    Ekheim, Johanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Lindberg, Frida
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Företagens arbete med CSR i butik, en bidragande faktor till kundlojalitet?: En empirisk studie av modebranschen i Sverige2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Sambandet mellan CSR och kundlojalitet är otydligt och kan inte fastställas. Syftet med denna studie är att beskriva och hypotetiskt testa hur konsumenter uppfattar företagens arbete med CSR i butik och om det påverkar och ökar konsumenternas lojalitet.

     

    Metod: I studien har en kvantitativ metod använts där enkäter delats ut till respondenter för att testa hypoteser relaterat till hur företagens arbete med CSR inverkar på deras kundlojalitet. Insamlat material har analyserats med hjälp av korrelationsanalys enligt principen Spearman’s rho i det statistiska datorprogrammet SPSS. Utifrån teoretiskt deducerade hypoteser som testats genom analys av korrelationskoefficienter och signifikansnivå har hypoteserna från teorin accepterats eller förkastats.

     

    Resultat & slutsats: Studien har visat att ett gott rykte och en stark image gällande företagens arbete med CSR, påverkar konsumenternas köpbeslut positivt. Dock finns det brister i kommunikationen om CSR då variabeln inte har en positiv relation med image och rykte. Slutligen har studien visat att CSR är en starkt bidragande faktor till kundlojalitet.

     

    Förslag till fortsatt forskning: I studien har ett gap inom forskningen upptäckts mellan hur företagen kommunicerar CSR med konsumenterna och dess påverkan på image och rykte. Förslag till framtida forskning är att gå djupare på relationen mellan dessa variabler och visa på ett starkare samband med kundlojalitet.

     

    Uppsatsens bidrag: Studiens bidrag är att öka förståelsen för hur arbetet med CSR i butik är en bidragande faktor till kundlojalitet.

  • 334.
    Ekholm, Emma
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    von Schreeb, Alexandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Individuella skillnader i sensoriska behov: “Need for Scent”, “Need for Sound” och “Need for Vision” skalor: Ett bidrag till ämnets teoriutveckling2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Individual differences in sensory needs, “Need for Scent”, “Need for Sound” and “Need for Vision” scales: a contribution to theory development, in the subject of sensory marketing. 

    Level: Final assignment for Bachelor Degrees in Business Administration

    Author: Emma Ekholm and Alexandra von Schreeb

    Supervisor: Jonas Kågström

    Date: 2017 - May

    Aim: The purpose of our study is to contribute to the field of theory development, in the subject of sensory marketing. The aim of the survey is to analyze how the Need for Touch scale can be converted into other senses, and to be used in multisensory marketing.

    Method: In this study, a quantitative study was performed and 158 questionnaires were collected from a web-based survey where the scales were tested on the respondents. We analyzed our collected data in the statistical program SPSS and a factor analysis, cluster analysis and a correlation analysis were conducted.

    Result & Analysis: This study present six different factors from the factor analysis, of which factor one and two made two independent scales, “Need for Scent” and “Need for Sound”. Factor three, four and five all includes vision, and developed a three-dimensional scale “Need for Vision”. This study also present four clusters, where we developed one cluster that exhibited very high-sensory behaviors and a second cluster that exhibited very low-sensory behaviors.

    Suggestions for future research: Since we found that the senses smell, sound and vision could be formed into three independent scales, future research could use the scales on consumer research. Future research could also study each cluster individually on a deeper level with qualitative interviews. Furthermore, it would be interesting to examine if our scales could be transformed into the sense of taste. Which has not yet been studied.

    Contribution of the thesis:  The study has contributed to develop the theoretical foundation in the subject of sensory marketing, and by expanding Peck and Childers (2013) “Need for Touch” scale to three new functional scales. We highlighted how it is possible to use scales for scent, sound and vision to measure consumers individual need for scent, sound and vision in regarding product evaluation.

  • 335.
    Eklinder Frick, Jens
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration. Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Building Bridges and Breaking Bonds: Aspects of social capital in a regional strategic network2011Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Investing in cluster formation or encouraging companies to network in regional strategic networks is a common strategy used by municipalities to promote regional growth in peripheral regions. Previous research has investigated the significance of creating regional advantages by building clusters and regional networks, but researchers have not provided much insight into the problems facing the project management trying to implement such collaboration. In my thesis I describe and analyze a network project in order to shed light upon some of the complications that such a collaboration project might entail. My theoretical framework of analysis rests upon the concept of social capital, a concept that investigates the value that social contacts might incur.

