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  • 301.
    Ekemba, Chinedu
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Emurla, Emin Ali
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Motivating Factors Influencing Consumers’ Brand Preferences for mobile phones: University of Gavle Students.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Motivating factors influencing consumers’ Brand preferences for mobile phones: University of Gavle students

    Level: Final assignment for Master degree in Business Administration (MBA)

    Authors: Chinedu Ekemba and Emurla Emin Ali

    Supervisor: Professor Ehsanul Huda Chowdhury

    Examiner: Professor Maria Fregidou-Malama

    Date: 2017- June

    Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the motivating factors that influence University Gavle students to prefer a particular Mobile phone brand.

    Method: A qualitative study is carried out based on primary data; the primary data was collected through semi-structured interview with twenty of University of Gavle Students by the use of face to face interview.

    Result & Conclusion: The study finds out that, the role of word of mouth as extrinsic factors serves as the highest motivating factor, while prestige serves as intrinsic factors of motivation. Thus, word of mouth and quality are the highest motivating factors that influence University of Gavle students to prefer a particular mobile phone brand. This finding of this research will help mobile phone marketers and managers to develop strategy on how to capture Swedish consumers to prefer their companies brand products.

    Suggestion for future research: Future research could be done by considering different or more widely target groups instead of students of University of Gavle. Different perspectives can be combined in future research thus, further research can be conducted by more broadly with a variety of age groups and in a wider area.

    Also, further research could include comparison between mobile phone brand types and may consider different type of products. This will give understanding of the different segments in mobile phone market, and to determine if these different segments can cause any variety and change of motivating factors.

    Additionally, further research could be conducted in the long time period, thus can be explored in detail benefiting from the longitudinal study and could be include observations to understand long-term variables on mobile phone market and effects of motivating factors. Hence, this could bring more effective conceptualization of influencing factors of smartphone buying consumers and helps to achieve a more in-depth research.

    More so, the same study can be conducted with a combination of different Universities in Sweden. And also, same research can be carried out using quantitative research method for future research.

    Contribution of the Study: This study contributes with knowledge on which motivating factors influence customers brand preferences, and how these factors affect their purchase decision.

  • 302.
    Ekheim, Johanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Lindberg, Frida
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Företagens arbete med CSR i butik, en bidragande faktor till kundlojalitet?: En empirisk studie av modebranschen i Sverige2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Sambandet mellan CSR och kundlojalitet är otydligt och kan inte fastställas. Syftet med denna studie är att beskriva och hypotetiskt testa hur konsumenter uppfattar företagens arbete med CSR i butik och om det påverkar och ökar konsumenternas lojalitet.

     

    Metod: I studien har en kvantitativ metod använts där enkäter delats ut till respondenter för att testa hypoteser relaterat till hur företagens arbete med CSR inverkar på deras kundlojalitet. Insamlat material har analyserats med hjälp av korrelationsanalys enligt principen Spearman’s rho i det statistiska datorprogrammet SPSS. Utifrån teoretiskt deducerade hypoteser som testats genom analys av korrelationskoefficienter och signifikansnivå har hypoteserna från teorin accepterats eller förkastats.

     

    Resultat & slutsats: Studien har visat att ett gott rykte och en stark image gällande företagens arbete med CSR, påverkar konsumenternas köpbeslut positivt. Dock finns det brister i kommunikationen om CSR då variabeln inte har en positiv relation med image och rykte. Slutligen har studien visat att CSR är en starkt bidragande faktor till kundlojalitet.

     

    Förslag till fortsatt forskning: I studien har ett gap inom forskningen upptäckts mellan hur företagen kommunicerar CSR med konsumenterna och dess påverkan på image och rykte. Förslag till framtida forskning är att gå djupare på relationen mellan dessa variabler och visa på ett starkare samband med kundlojalitet.

     

    Uppsatsens bidrag: Studiens bidrag är att öka förståelsen för hur arbetet med CSR i butik är en bidragande faktor till kundlojalitet.

  • 303.
    Ekholm, Emma
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    von Schreeb, Alexandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Individuella skillnader i sensoriska behov: “Need for Scent”, “Need for Sound” och “Need for Vision” skalor: Ett bidrag till ämnets teoriutveckling2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Individual differences in sensory needs, “Need for Scent”, “Need for Sound” and “Need for Vision” scales: a contribution to theory development, in the subject of sensory marketing. 

    Level: Final assignment for Bachelor Degrees in Business Administration

    Author: Emma Ekholm and Alexandra von Schreeb

    Supervisor: Jonas Kågström

    Date: 2017 - May

    Aim: The purpose of our study is to contribute to the field of theory development, in the subject of sensory marketing. The aim of the survey is to analyze how the Need for Touch scale can be converted into other senses, and to be used in multisensory marketing.

    Method: In this study, a quantitative study was performed and 158 questionnaires were collected from a web-based survey where the scales were tested on the respondents. We analyzed our collected data in the statistical program SPSS and a factor analysis, cluster analysis and a correlation analysis were conducted.

    Result & Analysis: This study present six different factors from the factor analysis, of which factor one and two made two independent scales, “Need for Scent” and “Need for Sound”. Factor three, four and five all includes vision, and developed a three-dimensional scale “Need for Vision”. This study also present four clusters, where we developed one cluster that exhibited very high-sensory behaviors and a second cluster that exhibited very low-sensory behaviors.

    Suggestions for future research: Since we found that the senses smell, sound and vision could be formed into three independent scales, future research could use the scales on consumer research. Future research could also study each cluster individually on a deeper level with qualitative interviews. Furthermore, it would be interesting to examine if our scales could be transformed into the sense of taste. Which has not yet been studied.

    Contribution of the thesis:  The study has contributed to develop the theoretical foundation in the subject of sensory marketing, and by expanding Peck and Childers (2013) “Need for Touch” scale to three new functional scales. We highlighted how it is possible to use scales for scent, sound and vision to measure consumers individual need for scent, sound and vision in regarding product evaluation.

  • 304.
    Eklinder Frick, Jens
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration. Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Building Bridges and Breaking Bonds: Aspects of social capital in a regional strategic network2011Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Investing in cluster formation or encouraging companies to network in regional strategic networks is a common strategy used by municipalities to promote regional growth in peripheral regions. Previous research has investigated the significance of creating regional advantages by building clusters and regional networks, but researchers have not provided much insight into the problems facing the project management trying to implement such collaboration. In my thesis I describe and analyze a network project in order to shed light upon some of the complications that such a collaboration project might entail. My theoretical framework of analysis rests upon the concept of social capital, a concept that investigates the value that social contacts might incur.

