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  • 301.
    Bergkvist, Benjamin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Modellering av fukt i en yttervägg på ett fritidshus2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    Examensarbete Benjamin Bergkvist 2012
  • 302.
    Berglund, Amanda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    Altzar, Emelie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    A methodology development for layout planning regarding gates in marine terminals: A case study in a Swedish port2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The research purpose is to, in a systematic way, build a method to develop suggestions regarding layout planning of gates in a marine terminal and additionally conduct a base for a simulation model.

    Approach: Firstly, a literature review has been conducted in the fields relevant to port security and gate configurations in marine terminals. Secondly, a case study has been executed in a Swedish marine terminal. The case study consisted of interviews and observations at the case company, who also provided this thesis with numerical raw data. Additionally, a benchmarking was conducted at a company in the same port area where interviews and observations was executed.  

    Findings: The findings in this thesis resulted in a methodology improvement, which contains important procedure steps that need to be considered while conducting a layout for a gate in a marine terminal. The procedure resulted in a conceptual model that was conducted as a result of the literature review and verified by being tested in the case study.

    Limitation: The thesis is limited to one case company. Even though it verified and validated the findings, additional case companies are recommended to fully validate the conceptual model which applies for further research. Further limitations to this thesis is that the financial- and technical factors will not be executed.  

    Theoretical implications: Companies who plans to increase the security in their marine terminal area or implement a new gate system can benefit from the findings. This thesis contributes to science by adding new theory.  

    Practical implications: This thesis conducted a conceptual model for a layout procedure which recommends to follow while planning a layout for a gate in a marine terminal. The model were verified with a case company and provided two layout suggestions that can be implemented at the specific company.

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  • 303.
    Berglund, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Karlsson, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Den juridiska odlingsgränsen och dess inverkan på förvärv av statlig mark: En studie av markförvärv i samband med samhällsomvandlingen i Kiruna2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Two urban transformations are in progress in northern Sweden today, in Kiruna and in Malmberget, due to expanding mining operations. The relocation of the two cities requires land acquisition. In Kiruna there are specific conditions due to certain protection provided by the so called cultivation border. The purpose of the study is to give a wide perspective on this unique cultivation border and indicate its association with land acquisition. In order to achieve the purpose of the study the history of the cultivation border, the urban transformations and national interests were investigated, as well as the process of land acquisition and how it can be improved. A literature study, qualitative interviews and visits at Kiruna and Malmberget was used to gain knowledge within the topic.As early as in the 1500s, the Swedish government started to take control of the northern parts of the country and encouraged its colonization. The cultivation border was created in the late 1800s to protect the Sami people and their industry from the settlers. The urban transformations are very extensive and have major impacts on the environment. Involved participants want to construct new areas before deconstructing the old ones. There are several different national interests in Kiruna and in Malmberget areas that have to be taken into account in the planning process. Two of those interests are the reindeer and mining industries. The mining industry takes precedence due to its economic benefits to the whole country. The State owns lots of land in Kiruna and in order to acquire it, the government has to give its approval. An application for such an acquirement must be adjudicated by the Swedish Board of Agriculture, the County Administrative Board, affected Sami villages and the National Property Board of Sweden. The high amount of authorities involved makes the process of aquisition long and an improvement to shorten it is to increase the competence of the involved parties and their intercommunication. The purpose of the cultivation border is still considered to be valid, although today for example the tourism is more important than the agriculturing to protect the Sami people.

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  • 304.
    Bergman, Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Lindgren, Samuel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Brunifiering av Öjaren: Analys och framtida utsikter2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The colouring of water in many lakes across the Northern hemisphere is increasing. This is also the case in Lake Öjaren in Sandviken municipality in Sweden. The lake is the main water source in Sandviken and has a high and increasing watercolour. This leads to more complex cleaning methods and higher costs for the society. This study focuses on the changing and increasing watercolour in the lake over a period from 1995-2015. The factors analysed in this study are those who is considered to have an effect on the watercolour in the lake.

    The reasons for increased brownification are different depending on which type of water body is studied. Climate, soil conditions and pollutants contributes in varying extent to brownification. Increased levels in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and iron are common reasons for brownification in Lake Öjaren and other water bodies, in Lake Öjaren increased levels of manganese are also shown to affect brownification.

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the correlation between the watercolour and the factors: iron, pH, COD, manganese, temperature and precipitation. The aim is also to investigate which actions are possible to apply to prevent increased watercolour.

    Water samples from Lake Öjaren between the years 1995-2015 have been the basis for the executed statistical analysis. Evaluating the correlation between the factors we have used Minitab 17 and calculated Pearson´s correlation coefficient. To further explain the relationship between the factors a principal component analysis (PCA) has been performed. Future scenarios and current trends have also been produced, in order to develop a better foundation for further studies.

    The correlation analysis reveals that the most significant connection with watercolour are iron, COD and manganese. The result of the PCA also corroborates this connection where three factors are the ones that are most co-variating.

    The trend and the future scenario for all the factors in Lake Öjaren are that they all are increasing and the watercolour is expected to be increasing by 63 % until year 2050. This scenario means that actions are needed to counteract the increasing colouring of the water.

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  • 305.
    Bergman, Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Evaluation of ventilation for an office building: Situated in Gävle, Sweden2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since the CO

    2-emissions and electricity prices are ever increasing many companies have tried to reduce their energy consumption in order to reduce both CO2-emissions and the cost of using energy. Therefore, in this article an office building situated in Sweden have been investigated with its current ventilation flow and what saving poten-tials can be made from heat recovery and a different ventilation flow in regards to health, energy and cost. Empirical data have been collected to be able to calculate ener-gy savings made by heat recovery and new ventilation flow. A ventilation flow of 25 l/s per office were chosen and that the conference room should have at least 3 l/s per m² the dining room and locker was not investigated thoroughly and therefore a ventilation flow from the recommendations of Sweden was followed. The total flows became, 530 l/s respectively 630 l/s for the top and bottom floor. A rotating heat exchanger with an es-timated efficiency of 80% was used for heat recovery and through the two methods combined an energy reduction up to 96,4 % for heating and 83,4 % from the electricity could be reduced.

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    Examensarbete
  • 306.
    Bergman, Simon
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Ekonomisk och miljömässig värdering av en sänkt returtemperatur i ett fjärrvärmenät: En studie av ett fjärrvärmenät i Bollnäs2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For district heating companies it is extremely important that the heat they produce is utilized as efficiently as possible by their customers. However, there are a lot of problems with customers heat exchangers, which create obstacles to this goal. The heat exchangers tend to send a certain amount of uncooled water back to the district heating plant. Round passages and drain valves are other examples of problem areas in a district heating network.

     

    Bollnäs Energi AB wants to review how the district heating network and production facility in Bollnäs would be affected economically and environmentally if the return temperature dropped. What primarily is dealt with in this report is how it would affect the flue gas condenser.

     

    Flue gas condensation is when the amount of energy that has been used to produce steam by the moisture in the fuel during combustion again becomes liquid. This amount of energy is being utilized by heat exchanging it with the district heating network return line. It is simplistic to say that the lower the return temperature, the higher the effect output will be made possible from the flue gas condenser.

     

    If 1 MWh of energy is extracted from the flue gas condenser, that is 1 MWh less that needs to be burned in the company's boilers. If there are several boilers running simultaneously operated with different fuels, it is the fuel that has the highest cost that will be saved into. However, it can cause problems when the boiler is loaded into a cogeneration unit, ie, that it produces both heat and electricity, because even electricity production will then be reduced.

