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  • 301.
    Evensson, Nicolé
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Pettersson, Sara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelse av att vara involverade i barnmisshandelsfall: En litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Child abuse is a huge global problem and the trend in Sweden in reporting child abuse is increasing. Swedish law obligates health care personnel to report any suspicion of child abuse to child protection services. However, research shows that reports are not happening to the extent they should. Lack in knowledge on how to identify abuse and which process to follow when reporting are the main factors. It is unclear how nurses are emotionally involved when handling a child abuse case.

    Aim: To describe how nurses experience to be involved in child abuse cases and to describe one methodological aspect of the articles this study is based on.

    Method: Descriptive literature review based on twelve qualitative studies.

    Result: Nurses felt that the initial suspicion about a child being abused was often based on gut feeling only, causing both insecurity and frustration. The feeling of insecurity followed most nurses throughout the whole case, from suspicion until investigation. Research showed that most nurses felt it was difficult to maintain a professional attitude. Moreover, nurses were scared for their own lives when dealing with child abuse. The negative emotions were often long lasting. When reporting such a case to the authorities nurses could experience both feelings of anxiety and satisfaction. Throughout the investigation resignation and frustration dominated the nurses' cooperation with child protection services due to lack of status updates, for example. One successful way to deal with insecurity was social support from colleagues, but not everyone had access to such a support network. In total, the included studies comprised 222 participants, 161 of whom were nurses, between 25-64 years old. The majority were women and the participants had work experience as a nurse between two and 38 years

    Conclusion: Dealing with child abuse cases as a nurse is mostly characterized by negative impressions. The feeling of insecurity is predominant and runs lika a red thread from suspicion to investigation. Social support is perceived as a vital resource in order to deal with child abuse cases. However many challenges remain to find more solution focused approaches. A more salutogenic view is needed in research, nursing education and on the work floor in order to improve the conditions for nurses to be able to cope with these experiences.

  • 302.
    Everhag, Susanne
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Olsen, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Icke farmakologisk behandling vid oro och ångest hos äldre personer med demenssjukdom: en kvalitativ intervjustudie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There are about 160 000 persons suffering from dementia in Sweden. About 80 % of all patients with dementia have sometimes behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). The symptoms can be e.g. anxiety. National guidelines provides non pharmacological interventions before prescriptions of drugs at BPSD.

    Aim: The purpose of the study was to elucidate the nurse’s experiences of barriers and opportunities to use non pharmacological treatment for anxiety in older people with dementia.

    Method: The study has a descriptive design with quality approach. Data were collected through 11 individual semi-structured interviews. By convenience sampling, registered nurse’s working at nursing homes for people with dementia were recruited. The study took place in Sweden. Data were analyzed with by qualitative content analysis.

    Main Results: Two categories appeared in the result. "Barriers to use non-pharmacological measures" and "Opportunities for using non-pharmacological measures". Deficiency of documentation, lack of time and lack of skilled and knowledgeable staff perceived as barriers. It was important to have good knowledge of dementia among different members of the team. Life stories and contact person considered important. Informants told about the good care that prevents much concern and anxiety and competent staff who discovered the anxiety early put in to action as the team agreed, often with quit good result. Education was seen as a great opportunity.

    Conclusion: Care of person-centered approach leads to better personal knowledge enabling early non pharmacological interventions.

  • 303.
    Fabricius, Maja
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Söderberg, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kvinnors behov av stöd vid livsstilsförändringarefter en hjärtinfarkt2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med den föreliggande litteraturstudien var att beskriva kvinnors behov av stöd vid livsstilsförändringar efter en hjärtinfarkt.

    Metod: Författarna genomförde en beskrivande litteraturstudie, baserad på 16 artiklar, vilka eftersöktes i databaserna Cinahl och PubMed.

    Huvudresultat: Studier visade att genomförandet av livsstilsförändringar hos kvinnor handlade om inneboende resurser hos individen som ledde till kvinnans intentioner att göra livsstilsförändringarna. De inneboende resurserna var konsekvenser av hjärtinfarkten och anpassning samt motivation och strategier.  För att lyckas genomföra livsstilsförändringarna var kvinnan beroende av olika former av stöd. De stödjande incitamenten var både främjande och hämmande, vilka påverkade huruvida individen klarade av att förändra sitt beteende.

    Slutsats: Återhämtningsperioden efter hjärtinfarkten präglades av en tvetydighet, vilken påverkade kvinnornas intentioner att genomföra livsstilsförändringarna. Denna kunskap kan sjuksköterskan använda sig av i dennes stödjande roll i början av rehabiliteringen och vid samtal om livsstilsförändringar. Kvinnor efterfrågar information anpassad för kvinnor och de upplevde svårigheter att upprätthålla livsstilsförändringarna i det dagliga livet på grund av en icke-samarbetande familj och vänner. Mer forskning behövs om vilken typ av information kvinnor efterfrågar och informationen kring livsstilsförändringarna bör också involvera familj och närstående för att på så vis främja kvinnans stöd i det dagliga livet.

  • 304.
    Fagerhov, Josefine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Krantz, Lina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Anledningar till att föräldrar väljer att inte vaccinera sina barn2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: Every year about 1.5 million children die in diseases that can be prevented by vaccination. Since the introduction of the general vaccination program, mortality in these diseases has decreased significantly and some of the diseases have disappeared completely. This is seen as a result of the vaccinations.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe reasons why parents choose not to vaccinate their children and to review the data collection methods that was used in the included articles.

    Method: The present literature study has a descriptive design. The results of the study are based on 13 scientific articles reviewed by both authors. The included articles were searched through the Medline via PubMed and CINAHL databases. The data collection methods of the included articles have also been reviewed.

    Main result: When parents choose to refrain from vaccinations for their children, there are several reasons behind their decision. The reasons the parents indicate is fear of side effects and risks, that it is an intrusion of the child's natural immune system, that a healthy lifestyle can prevent the disease, that the vaccine-preventing diseases are not dangerous, lack of information, mistrust of the government, public health authorities and pharmaceutical companies as well as social networking influence. The data collection methods of the studies were questionnaires and interviews.

    Conclusion: It is important for the nurse and other healthcare professionals to have knowledge about the parent's underlying causes to refuse vaccination. Good communication and adequate information can help parents to make a deliberately decision in the vaccination question.

  • 305.
    Fagerhov, Josefine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Krantz, Lina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Anledningar till att föräldrar väljer att inte vaccinera sina barn.: En deskriptiv litteraturstudie.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 306.
    Fagerlund, Felicia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Tunefalk, Elin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Livstillfredsställelse och hälsa hos unga vuxna2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe the life satisfaction/quality of life and health among young adults and to compare whether there is any differences between men and women. In order to collect relevant data, has an empirical, quantitative cross-sectional study been conducted with a descriptive design with an comparative element.

    The study was conducted in the social network Facebook on the Internet using the questionnaire Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (LSQ), which is a well established tool for estimating the perceived life satisfaction / quality of life and health. The study was performed among 67 young adults between 19-30 years. The results showed that young adults rated their life satisfaction/quality of life relatively high, with a maximum estimate of the factor Physical symptoms, and lowest in the factor Quality in everyday life activities / fun. However, there were quite a large spread between the responses, with some maximum estimates, and some extremely low ratings. The results also showed that there were some significant differences in the perceived life satisfaction/ quality of life between men and women. Women rated their physical health lower than men, but claimed to have a higher quality of intimate relationships than men had. Mental illness as lethargy, anxiety and distress often turn behind somatic symptoms such as fatigue, stomach pain and headache. It is imperative that nurses learn to interpret the problems behind these symptoms in order to offer the right help and care.

  • 307.
    Falk, Susanne
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Operationssjuksköterskors upplevelser av stressorer i arbetet: – en intervjustudie2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to describe theatre nurses experiences of stressors at work. Descriptive design with qualitative approach was applied. Semi structured interviews were conducted with twelve theatre nurses at a hospital in Sweden. Manifest and latent content analysis was used for analysis of the interviews.The result led to the following main themes; The time must be kept at all costs. The two subthemes which grow out of the categories were; Major operations program with a small staff and Insecurity and lack of understanding on the high tempo. With an operations program that was in focus and lack of staff worked theatre nurses under time pressure during the working hours. With overtime and constant adjustment of staff and patients, managed staff to carry out the operation program. Lack of time for the control of medical devices and medical equipment that had ceased to function during surgery, was experienced as very stressful. Poor cooperation with several surgeons and work in sterile center made the theatre nurses experienced stress.