    I have studied a designed network situated in the Swedish municipality of Söderhamn called Firsam. After the closure of the telecommunications factory of Ericsson/Emerson and the military airbase F15 Söderhamn lost 10 % of its local employment in 2004.The need for regional growth programmes therefore became dire. The companies that prior to the closure worked in close collaboration with the Ericsson/Emerson factory were also looking for new revenue streams to compensate for their loss of business. Collaboration with the local manufacturing companies to create innovative projects and to take on joint tenders seemed to be a perfect solution to the problems facing them and the municipality. In this spirit a regional strategic network called Firsam (Företag i regional samverkan) was initiated.

    I analyze the Firsam project using two different aspects of the concept social capital:”bonding” and”bridging”. The bonding form of social capital is associated with small and homogeneous groups that build prerequisites for long-term collaboration by forming close contacts and building trust. The bridging form of social capital creates an open stance towards social relations that enables new contacts to be formed outside one’s own socially established context.

    The bonding form of social capital provides prerequisites for close collaboration but can also result in close-mindedness and over-embeddedness in one’s own social context. Building bridging connections outside one’s own social context might encourage innovative thinking and spur entrepreneurship. The somewhat fleeting connections that are associated with the bridging form of social capital might on the other hand make it difficult to cultivate a common sense of trust within an existing group.

    These different manifestations of social capital create a paradox that might be hard to handle in the design of a regional strategic network. Is it best to support already existing network structures and impose the risk of creating a less innovative environment, or should members from outside the established social context be included in the network design to encourage innovative thinking? There are both positive and negative effects associated with either strategy. I shed light upon this paradox by analyzing the regional strategic network of Firsam.

  • 305.
    Eklinder Frick, Jens
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration. Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden .
    Eriksson, Lars-Torsten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Hallén, Lars
    Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Bridging and bonding forms of social capital in a regional strategic network2011In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 40, no 6, p. 994-1003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on networks emphasizes the importance of bonds between actors. Social reciprocity strengthens network bonds, which is assumed to have positive effects on business relationships between firms. However,the importance of weak ties is also stressed in network research. An important policy issue is therefore if more attention should be devoted to the creation of bridges to other social groups and loosening bonds between network actors. The difficulty in doing so is described and analyzed in this article focusing on a regional strategic network, which is viewed in three network perspectives. Interview data were collected from all participating managers in a regional strategic network in 2004 and 2010. The findings shed light upon the paradox of using a regional strategic network to counteract over-embeddedness and freeing the involved actors from existing network lock-ins instead of further strengthening such social institutions.

  • 306.
    Eklinder Frick, Jens
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration. Science and Technology Studies Center, Department of Economic History, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Waluszewski, Alexandra
    Science and Technology Studies Center, Department of Economic History, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    What’s Successful?: Accounting for the Outcome of Governmental Innovation Policy2018In: Accounting, Innovation and Inter-Organisational Relationships / [ed] Martin Carlsson-Wall, Håkan Håkansson, Kalle Kraus, Johnny Lind, Torkel Strömsten, New York: Routledge, 2018, 1, p. 216-237Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 307.
    Eklinder Frick, Jens
    et al.
    University of Uppsala.
    Åge, Lars-Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    ”Happy-happy” business negotiation – agreements beyond ”win-win”2016In: Proceedings of the 32nd Annual IMP Conference: Change and Transformation of Markets, Networks and Relationships, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Research background - describes the business negotiation literature as historically dominated by a transactional perspective, which has affected the conceptual discourse as well as the scope of interest for empirical studies. Assumptions that arise from this transactional perspective includes the notion that (1) business negotiations are a linear process that follows episodic or stage models. (2) That business negotiations are geared towards an outcome in the form of a one-time exchange. (3) That the value of the negotiation outcome is often expressed in economic or mathematical terms. (4) That negotiation research focuses on the single negotiator or negotiation in a dyad. (5) That the research historically has viewed negotiation as a “zero-sum” game. Viewed from an interactional perspective, influenced by IMP theory, there is good reason to challenge these five assumptions within the business negotiation literature. The interactional perspective goes beyond the dyadic perspective and views value creation as emanating from the mutual adaptation of resources that takes place between several interacting actors within a network context: a view that is incompatible with the five assumptions posed above. Methods – This is a theoretical paper. The purpose of this paper - is to analyse and discuss the differences in the way that central aspects of negotiations such as the process, outcome, value, actors and resources are conceptualized in both the business negotiation and in the IMP literature. Also, we will discuss and analyze managerial implications that come from the inclusion of IMP perspective into the business negotiation research. The main contribution of this paper – is to divide the business negotiation literature into the transactional and interactional perspectives and then discusses the concept of “win-win” and the way it is used in negotiation research. An alternative concept is suggested to describe that negotiations is non-linear and focusing on mutual interdependence, emphasizes value creation, networks and mutual adaptations. This concept is thus more interactional and is dubbed “happy-happy” negotiation outcome.

  • 308.
    Eklinder-Frick, Jens
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Development, production and use in policy initiated innovation2015In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 30, no 8, p. 973-986Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore and describe the forces which promote or obstruct a policy initiated innovation process in the context of a regional strategic network (RSN). Design/methodology/approach An innovation requires that an invention survives in relevant developing, producing, and using settings. This is analyzed as resource interaction in these three settings. Data are obtained from a case study of an innovation process undertaken from 2007 to 2011 where 24 respondents representing the involved actors in the development of a GIS technology platform were interviewed in separate meetings lasting 60-100 minutes. Primary sources of secondary data have also been analyzed. Findings The strategy imposed by the RSN enabled knowledge to be exchanged between the involved actors but problems remained regarding resource interaction of the relevant settings. The studied case showed that achieving resource interaction between the producing and using settings was particularly challenging when the innovation processes is policy initiated and thus involves both private and public sector. This serves to explain why policy initiatives to turn scientific knowledge into commercialized innovation often fall short of their objectives. Originality/value Research investigating policy initiated innovation and regional economic growth often focus on achieving information exchange between the actors that make up the innovation systems. This paper sheds light on the resource interaction between the members of regional strategic networks and how his can facilitate innovation processes.