     

    Data has been collected from the company's logs and a simulated reduction in the return temperature has been made. This has demonstrated that lowering the return temperature by one degree would lead to a saving of approximately 442 000 SEK per year.

     

    When this "free energy" comes from flue gas condenser instead from waste or oil combustion so it also becomes a major environmental gain. Therefore, the amount of energy from the flue gas condensation was compared with if the same amount of energy would have been produced by burning waste or oil. The calculations show that the same reduction as above would reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 378 and 762 tonnes per year respectively.

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  • 307.
    Bergquist, Arne
    et al.
    Lantmäteriet.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för samhällsbyggnad.
    Klang, Dan
    Vad är optimal kvalitet på geografisk information som underlag för detaljerad översvämningskartering?2008In: Kart & Bildteknik (Mapping and Image Science), ISSN 1651-792X, no 4, p. 18-20Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 308.
    Bergroth, Simon
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Electronics.
    Implementering av MPPT-enhet med återkoppling: avsedd för solceller2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 309.
    Bergsten, Lisa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Hellsten, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Ägarlägenhetsförrättningar ur ett kostnadsperspektiv: Hur utvalda faktorer påverkar förrättningskostnaden och den framtida förvaltningen2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to get the cadastral procedure for condominiums to become more affordable. The aims of the study is to examine how the number of condominiums, the number of joint facilities and the number of joint property units that are formed in a condominium cadastral procedure in Sweden influences the cadastral procedure cost. To get an overall perspective the study also explores how the chosen forms of co-operation have worked out in association management.

    A condominium is a type of three-dimensional property unit, which may only contain one residence.  This form of property formation has been allowed in Sweden since 1 May 2009.  At the end of 2014 less than 1000 condominiums had been formed despite the legislator’s expectations for 3000-5000 condominiums a year. The property unit can have access to necessary facilities, not available within the property boundaries, by establishing joint facilities or form joint property units. This co-operation is not only an important factor for a functional three-dimensional property ownership, but also a requirement from the legislator.

    To achieve the aims a quantitative study, where cadastral dossiers from condominium cadastral procedures were examined, and a qualitative interview with four selected joint property association was made.

    The result from the study of cadastral dossiers showed a connection between the condominium cadastral procedure cost and how many condominiums that was formed in the cadastral procedure. However, the study does not find any connection that shows neither the number of established joint facilities nor the number of joint property units affects the cost. The interview results showed that the joint property associations are satisfied with the association management, even if one of interviewed joint property associations had preferred an even simpler joint facility division.

    The cadastral procedure cost has varied considerably between various cadastral procedures. This can make the cadastral procedure costs difficult to calculate for someone planning to form condominiums. For affordable cadastral procedure costs when condominiums are formed the conclusion is to form a big amount of condominiums. The joint property associations opinion of what is a simple and obvious association management differs, that’s why the co-operation should be modified by the interested parties’ requests.

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  • 310.
    Bergstrand, Marcus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Datainsamlingssystem för underhåll och kontroll av elkvalitet2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    SSAB i Borlänge ska byta ut deras befintliga loggsystem som övervakar elkvalitet på verkets fem huvudtransformatorer. Loggsystemen ska ersättas med modulära DAQsystem från Iba, vilket är system som redan används i flera av verkets processer. Syftet med arbetet är att visa hur de nya DAQ-systemen kan implementeras och målet är att skapa förutsättningar för felsökning vid elkvalitetstörningar och analys av eltillförseln. Rapporten beskriver hur två utdömda loggsystem ersätts mot ett modulärt DAQ-system under skarp drift, som sedan konfigureras enligt önskad funktion. Tillvägagångssättet innefattar tre större delar vilka är datainsamling, hårdvarukonstruktion och mjukvarukonfiguration. Datainsamlingen har till stor del varit att studera befintliga kretsscheman och manualer till systemets hård- och mjukvara. Informationen som samlades in gav förutsättningarna för konstruktionsarbetet och mjukvarukonfigurationer. Utgången blev ett driftsatt system som konfigurerades så att felsökning och analys av elkvalitet är möjlig. Det nya loggsystemet gör det även möjligt för fler användare att komma åt mätningar kring elkvalitetsstörningar. Användare kan sedan ställa dessa i korrelation till de mätningar som utförs med iba-system vid processerna.

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  • 311.
    Bergström, Eric
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Användning av LiDAR och ArcGIS inom skogsbruk i Sverige2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) has in the past decade developed a lot and is used as a data collection method for inventory of forest. The Swedish National Land Survey is between 2009 and 2015 carrying out a nationwide airborne laser scanning throughout Sweden, and this laser scanning process will lead to a new national elevation model called NNH. Data generated from this height model can be used by the forest industry to make forest inventories. The software developer ESRI Inc. has developed a support for handling LiDAR data in their new version of ArcGIS, ArcGIS 10.1. The purpose of this study is to investigate how the forest industry in Sweden are using LiDAR data, identifying gaps and needs, how ArcGIS is used and how ArcGIS can be developed to match the forest industry. This study was founded by comparing the new version of ArcGIS with the previous version and by interviewing six relevant people who are active in the industry. People from several stakeholders were interviewed: foresters, researchers and technical consultants.The results of the comparison between ArcGIS 10.0 and ArcGIS 10.1 show the potential of LiDAR data and how easy it is to deal with LiDAR data in the new version of ArcGIS. The results of the interviews show that the data available from the NNH are fully sufficient for forest inventory at stand level. It is however not sufficient for analysis of individual trees. Some of those interviewed experienced ArcGIS as an advanced and time-consuming program to learn while others emphasize that it will be interesting with support for managing LiDAR data. The interviewed consultants mostly use software that they have developed by themselves for managing LiDAR data, while other interviewees use ArcGIS as the main program. ESRI Sweden was not sure of the quality of the NNH and how much the forest industry uses NNH, before this study. But it turned out that the NNH data are widely used already, and that quality is adequate. ArcGIS is sometimes perceived as an advanced program and it has often to do with time constraints. If time is available the problem often can be fixed. LiDAR, and NNH is good and useful now, but the question is what will happen when it's time for the forest companies to make their next inventory?

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  • 312.
    Bergström, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Tilläggsisolering av småhus ur ett klimatpåverkansperspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi lever i en tid med klimatförändringar till följd av människans levnadssätt. Energiutvinning ger påverkan på klimatet genom växthusgaser, då främst genom koldioxid. Riksdagen har beslutat att Sverige ska minska energianvändningen i bostäder och lokaler med 20 % fram till år 2020 och med 50 % till år 2050 (Statens Energimyndighet, 2007). Det finns flera sätt att minska energianvändningen för bostäder, att minska transmissionsförlusterna genom klimatskalet är det mest vedertagna. Ett sätt att minska dessa transmissionsförluster är att tilläggsisolera fasaden.

    I denna studie har klimatpåverkan till följd av en tilläggsisolering satts i relation till de minskade emissionerna på grund av reducerat värmebehov. Studie är gjord på sju olika uppvärmningssätt och sex olika tjocklekar på isoleringen. För det beräknade värmebehoven gjordes en jämförelse mellan fyra olika städer i Sverige med olika klimat, en stad i varje klimatzon enligt Boverkets byggregler (BBR). 