    I have studied a designed network situated in the Swedish municipality of Söderhamn called Firsam. After the closure of the telecommunications factory of Ericsson/Emerson and the military airbase F15 Söderhamn lost 10 % of its local employment in 2004.The need for regional growth programmes therefore became dire. The companies that prior to the closure worked in close collaboration with the Ericsson/Emerson factory were also looking for new revenue streams to compensate for their loss of business. Collaboration with the local manufacturing companies to create innovative projects and to take on joint tenders seemed to be a perfect solution to the problems facing them and the municipality. In this spirit a regional strategic network called Firsam (Företag i regional samverkan) was initiated.

    I analyze the Firsam project using two different aspects of the concept social capital:”bonding” and”bridging”. The bonding form of social capital is associated with small and homogeneous groups that build prerequisites for long-term collaboration by forming close contacts and building trust. The bridging form of social capital creates an open stance towards social relations that enables new contacts to be formed outside one’s own socially established context.

    The bonding form of social capital provides prerequisites for close collaboration but can also result in close-mindedness and over-embeddedness in one’s own social context. Building bridging connections outside one’s own social context might encourage innovative thinking and spur entrepreneurship. The somewhat fleeting connections that are associated with the bridging form of social capital might on the other hand make it difficult to cultivate a common sense of trust within an existing group.

    These different manifestations of social capital create a paradox that might be hard to handle in the design of a regional strategic network. Is it best to support already existing network structures and impose the risk of creating a less innovative environment, or should members from outside the established social context be included in the network design to encourage innovative thinking? There are both positive and negative effects associated with either strategy. I shed light upon this paradox by analyzing the regional strategic network of Firsam.

  • 336.
    Eklinder Frick, Jens
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration. Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden .
    Eriksson, Lars-Torsten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Hallén, Lars
    Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Bridging and bonding forms of social capital in a regional strategic network2011In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 40, no 6, p. 994-1003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on networks emphasizes the importance of bonds between actors. Social reciprocity strengthens network bonds, which is assumed to have positive effects on business relationships between firms. However,the importance of weak ties is also stressed in network research. An important policy issue is therefore if more attention should be devoted to the creation of bridges to other social groups and loosening bonds between network actors. The difficulty in doing so is described and analyzed in this article focusing on a regional strategic network, which is viewed in three network perspectives. Interview data were collected from all participating managers in a regional strategic network in 2004 and 2010. The findings shed light upon the paradox of using a regional strategic network to counteract over-embeddedness and freeing the involved actors from existing network lock-ins instead of further strengthening such social institutions.

  • 337.
    Eklinder Frick, Jens
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration. Science and Technology Studies Center, Department of Economic History, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Waluszewski, Alexandra
    Science and Technology Studies Center, Department of Economic History, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    What’s Successful?: Accounting for the Outcome of Governmental Innovation Policy2018In: Accounting, Innovation and Inter-Organisational Relationships / [ed] Martin Carlsson-Wall, Håkan Håkansson, Kalle Kraus, Johnny Lind, Torkel Strömsten, New York: Routledge, 2018, 1, p. 216-237Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 338.
    Eklinder Frick, Jens
    et al.
    University of Uppsala.
    Åge, Lars-Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    ”Happy-happy” business negotiation – agreements beyond ”win-win”2016In: Proceedings of the 32nd Annual IMP Conference: Change and Transformation of Markets, Networks and Relationships, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Research background - describes the business negotiation literature as historically dominated by a transactional perspective, which has affected the conceptual discourse as well as the scope of interest for empirical studies. Assumptions that arise from this transactional perspective includes the notion that (1) business negotiations are a linear process that follows episodic or stage models. (2) That business negotiations are geared towards an outcome in the form of a one-time exchange. (3) That the value of the negotiation outcome is often expressed in economic or mathematical terms. (4) That negotiation research focuses on the single negotiator or negotiation in a dyad. (5) That the research historically has viewed negotiation as a “zero-sum” game. Viewed from an interactional perspective, influenced by IMP theory, there is good reason to challenge these five assumptions within the business negotiation literature. The interactional perspective goes beyond the dyadic perspective and views value creation as emanating from the mutual adaptation of resources that takes place between several interacting actors within a network context: a view that is incompatible with the five assumptions posed above. Methods – This is a theoretical paper. The purpose of this paper - is to analyse and discuss the differences in the way that central aspects of negotiations such as the process, outcome, value, actors and resources are conceptualized in both the business negotiation and in the IMP literature. Also, we will discuss and analyze managerial implications that come from the inclusion of IMP perspective into the business negotiation research. The main contribution of this paper – is to divide the business negotiation literature into the transactional and interactional perspectives and then discusses the concept of “win-win” and the way it is used in negotiation research. An alternative concept is suggested to describe that negotiations is non-linear and focusing on mutual interdependence, emphasizes value creation, networks and mutual adaptations. This concept is thus more interactional and is dubbed “happy-happy” negotiation outcome.