  • 309.
    Eklinder-Frick, Jens
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration. Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Sowing seeds for innovation: The impact of social capital in regional strategic networks2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to promote regional innovation and stronger social coherence the European Union has set goals to become the world’s most competitive, dynamic, and knowledge-based economy. These ambitious goals are supported by funds allocated to regional strategic networks (also called cluster initiatives). Usually, the management of regional strategic networks is left to the discretion of the project leaders. However, the industry agglomeration model which constitutes the foundation for regional development policies fails to consider the social context. It also overemphasizes the relevance of a linear approach towards innovation which is problematic, as this fails to consider the conditions for implementation in different contexts.

    This thesis builds upon data from two case studies of regional strategic networks (Firsam at Söderhamn and FPX at Gävle) and serves to describe (1) how the management group of an RSN creates the prerequisite for an innovative milieu by analyzing the effects that social capital imposes on social interaction, and (2) how a policy initiated innovation process is supported by an RSN management group by analyzing resource interaction between the developing, producing and using settings.

    As a conclusion it is stated that a manager of a regional strategic network should balance the bridging and bonding forces that social capital produces. Under some circumstances it might be advantageous to form tightly knit groups that can foster trust and cultural proximity. In other cases loosely knit groups might be preferable where novel information is exchanged between previously unconnected actors. Also, the innovation construct is applied in the thesis to denote the process where resources are combined in new ways within existing structures to offer new solutions in the market. The manager of a regional strategic network must consider not only the setting in which an invention is developed but also the settings where new solutions are converted into products and those where they are brought to use.

    The performance of the investigated development initiatives indicates that merely funding regional strategic networks is insufficient to spur regional growth. It is not as easy as merely sowing seed for innovation; it must also fall on good soil. 

  • 310.
    Eklinder-Frick, Jens
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Eriksson, Lars Torsten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Hallén, Lars
    Mälardalen Högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Effects of social capital on processes in a regional strategic network2012In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 800-806Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the role of social capital is vital for implementing cluster policies as regional strategic networks and cluster initiatives are in fluenced by the local socio-economic context and its social capital. Socialbcapital can create value for companies by closure of the network structure (bonding), which maintains internal mutual trust but bonding can also over-embed companies in their social context, whereas sparse networks that provide links to other parts of relevant business networks (bridging) often provide greater innovation benefits. We provide a conceptual framework applied to a case study of a Swedish regional strategic network, and examples mostly of positive effects of bridging social capital and negative effects of the bonding form are identified. This is interpreted against the background of the regional dependenceoriented culture.

  • 311.
    Eklinder-Frick, Jens
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration. Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society, and Engineering, Västerås, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Lars Torsten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Hallén, Lars
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society, and Engineering, Västerås, Sweden.
    Multidimensional social capital as a boost or a bar to innovativeness2014In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 460-472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation does not only demand new ideas, financial resources and knowledge of supplier and user systems, but is also influenced by social capital which has an impact on the innovativeness in business networks. However, social capital is often vague, at times described as a “catch-all notion”. In this paper definitions of social capital are suggested to support the management of innovation in networks. Three dimensions of social capital are ap- plied in a case study of a regional strategic network – the socio-economic, the structural and the actor-oriented dimensions – while focusing on the last one. Data were collected at two points in time, at the start of the regional strategic network in 2004 and at the end of the project in 2010. The application of the concepts and the compar- ison between these two points in time highlight the influence of social capital and how it can hinder or be used to promote innovation processes. 

  • 312.
    Eklinder-Frick, Jens
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Eriksson, Lars Torsten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Hallén, Lars
    Mälardalens Högskola, Akademin för hållbar teknik- och samhällsutveckling.
    Multidimensional Social Capital as a Boost or a Bar to Innovation2012In: Combining the social and technological aspects of innovation:  Relationships and Networks / [ed] Chiara Cantu, Daniela Corsaro, Annalisa Tunisini, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation does not only demand new ideas, financial resources, and knowledge of supplier and user systems, but also social capital. Social capital facilitates interaction in business networks. However, social capital is often vague, at times described as a “catch-all notion”.  In this paper an operational definition of social capital is suggested to enable network management of business innovations. Three underpinning dimensions of social capital are empirically tested in a regional strategic network – the socio-economic, the network and the actor-oriented dimensions with a focus on the latter one. Empirical case data were collected in 2004 and 2010. The application of the concepts and the comparisons between these two points in time enhance understanding of how social capital can be used to promote innovation processes.

  • 313.
    Eklinder-Frick, Jens
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration. Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Eriksson, Lars Torsten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Hallén, Lars
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Negative effects of the bonding and bridging form of social capital in a regional strategic network2011In: The 27th IMP conference, 31 Aug 2011-03 Sep 2011; University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of the paper and literature addressed

    Understanding the local socio-economic context is considered by Koschatzky and Kroll (2007) as a precondition for a well designed regional strategic network (RSN). Social capital is often used in research when analyzing such socio-economic contexts (Adler and Kwon 2002, Westlund 2009), and understanding the function and creation of social capital is therefore vital for implementation of policies on cluster initiatives and RSN.

    Adler and Kwon (2002) claim that there are two different ways of creating valuethrough social capital. These approaches are attributed to James Coleman and Ronald Burt, two key contributors within the field. Coleman (1988) claims that closure of the network structure (bonding) facilitates the emergence of effective norms maintainingthe trustworthiness of others. In contrast to Coleman, Burt (1992) does not stress the utility of consistent norms as the main usage of social capital. He argues that a sparse network including few redundant ties (bridging) often provides greater benefits. Social capital may involve norms and trust, but can also serve as a lock-in that isolates from the outside world by over-embedding a network in its own social context (Uzzi 1997, Gargiulo and Benassi 2000, Parra-Requena et al 2009, Molina-Morales and Martínez-Fernández 2009).

    Social capital might therefore not only bring positive effects to regional development, as its drawbacks under some circumstances might outweigh the benefits. Slotte-Kock (2009) argues that all network researchers agree that networks of social or business contacts provide both opportunities and constraints.

    Main contribution

    Molina-Morales and Martínez-Fernández (2009) and Adler and Kwon (2002) claim that there is a lack of empirical research particularly on the negative effects of social capital. The paper adds to the discourse through a case study focusing on the negative influence of social capital on the RSN process.