    Resultatet visar variationer mellan klimatzonerna, tjocklek på tilläggsisoleringen och uppvärmningssätten. Studeras istället primär energianvändning i det olika fallen skiljer det sig en del från emissioner av växthusgaser. Slutsatsen är att sett över hela isoleringens livstid är det mest klimatsmarta valet att tilläggsisolera. Detta oavsett klimatzon, tjocklek på tilläggsisoleringen och uppvärmningssätt (av de i studien granskade).

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  • 313.
    Bergström, Louise
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Hjälsten, Lisa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Förutsättningar för avgränsning av bilfri zon: Exemplifierat i Gävle stad2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Car-free zones are a planning strategy that strives for a sustainable urban environment, focusing on reducing car use in people's everyday lives. The purpose of this study has been to investigate what preconditions that have been taken into account when defining car-free zones, to find out how car-free zones are to be delimited in Swedish cities. The aim of the study was to identify which preconditions that are important when designing a car-free zone. Then the preconditions were applied in Gävle to exemplify where a car-free zone is possible and optimal for the municipality of Gävle.

    The study was carried out with two methods to determine the conditions for the delimitations of car-free zones. First, a qualitative content analysis of four existing and planned car-free zones was carried out through an inductive approach to planning documents, reports, scientific articles, books and organizations' websites. The existing and planned car-free zones were the pedestrian street Ströget, Helsinki, Oslo and the district Vauban. Thereafter four semi-structured interviews were conducted. The interviewees were traffic planners from Gävle Municipality, Sundsvall Municipality, Umeå Municipality and Eskilstuna Municipality. Preconditions emerging from the content analysis and interviews were shown in themed tables to compare the preconditions emerged from the two methods. A comparison between the content analysis and the interviews identified nine preconditions. These nine preconditions are density, trade, public buildings, green spaces, meeting places, cycle paths, public transport, walk paths and multistory car parks. The preconditions were applied to an orthophoto of Gävle in ArcMap 10.6 to illustrate where a car-free zone is possible and most optimal to implement in Gävle city. The application of the preconditions resulted in an area that centered in central Gävle

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  • 314.
    Bergström, Peder
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    Eklöv, Tommy
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    Utformning av en arbetsmodell för införande av lean inom sjukvården: En fallstudie på Gävle sjukhus2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introducing lean production principles in health care is a relatively new area. The county council in Gävleborg and Gävle hospital are interested in shortening their health queues with help from logistics methods and lean production principles. This is among others because of growing health queues at the urologist reception in Gävle hospital. Lean production is a concept arising from the Japanese car industry, meaning a quest to do more with less. In Swedish lean production can be translated to resource- economic production and the work with lean production includes principles like customer focus, teamwork and continuous improvement.

    The purpose with this thesis is to compile a working model which can be used when implementing lean principles in health care. This is because the health queues to the reception today are long and some kind of transform is necessary. The working model consists of six different levels, mapping, analyze, developing improvement suggestions, balancing, implementation and follow up. The first four steps in the working model will be introduced in this thesis, although the last two steps are outside the limits of this thesis.

    By using logistics methods and lean principles in mapping and analysis of the receptions processes some problem areas have been discovered. The discovered problems have been analyzed and improvement suggestions to the different problem areas have then been elaborated. The improvement suggestions which have been elaborated with help from logistics methods and lean production principles can contribute to a decrease of the urologist receptions health queues.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 315.
    Bergström, Viktor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science.
    Tölli, Emil
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science.
    Kolfiberförstärkning av limträbalkar: Fuktens inverkan på förstärkningen2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The point with this exam-essay is to study how the strength in glulam beams reinforced with carbon fiber will differentiate with an increased relative humidity (RH). The literature study brings up older work and science in the field that focuses on different reinforcement that can improve the strength in glulam beams.Glulam has higher strength than regular wood, this is due to how glulam is being constructed. When the usage limit condition is being determined the length of the beam will be a factor in deciding highest allowed bending on the beam. Carbon fiber, that has a greater strength than glulam can be used as a reinforcement on the glulam to give it higher strength. When the relative humidity is increased the glulam’s strength will decrease, the goal was to study how great the strength of the reinforced glulam beams would be when the relative humidity in the beams was being increased.In this essay a total of 26 glulam-samples was bent until they reached breaking point, out of these 26 samples half of them will be reinforced with carbon fiber underneath the beam. Half of the samples will be submerged in water, both reinforced and regular beams, where they will stay in two weeks until they are brought up again for bending-tests.The reinforced beams did not show an increase in torque capacity when compared to the non-reinforced beams when analyzing the average force. When analyzing the calculated 95 % -fractile the reinforced beams did show an increase in torque capacity. The dry reinforced glulam-beams showed an increase with 4,8 % and the wet reinforced glulam-beams showed an increase with 13,3 %.

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    Kolfiberförstärkning av limträbalkar
  • 316.
    Bergvall, Therese
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Upphävande av onyttiga officialservitut vid bildande av gemensamhetsanläggningar2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Officialservitut är en rättighet där en fastighet får nyttja annans fastighet för ett speciellt behov. Sådana servitut bildas genom beslut av lantmäterimyndigheten eller domstolen. När ett servitut inte längre behövs eller används för en fastighet förfaller det inte automatiskt. Om servitutet inte upphävs blir det onyttigt. Idag finns det många onyttiga servitut som belastar fastighetsregistret och på så sätt även förrättningsverksamheten.

    Syftet med det här arbetet är att öka kunskapen om onyttiga officialservitut samt att bidra till att på sikt minska förekomsten av belastande officialservitut. Eftersom det bildas relativt många gemensamhetsanläggningar idag kan många servitut komma att bli onyttiga när en anläggning bildas och servitut inte upphävs. Därför är det intressant att analysera varför servitut inte alltid upphävs i en sådan situation samt om någon förändring skulle kunna göras för att minska antalet onyttiga servitut. Genom en minskning av dessa skulle förrättningar bli effektivare och kostnaderna mindre.

    De metoder som har använts i arbetet är: (1) en litteraturstudie där tidigare forskning, svensk lagstiftning och propositioner studerats; (2) en granskning av förrättningsakter för att analysera hur förrättningslantmätare har hanterat vägservitut som blivit onyttiga vid bildandet av gemensamhetsanläggningar; (3) en intervjustudie för att analysera hur lantmätare idag behandlar onyttiga servitut när de påträffas vid bildandet av gemensamhetsanläggningar.

    Resultatet visar bland annat att förrättningslantmätare inte kan ta officialinitiativ för att upphäva onyttiga servitut vid en anläggningsförrättning. För ett upphävande krävs en ansökan, överenskommelse eller ett yrkande. Det har också framkommit att fokus kanske inte ligger på att upphäva onyttiga servitut när en gemensamhetsanläggning bildas. Slutsatsen av vad som har störst påverkan på att onyttiga servitut inte alltid upphävs är enligt studien, tid och kostnad. För att på sikt minska förekomsten av onyttiga officialservitut skulle en ”pott” av anslagspengar kunna skapas som lantmätare kan nyttja för att upphäva sådana servitut. Ytterligare ett förslag kan vara att införa en ny paragraf som ger lantmätare rätt att ta eget initiativ till att upphäva servitut som blir uppenbart onödiga vid bildandet av gemensamhetsanläggningar. De berörda fastighetsägarna borde inte bli missnöjda eftersom anläggningen ska tillgodose samma rätt som servitutet gjorde.