  • 308.
    Falk, Susanne
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap.
    Lindahl, Kenth
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap.
    Livskvalitet hos personer som genomgått en total höftledsplastik - en litteraturstudie2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was based on scientific literature to describe the quality of life of persons who have undergone a total hip replacement. The method was a descriptive literature review. The results showed that pain was the most obvious change after surgery. Mild pain before surgery was strongly associated with mild pain after surgery. But despite less pain were experienced early, it took 1 year to achieve the full benefits of improved physical function. It was found that there were no age-related differences in pain, physical function and quality of life. Patients regardless of ages showed improvements in pain, function and stiffness. Several studies revealed that the discomfort in the back, lower limb or back pain was a problem for patients after surgery and was associated with worse functional status after surgery. Back pain was also important in planning rehabilitation. The medical factors that were associated with worse functional status were obese, two or more chronic diseases and two or more common geriatric problems. The results also indicated a clear correlation between preoperative criteria and good performance of health-related quality of life after total hip replacement. Total hip replacement was cost-effective interventions that improve quality of life of patients. Quality of life was sustained 5 years after surgery the majority of patients.

    Keyword: Quality of life, hip replacement, physical function and pain.

  • 309.
    Fen Tang, Ping
    et al.
    Kunming Medical College, Kunming, Province of Yunnan, China.
    Johansson, Camilla
    Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Wadensten, Barbro
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap.
    Stig, Wenneberg
    Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Gerd, Ahlström
    School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Chinese nurses' ethical concerns in a neurological ward2007In: Nursing Ethics, ISSN 0969-7330, E-ISSN 1477-0989, Vol. 14, no 6, p. 810-824Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our aim was to describe Chinese nurses' experiences of workplace distress and ethical dilemmas on a neurological ward. Qualitative interviews were performed with 20 nurses. On using latent content analysis, themes emerged in four content areas: ethical dilemmas, workplace distress, quality of nursing and managing distress. The ethical dilemmas were: (1) conflicting views on optimal treatment and nursing; (2) treatment choice meeting with financial constraints; and (3) misalignment of nursing responsibilities, competence and available resources. The patients' relatives lacked respect for the nurses' skills. Other dilemmas could be traced to the transition from a planned to a market economy, resulting in an excessive workload and treatment withdrawal for financial reasons. Lack of resources was perceived as an obstacle to proper patient care in addition to hospital organization, decreasing the quality of nursing, and increasing moral and workplace distress. The nurses managed mainly by striving for competence, which gave them hope for the future.

  • 310.
    Fernqvist, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Rundberg, Lovisa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Patienters upplevelser av att överleva hjärtstopp: En beskrivande litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Increased application of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and the use of defibrillators has contributed to increased cardiovascular survival rates. The nurse thus meets these persons to an increasing extent than before in their occupational profession and the attitude may have meaning to the victim.

     

    Aim: The aim of the literature study was to describe the patient's experience of surviving heart arrest and to review the data collection method in the included scientific articles.

     

    Method: A summary of previous research has been made and six qualitative and four quantitative scientific articles are the results of this descriptive literature study.

     

    Results: Surviving a heart arrest was experienced as a life-changing event in life. Recurring challenges in everyday life were fear, anxiety and insecurity. Support from healthcare professionals, family and friends was experienced as important components for experiencing a sense of security and coherence in existence. Another major problem was the impact of the cardiac arrest on memory. Important reporters of the traumatic event were healthcare professionals and other persons present at the heart arrest. In those who survived the heart arrest, there was a need to share their experiences with people with similar experiences.

     

    Conclusions: The majority of those who survived a heart arrest experienced it as a traumatic event. An event that resulted in feelings like insecurity, fear and anxiety but also a gratitude to life. A nurse who identifies the patient's individual needs can help the patient experience an increased sense of manageability, meaningfulness and comprehension in the current life-changing situation.

  • 311.
    Finn Ericsson, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    BVC-sköterskans erfarenheter och reflektioner av kommunikation via tolksamtal: En intervjustudie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Swedish health care law has the aim to give good and equal health care to the entire population. Provision of communication support should therefore be available if needed when encountering health care. Studies highlights the importance of good communication between patients and caregivers. Aim: To describe primary child health nurse’s experiences and reflections of working with children and their caretakers in interpreter mediated communication. Method: Interviews with seven informants, qualitative approach and descriptive design. Analyze method: qualitative content analysis. Result: The primary child health nurse often faces difficulties in the work situation when an interpreter is needed but looks a joy in and a willingness to make these meetings as good as possible. Contributing factors to successful interpreting mediated communication were related to; calm interpreter behavior, preparedness, accredited medical interpreter education, speaking the patient’s accent, being on-site and preferably a female interpreter. Successful factors related to the primary child health nurse included; calm behavior, distinct communication, an open-minded attitude allowing questions and a supportive manager allowing the nurses to plan their work independently. Problems facing the primary child health nurse was related to the interpreter’s dedication and knowledge, gender, family wishes versus the primary child health nurse thoughts of being the best interventions, noises during interpreter mediated conversations, time controlled work, interpreter service company, difficulties in telephone interpreted calls because of poor technical equipment. Conclusion: To keep up the primary child health nurse’ positive attitude despite difficulties in interpreter mediated communication it’s necessary with an increased manager support and higher priority of this subject, focusing that the nurse should be able to choose the best communication form, improvement of the technical equipment and to obtain interpreter mediated communication education.

  • 312.
    Finn Ericsson, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lindström, Susanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Varför kvinnor väljer bort amning - gravida kvinnors och mammors beskrivningar av vad som påverkar beslutet: En litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 313.
    Fjärdsmans, Tobias
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Khalaf, Ahmed
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Upplevelser av att vara anhörig till en person med demens som bor på ett äldreboende: En beskrivande litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: 35,6 million people lives with a dementia disease in the world. This number is set to be doubled by 2030 and tripled by 2050. The majority of the people with dementia (PWD) have relatives in the form of, for example, spouses and adult children. To live with a dementia disease involves intellectual difficulties such as anxiety, frustration, loss of memory and depression which effects the communication with the nursing staff.

    Aim: To describe the experiences of being a relative of a PWD who lives in a nursing home for PWD and to describe the included articles from the methodological point of view study group.

    Method: Literature review with a descriptive design based on 10 qualitative scientific articles from the search engines PubMed and Cinahl. The articles were individually processed by the authors of this literature review and during the analysis, four main themes where identified. These themes later became the basis of the result.

    Main findings: The result showed that relatives to a PWD often experiences feelings of loss and guilt. They also had difficulties in trusting the nursing staff and in making decisions for their PWD.

    In the majority of the articles in this literature review the participants were women. In some of the articles the was a more even gender variety. Most of the participants in the articles were spouses of adult children to PWD although there were also siblings and grandchildren amongst the participants. The middle age of the participants varied between 54-73 years.

    Conclusion: Relatives of a PWD often experience tough feelings such as loneliness, lost love, sorrow and guilt. They also have a hard time trusting the nursing staff and struggle to justify the decisions they make for their PWD. It is important for the nurse to have some insight in regards to what the relatives experience in order to meet and support them. This enhances the care of the PWD since the relatives can contribute with information regarding what care the PWD needs.