    Research method

    Representatives of the 15 companies included in an regional strategic network (RSN) project were all interviewed prior to the formation of the project in 2004 and interviewed again six years later (2010) when the formal network project was about to end. The longitudinal aspect of the RSN process is portrayed.

    Research findings

    The organizational lock-ins and network over-embeddedness that the bonding form of social capital might impose upon a network is exemplified in the studied RSN. It is also evident that existing social norms dominate the decision process within the studied RSN more than economic rationality. The creation of bridging linkages imposed by the management group resulting in low relevance of shared information.

  • 314.
    Eklinder-Frick, Jens
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Eriksson, Lars Torsten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Hallén, Lars
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Social Capital, Individuality and Identity2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 315.
    Eklinder-Frick, Jens
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration. Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Eriksson, Lars Torsten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Hallén, Lars
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    The Impact of Social Capital on Renewal through Cluster Initiatives2011In: Studies in Industrial Renewal: Coping with Changing Contexts / [ed] Esbjörn Segelod, Karin Berglund, Erik Bjurström, Erik Dahlquist, Lars Hallén and Ulf Johanson, Västerås: Mälardalen University , 2011, p. 129-146Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 316.
    Eklinder-Frick, Jens
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Eriksson, Lars Torsten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Hallén, Lars
    Mälardalens Högskola, Akademin för hållbar teknik- och samhällsutveckling.
    Three dimensions of social capital within technological cooperation2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation does not only demand new ideas, financial resources, and knowledge of supplier and user systems, but also social capital. Social capital facilitates interaction in business networks. However, social capital is often vague, at times described as a “catch-all notion”.  In this paper an operational definition of social capital is suggested to enable network management of business innovations. Three underpinning dimensions of social capital are empirically tested in a regional strategic network – the socio-economic, the network and the actor-oriented dimensions with a focus on the latter one. Empirical case data were collected at in 2004 and 2010. The application of the concepts and the comparisons between these two points in time enhance understanding of how social capital can be used to promote innovation processes.

  • 317.
    Eklinder-Frick, Jens
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration. Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Eriksson, Lars-Torsten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Hallén, Lars
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    The Firsam cluster initiative: An attempt at regional business development2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After a small municipality in Sweden was hit not only by the closure of the major industry in the town but also by the dismantling of the air force base which was another major source of local employment, a strategic network (cluster initiative) was set up involving 15 local companies in order to market their skills and know-how. The purpose was counterbalance the loss of the big employers by strengthening cooperation between local small and middle-sized companies. Based on interviews in 2004 and 2010 the relationships between the member companies are mapped out prior to the formation of the strategic network and five years later. The findings illustrate the difficulty to support cluster building for short term commercial success through a top-down approach, but also that such an initiative may create positive effects on social capital and in the end bring about long-term gains for the community.

  • 318.
    Eklinder-Frick, Jens Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Clustering or interacting for knowledge? -: towards an entangled view of knowledge in regional growth policy2016In: The IMP Journal, ISSN 2059-1403, E-ISSN 0809-7259, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 221-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The European Union has an ambition to become the worlds most competitive and knowledge-based economy, which entails investments in cluster initiatives. Most researchers however find that such investments have had limited impact. The notion of creating industrial clusters is influenced by the discourse within new economic geography in which research interests are geared towards facilitating knowledge exchange between industry, university and government. In order to understand how knowledge is created and enacted within a cluster initiative this paper investigates the interactions between actors participating in a specific innovation process.

    Design/methodology/approach: The studied cluster initiative is one of the 55 clusters designated as demonstrating highly sophisticated cluster management by European Union officials, making it an interesting case study for knowledge creation in such environments. The case study entails semi-structured in depth interviews of 24 respondents.

    Findings: The cluster approach encourages a “disentangled” view of knowledge where knowledge is seen as universal and cognitive and therefore possible to disentangle from the context in which it was initially produced. However, my findings suggest that in practice knowledge is “entangled” in the specific context in which it is enacted and produced. Thus, in practice knowledge is a contextually limited and practical activity that is being enacted when heterogeneous resources interact in producer-user interfaces. This mismatch between strategy and outcome may subsequently help to explain the limited impact of policy on regional growth.

  • 319.
    Eklinder-Frick, Jens
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Åge, Lars-Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Perspectives on regional innovation policy: from new economic geography towards the IMP approach2017In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 61, p. 81-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union has the aim of becoming the world's most competitive and knowledge-based economy, which entails investments in industry agglomeration. However, these investments have had limited impact. This conceptual paper problematizes the new economic geography terminology used in policy and, more specifically, the way that the key concepts of "industry agglomeration," "social capital," "knowledge," and "innovation" are conceptualized. By adding the perspective of the industrial network or industrial marketing and purchasing (IMP) approach, this paper contributes to a more nuanced understanding of how to facilitate innovation within regional policy. Since the IMP approach offers an organizational-level perspective, including such a perspective will help make the EU's policies more practically applicable. We propose that regional policy should pay more attention to the socio-material resource interaction between the actors involved in the cluster initiatives. This would shift the focus away from creating spillover effects of knowledge towards viewing knowledge as a performative construct that is inseparable from the specific resource interaction in which it is embedded. Also, the definition of innovation within policy could benefit from being reconceptualized as the processual use within producer-user relationships. 

  • 320.
    Eklinder-Frick, Jens
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration. Science and Technology Studies Centre, Uppsala University.
    Åge, Lars-Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Transactional and interactional perspectives on business negotiation2016In: IMP ASIA in Africa: Book of Abstracts / [ed] Peter J. Batt, Industrial Marketing and Purchasing Group , 2016, p. 21-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A transactional perspective has historically dominated the business negotiation literature. Assumptions which arise from this transactional perspective include the notion that: (i) business negotiations are a linear process that follow episodic or stage models; (ii) business negotiations are geared towards an outcome in the form of a one-time transaction; (iii) the value of the negotiation outcome is often expressed in economic or mathematical terms; (iv) negotiation research focuses on the single negotiator or negotiation in a dyad; and (v) research historically has viewed negotiation as a "zero-sum" game. Viewed from the interaction approach within the IMP perspective, there is good reason to challenge these five assumptions within the business negotiation literature. The purpose of this conceptual paper is to analyse and discuss the differences in the way that central aspects of business negotiations such as the process, outcome, value creation, involved actors and resource allocation are conceptualized in both the business negotiation and the IMP literature. The conceptual deliberation concludes that business negotiation research has thus far tended to focus on individual skills and the examination of isolated dyadic interactions. Business negotiation research largely ignores the fact that the nature of industrial business is predominantly relationship-based rather than transactional. Introducing the relational perspective of the IMP tradition into business negotiation research would help in furthering the critique already posed within this stream of research towards its transactional, linear and dyadic focus. Viewing business negotiation through an interactional perspective will further managers understanding of the negotiation process.

