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  • 301.
    Hansson, Mats
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Vikten av kunskap för återvinning: En analys av Gästrike Återvinnares attitydundersökning2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is intended to increase the understanding of the impact of knowledge on recycling levels. The investigation will furthermore look for other factors in the inquiry that influence the recycling level. I’m also going to try and develop a model for what influences the recycling level according to the basis of the investigation.

  • 302.
    Hansson, Mats
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Ökad återvinning? En statistisk analys av två teoretiska vägar framåt!: Studenters syn på återvinningsfrågan2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to give basis for decisions concerning how recycling companies should go about in their efforts to increase the recycling level. In order to accomplish this, I’m going to investigate Tonglet’s and Barr’s theories and recommendations. I’m also going to look for evidence that supports that there’s a value-action gap.

  • 303.
    Harrysson, Nils
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Myrberg, Fredrik
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Allokering av kapitalinkomst - en effekt av århundradets skattereform2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to study intra household allocation of capital income by using data on Swedish observations. The 1991 tax reform was to change the taxation on capital income from a progressive to a flat tax system. Before the tax reform there were incentives to allocate capital income to the spouses with the lowest income of labor in order to reduce the total tax burden. The data describes the year of 1989 and 1993, those we choose to examine. Using Swedish data from LINDA database we estimate a quotient by ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. The explaining variables in the model are chosen based on pre-studies regarding intra household allocation and we expect those to have an impact on the quota. We find a significant allocation before the tax reform due to the incentives to shift income. In comparison with the results from 1993 we find a significant change in the quota that could indicate reallocation.

  • 304.
    Hed, Sara
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Fokus på den...kunden, vilken kund?: En studie om Redovisningshusets kundrelationer2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: “The removal of the compulsory auditing claim” introduces the accounting business to new challenges. Accountants will be forced to compete for their customers.  Being an accountant does not only include annual account, declaration, and numbers; it also involves being service minded, interacting and communicating with customers. The purpose of this paper is to identify the important factors for developing long term customer relations. The aim is to find out how Redovisningshuset i Hudiksvall AB can enhance their customer relations to meet the challenges of the future.

    Method: To achieve my purpose I have chosen to use qualitative and quantitative methods. I have gathered data from personal interviews with several of Redovisningshuset’s employees and from a survey with the company’s costumers. I have been inspired by established theories and new literatures in the field.

    Result & Conclusions: Altogether, through innovative thinking and a great interest to improve Redovisningshuset has succeeded to build strong relations with their customers.  The customers’ clearly stated that the employees have good knowledge of their customers’ needs. To improve, Redovisningshuset ought to develop a new vision which reflects the company’s interest in customer relations, expand their coaching services, identify their customers’ future needs and auditing process, and develop ways of communication. My conclusion is that these things will enhance the Redovisningshuset’s competitiveness.

    Suggestions for future research:  Research how Redovisningshuset can use extern marketing methods to engage new customers. Further, it can be interesting to develop a profound marketing plan that can be used as a support to identify new prospects and customers.

    Contribution of the thesis: This paper has contributed with deeper understanding of customer relations and information which can help Redovisningshuset in their continuing process of improving customer relations.  

    Key words: Customer Relationship; Relationship marketing; customer focus; customer interaction; customer loyalty; Customer satisfaction.

  • 305.
    Hedin, Johannes
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Rostami, Saman
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Kringtjänster inom fastighetsmäklarbranschen: hur nya mäklarlagen kommer att påverka kringtjänster och mäklares tjänsteutbud2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The offering of side services with a money making purpose is illegal according to the present estate brokers law. An investigation was proposed to investigate the present legislation to introduce possible changes and improvements.  The new proposal will probably result in the legalization of money making side services and it seems to be a fact sometime in the year 2010.

    This new law will undoubtedly change the Swedish estate broker business and in this survey we have tried to determine how the new law will affect estate broker companies range of side services and also which possibilities the companies find to create profit on these services.

    Our method only consist of a qualitative research including four interviews with involving persons and also a focus group with four participants and a moderator who leads the focus group. The research has been done with guidance from relevant literature and the result has been interesting and very rewarding.