  • 314.
    Florin, Jan
    et al.
    Department of Health and Social Sciences, Dalarna University, Falun.
    Bååth, Carina
    Faculty of Health, Sciences, and Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Karlstad University, Karlstad; County Council of Värmland, Värmland.
    Gunningberg, Lena
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Mårtensson, Gunilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Attitudes towards pressure ulcer prevention: a psychometric evaluation of the Swedish version of the APuP instrument2016In: International Wound Journal, ISSN 1742-4801, E-ISSN 1742-481X, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 655-662Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary aim was to conduct a psychometric evaluation of the Attitude towards Pressure ulcer Prevention (APuP) instrument in a Swedish context. A further aim was to describe and compare attitudes towards pressure ulcer prevention between registered nurses (RNs), assistant nurses (ANs) and student nurses (SNs). In total, 415 RNs, ANs and SNs responded to the questionnaire. In addition to descriptive and comparative statistics, confirmatory factor analyses were performed. Because of a lack of support for the instrument structure, further explorative and consecutive confirmatory tests were conducted. Overall, positive attitudes towards pressure ulcer prevention were identified for all three groups, but SNs reported lower attitude scores on three items and a higher score on one item compared to RNs and ANs. The findings indicated no support in this Swedish sample for the previously reported five-factor model of APuP. Further explorative and confirmative factor analyses indicated that a four-factor model was most interpretable: (i) Priority (five items), (ii) Competence (three items), (iii) Importance (three items) and (iv) Responsibility (two items). The five-factor solution could not be confirmed. Further research is recommended to develop a valid and reliable tool to assess nurses' attitudes towards pressure ulcer prevention working across different settings on an international level.

  • 315.
    Fläckman, Birgitta
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap. Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fagerberg, Ingegerd
    Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences, Mälardalen University, Västerås; Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Häggström, Elisabeth
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap. Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kihlgren, Annica
    Department of Health Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kihlgren, Mona
    Centre of Nursing Science, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden; Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Despite shattered expectations a willingness to care for elders remains with education and clinical supervision2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 379-389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite shattered expectations a willingness to care for elders remains with  education and clinical supervision The aim was to describe nursing home (NH) caregivers’ work experiences while receiving education and clinical supervision for 2 years. Working in elder care seems to be losing its attraction especially with organizational changes, cutbacks and changes in work place conditions. Clinical supervision has been reported to increase job satisfaction and creativity. Semi-structured interviews from caregivers working at an NH in Sweden were conducted, at the start and again at 12 and 24 months. At about 12 months the caregivers were informed of planned cutbacks. Content analysis was the method used to analyse the interviews from seven caregivers who participated throughout the entire period. Findings show that the value of a caring milieu was one category generated by the subcategories: experiences related to work activities and changes, and experiences related to relationships. The value of knowledge was the other category that was influenced by the experiences related to the different backgrounds and the experiences related to increased knowledge gained from the support through education and clinical supervision. The categories contained positive as well as negative influences on care. The initial focus on practical duties associated with the opening of the NH shifted towards caregiver activities with the elders they spoke warmly about. After 2 years the caregivers’ willingness to care continued despite their disappointment in the worsened working conditions. The main theme that resulted was: Despite shattered expectations a willingness to care for elders remained. Continued education and clinical supervision seems to be one factor behind the retained willingness. These findings demonstrate that support and caregiver involvement in educational programmes are important during times of change and when disappointments arise in the workplace.

  • 316.
    Fläckman, Birgitta
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap. Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hansebo, Görel
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Ersta Sköndal University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kihlgren, Annica
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Struggling to adapt: Caring for older persons while under threat of organizational change and termination notice : Feature2009In: Nursing Inquiry, ISSN 1320-7881, E-ISSN 1440-1800, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 82-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational changes are common in elder care today. Such changes affect caregivers, who are essential to providing good quality care. The aim of the present study was to illuminate caregivers' experiences of working in elder care while under threat of organizational change and termination notice. Qualitative content analysis was used to examine interview data from 11 caregivers. Interviews were conducted at three occasions during a two-year period. The findings show a transition in their experiences from 'having a professional identity and self-confidence', to 'being a professional in a threatening situation caused by someone else' and to 'struggling to adapt to a changed working environment as a person and a professional'. The caregivers experienced a loss of pride and satisfaction. Previous literature indicates that this may have consequences for the quality of care and that employees may be at risk of negative health effects. However, the caregivers continued to struggle, doing their best to complete their duties. The study has implications for high-level decision-makers, managers and caregivers in similar work-life situations in that it deals with factors that facilitate or impede similar transitions.

  • 317.
    Fors, Louise
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Jensinger, Sophie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Anknytning mellan föräldrar och deras prematura barn: - En litteraturstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: More premature infants survive. A secure attachment is beneficial for the child’s social and physical development.

    Aim: The aim with the study was to describe the attachment between parents and premature infant, and the importance of the nurse related to attachment. The aim was also to examine the quality of the data collection methods, in the selected articles.

    Method: The design is a descriptive literature study based on 14 articles, where half of the articles has a quantitative approach and the other half has a qualitative approach. The articles were searched and found in the databases’ PubMed and Cinahl. Five subjects’ were identified after analysis of the articles’ results. 

    Results: Parents of a newborn premature infant does not receive the same proximity, as parents of a full-term baby. The child's size and health is a limiting factor in proximity to the child with both mothers and fathers. Nurses’ at a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit has an essential role in the attachment between parents and preterm infant.

    Conclusion: A premature birth implies obstruction in attachment between infant and parents. A key element to promote attachment is that the nurse involves parents in the care of the preterm infant.

  • 318.
    Fors Styf, Karin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hylander, Irene
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Socialt stöd till ungdomar med kroniska sjukdomar2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social support is important for adults well-being, quality of life and self-esteem. The nurse should respond to the patient's care needs, knowledge of social support for young people with chronic diseases is therefore important. The purpose was to investigate who or which ones provide social support for young people with chronic diseases and what social support contributes to. A descriptiv design where used. The literature search in the database Medline via Cinahl resulted in twelwe articles. The results showed that young people with chronic diseases received support from family, friends, healthcare professionals, through technology, school and pets. Social support led to protection, quality of life, Sense of Coherence (SOC) and independence. Protection meant someone was there for them and quality of life to be like everyone else. SOC meant to get help to deal with life of their own resources and independence to fend for themselves. Social support for young people with chronic diseases is important. The nurse should know that young people need support from different groups and what it leads to. Further research about nurse's perceptions of their role with regard to support for young people would be of interest.

    Key words: Social support, young people, care, chronic diseases.

  • 319.
    Forsberg, Carin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Dagkirurgiska patienters erfarenheter gällande postoperativ information som givits av sjuksköterska/läkare: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 320.
    Forsberg, Laila
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Kron, Kristina
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Vårdpersonalens följsamhet till basala hygienrutiner och klädregler på särskilda boenden: En observationsstudie2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att beskriva i vilken grad vårdpersonalen närmast vårdtagaren på kommunens särskilda boenden visade följsamhet till basala hygienrutiner och klädregler.

    Studien genomfördes genom icke deltagande observationer efter ett fastställt observationsschema. Observationerna genomfördes på 73 vårdpersonal vid sex särskilda boenden i två skilda kommuner i Mellansverige. Datainsamlingen utfördes under perioden juni 2007 – februari 2008.

    Huvudresultatet visade att följsamheten gällande basala hygienrutiner och klädregler var bristfällig. Endast 10 av 73 observationer gällande basala hygienrutiner visade korrekt följsamhet. Lägst följsamhet sågs vid spritning av händer och användning av plastförkläde/skyddsrock.

    Gällande klädregler var följsamheten korrekt i 47 av 73 observationer. Följsamhet till kortärmad arbetsdräkt var korrekt hos 72 av 73 vårdpersonal. Det som påverkade resultatet i negativ riktning när det gällde klädregler var användandet av ringar vilket registrerades hos 17 vårdpersonal.

    Resultatet av föreliggande studie har visat på behov av insatser i form av utbildning och ökad tillgänglighet av plastförkläde/skyddsrock och desinfektionsmedel. Detta för att få en ökad följsamhet av basala hygienrutiner och klädregler hos personal vid kommunens särskilda boenden.