  • 321.
    Eklund, Ellen
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Knezevic, Marija
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Stressfaktorers inverkan på innovativt beteende2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: This study aims to provide a deeper understanding of how stressors affect the individual innovative behavior positively.

    Method: The study applies a qualitative approach with semi structured interviews. In total, eleven interviews were conducted within Volvo Group Trucks Technology and one interview and a complementary conversation with two former employees were carried out. Interview responses have been analyzed with thematic analysis.

    Result & Conclusions: Nine stress creating stressors were identified; demands, time pressure, control, support, roll, culture, risk appetite, distraction and goals. The study also identified five individual capabilities, which are termed as influencing factors; personality, problem solving, personal responsibility, experience, motivation. The study finds that stress can lead to increased innovative behavior when stressors are combined with influence factors contributing to positive stress in the individual.

    Suggestions for future research: To further increase the understanding of stressors and innovative behavior, more qualitative research within this field is necessary. Stressors and influencing factors, being identified in this study, should be studied in more detail. Future research should aim to study innovative behavior and stress for all three phases of Innovative Behavior. Further studies within this field should also include more women and research on how organizations can organize for innovation.

    Contribution of the thesis: The study's main contribution is the Model 2: Stressors ID, which shows how stressors affect innovative behavior. The model provides support for leaders who wish to enhance employees' innovative behavior to increase the company's competitiveness. The model provides knowledge about the importance of personal capabilities in order for positive stress to evolve and influence the innovative behavior positively.

  • 322.
    Eklund, Petter
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Andersson, Linn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Nyckelfaktorer för långsiktiga kundrelationer inom fastighetsbranschen: En analys av Generation Y – med inriktning mot medelstora fastighetsbolag i glesbygdskommuner2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Aktörer inom fastighetsbranschen har visat stort intresse att möta den nya Generation Y och söka kunskap inom marknadsföring mot dessa. Aktörerna efterfrågar kunskap för att bygga långsiktiga kundrelationer, där bostadsbristen inte är lika utbredd som i storstäderna. Syftet med denna studie är att analysera om engagemang, förtroende och lojalitet är avgörande faktorer vid skapandet av långsiktiga kundrelationer med Generation Y. Vidare presenteras teori angående vad som ligger till grund för långsiktiga kundrelationer. 

    103 respondenter har medverkat i en internetbaserad enkätundersökning där svaren har analyserats i det statistiska analysverktyget SPSS. Följande analyser har genomförts: korrelationsanalys, faktoranalys, regressionsanalys samt klusteranalys. Resultaten visar att Generation Y har en positiv inställning till relationsmarknadsföring där de anser att engagemang och förtroende är avgörande faktorer hos en hyresvärd. Studien visar även att Generation Y har en neutral inställning till Customer Relationship Management, vilket gör att fastighetsbolag bör överväga användandet av detta verktyg. Väletablerade kundrelationer kan förbättras av detta verktyg medan de relationer som är under uppbyggnad kan försämras.

    Studien bidrar med information till beslutsfattare inom fastighetsbranschen som är aktiva i kommuner inom glesbefolkade regioner och glesbygdskommuner. Kunskap om de framtagna faktorerna är avgörande vid skapandet av långsiktiga kundrelationer och kan bidra till minskade omflyttningskostnader och stabila inkomster under längre tid.

  • 323.
    Ekman, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Hur ledare kommunicerar visioner: en fallstudie2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Organisationer måste idag ha en förändringsberedskap för att ha möjlighet att hänga med i utvecklingen. I denna förändringsberedskap spelar organisationens medlemmar en stor roll, vilket gör att kommunikationen inom organisationen måste fungera och att visionen måste kunna motivera medarbetarna. Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka på vilka sätt som chefer och ledning kommunicerar organisationens vision.

    Undersökningen baseras dels på litteraturstudier om ledarskap, kommunikation, visioner och kultur och dels på fallstudier, som gjordes utifrån intervjuer med ledare från olika sorters verksamheter. De fyra temana ledarskap, kommunikation, visioner och kultur visar sig alla påverka sättet organisationer kommunicerar visionen på. Undersökningens analys grundar sig på att fallstudierna diskuteras och analyseras utifrån teorin.

    I alla organisationer sker kommunikation hela tiden och med olika uttryck. En mycket liten del är medveten kommunikation kring organisationens visioner. Trots det upplever ledare att visionen är levande i organisationen eftersom den ofta skapats utifrån organisationens kultur och verksamhet. Eftersom organisationer inte har en enhetlig kultur, bör visionen kommuniceras både i arbetslagen och enskilt med varje medarbetare, för att medarbetarna ska förstå vad visionen betyder i det dagliga arbetet. Ledaren måste själv leva visionen och inte bara prata om den. Genom att visionen är genomtänkt, konkret och tydlig blir den också lättare att kommunicera mellan ledning och medarbetare. Det gäller för ledningen att bygga in visionen i organisationen, t.ex. genom strukturen.

  • 324.
    Ekstrand, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Palm, Emelie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Välkommen hem till oss!: En studie om varför kunden väljer att bjuda hem ett visst fastighetsmäklarföretag och dess varumärke2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund:

    Att sälja sin bostad är en av det största ekonomiska affärer en privatperson gör i sitt liv. Det kan vara känsloladdat och försäljningen har inte alltid lyckliga orsaker. Säljaren sätter därför stor tilltro och förväntan till den mäklare som får uppdraget att förmedla bostaden. Det i kombination med att dagens fastighetsmarknad är otroligt konkurrensutsatt gör att företag ständigt måste hitta nya vägar för att nå ut med sitt budskap, som också måste träffa rätt.

    Syfte

    : Vår studie syftar till att undersöka vilka kriterier som är avgörande då en säljare väljer att ta kontakt med ett mäklarföretag och sedan jämföra det med hur företagen valt att marknadsföra sig.