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  • 317. Bernardo, Ricardo
    et al.
    Davidsson, Henrik
    Gentile, Niko
    Gomes, João
    Solarus Sunpower AB.
    Gruffman, Christian
    Chea, Luis
    Chabu, Mumba
    Karlsson, Björn
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Measurements of the Electrical Incidence Angle Modifiers of an Asymmetrical Photovoltaic/Thermal Compound Parabolic Concentrating-Collector2013In: Engineering, ISSN 1947-3931, E-ISSN 1947-394X, Vol. 5, p. 37-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reflector edges, sharp acceptance angles and by-pass diodes introduce large variations in the electrical performance of asymmetrical concentrating photovoltaic/thermal modules over a short incidence angle interval. It is therefore important to quantify these impacts precisely. The impact on the electrical performance of the optical properties of an asymmet-rical photovoltaic/thermal CPC-collector was measured in Maputo, Mozambique. The measurements were carried out with the focus on attaining a high resolution incidence angle modifier in both the longitudinal and transversal directions, since large variations were expected over small angle intervals. A detailed analysis of the contribution of the diffuse radiation to the total output was also carried out. The solar cells have an electrical efficiency of 18% while the maxi-mum measured electrical efficiency of the collector was 13.9 % per active glazed area and 20.9 % per active cell area, at 25 °C. Such data make it possible to quantify not only the electrical performance for different climatic and operating conditions but also to determine potential improvements to the collector design. The electrical output can be increased by a number of different measures, e.g. removing the outermost cells, turning the edge cells 90°, dividing each receiver side into three or four parts and directing the tracking, when used, along a north-south axis.

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  • 318.
    Berner Wik, Petter
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Värmereglering utifrån byggnadens tidskonstant i en värmetrög fastighet: Prognostiseringar utav värmeenergianvändningen och dess ekonomiska kostnader2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to continue the development towards a more sustainable city of Gävle, Gävle Energi AB will implement a new season-based capacity model by the year 2019. It creates economic incentives for energy efficiency in real estate’s within Gävle's district heating network.

    This report investigates how the heat energy is used for a building that risks an increased heat energy cost, due to the new pricing model. The aim of the study is to reduce the heat energy usage without investing in the building, which is made possible by regulating the thermal energy supply to the building.

    By programming one year of historical data of temperatures, solar radiation, power- and heat effects the heat supply is forecasted the same way as the building's control system Kabona Eco-pilot is working. The control system applies a floating indoor temperature, which contribute that the thermal inertia of the building is included in the heat load control.

    The study includes two forecasts that are compared to the actual heat energy use and the new capacity price model. Forecast 1 is based on an annual cycle and forecast 2 is based on the range of November 2017 to Mars 2018. The aim of forecast 2 is to apply a strategic heat load control to reduce the heat capacity needed at -10˚C.

    Forecast 1 indicates a potential heat energy saving of 26% even though Diös Fastigheter AB does not invest in any energy saving technology. A saving of approximately 44 700 SEK is forecasted for the annual cycle. The building has an energy class D and has the potential to achieve energy class C after the change of control system parameters.

    Forecast 2 indicates a potential capacity reduction corresponding to 46,1% while the variable heat energy consumption decreases. Overall, there is an approximated heat energy saving potential of 47,8%, which corresponds to 216 700 SEK, during the range of 2017-11-01 to 2018-03-31. Due to the consequence of a lower indoor temperature.

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  • 319.
    Bernsten, Malin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Decision, Risk and Policy Analysis.
    Arbetsmiljö och Byggnadsinformationsmodellering (BIM): identifiera mål och strukturera målstruktur i anläggningsbranschen enligt värdefokuserat tänkande2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här uppsatsen identifieras mål och en målstruktur föreslås för beslutsmöjligheten avseende hur man ska arbeta med Arbetsmiljö i Byggnadsinformationsmodellering (BIM) för verksamhetsområde Stora Projekt på Trafikverket. Syftet med uppsatsen är att utifrån Keeney:s (1992) teori om värdefokuserat tänkande identifiera mål och strukturera dessa i målstrukturer. Underlagen till uppsatsen kommer från olika dokument på Trafikverket, intervjuer och personal på Trafikverket samt deltagande i utbildningsinsatser som Trafikverket har avseende BIM. En målstruktur föreslås samt diskuteras. Den målstruktur som presenteras är ofullständig och därmed förloras en del av den fulla potentialen med värdefokuserat tänkande, men det kan ligga till grund för fortsatt arbete hos Trafikverket. Rekommendationen är att målstrukturen utvecklas.

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  • 320.
    Berrette, Gilberson
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Farah, Sharmake
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Ständiga förbättringar för små tillverkande företag - Fallstudie på Tobo Component AB2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 321.
    bi, xiaofei
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Compressed Sampling for High Frequency Receivers Applications2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In digital signal processing field, for recovering the signal without distortion, Shannon sampling theory must be fulfilled in the traditional signal sampling. However, in some practical applications, it is becoming an obstacle because of the dramatic increase of the costs due to increased volume of the storage and transmission as a function of frequency for sampling. Therefore, how to reduce the number of the sampling in analog to digital conversion (ADC) for wideband and how to compress the large data effectively has been becoming major subject for study. Recently, a novel technique, so-called “compressed sampling”, abbreviated as CS, has been proposed to solve the problem. This method will capture and represent compressible signals at a sampling rate significantly lower than the Nyquist rate.

     

    This paper not only surveys the theory of compressed sampling, but also simulates the CS with the software Matlab. The error between the recovered signal and original signal for simulation is around -200dB. The attempts were made to apply CS. The error between the recovered signal and original one for experiment is around -40 dB which means the CS is realized in a certain extent. Furthermore, some related applications and the suggestions of the further work are discussed.

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  • 322. Bisaillon, Mattias
    et al.
    Haraldsson, Mårten
    Sundberg, Johan
    Eriksson, Ola
    Systemstudie Avfall - Borås: En systemstudie för den framtida avfallsbehandlingen i Borås: Ett delprojekt inom projektet "Termisk och biologisk avfallsbehandling i ett systemperspektiv"2015Report (Other academic)
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  • 323. Bisaillon, Mattias
    et al.
    Sundberg, J.
    Haraldsson, M.
    Eriksson, Ola
    Termisk och biologisk avfallsbehandling i ett systemperspektiv: Etapp 12009Report (Other academic)
  • 324.
    Bjerkén, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Nordlander, Sara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Genomlysning av ett lager ur ett Leanperspektiv - fokus på effektivitet och värdekapande aktiviteter: En fallstudie på Svenska Fönster2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study is to examine how Lean can make the utilization of inventory more effective and, from a Lean perspective, examine how the value-adding activities related to inventory can increase. To examine this, a case study was perfomed at Svenska Fönster. The conclusions of this study are that Lean can advantageously be applied on inventory to increase the efficiency. 

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    Genomlysning av ett lager ur ett Leanperspektiv
  • 325.
    Björelind, Karl
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    Malmberg, Simon
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    Arbetsmetodik för effektivisering av intern materialförsörjning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Handling of materials sets different requirements depending on its characteristics. In order to meet internal demands of high delivery service at a low cost, it is important to design an effective supply of materials. New technology and the application of IT-systems can provide opportunities to streamline materials supply by increasing service levels and reducing costs.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to design and evaluate a working methodology in order to achieve effective internal supply of materials from goods receipt to production.