  • 321.
    Forsberg, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Astma-KOL-sköterskors erfarenheter av att stödja patienter med kroniskt obstruktiv lungsjukdom till tobaksavvänjning: En intervjustudie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a costly public health problem with major risks of developing complications. Smoking is the single biggest cause of COPD and a successful tobacco cessation therefore provides great health benefits. District nurse's duty is to motivate and guide patients to self-care and lifestyle changes. The purposeof this study was to elucidate the Asthma-COPD nurse’sexperience in supporting patients with COPD to tobacco cessation. MethodA study with qualitative approach and descriptive design has been made. Seven Asthma-COPD nurses who work with tobacco cessationwere interviewed through semi-structured interviews were recorded and analyzed using qualitative content analysis.The resultsshowed the importance of being responsive and create a good relationship with the patient and to avoid an accusatory approach. The patient's motivation was perceived to be the dominant factor for success. Motivational interviewing could awaken, strengthen and sustain the motivation to quit smoking. Even social support and consistency insights were reported to be major success factors. Patients experiences of shame and guilt, mental illness and loneliness was described to be impeding factors that hampered the work on tobacco cessation. Difficulty in identifying patients were adopted to correlate with poor adherence to existing procedures in force to identify, register and refer patients for asthma-COPD clinic. Human resource and time constraints contributed to the experiences of stress and de-prioritization of asthma-COPD clinic's work, which was reported to prevent effective aid to smoking cessation. The conclusionis that asthma-COPD nurses strove to follow the recommended guidelines in their work. The work was perceived as complex and was both stimulating and frustrating, and that they wanted more support from managers in the form of additional time for the specific work on tobacco cessation.

  • 322.
    Forsberg, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Olsson, Christina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Föräldrars upplevelser och behov på en neonatalavdelning2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med litteraturstudien var att beskriva föräldrars upplevelser och behov på en neonatalavdelning. Data söktes ur databaserna PubMed och Cinahl och femton artiklar inkluderades i resultatet. Resultatet visade att kommunikation och information, delaktighet och närvaro, kunskap och förståelse, tillit och respekt, stress och oro samt trygghet var de allra viktigaste kärnfrågorna gällande föräldrars behov och upplevelser. Resultatet visade att en ärlig och förtroendeingivande kommunikation är av allra största vikt för att främja en god anknytning mellan föräldrarna och barnet. Det framkom att föräldrarna önskade vara delaktiga i barnets vård och att de ville bli uppmuntrade av vårdpersonalen att delta i denna. Det framgick tydligt att de flesta föräldrar hade ett stort behov av att tillgodogöra sig kunskap om såväl anatomi och fysiologi men även rörande medicinteknik. Föräldrarna uppgav att det var betydelsefullt att känna tillit till vårdpersonalen. De poängterade även hur viktigt det var att vårdpersonalen skapade en känsla av respekt och trygghet, både i yrkesrollen och som medmänniskor. Resultatet visade att brister i en eller flera av dessa sex kärnfrågor medförde känslor av stress och oro hos föräldrarna. En slutsats som kan dras är att vårdpersonalens bemötande och förmåga att engagera föräldrarna blir direkt avgörande för familjens totala helhetsupplevelse.

  • 323.
    Forsberg, Markus
    et al.
    Department of Anaesthesia, Gävle Sjukhus, Gävle, Sweden.
    Björn, Catrine
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Centre for Research & Development, Gävleborg, Gävle, Sweden.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Annika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Nurse anesthetists' reflections on caring for patients with previous substance dependence: Balancing between professionalism and preconceptions2018In: Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing, ISSN 1089-9472, E-ISSN 1532-8473, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 69-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The study aim was to describe nurse anaesthetists’ reflections on provision of perioperative care to patients with previous substance dependence.

    Design

    A qualitative approach with a descriptive design.

    Methods

    Semi-structured interviews based on clinical vignettes were conducted with ten nurse anaesthetists.

    Findings

    The perioperative care provided to patients with previous substance dependence was perceived as balancing between professionalism and preconceptions for this specific patient group. The nurse anaesthetists felt that anesthetizing this group of patients constituted an anaesthesiological challenge with regard to knowledge, experience and time. However, the nurses also had feelings of distrust and uncertainty due to lack of knowledge.

    Conclusion

    The nurse anaesthetists strove to uphold the principle that patients who are/have been substance dependent have the same right to adequate treatment and care as all patients. If guidelines were developed for this patient group, care could be made safer and nurses’ sense of uncertainty minimized.

     

  • 324.
    Forsblom, Elin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Klockerwold Ljungström, Madelene
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterkors uppleverlser av att bedriva palliativ vård i ordinärt boende2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     

     

    Aim. The aim of the study was to describe how nurses in home care experience to pursue palliative care in ordinary housing. Methods. The study had a descriptive design with qualitative approach and was carried out through semi-structured interviews with 14 nurses in home health care from two medium-sized Swedish municipalities. The material was analyzed with manifest and latent content analysis. Findings. The underlying theme that emerged in the study was: Working with palliative care in the patient´s own homes is positive but challenging. Informants describe among other things that they perceived palliative home care as meaningful and that relatives have a central role in the palliative home care since they are close to the patient around the clock. The stress that emerges from the heavy work load and the long geographic distances are described as strenuous and to affect the care in a negative way. Informants describe the home environment as challenging as it is often not adapted for care and the collaboration with the palliative team is described to be experienced as both positive and negative. Conclusion.The nurses in the study experienced working with palliative home care as positive but challenging. By clarifying the most challenging parts of the work such as stress, the home environments configuration and that the consultant team is not available for contact around the clock, can enhance the understanding for which areas of improvement there is in the area of ​​palliative home care. It is also of importance to illuminate the parts that the nurses experienced as positive, to thereby maintaining and clarifying those parts within the work which contributes to enhance the nurses work satisfaction.

     

    Keyword: experience, home care, nurse, palliative care

  • 325.
    Forslin, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Gunnarsson, Karolina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av att vårda vuxna patienter i livets slutskede inom slutenvården: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Approximately 15,000 people die in different hospital wards in Sweden each year. As a nurse, you will come in contact with and meet with these patients in the final stages of their lives. It is important as a nurse to be prepared for this care to be able to provide professional treatment and the best possible care.

    Aim

    The purpose of this study was to describe nurses' experiences of caring for adult palliative patients in hospital wards and to investigate the included articles data collection method.

    Method

    A descriptive literature study with qualitative articles. Articles have been searched in Medline and CINAHL databases and by manual search. The final number of included articles was 11. The articles were then reviewed by both authors to ensure that they correspond to the purpose of the current study.

    Results

    The result of the reviewed articles came to be highlighted in the results section of the current study and described under three mainheadings. These showed the importance of work experience among nurses that they would feel comfortable in their work situation. How much time factor affected the quality care and the emotions associated with the nurses caring for patients in the final stages of life. The reviewed articles datacollection method consisted of semi-structured interviews and unstructured interviews.

    Conclusion

    Nurses experience different feelings in this caring, both positive and negative. Further more, the nurse struggling to find enough time to and to allocate time between patients to match prevailing conditions to create a good end of life care for these patients. In this work, nurses feel that they required experience to manage the care of patients in the final stages of life. The nursing education is perceived to not adequately prepare nurses for this care.

  • 326.
    Forsström, Diana
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    Wigzell, Ingeborg
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    HBTQ-personers erfarenheter av bemötande i hälso- och sjukvården2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Homo-, bi-, trans- och queerpersoner (HBTQ-personer) är en grupp människor som inte är heterosexuella eller identifierar sig med det kön de fötts med. HBTQ-personer är således människor som har en sexuell läggning eller könsidentitet annat än heteronormen. Denna norm beskriver att utgångspunkten för människors sexualitet och könsidentitet är att alla förväntas vara heterosexuella. Det är konstaterat att HBTQ-personer i större omfattning riskerar att drabbas av ohälsa. Att uppmärksamma HBTQ-personers erfarenheter inom hälso-och sjukvården är viktigt för att se till att kunskapen, medvetenheten och slutligen omvårdnaden av HBTQ-personer blir bättre. Syfte: Syftet med litteraturstudien var att beskriva HBTQ-personers erfarenheter av bemötande i hälso-och sjukvården. Metod: Litteraturstudie med beskrivande design. Litteraturstudien omfattar 11 artiklar om HBTQ-personers erfarenheter av bemötande i hälso- och sjukvården. Av dessa använde en mixed method, av resterande hade åtta en kvalitativ ansats och två hade en kvantitativ ansats. Huvudresultat: Resultatet av föreliggande litteraturstudie visade att HBTQ-personer har både positiva och negativa erfarenheter kring sjukvårdspersonalens bemötande, kunskap och förståelse samt kommunikation. Slutsats: I föreliggande litteraturstudie framkom det att HBTQ-personer har både positiva och negativa erfarenheter av bemötande inom hälso-och sjukvården. En ökad kunskap och medvetenheten hos sjuksköterskor och sjukvårdspersonal behövs kring HBTQ-frågor, för att HBTQ-personer ska uppleva ett positivt bemötande.