    Metod:

    Undersökningen avgränsas till Gävle och två lokala mäklarföretag som finns etablerade här. Vår metod är kvalitativ och består av intervjuer med två mäklarföretagens kontorschefer samt tre villasäljare från respektive företag.

    Resultat:

    Marknadsföringen ska sticka ut och skapa ett intresse hos den potentiella fastighetssäljaren. Den ska vara personlig, nytänkande och skapa en medvetenhet. Under hela säljprocessens gång skapas förväntningar från säljaren sida och ett rykte börjar utformas. Mäklarens roll är att leva upp till förväntningarna genom att visa ett genuint engagemang och på bästa sätt utforma säljprocessen utifrån säljarens önskemål. Från start till mål och framför allt efter försäljningen har kundvården stor betydelse då det skapar bra rykte och ger rekommendationer.

    Slutsats:

    Fastighetsmäklarbranschen är en måltavla för relationsmarknadsföringsteorin då hela konceptet bygger på att skapa relationer, nätverk och interaktion. Det är genom relationer och interaktion som affärer görs och pengar tjänas och ett stort nätverk blir som spindeln i nätet. Relationen ska vara så betydelsefull som möjligt för att ett långsiktigt förhållande kan byggas, detta görs genom bra kundvård. Kundvård leder till bättre rykte och rekommendationer som vidare leder till att potentiella fastighetssäljare som ännu ej är kund i företaget får upp ögonen och blir intresserade av mäklarföretagets koncept.

  • 325.
    Ekstrand, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Blir samhället möjligt - eller väntar polarnatten?: samtida reflektioner2016In: Tidskrift för kriminalvård, ISSN 0040-6821, Vol. 71, no 2, p. 26-28Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 326.
    Ekstrand, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Durban rapsodi2012 (ed. 1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 327.
    Ekstrand, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Kairo blues2010 (ed. 1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 328.
    Ekstrand, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Kunden har inte rätt2012In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, no 42Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 329.
    Ekstrand, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Led genom frihet2014In: Personal & Ledarskap, ISSN ISSN 1402-5744, no 10Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Att lida av chefsallergi, när man undervisar om ledarskap? Men kanske det gör mig till expert. Framförallt på hur ledarskap inte bör vara, skriver Lasse Ekstrand, Högskolan i Gävle.

  • 330.
    Ekstrand, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Mina delade städer2015 (ed. 1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns de som hela tiden längtar någon annanstans. Och de som hela tiden vill komma åter. Kanske samma sak, egentligen? Det tongivande mottot för denna bok. En samling paragrafer om återkomsten som fenomen, om att återkomma till platser man skulle kunna tro man redan är förtrogen med. Oklart varför detta återkommande iscensätts. Drivet av en längtan efter att vilja förhindra förändring, frysa sakernas tillstånd? Men att allt som är fast förflyktigas, visste redan Karl Marx. Att fånga en stad – snarare en stadsdel. Undanglidande och gäckande. Om man inte med stelbenta teorier och begrepps hjälp låser fast. Och in sig själv. Slutar att undra och förvånas. Du återkommer aldrig till samma stadsdel. Eftersom du själv förändras. Eller ankommer på olika humör och i skiftande sinneslägen.  Lasse Ekstrand bjuder på en mängd oväntade infallsvinklar på vad en stadsdel är. Eller snarare blir när den betraktas och utforskas via exkursioner, det öppna sinnets strövtåg. Samtidigt passar han på att kritisera och häckla samtidens destinationsutvecklare och turistindustrialister. Och reflekterar omkring den fyrtiotalisternas fridfulla holme i Gävle, där han sedan några år bor. Berlinälskaren Lasse Ekstrand – för mer än tjugo år sedan utkom hans bok Nätternas natt om Berlin - kan förstås inte låta bli att avge en kärleksförklaring till sin själsliga hemstad. Ännu en gång. En infallsrik och uppsluppen bok, med den omisskännliga ekstrandska tonen. En underström av flyktighet och saknad – kanske efter lost paradise.  Lasse Ekstrand har en lång rad böcker bakom sig, hans författarskap är mångfacetterat. Mest känd för sina böcker om medborgarlön och Joseph Beuys. Hit hör även personligt färgade verk om Søren Krøyer, Jimi Hendrix och Ulrike Meinhof. Liksom böcker om social konst.

  • 331.
    Ekstrand, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Oljud som form: exil som oljud2013In: Vågar du sticka ut hakan?: Texter om strukturellt betingad feghet inom kultur och utbildning / [ed] Maria Ericson och Stellan Larsson, övrig red.: Nationella dramaturgiatets styrelse, Stockholm: Nationella Dramaturgiatet , 2013, 1, , p. 129Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 332.
    Ekstrand, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Organization Theory in Postmodernism: A tentative attempt1994Report (Other academic)
  • 333.
    Ekstrand, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Orkanens öga: Pier Paolo Pasolini2016 (ed. 1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 334.
    Ekstrand, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Speedway: Eller lev medan du lever2011 (ed. 1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 335.
    Ekstrand, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Vad är det som kritiseras i arbetskritiken?2013In: After Work: Farväl till arbetslinjen / [ed] Borg, Kristian, Stockholm: Verbal , 2013, 1, , p. 202Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 336.
    Ekstrand, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Hyvönen, Mats
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Media and communication studies.
    Välkommen sjunka med oss!: Social konst i förlisningens tid2014 (ed. 1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 337.
    Ekstrand, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Wallmon, Monika
    Företagsekonomiska Institutionen UU.
    Alla har inte Zlatan i projektteam: men projektledning kan ändå vara som att coacha Milan2011In: Projektledning / [ed] Elisabeth Kamél, Stockholm: Bonniers , 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 338.
    Ekstrand, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Wallmon, Monika
    Attempts to Escape the Logics of Capitalism: A Plea for Radical Pedagogy2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 339.
    Ekstrand, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Wallmon, Monika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Tänk dig att ha Zlatan i ditt team: Projektledning kan vara som att coacha Milan2011In: Projektvärlden, ISSN 1652-3016, no 4Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 340.
    Ekstrand, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Öhrnell, Erling
    Illustratör.
    10 guds bud reinvented2012 (ed. 1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 341.
    Ekstrand, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Öhrnell, Erling
    Tio Guds bud reinvented2012 (ed. 1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 342.
    Ekstrand, Lasse
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Speedway eller lev medan du lever2011 (ed. 1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 343.
    Ekström, Erika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Winkler, Helga
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Önskvärda egenskaper hos en försäljningschef i en säljande organisation: En studie utifrån försäljningschefer och anställdas perspektiv i fastighetsmäklarbranschen2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    SAMMANFATTNING

    Titel:

    Önskvärda egenskaper hos en försäljningschef i en säljande organisation - en studie utifrån försäljningschefer och anställdas perspektiv i fastighetsmäklarbranschen

    Nivå:

    Examensarbete för kandidatexamen i företagsekonomi.