    Methods: A theoretical framework formed the basis to identify significant areas to achieve effective internal materials supply. In parallel, a case study was conducted at a company operating in the elevator industry. Data collection was primarily based on different types of interviews and observations to create an understanding of the company´s materials supply. The data obtained were mainly compared with the theoretical framework in the analysis phase of the developed working methodology. Conclusions was drawn, based on the analysis phase. Ethical aspects were taken into account throughout the work of this study.

    The developed working methodology: Based on significant identified areas, from the theoretical framework, a working methodology was developed to achieve effective internal materials supply, consisting of six phases: Prerequisites, Description of the current situation, Analysis of the current situation, Design of improvement proposals, Implementation and Follow-up. Four of these phases were applied on a company with the aim of designing improvements proposals with the potential to achieve effective internal materials supply. Finally, the applied phases of the working methodology were evaluated to highlight its strengths, challenges and possibilities of development as well as the further application.

    Conclusion: The significant areas and other supportive digital solutions were not considered sufficient enough to generate effective internal materials supply and thereby there was a necessity for an organized approach to utilize these areas. In order to support this, complements were required in form of a working methodology with a number of structured phases, including important considerations, which must be followed methodically in order to design improvement proposals which can achieve a more effective internal materials supply. The improvement proposals that were designed included, for instance, a new procedure for materials call-off, new principles for buffers, reduction of internal transports and automatic suggestion of place of storage.

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  • 326.
    Björinder, Elin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Ekegårdh, Adeline
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Förebyggande åtgärder för att försäkra en god luftkvalitet i samband med exploatering2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Luftföroreningar är ett växande problem i urbana miljöer på grund av förändrad markanvändning och förtätning av städer. Den huvudsakliga utsläppskällan till luftföroreningar i stadsmiljö är biltrafiken, som bland annat bidrar till höjda halter av luftburna partiklar och kvävedioxid (NO2) i luften. Dessa två luftföroreningar har stor påverkan på människors hälsa. För att reducera överskridande miljökvalitetsnormer, kan kommuner tvingas ta fram åtgärdsprogram. Syftet med denna studie var att påvisa effektiviteten av att införa så kallade förebyggande åtgärder i samband med exploateringsprojekt, oavsett om ett område riskerar att överskrida miljökvalitetsnormerna eller inte, för att på så sätt skapa en bättre luftkvalitet. För att visa på hur förebyggande åtgärder kan se ut i en tätort har exempelområdet Bomhus i Gävle använts där Gävle kommun har för avsikt att utveckla ett område med bostäder och vägar (se figur 1 för det avgränsade området).

    Metoden för denna studie har varit en litteraturstudie och två framtida scenarioanalyser, vilka inkluderar gestaltningsförslag. Litteraturstudien grundar sig i vetenskapliga artiklar, åtgärdsprogram, examensarbeten och myndighetsrapporter, där åtgärder för att reducera halter av partiklar och kvävedioxid undersöktes. Vi har sedan baserat antaganden av framtida scenarioanalyser på litteraturstudien. Åtgärderna har analyserats och kvantifierats för att sedan redovisa konkreta, realistiska och kostnadseffektiva förebyggande åtgärder i exempelområdet Bomhus. Framtagandet av kvantifieringar på luftkvalitetsvärden och åtgärder har legat till grund för att beräkna de samhällsekonomiska kostnaderna i samband med exploatering. För att visualisera förslag på förebyggande åtgärder skapades ett gestaltningsförslag.

    Resultatet visade på att införande av förebyggande åtgärder i exempelområdet Bomhus i Gävle kan bidra till en förbättrad luftkvalitet. Alla åtgärder kunde inte kvantifieras, men litteraturstudiens resultat visade på att tidigare framtagna åtgärder har gett en minskning av luftföroreningar, vilket antas göra detsamma även i Bomhus. Utifrån resultatet anser vi att analysen av införandet av förebyggande åtgärder utgör stor vikt i planeringsprocessen och bör tas fram av kommuner och byggherrar i ett tidigt skede i stadsplaneringen, eftersom att kostnader kan bli stora om luftföroreningarna ökar, oavsett halt. Kommuner ska med hjälp av kostnadsanalyser kunna bedöma om förebyggande åtgärder är samhällsekonomiskt effektiva att tillämpa i en tätort.

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  • 327.
    Björklund, Elina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    Gimström, Nina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    Effektivitetsförbättringar i interna serviceprocesser: En fallstudie inom massa- och pappersindustrin2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Effective and reliable delivery of services provides long-term performance to an organization. Inorder to create effective and reliable deliveries, activities that do not create value for the customer,namely the wastes, need to be reduced or eliminated. Value Stream mapping is a Leanmanagement tool that aims to clean processes from the wastes. With this as a starting point, studieshave previously been conducted to customize the tool for use on service processes. The studyresulted in Service value stream management, a model implemented in six steps. When the modelis applied in service processes, there is a wide variety of problems that may occur, it is therefore considered not possible to collect all problems in order to provide suggestions for improvements.

    This study aims to investigate whether the tool can be modified to better suit an internal serviceprocess in the pulp and paper industry. The literature review that has been conducted, revealedthat the existing model does not contain certain, according to the theory, important elementsadapted for Lean service. Beside the waste and tools that the model already consists of, fourrelevant wastes and twelve tools were found during the literature review. Other interestingcomponents that emerged through the literature review, were the views of what an organizationshould learn about and how successes should be measured. In order to fulfill the purpose of ourstudy, the Lean tool Service value stream management, was tested with the additions found duringthe literature review. The test was conducted at an internal service process at a case company tosee if there is evidence to add or remove some of the new wastes, tools or components to themodel. At the case company, data was collected through interviews and observations as well asthrough a survey. The study resulted in the 5K-model which consists five steps to eliminate andreduce wastes. With this model, organizations in the pulp and paper industry should be able tocreate higher efficiency in their internal service processes. To visualize and measure efficiency, amathematical formula was developed that could be considered useful even outside the 5K model.

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  • 328.
    Björklund, Emil
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Uppdatering av den svenska nationella höjdmodellen: Förutsättningar för att använda mobil laserskanning2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the prerequisites for using data collected using mobile laser scanning are investigated for updating the Swedish national elevation model. In 2016, the Swedish Transport Administration started a project where information from the road network is collected with mobile laser scanning. The National Land Survey of Sweden has gained access to data from this project and wants to investigate the possibilities of using data from mobile laser scanning to update the national elevation model.

    The prerequisites for using data from mobile laser scanning to update the national elevation model is investigated by examining the deviation against measured control points, comparing height deviation between data from the national elevation model and mobile scanned laser data, as well as studying the distribution and completeness of data from the mobile laser scan is compared to the changed areas it is supposed to replace.

    The result shows a low deviation in height to the control points of 1.2 centimeter in mean deviation. The grid comparison also shows a low deviation in height, mean deviation -2.4 cm. The classification of the point cloud from mobile laser scanning shows problems in dense vegetation where there are no returns from the ground, which, along with restrictions on the spread of mobile laser scanning, impose restrictions on areas that can be updated. It is primarily the lack of ground points in the point cloud and that the point cloud does not fully cover the changed areas that limit the ability to use data from mobile laser scanning to update the National Elevation Model.

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  • 329.
    Björklund, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    PLC Back-up system2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this bachelor thesis was to investigate the PLC systems used in ABBs breaker factory in Ludvika and to create a system specification suitable to be used in the procurement of a back-up solution for this workshop.