  • 327.
    Fransson, Katarina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Distriktssköterskors reflektioner och erfarenheter av det hälsofrämjande arbetet i möten med kvinnor från andra kulturer: En intervjustudie2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 328.
    Franzén, Sofie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Ohlsson, Spire
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Upplevelser av att leva med inflammatorisk tarmsjukdom (IBD): En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) includes the diseases Ulcerative Colitis and Morbus Crohn. Environmental factors and changing diets are thought to be reasons for IBD cases has increased in the US and Western Europe in a short time. It is in Sweden about 500 people affected of Morbus Crohn every year and Ulcerative colitis affects about 900 people per year. The disease has physical symptoms such as diarrhea, pain and weight loss, but also affects an individual psychosocial. Aim: The aim was to describe people's experiences of living with inflammatory bowel disease, and to present the study group as described in the included articles. Methods: This study is a descriptive literature study and 11 qualitative articles were used. PubMed and Cinahl were used to search for articles. Keywords used were: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Qualitative, Everyday Life and Lived Experiences. Main results: IBD is a chronic disease. Physical symptoms such as nausea, pain and fatigue which is also seen as a mental symptoms. The disease was found to influence the individual's daily life, eating habits, family life, and social relationships. All included articles presented the study group. Conclusion: IBD are becoming more common in the world. The symptoms are both physical and psychosocial and affects the afflicted person everyday life, social life and diet. Nurses face a big challenge in being able to confronting and care for these patients, since each individual has different perceptions of the same diagnosis.

  • 329.
    Fredholm, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sköld, Helene
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av att möta personer med missbrukssyndrom samt sjuksköterskans attityder i vårdmötet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background Substance-use disorder is common in society and involves harmful use of different substances, for example. alcohol and drugs. The use is in progress despite adverse consequences for the person's life situation and increases the risk of unstable health. Which leads to an increased need for healthcare. Research has shown that people with substance-use disorder experience exclusion, stigma and shame in contact with healthcare  

    Aim To describe nursing experience of meeting people with substance-use disorder and the nurse's attitudes in the healthcare meeting, as well as describing the survey articles of the included articles.  

    Method A descriptive literature study. Ten items are included in the result. Article search was made in the PubMed and Cinahl databases. Discussion was conducted between the authors to compile an objective result.  

    Results Nurses had different opinions about if substance-use disorder were a disease or not. Persons with substance-use disorder were considered irresponsible for their health status according to nurses. Nurses described how they experienced the patient group as erratic and manipulative and that caused increased workload. Furthermore, a sense of frustration arose over their own missile and the uncertainty surrounding the patient group. Requests for education were expressed. According to the nurses, patience and support were important parts of care and to not reflect their own opinion.  

    Conclusion Depending on whether nurses saw the substance-use disorder as a state of illness or as self-inflicted, positive or negative attitudes and experiences have emerged. Knowledge and education in substance-use disorder is necessary to maintain an ethical approach within the nurse's profession.

  • 330.
    Fredin, Karin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Holmqvist, Kristin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kvinnor som överlevt bröstcancer–erfarenheter och behov av socialt stöd från vården: En litteraturstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe women, from different cultures, experiences and needs of social care support after surviving their breast cancer. The aim was also to do a quality review of the methodological aspect selection sampling in the selected and reviewed articles.

    Method: A literature review with descriptive design.

    Result:  The result of this literature review shows that, within informationsupport, the women experience a lack of information regarding physical and mental health and a lack of information from the doctor about the side effects, guidelines, and lymphedema. It turned out that the women had a need for better and more information, separated information conversations with their health professionals and also the correct adapted information at the right time. Within the emotional support and valuation support the results show that women had experiences of language barriers, unmet relationship with physicians with a lack of holistic approach. The women were in need of an assigned contact-person and rehabilitation team, available healthcare and extra support in both the physical and psychological self-care, individual health care interventions. Mostly of the included articles had purposive samples.

    Conclusion: The literature review indicatesdeficiencies in the aftercare for women survivors of breast cancer and also highlights women's need for social support from health care. The women stated they need more and better information, that health professionals do not pay attention to their mental health enough and that careshould be based on a holistic approach to enable an improvement after treatment.

  • 331.
    Fredriksson, Elin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Olsson, Hanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av samarbetet med läkare2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 332.
    Freiman, Agneta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Distriktssköterskors erfarenheter av fysiskt, psykiskt och sexuellt våld samt omsorgssvikt mot äldre personer över 65 år: En intervjustudie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research shows that the majority of abuse of older people over 65 occurs within the family but can also occurs in institutions for the elderly and other care facilities. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe nurses' experiences of physical, psychological and sexual violence, and neglect of the elderly people above 65 years of their close relationships in the ordinary or special accommodation. Method: The study had a descriptive design qualitative approach and was carried out through semi-structured interviews with eight district nurses working in municipal home care. The material was analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results: The analysis process resulted in six categories: Presence of physical violence hidden by the involved Psychological violence in the form of insults and threats Limited experience of sexual violence Neglect in the form of too little, too much or no care Emotionally affected by violent situations Good communication and support from employees but lack of support in the guidelines. Conclusion: The conclusion of this study is that the district nurses working in home health care come into contact with abused older people and that violence against these occur when the district nurse is the patient's home and when they are not there. Violence carried out can be physical, psychological, sexual or neglect and need for further research on the topic of violence in close relationships among the elderly is urgent.

  • 333.
    Friberg, Caroline
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Strandberg, Josefine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kvinnors upplevelser av klimakteriet: - en beskrivande litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim – The purpose of this study was to describe women's experiences of menopause and to highlight one methodological aspect.

    Method – A descriptive literature study. 11 articles on women's experiences of menopause are compiled in this study. A review of the sampling and presentation of eventual drop-outs has been occurred. The articles were found in PubMed and Cinahl and a manual search has also been done.

    Main results - The experiences of menopause varies among individuals. Women's symptoms associated with menopause varied both in intensity and in frequency. Women also dealt with the symptoms in different ways. Some felt that it affected their everyday life, while others experienced that the climacteric phase was easy to pass.

    Conclusion - Menopause is a natural process that usually coinciding with other changes in life, therefore it was not rare that women experienced some form of identity crisis. During the climacteric phase it is advantageous for women to apply their coping strategies. A recurring dilemma was the demand of increased knowledge related to women's stories. The women desired ambient responsiveness and better support from healthcare during menopause. A large proportion of middle-aged women will somehow be in contact with health services. This means that general nurses also will meet these women.

  • 334.
    Friberg, Stina
    et al.
    Falu Lasarett, Infektionskliniken.
    Jansson, Josefine
    Levia hälsovård, Rättvik.
    Westergren, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Lindberg, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Uppsala universitet.
    Grundutbildade sjuksköterskors upplevelse att börja arbeta på en barnavdelning2016In: Nordisk sygeplejeforskning, ISSN 1892-2678, E-ISSN 1892-2686, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 20-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Basic trained nurses experience to start working on a children’s ward

    The aim of the study was to describe nurses trained to a basic level experience of starting work on a children's ward. A qualitative study has been conducted with a purposively drawn sample of informants. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight basic trained nurses. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The results showed that respondents felt that the pediatrics course is not preparing for the professional work with children. Most felt that it was through real situations in the workplace that they gained necessary knowledge. Furthermore, it was found that only a few were satisfied with the induction. Spending time with many different supervisors was an important factor for experiencing dissatisfaction with the induction. Good support was received from employees; however the support of the organization was poor. Conclusion: Today's undergraduate education in nursing does not include enough pediatrics to prepare students for professional work with children and adolescents. Actions at individual and workplace levels are needed to increase knowledge of the basic trained nurse. Continuity and support during the induction is important for newly employed nurses to feel competent in their work.