  • 339.
    Eklinder-Frick, Jens
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Development, production and use in policy initiated innovation2015In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 30, no 8, p. 973-986Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore and describe the forces which promote or obstruct a policy initiated innovation process in the context of a regional strategic network (RSN). Design/methodology/approach An innovation requires that an invention survives in relevant developing, producing, and using settings. This is analyzed as resource interaction in these three settings. Data are obtained from a case study of an innovation process undertaken from 2007 to 2011 where 24 respondents representing the involved actors in the development of a GIS technology platform were interviewed in separate meetings lasting 60-100 minutes. Primary sources of secondary data have also been analyzed. Findings The strategy imposed by the RSN enabled knowledge to be exchanged between the involved actors but problems remained regarding resource interaction of the relevant settings. The studied case showed that achieving resource interaction between the producing and using settings was particularly challenging when the innovation processes is policy initiated and thus involves both private and public sector. This serves to explain why policy initiatives to turn scientific knowledge into commercialized innovation often fall short of their objectives. Originality/value Research investigating policy initiated innovation and regional economic growth often focus on achieving information exchange between the actors that make up the innovation systems. This paper sheds light on the resource interaction between the members of regional strategic networks and how his can facilitate innovation processes.

  • 340.
    Eklinder-Frick, Jens
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration. Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Sowing seeds for innovation: The impact of social capital in regional strategic networks2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to promote regional innovation and stronger social coherence the European Union has set goals to become the world’s most competitive, dynamic, and knowledge-based economy. These ambitious goals are supported by funds allocated to regional strategic networks (also called cluster initiatives). Usually, the management of regional strategic networks is left to the discretion of the project leaders. However, the industry agglomeration model which constitutes the foundation for regional development policies fails to consider the social context. It also overemphasizes the relevance of a linear approach towards innovation which is problematic, as this fails to consider the conditions for implementation in different contexts.

    This thesis builds upon data from two case studies of regional strategic networks (Firsam at Söderhamn and FPX at Gävle) and serves to describe (1) how the management group of an RSN creates the prerequisite for an innovative milieu by analyzing the effects that social capital imposes on social interaction, and (2) how a policy initiated innovation process is supported by an RSN management group by analyzing resource interaction between the developing, producing and using settings.

    As a conclusion it is stated that a manager of a regional strategic network should balance the bridging and bonding forces that social capital produces. Under some circumstances it might be advantageous to form tightly knit groups that can foster trust and cultural proximity. In other cases loosely knit groups might be preferable where novel information is exchanged between previously unconnected actors. Also, the innovation construct is applied in the thesis to denote the process where resources are combined in new ways within existing structures to offer new solutions in the market. The manager of a regional strategic network must consider not only the setting in which an invention is developed but also the settings where new solutions are converted into products and those where they are brought to use.

    The performance of the investigated development initiatives indicates that merely funding regional strategic networks is insufficient to spur regional growth. It is not as easy as merely sowing seed for innovation; it must also fall on good soil. 

  • 341.
    Eklinder-Frick, Jens
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Eriksson, Lars Torsten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Hallén, Lars
    Mälardalen Högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Effects of social capital on processes in a regional strategic network2012In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 800-806Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the role of social capital is vital for implementing cluster policies as regional strategic networks and cluster initiatives are in fluenced by the local socio-economic context and its social capital. Socialbcapital can create value for companies by closure of the network structure (bonding), which maintains internal mutual trust but bonding can also over-embed companies in their social context, whereas sparse networks that provide links to other parts of relevant business networks (bridging) often provide greater innovation benefits. We provide a conceptual framework applied to a case study of a Swedish regional strategic network, and examples mostly of positive effects of bridging social capital and negative effects of the bonding form are identified. This is interpreted against the background of the regional dependenceoriented culture.