    This work involved information gathering from different sources, such as archives, physical installations and interviews of maintenance personnel and operators.

    The results included the requested system specification (in Swedish) including suggestions for pilot test installations and evaluations. The work also resulted in an extensive listing of all PLC systems with placement, typedesignations, expansion modules and other pertinent information. This information ismade available as a macro enabled multipage Microsoft Excel document.

    A summary and suggestions for follow up work is also included.

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    PLC Back-up system
  • 330.
    Björkman, Carolina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Falk, Jasmine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Utvecklingen av ett hållbart avfallshanteringssystem i Bangalore2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    India is a country that is growing economically while the problems with the waste andit´s treatment are still in the development phase. The study focuses on how the waste ishandled in the city of Bangalore. From a Swedish point of view the waste collection andtreatment have been investigated Bangalore and shortcomings identified. Suggestionsfor improvements are presented from the lack of the waste management and the focushas been on how Swedish solutions could be implemented in Bangalore.

    In Sweden the sorting of waste at a household level is managed from different fractionsin containers and therefore the waste has a higher degree of recyclability. Theprocessing steps that are providing energy are sufficient leading to very little wastebeing added to landfills. A constant work is done based on the waste hierarchy. InBangalore, the situation is the reverse and the waste collected mostly ends up inlandfills or unofficial dumping sites around the city. In Sweden, waste is handled by theformal sector, while Bangalore is largely dependent on an informal sector whereindividuals collect waste.

    A literature study has provided insight into the difficulties developing countries mayhave to face regarding waste management and the factors that come into play in theexecution of a functioning system. Within the project, an observational study was madein Bangalore for two weeks. Based on the observational study a lot of previousinformation on how waste is handled could be examined more critically and morerealistic conclusions drawn. The lack of a functioning system for waste collectionthroughout Bangalore results in a lot of waste ending up directly on the streets or onabandoned plots. This in turn gives rise to odors for residents and an unhygienicenvironment. The collection available to the public was in most cases insufficient.

    Three factors were identified that prevent the waste management from functioning.These were politics, the formal and informal sector, as well as the practical collectionof waste. A major obstacle in Bangalore is the lack of political interest of functioningwaste management. No major action is taken against the growing amounts of wasteproduced. A good integration between the formal waste collectors consisting of thetransport of waste and waste collectors versus informal waste collectors is missing.Bangalore also lacks formal collection systems and the people are not given the rightconditions to be able to go anywhere to get rid of their waste. This leads to increasedignorance about how waste should be sorted for processing appropriately and whereenergy can be recovered.

    A clearer collection is needed if Bangalore is to achieve sustainable development and tocurb the escalating environmental problems they face. Some form of waste treatment isneeded to reduce the pressure on the city landfill. By doing this there is a change for thecity to be sustainable and green.

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  • 331.
    Björling, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Chemistry.
    Air exchange and ventilation in an underground train station2012In: 10th International Conference on Healthy Buildings 2012: Vol. 2 / [ed] Eliza Morawska, 2012, p. 1406-1411Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The indoor air climate of an underground train station was investigated during two days in January 2008. The underground platform was accessed from ticket halls on each side with air volumes of 1 000 m3 and 1 430 m3, respectively. The station platform air volume was approximately 14 300 m3. Air from the outside could enter either via the ticket halls or via the train tunnels from ventilation towers situated on each side of the platform area. The local mean age of air was determined in several locations at different heights using pumped sampling and homogeneous emission of PFTs. In addition, the temperature and relative humidity was measured at selected locations. The average air exchange rate per hour (ACH) was found to be 3.62 h-1, ranging from 4 h-1 at rush hours to slightly more than 3 h-1 at night and in the middle of the day. The largest ACH (4.5 h-1) was found at rush hour in one of the ticket halls, corresponding to a flow rate of 75 000 m3/h. The lowest ACH (2.8 h-1) was found in the other ticket hall at night, corresponding to a flow rate of 47 000 m3/h. In the middle of the station platform the ACH was lower than the ACH at the platform ends.

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    Underground
  • 332.
    Björling, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Förorenade byggnader: Provtagning och riskbedömning2009Report (Other academic)
  • 333.
    Björling, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Akander, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Steen Englund, Jessika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    On Measuring Air Infiltration Rates Using Tracer Gases in Buildings with Presence Controlled Mechanical Ventilation Systems2016In: Indoor Air 2016: The 14th International Conference of Indoor Air Quality and Climate, July 3-8 2016, Ghent, Belgium: Conference Proceedings / [ed] E. Van Kenhove, J. Laverge, P. De Vlieger, ISIAQ , 2016, article id 875Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ventilation and air leakage of a school building was investigated. Information was collected from the parameters of the mechanical ventilation system and from measurements of the local mean age of air using the homogeneous emission method. While the average local mean ages of air can be accurately measured by passive integrative samplers, the estimation of the average room specific air change rate by taking the inverse of the measured average local mean age of air did not give correct results. The main problem is that integrative sampling represents a linear averaging process that is inappropriate to capture the average of nonlinearly related properties. This problem is accentuated when the ventilation rates for different periods differ a lot. A simple computational model was developed to discuss the system behavior. A partial solution to the measurement problem is to actively sample the different populations of air change rates separately.

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  • 334.
    Björling, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Jönsson, D.
    Building Services LTH, Lund University, Lund, Sweden .
    Bagge, H.
    Building Physics LTH, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Johansson, D.
    Building Services LTH, Lund University, Lund, Sweden .
    Air infiltration into naturally ventilated apartments in multifamily dwellings2014In: Indoor Air 2014 - 13th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate, 2014, p. 34-40Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents the ACH for ten apartments in naturally ventilated multifamily dwellings for two cases inlet vent manipulations: i) fully opened inlet vents; and ii) fully closed and taped inlet vents. Even with fully opened inlet vents the resulting ventilation is rather poor. The average ACH is 0.26±0.16 h-1. All apartments fall in the lower quartile in terms of ACH when compared to other multifamily dwellings in Sweden. A method using two different tracers A and B is presented that allow for measurement of the partial flow from the stairway zone and the partial flow from other pathways into the apartment. On the average 10-20% of the airflow into a typical apartment in a naturally ventilated multifamily dwelling seems to originate from the stairway zone when the inlet vents are fully opened. By closing and taping the inlet vents, the airtightness of the apartments have been investigated. The average direct leakage flow, i.e. not from the stairway zone, is 17 m3/h but the variation is large. Layout B seems to leak the most, followed by A and then C.

  • 335.
    Björling, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Kumlin, Anders
    Anders Kumlin AB.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Bengt Dahlgren AB.
    Local Determination of the Building Envelope Air Leakage2018In: Indoor Air 2018 / [ed] Michael Waring and Brent Stephens, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method to determine the rate of local transport into the indoor air of a substance originating from the construction frame of a building has been devised and tested. In particular we demonstrate that a tracer located outside the air and vapour barrier in the construction frame of an office building can be detected in varying concentrations in the office indoor air. The tracer may either diffuse directly or follow with outside air leaking through the barrier. Cor-recting for the local air change rate yields an apparent emission rate as an estimate of the rate of local transport from the construction frame to the indoor air. Our interpretation is that high-er apparent emission rates predominantly reflect higher local air leakage rates through the air and vapor barrier. This information could be useful for interpreting office worker complaints and for decisions on renovation options. The tracer techniques used in the study are also more generally applicable to convert measured concentrations of indoor substances into apparent emission rates. Emission rates are more indicative of the location of pollution sources and may therefore be useful in other investigations of polluted buildings.