    In our research it has been settled that most of the people concerned have a positive view towards the upcoming of side services. There doesn't seem to be any anxiety about estate brokers way of work changing significantly. Instead it is the way of working in companies that will change because of the new law. For example as binding contracts with collaborate partners and the afterwork like following up to keep the partnerships alive and running.

    The new estate brokers law is a result of the development the business has faced during the last yeras and is among other things based on customer surveys which show that side services is something that is wanted by the customers. Because of that estate brokers see the upcoming of the side services as something inevitable but also as a possibility to make more money and develop the supley of services.

  • 306.
    Hedlund, Christer
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Brisund, Björn
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Ingen enkel kur! Modell för ökad servicenivå inom svensk sjukvård2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Temat för denna uppsats är - ökad service inom sjukvården. När ministrar – de högsta ansvariga för sjukvården - i en offentlig debattartikel efterlyser, ”att vården skall vara till för patienten och inte tvärtom” antyder det att sjukvården har problem när det gäller patient¬service. Uppsatsens empiriska material bekräftar denna bild.

    Vår avsikt med uppsatsen är att utforma en modell som kan vara ett verktyg i sjukvårdens arbete med att öka sin service till patienter. I uppsatsen undersöker vi möjligheterna till en patientdriven utveckling av service inom sjukvården. Vi har valt att arbeta med kvalitativ metod. Det innebär att vi tillämpar ett helhetsperspektiv på vår frågeställning vilket ger så stor förståelse som möjligt av det vi studerar.

    Uppsatsen ger en bakgrund till problem och tillgänglighet inom sjukvården, redogör för tidigare teorier och forskning inom området, redovisar empiriska undersökningar och visioner om en bättre sjukvård, beskriver den lagstiftning som reglerar området, och refererar patienters erfarenheter och upplevelser. Vi redogör även för utvecklingen inom organisationer – från management, till Service management, samt vårt resultat.

    Den föreslagna modellen ger förutsättningar för ökad service och tillgänglighet för patienten genom delaktighet och en maktförskjutning till patienten. Den ger också sjukvården ett verktyg för att utveckla sin verksamhet i samma riktning. Varje organisation kan utifrån sin ambition och sitt behov av förändring, själv finna sin väg. Innehållet i våra modeller kan ligga till grund för en sådan diskussion. Tillämpningen och resultatet av modellen kan skapa en stark sammanhållning i en organisation och möjliggöra ett gott klimat för förändring och en verklig förbättring för patienten.

    Att åstadkomma detta är dock ingen enkel kur.

  • 307.
    Hedman, Anna
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Fallet Arholma. Att förvärva, förädla eller att fördärva.2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Min tanke med uppsatsen var att undersöka en komplex förändringsprocess inom fastighetsförvaltning, där många inblandade intressenter deltagit. En stor fråga var hur intressenterna genom samsyn eller konflikt lyckats anpassa och bevara ett objekt med stort kulturarv, som både skall ge avkastning och finnas till för allmänheten. Jag ville se om fallet kunde fungera som en mall/verktyg för andra företag som är inne i liknande komplexa processer och studera intressenternas syn på utvecklingsarbetet och hur samordningen skett.

     

    Metod: Genom ett hermeneutiskt synsätt har jag samlat in primärdata från kvalitativa intervjuer med inblandade intressenter. Sekundärdata har inhämtats från intressenternas hemsidor på internet samt tidningsartiklar. Efter teoristudier och sammanställda intervjuer har resultaten jämförts mellan teori och empiri med hjälp av en teoretisk modell (intressentmodellen) för att komma fram till en slutsats.

     

    Resultat och slutsats: Mina intervjuer visade att de inblandade intressenterna hade gemensamt mål, få konflikter och god kommunikation. Utvecklingsarbetet har drivits av drivande och engagerade deltagare med samsyn där beslutsfattare styrt åt samma mål genom förtroende och samverkan sinsemellan. Deltagarna har känt ”vi-känsla”. Fallet skulle kunna utgöra en modell för att nå framgångsrika förändringsprocesser med många inblandade intressenter.

     

    Förslag till fortsatt forskning: Min uppsats har haft begränsningar genom att jag utelämnat två övergripande beslutsfattare som intar en maktposition. Det vore därför intressant att studera en liknande förändringsprocess där dessa inkluderats. En sådan studie skulle kunna utföras ur en annan intressents perspektiv.