  • 335.
    Frisegård, Matilda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans preventiva omvårdnadsåtgärder för patienter med trycksår i samband med sjukhusvistelse: En litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: As early as the 1500s in France the surgeon Ambroise Pare treated patients with what we today call pressure ulcers. Pressure ulcers are common in hospitalized patients and affect both the patients’ quality of life and contribute to high costs for society.

    Aim: To describe the nurses preventive care measures for pressure ulcer patients during hospital stays and to describe what data-collection methods chosen articles have used.

    Method: A literature review with descriptive design based on 12 scientific articles with either a qualitative and/or quantitative approach. The search for articles occurred in the databases Cinahl and PubMed.

    Result: Five categories were identified; inspection and skin assessment, documentation and education, support surfaces, repositioning and the importance of nutrition. The nurse responsibility is to inspect and assess the skin of patients as patients, especially the elderly, have difficulty in self-detect pressure ulcers. In order to prevent the occurrence of pressure ulcers requires good documentation systems and wider staff education regarding prevention measures and concrete guidelines in pressure ulcer prevention. Changing position of bedridden patients every three hours with 30-degrees is a good pressure ulcer prevention. Giving supplements for bedridden patients regardless of whether they already are malnourished or not has a positive impact in the development of pressure ulcers. It has also been shown to be a direct link between malnourished patients and the occurrence of pressure ulcers.

    Conclusion: To reduce the occurrence of pressure ulcers nurses should work from categories such as: inspection and skin assessment, documentation and education, support surfaces, repositioning and the importance of nutrition. Awareness of pressure ulcers and lack of time for nursing care should also be improved.

  • 336.
    Frykman, Madeleine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Wikström, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av att arbeta på akutmottagning: litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Emergency department is a part of the hospital where patients comes with a critical condition and unexpected ilness for a first judgment. The healthcare provided is intense and demanding of the nurses.

    Aim: The aim of the study was to describe the nurses experiences of working in the emergency department. Our purpose is also to describe the study participants in the selected studies.

    Methods: The present literature review has a decpriptive design. PubMed was used and 15 articles were included, eight had a qualitative approach and seven had a quantitative. The limits that were used in the data collection was years, language and access for the university of Gävle. The data were analysed by color-coding and reading and the result is presented by four themes.

    Main Results: It was revealed the emergency department nurses were affected by the experience of various forms of stress. The patient population is constantly increasing, which concerned the nurses, which in turn led to increased workload. The need of education and more resources of nurses is big, and the work enviroment is demanding with a high patient flow, violence and hectic days. In the selected articles there was in total 1492 participants.

    Conclusion: The experience of stress affected the nurses emotionally and physically, which also affected the social life. The emergency department is unorganized with a high patientflow that affects the work enviroment and the patient safety. The high patient flow contributed also to a long waiting time which increased the risk of violence. More resources of nurses and education is needed

  • 337.
    Frykman, Martina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Andersson, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Färdigheter och förutsättningar för sjuksköterskor i mötet med patienter med psykisk ohälsa: En litteraturstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    The definition of mental illness is characterized by a lack of management regarding mood, thoughts or behavior. It is difficult for the person to cope with everyday duties as well as relationships with other people.

    The study revealed that the society should take action to prevent social isolation for those with mental illness. The central concepts of care theory is love, learning and well-being, where nurses' conditions and actions create results in the patient.

    Aim:

    Describe skills and prerequisites nurses need at the meeting of patients with mental illness. A further aim was to examine the ethical considerations included studies made use of.

    Method:

    A descriptive literature study

    Main result:

    Nurses feel they do not have skills regarding mental illness. When nurses care for patients with mental illness are often formed stigmatizations regarding these patient groups and care will suffer. That creates difficulties in dealing with situations where patients' mental health problems are preventing optimal care efforts. The nurses felt that the general nursing care was better if the right knowledge and training in mental health raised further.

    Conclusion:

    Nurses need increased knowledge and training regarding mental illness in order to have skills and opportunities.

  • 338.
    Fröjd, Camilla
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Psychosocial Oncology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lampic, Claudia
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Larsson, Gunnel
    Department of Medical Sciences, Section of Endocrine Oncology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Birgegård, Gunnar
    Department of Medical Sciences, Section of Haematology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    von Essen, Louise
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Psychosocial Oncology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Patient attitudes, behaviours, and other factors considered by doctors when estimating cancer patients' anxiety and desire for information2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 523-529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to describe the patient attitudes, behaviours, and other factors, considered by doctors when estimating cancer patients' worry about how the disease may develop and the desire for information about the disease and its treatment. Data was gathered through semi-structured interviews with 19 doctors regarding 29 patients within endocrine oncology and haematology care, and the data were analysed by content analysis. The doctors considered the patients' verbal expressions, verbal behaviours, questions, body language, and facial expressions together with their own professional knowledge and experience, when estimating the patients' worry and desire for information. The doctors also considered contextual factors, patients' demographical factors, and medical situation when estimating the patients' worry, and also when estimating the patients' desire for information. The findings illustrate that estimating patients' worry and desire for information is a multifaceted and complex task, and that doctors consider not only the patients' verbal and nonverbal cues, but also factors, such as their own professional knowledge and experience, contextual factors, and patients' demographical variables. The findings should be communicated to doctors who meet cancer patients in medical consultations in order to illuminate the complexity of the medical consultation. The awareness of potentially important patient cues and other factors may aid doctors in their efforts to gain insight about their patients' emotions and informational needs.

  • 339.
    Fröjd, Camilla
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Psyc hosocial oncology, Uppsala Un iversity, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Larsson, Gunnel
    Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala Un iversity, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lampic, Claudia
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap. Department of Public Health and Caring Sc iences, Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    von Essen, Louise
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Psyc hosocial oncology, Uppsala Un iversity, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Health related quality of life and psychosocial function among patients with carcinoid tumours: a longitudinal, prospective, and comparative study2007In: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, ISSN 1477-7525, E-ISSN 1477-7525, Vol. 5, article id 18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim was to investigate HRQoL and psychosocial function among patients with carcinoid tumours, longitudinally and prospectively, and to compare HRQoL among patients with carcinoid tumours to that of the Swedish general population. The aim was also to investigate the prevalence of distress during the first year after diagnosis. Methods: At four assessments during the first year after diagnosis, HRQoL was measured by the EORTC QLQ-C30 3.0, anxiety and depression by the HADS, and prevalence, and worst aspects of distress by an interview guide. ANOVA was performed in order to study changes over time with regard to HRQoL, anxiety and depression. Comparisons regarding HRQoL between patients and the Swedish population were made by the use of one-sample t-tests and changes over time regarding the prevalence of distress was investigated by means of Cochran's Q. Results: High levelsof physical-, emotional-, cognitive-, and social function and somewhat lower levels of role function and global quality of life were reported at all assessments. Role- and emotional function increased over time. Patients reported lower role function and global quality of life and more problems with fatigue and diarrhoea than the Swedish general population, at all assessments. Fatigue, limitations to work and pursue daily activities, and worry that the illness will get worse were among the most prevalent aspects at all assessments. At all assessments the majority reported worrying about the family's situation, the ability to care for the family, and worrying before the check-up. Conclusion: It is concluded that HRQoL and psychosocial function among patients with carcinoid tumours remains stable during the first year, that the patients report a lower HRQoL than the Swedish general population, and that a majority of the patients report a number of aspects of emotional distress. In the clinical care, it should be considered that the majority of patients report not only fatigue and diarrhoea but also worries about their prognosis, their families, tests, and examinations. Efforts to reduce these worries should be made.