  • 336.
    Björling, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Mattsson, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Akander, Jan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Infiltration of Air into two World Heritage Farmhouses in Sweden during Winter Conditions2018In: Roomvent & Ventilation 2018: Excellent Indoor Climate and High Performing Ventilation / [ed] Risto Kosonen, Mervi Ahola, Jarkko Narvanne, Helsinki, Finland, 2018, p. 1079-1084Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a part of an ongoing study, we report measurements of air infiltration during winter conditions into two Decorated Farmhouses of Hälsingland designated as UNESCO World Heritage Sites. In winter these two-storied farmhouses are rarely heated, except for special occasions. In this measurement one farmhouse  was  unheated,  whereas  one  room  was  heated  for  a  brief  period  in  the  other  one.  The observed local mean ages of air measured with tracer gas techniques generally increase with height, both  locally  within  each  room  and  between  floors.  The  average  temperature  and  humidity  also increases from the first to the second floor. The indoor temperature follows the outdoor temperature with a time lag. The differences in water content between inside and outside air correlate with changes of the indoor relative humidity. The correlation is stronger for humidity increase than for humidity decrease, possibly due to moisture absorption by interior text.

  • 337.
    Björling, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Stymne, Hans
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Boman, Carl-Axel
    Pentiaq AB.
     The Indoor Climate of a Naturally Ventilated Church2009In: Healthy Buildings 2009, Sept 13-18, Syracuse, NY USA, IAQ , 2009, p. 1-4Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     

    The indoor air climate of a church, with a total building volume of 9500 m3, was investigated from January to October, 2008. During this time, infiltration and ventilation measurements were performed at four periods ranging from 17 to 45 days. The local mean age of air was determined in several locations at different heights using passive samplers and homogeneous emission of PFTs. In addition, the temperature and relative humidity was measured at selected locations. The total infiltration of fresh air into the church was found to be mainly driven by the difference between indoor and outdoor temperature. The rate of infiltration ranges from 780 m3/h (deltat=14.8 degrees C) in January to 240 m3/h (deltat=3.5 degrees C) in August. The local mean age of air in the upper and lower air volumes were found to be roughly equal, both during the heating season and in the summer. This indicates that the air volume in the church is well-mixed throughout the year. Transient measurements to assess the effects of doors opening in the summer were also performed using pumped sampling.

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  • 338.
    Björling, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Stymne, Hans
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Mattsson, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Blomqvist, Claes
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Ventilation measurements combined with pollutant concentration measurements discriminates between high emission rates and insufficient ventilation2007In: IAQVEC 2007 Indoor Air Quality Ventilation and Energy Conservation: sustainable Buildings. P. 2, 2007, Vol. 2, p. 393-400Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High local concentrations of a pollutant can be the result of high local emission rates of the pollutant or insufficient ventilation. Using tracer gases to map the ventilation in multi-zone buildings combined with measurements of the local pollutant concentration provide the means to discriminate between these causes. In a similar manner, the propagation rate of pollutants from a source to a target zone and the emission rate of the pollutants at the source may be determined quantitatively.

    The paper presents both the theoretical framework for the techniques and experimental examples of the proposed methods.

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  • 339.
    Björn, Cornelia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Sjöström, Elina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Fastighetsvärdering i Sverige och i Spanien: En jämförande studie om fastighetsvärdering2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Property valuation is executed by real estate brokers or property valuaters before selling, mortgage, inheritance, divorce, etc. Different methods can be used when determing a market value depending on what kind of object it is. When valuating houses, the most common method in Sweden is called “ortsprismetoden”, which compares similar objects to the object that’s being valuated. The most important valuation factor is the location, and has to be considered when deciding the properties value. Other important factors are the properties condition, standard, orientation and if it’s close to water. These factors that enhance the value, the metods that conclude the value and the laws attached to properties could be different in Sweden and in Spain.

    This study manage how the valuation process is executed in Sweden and in Spain. The countries were chosen based on that it historically have been very popular for Swedes to invest in properties, mainly vacation homes, in Spain. The knowledge about how a market value developes, how the selling/buying process works in Spain is rather limited, therefore this study is important for people who wants to invest in a Spanish property. Without the understandig of the property market, the dream of a perfect vacation home could result in a bad purchase. This study could contribute to a successful purchase by contributing knowledge about the property valuating process, how a market value is determend and what factors increse the value.

    nterviews were executed with real estate brokers and property valuaters in both Sweden and Spain to provide valuable answers to the questions asked in this study. This resulted in both expected and unexpected answers. In some aspects the valuation process were very similar between the countries, but in other aspects there were some major differences that could be discussed. The biggest difference were if the real estate brokers needed a licens to value property or not. In Sweden the broker needs education to get a licens, while in Spain the licens could be bought. Other differences were the selling/buying aspects and what the most important valuation factors were.

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  • 340.
    Björsell, Niclas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    AD and DA conversion2015In: Modern Measurements: Fundamentals and Applications / [ed] Ferrero, A., Petri, D., Carbone, P. and Catelani, M., Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, 2015, p. 125-148Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter describes the conversion process and its limitations and discusses methods to reduce the impact of these limitations in various applications. The process of converting analog signals into digital signals can be divided into two parts. First, the signal will be measured at discrete time instants and then quantized into fixed amplitude levels. The key parameters to consider when selecting an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) or digital-to-analog converter (DAC) are the resolution of the quantizer in number of bits and the sampling rate of the sampler. The chapter discusses these two functions with a basic example. It introduces some commonly used sampling techniques for improving the performance of an existing ADC, such as oversampling, sigma-delta conversion, dithering, time-interleaved sampling, undersampling, harmonic sampling, time-equivalent sampling and post-correction methods. The theory behind signal reconstruction is discussed with respect to the sampling theorem.

  • 341.
    Björsell, Niclas
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Modeling analog to digital converters at radio frequency2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This work considers behavior modeling of analog to digital converters with applications in the radio frequency range, including the field of telecommunication as well as test and measurement instrumentation, where the conversion from analog to digital signals often is a bottleneck in performance. The models are intended to post-process output data from the converter and thereby improve the performance of the digital signal. By building a model of practical converters and the way in which they deviate from ideal, imperfections can be corrected using post-correction methods.

    Behavior modeling implies generation of a suitable stimulus, capturing the output data, and characterizing a model. The demands on the test setup are high for converters in the radio frequency range. The test-bed used in this thesis is composed of commercial state-of-the-art instruments and components designed for signal conditioning and signal capture. Further, in this thesis, different stimuli are evaluated, theoretically as well as experimentally.

    There are a large number of available model structures for dynamic nonlinear systems. In order to achieve a parameter efficient model structure, a Volterra model was used as a starting-point, which can describe any weak nonlinear system with fading memory, such as analog to digital converters. However, it requires a large number of coefficients; for this reason the Volterra model was reduced to a model structure with fewer parameters, by comparing the symmetry properties of the Volterra kernels with the symmetries from other models. An alternative method is the Kautz-Volterra model, which has the same general properties as the Volterra model, but with fewer parameters. This thesis gives experimental results of the Kautz-Volterra model, which will be interesting to apply in a post-correction algorithm in the future.

    To cover behavior not explained by the dynamic nonlinear model, a complementary piecewise linear model component is added. In this thesis, a closed form solution to the estimation problem for both these model components is given. By gradually correcting for each component the performance will improve step by step. In this thesis, the relation between a given component and the performance of the converter is given, as well as potential for improvement of an optimal post-correction.