     

    Uppsatsens bidrag: Jag tycker att jag har klarlagt att, i en komplex förändringsprocess, är det viktigt att beslutsfattare styr åt samma håll som övriga intressenter för att nå framgång. Fallet vi har studerat har varit ett föredöme och skulle kunna studeras av andra intressenter som vill lyckas med förändringsprocesser som är komplexa.

  • 308.
    Hedner, Erik
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Implementering av "Life Cycle Management" i svensk läkemedelsindustri2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It generally takes 10 to 12 years for a new drug to hit the market. The pharmaceutical industry invests huge sums in these early stages of research and development. In spite of the rapidly rising research and development expenditures fewer and fewer blockbuster drugs are being developed. Longer lead times and aggressive generic post-patent competition have narrowed the timeframe for the pharmaceutical companies to profit on their investments.

    In the face of these threats the pharmaceutical industry has developed a battery of strategies to prolong market exclusivity and to maximize return on investment. These emerging strategies are commonly known as Life cycle management (LCM), which actually is more of a concept than a method. A life cycle is a sequence that stretches all the way from early research and development, through marketing to finally end when the product is withdrawn from the market. By managing the product through these different stages the company can improve the commercial lifespan.

    This thesis analyzes how Life cycle management is implemented in the Swedish pharmaceutical industry. The data is based on interviews from people who are active in the pharmaceutical business. Further, the thesis studies the strategies that AstraZeneca used for their gastrointestinal drugs Losec and Nexium.

    Based on the collected data from the interviews a clear view of the role and involvement of LCM strategies appears. The value and importance of LCM have steadily increased during the last 10 years. LCM is heavily embedded in the decision processes of drugs today. Several strategies such as OTC switching and patent prolongation through pediatric indication application are common practice. The Swedish pharmaceutical industry has a prominent position in the advancement of LCM.

  • 309.
    Hedström, Elin
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Fastighetsmäklarutbildningen - Uppfyller den dagens behov?2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An industry that faces changes in both generation and distribution in terms of gender needs an education that is ahead and keeps up with the developement. The University of Gävle has a new estate-agent-program from the fall of 2006. It was made to follow the new requirements of the estate agent board and the wishes of the school. Has the auditing of the program been enough? I have investigated this, and found that the University of Gävle has come along quite well.

  • 310.
    Heidmark, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Kundorientering: ideal och verklighet2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det totalt kundorienterade företaget finns med största sannolikhet inte i verkligheten. Kanske finns det totalt kundorienterade företaget inte ens i teorin då det är svårt att veta exakt hur alla kunder värderar olika kundorienterade satsningar.

    Även om man söker kriterierna för det totalt kundorienterade företaget ser man olika behov och önskemål beroende på var man letar och vilken typ av kund man undersöker. En kund reagerar positivt på delar som andra kunder kan reagera negativt på.

  • 311.
    Heimerlöv, Jenny
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Ivarsson, Sandra
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Hållbarhetsredovisning: Ur företagens perspektiv2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine and describe the reasons why companies choose to conduct a sustainability report and what is required to compile it. Moreover, we wanted to examine why companies choose not to revise their sustainability report while others do.

  • 312.
    Hellberg, Mathias
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Svensson, Katrin
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Införande av kompostering: en jämförellse mellan två bostadsområden2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 313.
    Hellbom, Johanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics. University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Svanberg, Madelene
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Hotell Badjäflar: att uppleva sjuttiotalet på nytt2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We study the term experience economy and how we live today in what some scientists call The Experience Society. That is a society where our basic needs are fulfilled and in which we seek experiences to remember and to express ourselves.

    We have chosen to study earlier research made in this subject and present part of what we have read in an initiating theory section. After this we observed a couple of “experience based” hotels to see how this theory can be practiced in real life. The hotels we chose were Icehotel in Jukkasjärvi and Såstaholm in Täby. These two hotels turned out to be excellent examples of “experience based” hotels in Sweden. We have chosen to use a deductive way of presenting our results. Deduction is when conclusions are drawn out of existing theories and concepts.