  • 340.
    Färdigs, Desirée
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Johansson, Matilda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Personers upplevelser av livskvalité och det dagliga livet efter att ha överlevt hjärtstopp: En beskrivande litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Under 2016 rapporterades 7938 fall i Sverige där personer drabbats av hjärtstopp, varav 1317 personer överlevde. Syrebristen som uppstår vid ett hjärtstopp kan orsaka skador på kroppen efter endast några minuter, därför är det av vikt att se hur dessa personer upplever livskvaliteten och det dagliga livet.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att beskriva personers upplevelser av livskvalité och det dagliga livet efter att ha överlevt hjärtstopp, samt vilka undersökningsgrupper som använts i artiklarna.

    Metod: Designen var en beskrivande litteraturstudie som byggde på 14 vetenskapliga artiklar varav fem av kvalitativ ansats och nio av kvantitativ ansats. Artiklarna söktes fram i databasen Medline via PubMed.

    Huvudesultat: Resultatet baseras på 1566 stycken deltagare. Fysiska och psykiska begränsningar förekom och kunde påverkade deltagarnas dagliga liv. Gällande livskvalitén kunde den upplevas olika, även om de flesta upplevde bra livskvalité efter hjärtstoppet. Även deltagarnas sociala liv påverkades och den förändrade livssituationen kunde bli en utmaning. Detta gjorde att stödgrupper kunde vara bra för att hantera det dagliga livet.

    Slutsats: Efter ett hjärtstopp upplevdes livskvalitén hos deltagarna olika. Fysiska, psykiska och sociala begränsningar kunde förekomma vilket kunde ha negativ betydelse för livskvalitén och upplevas som en utmaning i det dagliga livet. Det kan därför vara av vikt för sjuksköterskan att redan vid omvårdnaden av patienten på sjukhus informera och stödja patienten i de förändringar som efter utskrivning kan förekomma, samt att efter utskrivning ge fortsatt stöd till patienterna för att underlätta återhämtningen i det dagliga livet.

  • 341.
    Färlin, Charlotte
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Norman, Maria
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Hur kvinnor med bröstcancer skattar sitt optimistiska och pessimistiska personlighetsdrag före och efter strålbehandling - en studie om stabilitet2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to evaluate if the optimistic/pessimistic trait among women with breast cancer are changed by undergoing radiation treatment. The study had a comparative design and the sample was selected through convenience sampling. The sample consisted of 67 women in the age 30 to 86 years with treatable breast cancer. The optimistic trait was estimated before and after the radiation treatment by means of a validated scale, LOT-R. The questionnaire is a ten-item self report measure, responded to on a scale of five (0="Strongly disagree", …, 4="Strongly agree"). The points were summarized to get a total, an “optimistic score” (0-24 points). Four categories were created to interpret the result: major pessimist (0-6 points), small pessimist (7-12 points), small optimist (13-18 points) and major optimist (19-24 points). A majority of the women was in the category “small optimist” both before and after the treatment. The median score was 17 points before the radiation treatment, and 18 points after the treatment. The estimation before as well as after the radiation treatment was compared by means of Wilcoxon’s signed ranked test. The result showed no significant difference between the estimations before and after the radiation treatment (p=0.141; Z=-1.471). The main result of the study was that the optimistic trait is stable among women with treatable breast cancer, and does not change by undergoing radiation treatment.

  • 342.
    Färlin, Lena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Jonsson, Hannah
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hur anhörigvårdare till personer med Huntingtons sjukdom upplever sin livssituation: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Huntington’s disease (HD) is a neurologic disease that’s genetic hereditary and can affect both women and men equally. The disease infect nerve cells in the brain that controls muscle regulation, leading to involuntary movements. Cognitive loss is another symptom, as well as influenced speech and breathing. HD is a progressive disease and is divided into various phases. In the last phase the victim is completely dependent on others. The disease is called a relative’s disease because the relative often takes the care role to the person with HD.

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to describe how family caregivers to persons with Huntington’s disease experience their situation in life. Furthermore to describe the included scientific articles study group.

    Method: A descriptive literature study based on ten scientific articles with qualitative approach. The databases used for the literature research were Cinahl and PsycINFO.

    Main results: Family carers of people with Huntington's disease described an emotional stress that often led to depression and isolation. Their lives were sidelined while caring occupied most of their time and they often felt alone in their situation. The fear of being affected themselves by the disease was imminent. Incomprehension and ignorance were common, both from the medical staff and the surroundings. Obtaining support from family, friends and support groups were significant and desirable.

    Conclusion:  Family carers experienced an emotional strain while caring for their family member with Huntington's disease. Nurses should learn from their experiences to improve nursing care and treatment against family carers.

  • 343.
    Gardulf, Ann
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; The Japanese Red Cross Institute for Humanitarian Studies, Tokyo, Japan.
    Nilsson, Jan
    The Japanese Red Cross Institute for Humanitarian Studies, Tokyo, Japan; Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Florin, Jan
    Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Leksell, Janeth
    Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden; Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lepp, Margret
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Østfold University College, Halden, Norway.
    Lindholm, Christina
    Sophiahemmet University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nordström, Gun
    Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden; Hedmark University College, Hedmark, Norway.
    Theander, Kersti
    Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden; County Council of Värmland, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Wilde-Larsson, Bodil
    Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden; Hedmark University College, Hedmark, Norway.
    Carlsson, Marianne
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Johansson, Eva
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The Nurse Professional Competence (NPC) Scale: Self-reported competence among nursing students on the point of graduation2016In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 36, p. 165-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: International organisations, e.g. WHO, stress the importance of competent registered nurses (RN) for the safety and quality of healthcare systems. Low competence among RNs has been shown to increase the morbidity and mortality of inpatients.

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate self-reported competence among nursing students on the point of graduation (NSPGs), using the Nurse Professional Competence (NPC) Scale, and to relate the findings to background factors.

    METHODS AND PARTICIPANTS: The NPC Scale consists of 88 items within eight competence areas (CAs) and two overarching themes. Questions about socio-economic background and perceived overall quality of the degree programme were added. In total, 1086 NSPGs (mean age, 28.1 [20-56]years, 87.3% women) from 11 universities/university colleges participated.

    RESULTS: NSPGs reported significantly higher scores for Theme I "Patient-Related Nursing" than for Theme II "Organisation and Development of Nursing Care". Younger NSPGs (20-27years) reported significantly higher scores for the CAs "Medical and Technical Care" and "Documentation and Information Technology". Female NSPGs scored significantly higher for "Value-Based Nursing". Those who had taken the nursing care programme at upper secondary school before the Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) programme scored significantly higher on "Nursing Care", "Medical and Technical Care", "Teaching/Learning and Support", "Legislation in Nursing and Safety Planning" and on Theme I. Working extra paid hours in healthcare alongside the BSN programme contributed to significantly higher self-reported scores for four CAs and both themes. Clinical courses within the BSN programme contributed to perceived competence to a significantly higher degree than theoretical courses (93.2% vs 87.5% of NSPGs).

    SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION: Mean scores reported by NSPGs were highest for the four CAs connected with patient-related nursing and lowest for CAs relating to organisation and development of nursing care. We conclude that the NPC Scale can be used to identify and measure aspects of self-reported competence among NSPGs.

  • 344.
    Gavanlooi, Sima
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Transkulturell omvårdnad2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syftet med studien var att beskriva och belysa vilka faktorer som är av betydelse i sjuksköterskans omvårdnad och möte med patient med en annan kulturell bakgrund än sjuksköterskans egen kultur. Utifrån detta syfte var det främst följande frågor som lyftes fram: Vilka faktorer kunde ha betydelse i mötet mellan vårdpersonal och patient med annan kulturell bakgrund än vårdpersonalen egen kultur? Hur kan vårdpersonalen bemöta en patient med en annan kulturell bakgrund än vårdpersonalen egen kultur, för att denne skall känna sig respekterad och trygg?

    Metoden bestod i att aktivt söka efter vetenskapliga artiklar i databasen Academic Search Elite. 25 artiklar valdes ut.

    Resultatet visade att det är svårt att utforma en modell eller en riktlinje som kan beskriva hur mötet med patienter med annan kulturell bakgrund bör ske. Det finns olika faktorer som är beroende av varandras samverkan och utgör varandras förutsättningar. Varje individ är unik med egna värderingar, uppfattningar och sin kulturella bakgrund. Individen är inte en slav under sina normer och traditioner. Kultur är en process som utvecklas och förändras kontinuerligt. En sjuksköterska bör ha en holistisk människosyn och se patienten utifrån ett helhetsperspektiv.