  • 342.
    Björsell, Niclas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle-Sandviken.
    Blomqvist, Claes
    Högskolan i Gävle-Sandviken.
    Utveckling av nya system som ger möjlighet till flexibel behovsstyrning av luftflödena1998Report (Other academic)
  • 343.
    Björsell, Niclas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik. University of Gävle, Center for RF Measurement Technologies.
    Daponte, Pasquale
    Department of Engineering, University of Sannio, Italy.
    De Vito, Luca
    Department of Engineering, University of Sannio, Italy.
    Rapuano, Sergio
    Department of Engineering, University of Sannio, Italy.
    Automatic signal recognition for a flexible spectrum management2009In: XIX IMEKO World Congress, 2009, p. 568-573Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents the prototype of an automatic digital modulation classifier, to be used for signal recognition in frequency bands managed in a flexible way. The prototype is based on a Data Acquisition System, consisting of an Analog-to-Digital converter embedded in an evaluation board, a frame grabber and a Personal Computer. The modulation classifier is able to recognize the most used digital modulations. An experimental validation of the realized prototype in a radio environment is also provided.

  • 344.
    Björsell, Niclas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    De Vito, Luca
    University Sannio.
    Rapuano, Sergio
    University Sannio.
    A GNU radio-based signal detector for cognitive radio systems2011In: 2011 IEEE International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (I2MTC), New York: IEEE conference proceedings, 2011, p. 1045-1049Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the hardware and software architecture of a signal detector prototype. It is able to observe a wide band and to find, in such band, the empty or occupied channels. It is intended to be used either in telecommunication devices or in spectrum monitoring instruments working in the new scenarios of telecommunications, where a flexible and dynamic spectrum management will be introduced. The signal detector has been validated on simulated and emulated signals showing high detection percentages even with low signal to noise ratios.

  • 345.
    Björsell, Niclas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Händel, Peter
    Signal Processing Lab., ACCESS Linnaeus Center, School of Electrical Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Achievable ADC Performance by Postcorrection Utilizing Dynamic Modeling of the Integral Nonlinearity2008In: EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing, ISSN 1687-6172, E-ISSN 1687-6180, article id 497187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for a universal dynamic model of analog to digital converters (ADC) aimed for post-correction. However, it is complicated to fully describe the properties of an ADC by a single model. An alternative is to split up the ADC model in different components, where each component has unique properties. In this paper, a model based on three components is used, and a performance analysis for each component is presented. Each component can be post-corrected individually and by the method that best suits the application. The purpose with post-correction of an ADC is to improve the performance. Hence, for each component, expressions for the potential improvement have been developed. The measures of performance are total harmonic distortion (THD) and signal to noise and distortion (SINAD) and to some extent spurious free dynamic range (SFDR).

  • 346.
    Björsell, Niclas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Händel, Peter
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Dynamic behavior models of analog to digital converters aimed for post-correction in wideband applications2006In: IMEKO Workshop on ADC and DAC Modelling and Testing, September 17-22, 2006, Rio de Janeiro, 2006, p. 5-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a dynamic behavior model of analog to digital converters is proposed. The model is aimed for post correction in wideband applications. The suggested post correction method is a combination of look up tables and model based correction. The model consists of three components. The first is a component represented by a Hammerstein model; that is a static nonlinearity followed by a time invariant linear filter. The second component is a nonparametric model caused by significant deviation from the characterized integral nonlinearity and the output from the Hammerstein model. The third component contains of the remaining deviation and is considered as a random model error. Results from simulations verify that the examined ADC can be described by an ordinary Hammerstein model and a static look-up table.

  • 347.
    Björsell, Niclas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Händel, Peter
    Signal Processing Laboratory, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Histogram Tests for Wideband Applications2008In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 70-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Characterization and testing of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) are important in many different aspects. Histogram test is a common method to characterize the linearity features of an ADC. Two commonly used stimuli signals are sine waves and Gaussian noise. This paper presents a metrological comparison between Gaussian and sine wave histogram tests for wideband applications; that is we evaluate the performance in characterization of the ADC and the usability of post-correction. A post-correction procedure involves characterization of the ADC non-linearity and then use of this information by processing the ADC output samples to remove the distortion.

    The results show that the Gaussian histogram test gives reasonable accuracy to measure non-linearities. However, it does not result in a suitable model for post-correction in wideband applications. A single-tone sine wave histogram will be a better basis for post-correction. Best result can be obtained if the look-up table is trained with several single-tone sine waves in the frequency band.

  • 348.
    Björsell, Niclas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Händel, Peter
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Post-Correction of Under-Sampled Analog to Digital Converters2007In: IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Applications with wide bandwidth and high center frequencies force the analog to digital converter (ADC) to be active in a working range with less dynamic performance in relation to lower frequency bands. However using under-sampling techniques in combination with post-correction methods enable a combination of high sampling rate, wide bandwidth and low distortion. In this paper the employed dynamic post-correction is a combination of look-up tables and model based correction. The results are mainly based on measurements on a 12 bit 210 MSPS ADC. The improvement in total harmonic distortion and spurious free dynamic range are acceptable over a wide frequency range and it is robust to variations in amplitude.

  • 349.
    Björsell, Niclas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för elektronik.
    Händel, Peter
    Royal Institute of Technology, Signal Processing Laboratory, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Truncated Gaussian noise in ADC histogram tests2007In: Measurement, ISSN 0263-2241, E-ISSN 1873-412X, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 36-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One method to characterize analogue to digital converters (ADCs) is to use a histogram, where Gaussian noise may be used as stimulus signal. However, a Gaussian noise signal that excites all transition levels also generates input values outside working range of the ADC. Modern signal generators can generate arbitrary signals. Hence, excluding undesired values outside the ADC full scale can minimize test sequences. Truncating the signal to the working range gives further advantages, which are explored in this paper. The Cramér-Rao lower bound and a minimum variance estimator for histogram tests with an arbitrary stimulus are derived. These are applied for truncated Gaussian noise and the result is theoretically evaluated and compared to untruncated noise. It is shown that accuracy increases for a fixed sample length and that variation over transition levels decrease.

  • 350.
    Björsell, Niclas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Händel, Peter
    Royal Institute of Technology, Signal Processing Lab, ACCESS Linnaeus Center.
    Jansson, Magnus
    Royal Institute of Technology,Signal Processing Lab, ACCESS Linnaeus Center.
    Medawar, Samer
    Royal Institute of Technology, Signal Processing Lab, ACCESS Linnaeus Center.
    Improved Estimate of Parametric Models for Analogue to Digital Converters by Using Weighted Integral Nonlinearity Data2010In: 17th Symposium IMEKO TC4 - Measurement of Electrical Quantities, 15th International Workshop on ADC Modelling and Testing, and 3rd Symposium IMEKO TC19: Environmental Measurements / [ed] Linus Michaeli, Jan Saliga, 2010, p. 597-600Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Error modelling has played a major role in generating post-corrections of analogue to digital converters (ADC). Benefits by using parametric models for post-correction are that they requires less memory and that they are easier to identify for arbitrary signals. However, the parameters are estimated in two steps; firstly, the integral nonlinearity (INL) is estimated and secondly, the model parameters. In this paper we propose a method to improve the performance in the second step, by utilizing information about the statistical properties of the first step.

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