    This earlier research literature and our studies of two actual hotels for experiences gave us the basis for how our hotel in Östhammar is designed with an experience theme – Hotel Badjäflar. Hotel Badjäflar is where we practice our new knowledge. The theme is the seventies and the surroundings and our activities will all be influenced by this decade. For our storytelling parts we will use stories about the author and filmmaker Lars Molin. Parts of the hotel surroundings are based on his movie Badjävlar. The reason we chose Lars Molin is because he lived and worked in Östhammar during the seventies and it was also here the movie Badjävlar was made.

    Our discussion chapter involves an evaluation of both Icehotel and Såstaholm as well as how we think Hotell Badjäflar will work out as an experience. Our opinion is that both Icehotel and Såstaholm have succeeded well in creating places for experiences that their guests will remember and be affected by. According to us Hotel Badjäflar has the potential to be an experience to remember for our guests. Finally we reflect on how the experience economy is commonly looked upon and the scepticism surrounding it. We also give suggestions on continued studies for the essay.

    Experience economy is to create memorable experiences that the customer will remember for a long time and will gladly recommend to his or her friends. The totality of the experience is essential and each person involved in creating the experience has a role to play through which the customer is put in the leading role.

  • 314.
    Hellmer, Ida
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Det är varmt och skitigt men innerst inne trivs vi: En kulturstudie i ett industriföretag2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Culture exists in every organization, whether you actively work with it or not. Old cultures often carry traditions and are hard to change. The purpose of this thesis is to describe Gävle Galvan from an organizational point of view and also to investigate the culture from a gender point of view.

    Method: The thesis is written with a qualitative and narrative approach. I have taken part in three person’s stories through interviews and thereby created picture of their everyday work on Gävle Galvan. It’s hard to describe a company’s culture and I have, with help from the stories and my own observations, tried to give an as balanced picture as possible. The interviews and my observations, together with organizational theoretical concepts, create my story of the company.

    Conclusions: This study is confirmed by Schein’s theory; it’s difficult to change old behaviours and traditions, what Schein calls assumptions. Gävle Galvan characterizes by its history and how it’s always been. What once was created has been well kept and led to an assumption. The culture has a couple of culture carrier who have been in the organization for many decades. These persons are often respected because they have a long experience of the profession and they will not accept new co-workers that don’t share their norms and values. The forced habits make it hard for Gävle Galvan to adjust their activities in terms of equality between the sexes. Traditions contribute to generalize the female sex and the profit of having both women and men in an organization doesn’t come thru.

  • 315. Hellsten, Lars
    et al.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Internationell ekonomi: resurser och handel i en gränslös värld2003Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 316.
    Helsing, Joan
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Prissättning i dataserviceföretag2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Anledningen till att jag valde att skriva om prissättning i just dataserviceföretag är att jag har arbetat i den branschen. Jag såg då tydliga brister i företaget jag arbetade i. Jag vill ge företag som dessa ett verktyg för att skapa en allmän förståelse för prissättning och jag gör detta genom att skapa en modell.

    Metod: Jag använder ett hermeneutiskt synsätt med kvalitativa intervjuer. Jag använder både primärdata och sekundärdata för att skapa modellen och utföra analysen av företagen. Detta redovisar jag på ett logiskt sätt i kronologisk ordning allt eftersom arbetet fortskrider.

    Resultat & slutsats: Resultatet av mitt arbete är en modell som kan användas av mindre dataserviceföretag. Modellen är inte ett verktyg som bör användas i blindo, utan den bör mer användas som en katalysator för arbete med prissättning. Jag anser att modellen ger en snabbkurs i prissättning.

    Förslag till fortsatt forskning: Om jag skulle fortsätta arbeta med prissättning skulle jag utvidga min modell för att få in fler perspektiv än det jag använt. Det vore intressant att se en modell som inte är baserad på Kotlers teorier.

    Uppsatsens bidrag: Jag tycker att mitt arbete är utmärkt för nya studenter som inte förstår prissättningens grunder. Modellen gör att det går snabbt och enkelt att lära sig prissättningens grunder ur Kotlers perspektiv.

  • 317.
    Henriksson, Isabelle
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Mäki, Jenny
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Entreprenörers motiverande och påverkande krafter till att starta eget2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Our purpose is to report on a few of the internal and external factors that influence a person to choose and dare to start his own company, instead of being employed. We would also like to get an insight on what is of strong importance when you establish a new company. This will be done with a theoretical and empirical study.