  • 342.
    Eklinder-Frick, Jens
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration. Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society, and Engineering, Västerås, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Lars Torsten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Hallén, Lars
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society, and Engineering, Västerås, Sweden.
    Multidimensional social capital as a boost or a bar to innovativeness2014In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 460-472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation does not only demand new ideas, financial resources and knowledge of supplier and user systems, but is also influenced by social capital which has an impact on the innovativeness in business networks. However, social capital is often vague, at times described as a “catch-all notion”. In this paper definitions of social capital are suggested to support the management of innovation in networks. Three dimensions of social capital are ap- plied in a case study of a regional strategic network – the socio-economic, the structural and the actor-oriented dimensions – while focusing on the last one. Data were collected at two points in time, at the start of the regional strategic network in 2004 and at the end of the project in 2010. The application of the concepts and the compar- ison between these two points in time highlight the influence of social capital and how it can hinder or be used to promote innovation processes. 

  • 343.
    Eklinder-Frick, Jens
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Eriksson, Lars Torsten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Hallén, Lars
    Mälardalens Högskola, Akademin för hållbar teknik- och samhällsutveckling.
    Multidimensional Social Capital as a Boost or a Bar to Innovation2012In: Combining the social and technological aspects of innovation:  Relationships and Networks / [ed] Chiara Cantu, Daniela Corsaro, Annalisa Tunisini, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation does not only demand new ideas, financial resources, and knowledge of supplier and user systems, but also social capital. Social capital facilitates interaction in business networks. However, social capital is often vague, at times described as a “catch-all notion”.  In this paper an operational definition of social capital is suggested to enable network management of business innovations. Three underpinning dimensions of social capital are empirically tested in a regional strategic network – the socio-economic, the network and the actor-oriented dimensions with a focus on the latter one. Empirical case data were collected in 2004 and 2010. The application of the concepts and the comparisons between these two points in time enhance understanding of how social capital can be used to promote innovation processes.

  • 344.
    Eklinder-Frick, Jens
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration. Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Eriksson, Lars Torsten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Hallén, Lars
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Negative effects of the bonding and bridging form of social capital in a regional strategic network2011In: The 27th IMP conference, 31 Aug 2011-03 Sep 2011; University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of the paper and literature addressed

    Understanding the local socio-economic context is considered by Koschatzky and Kroll (2007) as a precondition for a well designed regional strategic network (RSN). Social capital is often used in research when analyzing such socio-economic contexts (Adler and Kwon 2002, Westlund 2009), and understanding the function and creation of social capital is therefore vital for implementation of policies on cluster initiatives and RSN.

    Adler and Kwon (2002) claim that there are two different ways of creating valuethrough social capital. These approaches are attributed to James Coleman and Ronald Burt, two key contributors within the field. Coleman (1988) claims that closure of the network structure (bonding) facilitates the emergence of effective norms maintainingthe trustworthiness of others. In contrast to Coleman, Burt (1992) does not stress the utility of consistent norms as the main usage of social capital. He argues that a sparse network including few redundant ties (bridging) often provides greater benefits. Social capital may involve norms and trust, but can also serve as a lock-in that isolates from the outside world by over-embedding a network in its own social context (Uzzi 1997, Gargiulo and Benassi 2000, Parra-Requena et al 2009, Molina-Morales and Martínez-Fernández 2009).

    Social capital might therefore not only bring positive effects to regional development, as its drawbacks under some circumstances might outweigh the benefits. Slotte-Kock (2009) argues that all network researchers agree that networks of social or business contacts provide both opportunities and constraints.

    Main contribution

    Molina-Morales and Martínez-Fernández (2009) and Adler and Kwon (2002) claim that there is a lack of empirical research particularly on the negative effects of social capital. The paper adds to the discourse through a case study focusing on the negative influence of social capital on the RSN process.

    Research method

    Representatives of the 15 companies included in an regional strategic network (RSN) project were all interviewed prior to the formation of the project in 2004 and interviewed again six years later (2010) when the formal network project was about to end. The longitudinal aspect of the RSN process is portrayed.

    Research findings

    The organizational lock-ins and network over-embeddedness that the bonding form of social capital might impose upon a network is exemplified in the studied RSN. It is also evident that existing social norms dominate the decision process within the studied RSN more than economic rationality. The creation of bridging linkages imposed by the management group resulting in low relevance of shared information.