    Författare:

    Erika Ekström, Helga Winkler

    Handledare:

    Jonas Kågström

    Datum:

    2015 – maj

    Syfte:

    Syftet med denna studie är att skapa ökad förståelse för försäljningschefers önskvärda egenskaper samt hur dessa upplevs utifrån försäljningschefers och anställdas perspektiv.

    Metod:

    Med syfte att skapa ökad förståelse kring försäljningschefers önskvärda egenskaper, så har studien utförts på ett kvalitativt vis. För att samla in data har semistrukturerade intervjuer genomförts där nitton fastighetsmäklare och tio försäljningschefer inom fastighetsmäklarbranschen intervjuats. Den insamlade datan har analyserats med hjälp av programmet Nvivo och LadderUx.

    Resultat & slutsats:

    Det vi kan konstatera är att lyssna återkommit som en viktig förmåga i varje analys och kan därmed anses som den mest önskvärda egenskapen för en försäljningschef att inneha enligt denna studie. Genom detta arbete kan vi utläsa att vara försäljningschef är komplext och det krävs stor potential för att tillfredsställa varje anställds behov samt att ha förmåga att driva organisationen framåt. Försäljningschefens roll har genom denna undersökning bevisats ha väsentlig betydelse för säljorganisationen och dess anställda.

    Förslag till fortsatt forskning:

    Då vi upptäckte att egenskapen ansvarsfrihet rankades på olika sätt hos försäljningscheferna respektive fastighetsmäklarna så tror vi att det för framtida forskning skulle det vara intressant att studera hur de anställda samt organisationen i helhet påverkas av att ansvar fördelas ut på olika individer. Vi tror att resultatet i en annan bransch vad gäller ansvarsfrihet sannolikt skulle kunna bli annorlunda. Därför vore det intressant att ta reda på hur ansvarsfördelning fungerar och påverkar sälj organisationer som inte använder sig av provisionsbaserade löner.

    Uppsatsens bidrag:

    Denna studie har skapat ökad förståelse för vilka egenskaper som upplevs vara önskvärda hos försäljningschefer. Studien visar på vad dessa egenskaper har för betydelse för de anställda inom organisationen, samt berör de skillnader som finns mellan försäljningscheferna och mäklarna. Chefens roll har genom denna undersökning bevisats ha väsentlig betydelse för säljorganisationen och dess anställda.

    Nyckelord:

    egenskap, försäljningschef, fastighetsmäklare, värde

  • 344.
    Elberg, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Lindh, Rebecka
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Lönar det sig för flygbolag att vända kappan efter vinden när det gäller CSR?: En kvantitativ studie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 345.
    Eldh, Frida
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Tran, Julia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    CSR och dess påverkan på investeringseffektivitet: en kvantitativ studie av 276 europeiska företag2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is becoming more important for companies, its stakeholders and for the community. Previous studies have shown both positive and negative effects of CSR on financial performance. Previous research has focused on CSR and its impact on the company's financial performance without a consistent measure of the financial performance. Among the previous studies, we have also identified a gap in research among European companies. Therefore the aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and investment efficiency among companies in Europe that reports in the currency Euro.

  • 346.
    Elfström, Erik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Axberg, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Vandrarhemmet Gamla Gefle: Investering eller ej?2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose:The background to this study is an upcoming sale of a property. Owner of the property is currently city of Gävle and tenant is Jan Ekroth who runs the hostel Gamla Gefle in the buildings belonging to the property. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether Gamla Gefle AB has the financial ability to acquire the property and if it can be defended in a commercial plane.Method:In this study a qualitative method has been used, in which empirical data has been gathered from interviews and financial data taken from annual reports. These empirical data have been put against our theoretical framework and led to our analysis. In the analysis, cash flows and discounted future values have been calculated to determine the outcome of the investment.Results & conclusion:The study reaches the conclusion that the hostel Gamla Gefle should complete its acquisition of the property, in spite of an decrease of the annual cash flow. The investment could also lead to new possibilities of business development. Uncertainties’ surrounding the outcome is connected to the fact that the analysis is based upon assumptions of the market development both in real estate as well as in the hostel sector.

    Further research:

    The study’s purpose has been to see how a specific investment may affect the financial situation of the hostel, in which the investment option has been a property. Suggestions for further research would be to explore opportunities for improvement of the daily operation of Gamla Gefle AB. And if there is other appropriate investment options alongside with the property.

    Contributions:

    The study shows how a real estate investment model can be used on a real example, and gives a concrete example of how to apply theoretical knowledge to real cases. This study can also be used by Gamla Gefle AB as part of their decision-making, regarding real estate investments.

    Keywords:

    Real estate investments, cash flow, present value, hostels, tourism, financing.

  • 347.
    Eliasson, Emelie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Saarisilta, Bianca
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Etisk affärskultur i små och stora revisionsfirmor: En studie om skillnader i den etiska affärskulturen och dess påverkan på revisorers objektivitet2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Previous studies have shown that the objectivity of the auditors tend to be weaker in small audit firms than in larger audit firms. Research indicates that the ethical culture of an organization has a large impact on individuals' ethical conduct. Studies also show that organizational culture may differ to some extent between large and small organizations. Based on the previous research we have chosen to examine if the ethical business culture differ in large and small audit firms and if a stronger ethical business culture is related to a higher objectivity of the auditors.

    Method: We have chosen to use a quantitative questionnaire survey method in the study. We wanted to investigate if there is a correlation between the size of audit firms and their ethical business culture and the degree of objectivity of the auditors. The study was conducted using Ardichvili, Jondle and Mitchell’s (2013) questionnaire to measure the ethical business culture and an established test earlier used by Bamber and Iyer (2007) to measure the objectivity of the auditors’. The questionnaire was sent to approved and certified public auditors in Sweden. The collected data were analyzed and reported using statistical methods.