  • 318.
    Hermele, Kenneth
    et al.
    Peace and Development Studies, Växjö university, Växjö, Sweden.
    Hollander, Ernst
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Only What Counts, Counts: Sustainability Accounting Innovations as Tools to Open New Fields of Enquiry2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 319.
    Hermele, Kenneth
    et al.
    Peace and Development Studies, Växjö University.
    Hollander, Ernst
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Taking sustainability into account2008In: Science for sustainable development: the social challenge with emphasis on the conditions for change : proceedings of the 2nd VHU Conference on Science for Sustainable Development, Linköping, Sweden, 6-7 September 2007 / [ed] B. Frostell, Å. Danielsson, L. Hagberg, B.-O. Linnér, E. Lisberg Jensen, Uppsala: Föreningen Vetenskap för Hållbar Utveckling (VHU) , 2008, p. 221-229Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter we argue in favour of transparent accounting for ecological and social sustainability. Such accounting serves as a warning against economism by highlighting the social and ecological costs of economic growth that is accompanied by growing social inequalities, dissolution of trust and reciprocity in society, as well as by ecological destruction.

    We do this in four steps. First we briefly note that many analysts (including us – the two authors) are tempted to choose between two extremes. Either you settle for a one-dimensional measure, or you include so many dimensions that the end result becomes impossible to grasp. Secondly, we present an economic measure of the value of ecological services which we view as useful inter alia in order to establish ecological concerns in a society where economic considerations still dominate. Thirdly, we elaborate a new measure to “green” the Human Development Index, which we call the Sustainable Human Development Index. Fourthly, we discuss two problems with the SHDI: Substitutability and Modernity. We pursue our discussion against the background of the fact that the GDP still commands a unique position of influence over the social discourse of sustainability.

    However, the powerful position of this reductionist concept can be turned around to serve the interest of sustainability, in two ways. Firstly, by using economic measures of sustainability in order to argue for more demanding policies; and secondly, by reminding ourselves that even reductionist measures may serve good purposes, as when GDP calculations were part of the process of estimating available economic resources which in turn contributed to making the welfare state possible after the second world war.

  • 320.
    Hillberg, Diana
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Säljträningens betydelse för fastighetsmäklare2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The thesis aims to increase the understanding of the meaning of sales training for estate agents. Is it important to possess these qualities? Why is it important? What role has sales training in the education?

    Method: In the execution of my thesis I have taken help from literature, Internet sources and other theses. To build up these theories and conclusions, I have also chosen to interview appropriate respondents in the different sections.

    Result & Conclusions: As an estate agent you are a professional seller. The success lies in how well you do during the intake which can be compared with other sales situations. Sales Ability can be taught and trained. All institutions that offer real estate brokerage education offer sales training to some extent.

    Suggestions for future research:- Go deeper into why some institutions of higher education focused more on sales training than others- What are FMN’s views about sales training?- A deeper study of differences in sales work for estate agents in a downturn/recession versus boom.

    Contribution of the thesis: - The thesis gives an overall view of the sales elements extent in Swedens education of estate agents.- Provides reasons for the importance of sales element in the education of estate agents.

  • 321.
    Hiltunen, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi. University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Olika perspektiv på förändringar: En studie av Swedbank2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Huvudsyftet med den här studien är att granska hur omorganisering av Swedbankskontoret i Gävlecity har uppfattats av de anställda. En del av syftet är vad den underliggande grunden för den ökade väntetiden för privatkunder inne på bankkontoret.

  • 322.
    Ho, Jessica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Nilsson, Zung
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Mäklarna körs över: Vem är självsäljaren?2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It has developed new actors on the real estate market according to the media that takes more of the market shares. Right now when the real estate market is overheated and the real estate agents won’t give them any attention and tend to sweep the problem away. If you let these actors act freely they will be a big threat to the whole business and especially to the small agencies in the small towns that don’t have support from big corporations to back them up. We want to investigate how these actors think and act on the market.

    A new research shows that we tend to sell our homes without middlemen only if we have the right knowledge. It also shows that one of the biggest changes is that most of us search on the Internet when we are looking for a new place to live and we think the real estate agents commission are too high. Over 80% of the Swedish looks for their home on the web. Most of them are between the age of 20-29 years old and the number shows 87 percent. But the number is also high for the ages between 45-65 years old. The research also shows that only 4 percent of all that goes to an agent when they look for a new home.