  • 345.
    Ghawi, Birgitte
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Handledning inom verksamhetsförlagd utbildning från sjuksköterskans synvinkel: en litteraturstudie2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to describe the factors that may affect nurses' ability in supervision of  nursing students during their clinical training. Nurse´s precepts students in daily clinical practice. The nurse should be able to manage their work as well as being preceptor for students. The study is a literature review with a descriptive design in which fourteen articles were reviewed. The results showed that in ten of the fourteen articles negative factors were described as high workload and insufficient time allocated for learning and feedback to the student in the clinical environment. Positive factors were described as received support from colleagues and from the School of Nursing. It appeared in eleven articles that factors such as higher scientific education and a training in supervision facilitated the preceptoring nurses  in their task to give students a stimulating clinical practice. In six of the fourteen articles results showed a need for the School of Nursing to have a good coordination with the preceptor and to provide information on students' knowledge and goals of the clinical training.

  • 346.
    Gholamhassani, Farzaneh
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Distriktssköterskors erfarenheter och reflektioner av följsamhet till livsstilsrekommendationer bland patienter med typ 2 diabetes: En intervjustudie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Diabetes type 2 is a chronic disease with rising prevalence worldwide. The implementation of lifestyle changes is an important part of diabetes treatment. Nurses in primary care have a central role to support and guide diabetics for starting and retaining lifestyle changes to prevent later diabetes complications. Aim: The purpose of this study was to describe the primer care nurse’s experiences regarding the type 2 diabetes patients’ compliance to their advice regarding lifestyle changes. The aim was also to describe the primary care nurse’s experiences and reflections of contributing and hindering factors of compliance. Method: A descriptive design with a qualitative approach is used in this study. Eight diabetes nurses from seven health centers were interviewed. Semi-structured interviews conducted and data analyzed by qualitative content analysis method. Results: The emerged theme from the result was that compliance varies and is affected by different influential factors. Factors such as patients’ motivation and understanding of illness, other simultaneous physical and mental disorders, language difficulties and cultural differences have either contributing or hindering effects on compliance. Primary care nurses reported that they used different strategies, such as justifying the small changes at the beginning, establishing of mutual communication and confirmative relationship and give personalized lifestyle advice to improve patient compliance. According to interviews the items that could be improved are arrangements for group therapy sessions, active involvement of the family members in diabetes care, and assigning more resources to approach the desired goals. Conclusion: Compliance to lifestyle advice is a variable affected positively or negatively by various factors such as the individual characteristic, motivation, self-awareness, language difficulties and cultural differences. Diabetes nurses use strategies which improve compliance of diabetics to their lifestyle advice. Group Training, the involvement of the family and access to more resources are areas that need to be developed.

  • 347.
    Gillström, Sara
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Ekbo, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Livskvalitet hos stomiopererade patienter: En litteraturstudie2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The aim of this literature review was to describe the quality of life in stoma patients after stomasurgery. Different combinations of the keywords “stoma”, “Quality of Life”, “stomasurgery” were used when searching in the databases Medline, Cinahl, Academic Search Elite and PubMed. A total of nineteen articles were used in the result. Fifteen studies had comparing design and four studies had describing design. Eighteen studies used questionnaires and one study used interviews for data collecting. Five studies did not concern the instruments' validity or reliability, fourteen studies referred to previously performed reliability's/validity tests. The sample sizes varied from 7 to 704 patients. Long-term quality of life in stoma patients shows contradictory results. Four studies showed that a brook uniting reservoir/pouch more or less did not change the quality of life. But that the body perception became better. One study showed that men´s Quality of Life was not effected by having a stoma, while women were effected to a greater extent, which led to a changed lifestyle and self-image among the women. Three studies showed that patients that are fecal incontinent has better social quality of life if they undergo stomasurgery. Four studies showed that patients with colon or rectal cancer and stoma had poorer quality of life than non-stoma cancer patients. Four studies showed that more therapy such as colostomy irrigation and relaxation gives better quality of life.

    Keywords; “Quality of Life”, “stoma” and “stomasurgery”

  • 348.
    Glad, Mathias
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Asplund, Helene
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Oro och nedstämdhet hos heterosexuella par som genomgår behandling med ägg- eller spermiedonation2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Every year children all over the world are born as a result of gamete donation. In Sweden oocyte donation has been legally used since 2003 and sperm donation has been regulated in law since 1984. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent of anxiety and depression in couples going through treatments with oocyte- or sperm donation. Participants of the study were men and women who received treatment with oocyte- and sperm donation at one of the seven fertility centers in Sweden. A total of 348 men and women answered two questioners, the first one at the beginning of the treatment and the second one around 10 weeks after the end of the treatment. The drop-out rate was 16 percent. Data collection was made with the HADS – Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale. When the data had been statistically processed the results showed following significant differences: 1.The women reported a higher degree of anxiety than the men before as well as after the treatment and a higher degree of depression after the treatment. 2. The extent of depression was higher among those women and men who didn´t become pregnant compared to those who did. 3. The women who didn´t become pregnant were more anxious after failed treatment than the women who became pregnant. The conclusion is that women who receive treatment with oocyte- or sperm donation are more anxious and depressed than their partners. The feelings are temporary and seem to decrease when the treatment results in pregnancy.

  • 349.
    Gonzalez, Pernilla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Man, Loretta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hur sjuksköterskan motiverar vuxna som lider av övervikt eller fetma till livsstilsförändring: en litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Övervikt och fetma är ett växande problem i världen. I dagens samhälle är lättillgängligheten till snabbmat en av de bidragande orsakerna till detta problem.

    Syfte: Att undersöka hur sjuksköterskan motiverar vuxna som lider av övervikt eller fetma till livsstilsförändring samt granska vilka datainsamlingsmetoder som använts.

    Metod: Detta är en beskrivande litteraturstudie. Resultatet baseras på tio vetenskapliga artiklar med både kvalitativ och kvantitativ ansats.

    Huvudresultat: För att kunna motivera patienter till livsstilsförändringar var det viktigt att se individen som helhet för att kunna få ut det bästa resultatet. Att använda sig av olika redskap och tekniker var ett bra sätt för att nå ut till olika grupper. Det fanns olika tillvägagångssätt för att få till en förändring och för att veta vilket sätt som passade bäst var det viktigt att först lära känna patienten som skulle göra förändringen. Att ha en bra kommunikation och att använda sig av rätt ord var en viktig del av processen i att motivera. Att använda sig av hjälpmedel vid kommunikationen med patienter såsom email och textmeddelanden, och att ge information om kosthållning kan leda till större viktnedgång.

    Slutsats: För att sjuksköterskor ska kunna motivera patienter som lider av övervikt eller fetma till en livsstilsförändring och känna sig säkrare i sin roll behöver de mer utbildning inom motiverande samtal.

  • 350.
    Gotthold, Gunilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Alternativa behandlingsmetoder för kvinnor med tidiga klimakteriebesvär.En litteraturstudie2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe complementary therapies for treating early climacteric complaints, around menopause. The study was conducted as a literature review with a descriptive design, where the author examined twenty scientific articles. The result shows five complementary therapies, acupuncture, yoga, physical activity, herbal medicines and phytoestrogens. Both acupuncture and yoga significantly reduced hot flushes and night sweats, they also improved subjective sleep quality and quality of life. Increased physical activity made women report fewer physical and psychological symptoms attributed to menopause and improved general well-being, but it had no effect on vasomotor symptoms. When herbal medicines and phytoestrogens have been compared with placebo, they all showed a similar small relief of hot flushes and night sweats and improvement in quality of life. None of the complementary therapies showed effect on vaginal tracts and did not improve urogenital symptoms. The conclusion from this literature review is that some complementary therapies show improvement in the early menopausal symptoms and quality of life, but some treatments are not more powerful than placebo. Further research, with larger randomized controlled studies are necessary, both to see the effect of the currently accessible alternative treatments, but also to examine how women perceive the impact.

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