    Result: The study shows a slightly stronger ethical business culture in the non Big 4-firms than the Big 4-firms in Sweden. The result can not be generalized to the larger population due to a low response rate. No significant associations were found between the degree of ethical business culture and auditor objectivity.

    Suggestions for future research: A qualitative study using interviews or observations could provide a more nuanced picture of the differences in business culture of auditing firms.

    Contribution of the thesis: Studies of ethical business culture in large and small audit firms and it’s impact on auditors’ objectivity has to our knowledge not been researched before. A validation of the ethical business culture in small and large audit firms can give attention to weaknesses in culture and thus indicators of what can be improved from an ethical perspective.

  • 348.
    Eliasson, Emil
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Haapalehto, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Framgångsfaktorer för köpcentrum2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Summary Title: Factors of Success in Shopping Centres

    Level: Bachelor thesis, 15 credits in Business Administration

    Authors: Emil Eliasson & Anna Haapalehto

    Supervisor: Lars Steiner

    Date: 2011-06

    Aim: The main purpose with this paper is to establish the factors that are of importance when creating a successful shopping centre. What are the consumers asking for and what their preferences to shopping centers are.

    Method: We chose to use the quantitative research method in our paper. To begin with we collected data, and then we developed a survey that we sent out to people in the age between 20-30 years. Besides the primary data we used, we also used secondary data from science articles, journals and other literature suited to our subject.

    Conclusion: The respondents considered that entertainment is a factor of importance in the success of a shopping centre. Other factors of success are parking space, food, events and security. Something that is missing in Gävle at this point is stores like Zara, Topshop, Monki. Something that was not of importance to our respondents was a play area to children, gym or beauty salons. 

    Suggestions for future research: In our study we chose to ignore the economic aspect as well as the location aspect. In suggestions for future research we recommend to broaden the surveys to more respondents, and to deepen into the factors of success that we have established. We also suggest to find more data to strengthen our study. Another aspect could be to interview a real estate company to know their opinion.

    Contribution: There already are similar papers in this subject. What we did was to establish was what customers find is important factors of success. This study contributes with an understanding in what customers in the age of 20-30 considers is important in order to make a shopping centre successful. Our contribution is also that entertainment is an important factor of success to make a shopping centre popular.

    Key words: Shopping centre, factors of success

  • 349.
    Elin, Larsson
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Wiklander, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Att likna eller att våga skilja ut sig från konkurrenterna2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Titel:Att likna eller att våga skilja ut sig från konkurrenterna”

    Nivå: C-uppsats i ämnet företagsekonomi

    Författare: Elin Larsson & David Wiklander

    Handledare: Per-Arne Wickström

    Datum: Augusti 2013

    Syfte: Syftet är att kvalitativt undersöka likformigheten hos Sveriges största arkitektföretag, exemplifierat genom Tengbomgruppens totala värdeerbjudande.

    Metod: Studien är en fallstudie av ett arkitektföretag med kvalitativ ansats. Empiriska data består av information om sex större arkitektföretag som är tillgängligt på internet samt djupintervjuer och skriftligt material från det specifika fallföretaget. Vi har också samlat litteratur och forskning utifrån både ett modernt och ett traditionellt perspektiv för att kunna beskriva studiens teoretiska referensram samt relevant forskning rörande ett totalt värdeerbjudande för arkitektföretag. 

    Resultat & slutsats: De största arkitektföretagens totala värdeerbjudanden i Sverige befinner sig i en likformig inramning med klientlojalitet som grundsats. Alla är diversifierade i form av en ”allt för alla”-strategi, samtidigt presenterar de en lågmäld differentiering inom deras värdeerbjudanden. Hållbarhet och kompentens är två grundläggande positioneringar som alla framhäver. Det är framförallt utifrån dessa två som differentieringen sedan åskådliggörs i form av en diskret specifik positionering. Anledningen till den utbredda likformigheten beror på den kunskapsintensiva komplexitet som måste framhävas inom den klientanpassande arkitektbranschen 

    Uppsatsens bidrag: Det kvalitativa angreppsättet och den specifika inriktningen på svenska arkitektföretag är studiens största bidrag, då det finns en avsaknad av studier inom detta område som har analyserats och tolkats ur detta perspektiv. Genom att genomföra en djupanalys av ett företag sammantaget med en mer övergripande analys av andra fallföretag har studien bidragit med en kontextualisering beträffande arkitektbranschens totala värdeerbjudande.

     

     

  • 350.
    Elmehagen, Elin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Friberg, Tomas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Svenska revisorers uppfattning av goodwillredovisning enligt IFRS2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Title: Swedish auditors' perception of goodwill accounting under IFRS

    Level: Final assignment for Bachelor Degree in Business Administration

    Author: Elin Elmehagen and Tomas Friberg

    Supervisor: Jan Svanberg

    Date: 2014 – May

    Aim: The purpose of this study is to investigate Swedish accountants perception of goodwill accounting in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards, IFRS. More specifically, the study aims to investigate whether Swedish auditors believe that there exists a manipulative behavior in goodwill accounting under IFRS and the background factors that may explain the auditors' perception.

    Method: We have used an electronic survey. The questionnaire was sent to 732 Swedish approved and certified public accountants. We received 92 responses giving a response rate of 12,57 %. The results are reported by presenting tables with explanatory text.

    Result & Conclusions: Based on the study there has shown that there are two lines of thoughts regarding goodwill accounting under IFRS among Swedish auditors. The first line thinks that management behaves opportunistically in goodwill impairment. The second line believes that valuations of goodwill based on future cash flows are preferable and that the IFRS provisions on periodic tests of goodwill impairment is considered as a good practice compared to the precious rules when deprecations were done on an annual basis

    Suggestions for future research: It would be interesting to see a similar study after the changes that will take place 2016. These will change the rules for how goodwill impairment should be done. It would also be interesting to make a more qualitative survey on the same problem area in order to obtain a deeper understanding of auditors' opinions. 

    Contribution of the thesis: This study has identified the opinion of auditors regarding goodwill accounting under IFRS and the management earnings these rules allow for. This is interesting to study for other auditors, standard setters, companies and stakeholders.

    Key words: Goodwill, Goodwill Accounting, IFRS, Impairments, IAS, Sweden

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