    Our empirical materials are base mostly on interviews with the local real estate agents and the private seller here in Gävle. Further on we will call the private sellers as self sellers.

    Our research shows that:

    * Real estate agents believe that self sellers are decreasing and it’s only those who have relationship to one an other that do it on their own without an agent.

    * Real estate agents don’t see any threats neither now or in the future from the self sellers and that’s why they won’t make any moves against them.

    * Self seller thinks that it’s easier and cheaper to do it by them self/on their own.

    * They think that they have better control over the procedure and besides, the agents only drive up the prices.

  • 323.
    Hollander, Ernst
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Enviro-innovative processes initialised by unions and other social actors: with a focus on TCO eco-labels2001In: Towards a Sustainable Worklife: Building Social Capacity - European Approaches / [ed] Eckart Hildebrandt, Børge Lorentzen, Eberhard Schmidt, Berlin: Edition Sigma, 2001, p. 87-103Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 324.
    Hollander, Ernst
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Introducing demand shaping as a mirror process to the innovation process2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 325.
    Hollander, Ernst E.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    The noble art of demand shaping: how the tenacity of sustainable innovation can be explained by it being radical in a new sense2003In: Proceedings of GIN2003, 2003, article id 61Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There's an enigmatic tenacity in sustainable innovation processes. I try to explain it by introducing demand shapingas a mirror process to the innovation process. In the literature on innovation it is often noted that it is impossible to plan radical innovation. Studies by economists and business economists alike have, however, mostly analysed those that are radical in a technological or economic sense. I introduce a third type of radicalness - radicalness in the demand shaping. Economists have had a hard time in appreciating this type of radicalness since they are seldom willing to rub shoulders with social anthropologists or sociologists.

    Sustainable innovation processes often involve creative demand shaping since they presuppose dialogues that bridge huge distances of rationalities. Cases in point are when new or old social movements must interact with planners of infrastructure or R&D departments of TNC's in order to find (part) solutions for their sustainability demands. The complexity of the bridge building becomes even greater since the creative path breakers on both sides of the innovative user<->producer relation live very precarious lives in their respective organisations. Creativity is seen as threatening by the establishments of the organisations since new patterns of thought often devalue traditional competencies, networks etc.

    Creative bridge building often takes place at protomarkets where path breakers from users and producers meet. Those producers - such as innovative industrial firms - who, through their "representatives" at proto markets, listen to the "weak signals" from new demand shapers will, however, often be punished for their receptiveness. This occurs if those who look like path breakers on the "user side", in my words new demand shapers, can not develop into representatives of the broader user side. Because the user side must have a rewarding capacity in relation to those producers that dare to venture into sustainable innovation processes. The rewards can take many forms but I summarise them with the term Dominant Demand. Successful demand shapers must thus be both small/flexible and big/resource rich. This is a dilemma for many sustainable innovations.

    If, however, the many challenges are successfully met this will mean a lot for both sustainability and the actors involved.

  • 326.
    Holm, Kristoffer
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Karlsten, Andreas
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Marknadsföring av miljöarbete gentemot hyresgästerna i fastighetsaktiebolaget Norrporten2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte

    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att undersöka hur pass bra Norrporten marknadsför sitt miljöarbete ut till sina hyresgäster samt redogöra hur pass bra samarbetet fungerar mellan Norrporten och deras hyresgäster när det gäller miljöarbetet.

     

    Metod

    Uppsatsen utgår från Norrportens hyresgästers synvinkel angående deras hyresvärds miljöarbete.

    Undersökningen har gjorts med en kvalitativ ansats genom intervjuer med sex olika hyresgäster.

     

    Empirin

    Samtliga hyresgäster har varierande dock bristfälliga kunskaper om Norrportens miljöarbete. Intresset för detta är däremot större och det finns inget som tyder på mottsatsen i framtiden.

     

    Teoretiska perspektiv

    De teorier som har använts är främst kopplade till ämnena marknadsföring och miljö. Vidare har empirin kopplats till tidigare forskning för att styrka våra teorier samt resultat.  