  • 345.
    Eklinder-Frick, Jens
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Eriksson, Lars Torsten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Hallén, Lars
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Social Capital, Individuality and Identity2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 346.
    Eklinder-Frick, Jens
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration. Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Eriksson, Lars Torsten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Hallén, Lars
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    The Impact of Social Capital on Renewal through Cluster Initiatives2011In: Studies in Industrial Renewal: Coping with Changing Contexts / [ed] Esbjörn Segelod, Karin Berglund, Erik Bjurström, Erik Dahlquist, Lars Hallén and Ulf Johanson, Västerås: Mälardalen University , 2011, p. 129-146Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 347.
    Eklinder-Frick, Jens
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Eriksson, Lars Torsten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Hallén, Lars
    Mälardalens Högskola, Akademin för hållbar teknik- och samhällsutveckling.
    Three dimensions of social capital within technological cooperation2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation does not only demand new ideas, financial resources, and knowledge of supplier and user systems, but also social capital. Social capital facilitates interaction in business networks. However, social capital is often vague, at times described as a “catch-all notion”.  In this paper an operational definition of social capital is suggested to enable network management of business innovations. Three underpinning dimensions of social capital are empirically tested in a regional strategic network – the socio-economic, the network and the actor-oriented dimensions with a focus on the latter one. Empirical case data were collected at in 2004 and 2010. The application of the concepts and the comparisons between these two points in time enhance understanding of how social capital can be used to promote innovation processes.

  • 348.
    Eklinder-Frick, Jens
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration. Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Eriksson, Lars-Torsten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Hallén, Lars
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    The Firsam cluster initiative: An attempt at regional business development2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After a small municipality in Sweden was hit not only by the closure of the major industry in the town but also by the dismantling of the air force base which was another major source of local employment, a strategic network (cluster initiative) was set up involving 15 local companies in order to market their skills and know-how. The purpose was counterbalance the loss of the big employers by strengthening cooperation between local small and middle-sized companies. Based on interviews in 2004 and 2010 the relationships between the member companies are mapped out prior to the formation of the strategic network and five years later. The findings illustrate the difficulty to support cluster building for short term commercial success through a top-down approach, but also that such an initiative may create positive effects on social capital and in the end bring about long-term gains for the community.

  • 349.
    Eklinder-Frick, Jens
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration. Uppsala universitet.
    Fremont, Vincent
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration. Uppsala universitet.
    Åge, Lars-Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Digitalization efforts in liminal space – inter-organizational challenges2020In: Journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 150-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the benefits and drawbacks that strategically imposed liminality inflicts upon inter-organizational digitalization efforts within the different phases of its utilization. Design/methodology/approach: This study empirically examines digitalization in a large multinational manufacturing company, Sandvik Machining Solutions, using data that were collected through interviews and a qualitative research design. Findings: This study shows that a liminal space separated from the structures in which one is supposed to inflict changes increases the risk of developing an incompatible system that will be rejected in the incorporation phase. An inter-organizational perspective on liminality thus contributes to our understanding of the benefits and drawbacks that liminal space can pose for the organizations involved. Practical implications: The study suggests that, in the separation phase, driving change processes by creating liminal spaces could be a way to loosen up rigid resource structures and circumvent network over-embeddedness. Finding the right amount of freedom, ambiguity and community within the liminal space is, however, essential for the transition of information as well as the incorporation of the imposed changes. Originality/value: Introducing an inter-organizational perspective on liminality contributes to our understanding of the stress that liminal space can place on individuals as well as the individual organization. © 2019, Emerald Publishing Limited.

  • 350.
    Eklinder-Frick, Jens
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Linne, Ase
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    The Geographical Dimension in the Interactive World - The Importance of Place2017In: NO BUSINESS IS AN ISLAND: MAKING SENSE OF THE INTERACTIVE BUSINESS WORLD / [ed] Håkansson, H; Snehota, I, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2017, p. 123-139Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, the authors discuss how the features of the business landscape affect policies aiming to promote regional development. Regional development policies have been central in the European Union and at the single-country level. Measures taken to promote development in a geographical area, based on the concept of clusters and (national or regional) innovation systems, often fall short of their objectives. That is discussed against the findings on features of the business landscape that emphasise its heterogeneity and the importance of specific couplings within and across geographical areas. Prior Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) research emphasised the importance of firm-specific linkages to places and across places. One consequence is the relatedness of one place with other places, which implies that crossing the (imaginary) boundaries of a place appears to be the essence of business activity. The chapter concludes by highlighting how regional policies can benefit from acknowledging and taking into account firm-specific interdependences.

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