     

    Slutsats

    ISO 14001 certifieringen är en onödig investering för fastighetsbolag. Miljömedvetenheten är större hos de statliga än de privata.

  • 327.
    Holm, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Delaktighet och förtroende - finns dessa i ett förändringsarbete2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Resultatet av undersökningen på Försäkringskassan, Gävleborg, visar att majoriteten i båda respondentgrupperna definierar delaktighet och förtroende likadant. Därefter skiljer sig meningarna åt både mellan respondentgrupperna men även inom respondentgrupperna. Det som lednings- och chefsgrupperna har jobbat med för att uppnå känslan av delaktighet och, indirekt, förtroende är att ge information så tidigt som möjligt och att föra en dialog. De tycker att personalen måste visa engagemang och vilja för att delaktighet skall vara uppfyllt, vilket finner stöd i tidigare forskning. Informationen från huvudkontoret i Stockholm har erhållits i omgångar vilket lett till att det har funnits få svar att ge på personalens frågor. Detta har upplevts frustrerande av intervjuade chefer. Förtroendeskapande har inte målinriktat arbetats med utan mer indirekt genom att skapa en känsla av delaktighet, trygghet och att ge information.

    Trots att det är information som arbetats med från lednings- och chefsgrupp upplever flertalet av personalen att de fått dålig information och de delar de båda chefernas uppfattning att det inte funnit några svar att få. Majoriteten av personalen har visat en vilja att engagera sig genom att ta till sig den givna informationen, ställa frågor, delta i diskussioner och ge synpunkter. Resterande känner att det inte varit någon idé att engagera sig då allt redan är beslutat av huvudkontoret i Stockholm. Att förtroendeskapande inte var något som arbetats med speglade sig i personalens svar om förtroende för lednings- och chefsgruppen. Svaren avseende förtroende var mer varierande än svaren rörande delaktighet. Hälften ur personalgruppen tyckte att informationen om omorganiseringen funnits löpande och varit bra. Medan flera ur personalen hade svårt att se att ledningsgruppen gjort något alls för att skapa förtroende.

    Ledningsrepresentanten tror att de lyckas skapa en känsla av delaktighet och förtroende bland majoriteten av personalen medan områdeschefen upplever att ledningen och chefer har misslyckats radikalt med att skapa delaktighet och förtroende för ledningen men att förtroendet för närmsta chefen är stort. Enhetschefen tycker att de inte lyckats helt med att skapa delaktighet men att de har hanterat sin del på ett bra sätt. Upplevelsen av förtroende delar hon med områdeschefen. Endast en eller två ur personalgruppen kände delaktighet och/eller förtroende för lednings- och chefsgruppen. Några kände delvis delaktighet och förtroende medan de flesta inte kände vare sig delaktighet eller förtroende.

  • 328.
    Holmgren, Andreas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Kling, Louise
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Lågkonjunkturen 2008 - Hur har den påverkat företag i sällanköps- och dagligvarubranschen?2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet är att med en nyckeltalsanalys undersöka om och i så fall hur den rådande finanskrisen har påverkat företag inom sällanköps- och dagligvarubranschen. Vi ska även undersöka om lågkonjunkturen slagit till på samma sätt mot små företag som mot stora.

    Metod: Vår uppsats bygger på en kvantitativ undersökning av företag inom branscherna sällanköp och dagligvaror. De nyckeltal som vi samlat in kommer från SIX AB. Vi har undersökt sex nyckeltal som mäter företagens tillväxt, finansiella balans och lönsamhet. Företagen har delats in i stora respektive små med avseende på deras börsvärde. Resultatet bygger på de genomsnittliga nyckeltalen för stora och små företag och redovisas i diagram. I samband med diagrammen analyserar vi de förändringar vi kan urskilja de tre senaste åren.

    Resultat & slutsats: Vår uppsats bekräftar det som teorierna och tidigare forskning kommit fram till: sällanköpsbranschen påverkas negativt i högre grad än dagligvarubranschen av en fallande konjunktur. Det mest påtagliga resultatet ser vi när vi analyserar de tre nyckeltalen som mäter företagens lönsamhet. Företagen inom sällanköpsbranschen har kraftigt försämrat dessa nyckeltal och allra värst ser det ut för de små företagen.

    Förslag till fortsatt forskning: Vårt förslag till fortsatta studier är att göra en likvärdig studie när krisen har lagt sig. Det var under hösten 2008 som Sverige på allvar började påverkas av krisen och vi är fortfarande mitt uppe i den. En annan intressant inriktning skulle kunna vara att undersöka hur aktiens kurs har påverkats under krisen och jämföra det med förändringarna i nyckeltalen.

    Uppsatsens bidrag: Uppsatsen bidrar till att verifiera att tidigare forskning och teorier kring de företag studien omfattar fortfarande är aktuella under lågkonjunkturen 2008.

  • 329.
    Holmgren, Johan
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Nya spelregler för allmännyttan: Betydelsen av strategiskt arbete i en föränderlig miljö2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    This paper is about how the future picture of the public housing sector in Stockholm (capital of Sweden) may look like. It will focus on how these companies need to develop to be able to handle future threats. A recent bill proposed by the government will make it possible for right of tenancy owners to reorganize their tenancy right to tenant-ownership, without permission from county administration. This bill will most likely be approved. This increases the risk/possibilities that large parts of the public housing sector in the inner city may disappear. This will make the public housing sector in Stockholm less attractive.

    The questions how the public housing sectors run its business and what its goals should be have always been discussed. This paper will from an organizational perspective describe the role of public housing in Sweden. It will also discuss possible development of the public housing sector, how the bill may affect the public housing sector and which related tasks these companies work with today.

    This paper will also describe the importance of working with strategic marketing and which problems non-profit companies have had in the past in this area. Research has shown that these companies often in their marketing try to aim at all people. Historical this has shown to be a non successful approach. Therefore working with segmentation has become more and more important to companies. The paper shows that this also is the case in Stockholm’s public housing sector and will show areas were the strategic work with segmentation can be improved.

    To make this paper as reliable as possible interviews with market responsibility persons who work in the public housing sector in Stockholm were made. These interviews made it possible to compare the theoretical starting-point with the reality in these companies and show were the lack in there organizations are.

    One of the results this study will show is that the public housing companies in Stockholm run their business in a less strategic way. Today’s public housing companies often wait until problems appear before they try to obstruct it. This paper claims that one of the reasons for this way of dealing with changes in the environment has to do with the companies political steering.

    In conclusion of this paper it will be discussed how the future of the public housing sector in Stockholm may look like and in what way its organizations need to change direction. Points will also be made on some of the things that must be taken care of if public housing in the future wants to stay as an attractive alternative on the housing market. Today’s activity makes it hard to think in longer terms and act strategic. According to the paper this depends a great deal on their political steering and how changes in politics can redirect the company’s whole activity. This makes the employees in these companies less enthusiastic to think in long terms.

    Why work in a strategic way when the focus can change the next day? The paper argues that there need to be a change in how Stockholm’s public housing sector works today if they want to stay competitive in the future.

  • 330.
    Holmlund, Mats
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Timing, begreppets betydelse inom organisation och marknadsföring2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the concept of Timing and its importance in a marketing and organisational context.

    My purpose has been to present an overall picture about timing by illuminating valuations in earlier research, in more everyday situations and in a linguistic sense. The issue has been to match this with today's marketing and organizational literature.

    As a result of this study I have created a model which summarizes the concept of Timing. I hope this model and my study can be useful in future research and in practical use.

  • 331.
    Horn, Joakim
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Vad är laganda?2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Team spirit is a concept often used in both managerial literature and in other contexts where the efficiency of a group is discussed. Despite the fact that team spirit is used as a selling point for courses, books and seminars, no unambiguous definition of the term is available. The purpose of this thesis is to clarify what team spirit means to individuals within companies and team sports.

     

    Method: The thesis has been carried out using studies of available literature, which has been compiled into a conceivable model of what team spirit may imply. From this model a poll has been made, and handed out to individuals within companies as well as team sports. After having compiled the 37 replies, correlating answers has been sought after within each group of respondents.

     

    Result & Conclusions: The result shows us that there are varying opinions of what team spirit is, and generally accepted definitions of closely related ideas like cohesion and group development has to the respondents not been able to form a satisfying description of what team spirit means. Team spirit is therefore a concept being defined by each individual for themselves. Combined with peoples desire for team spirit, this constitutes an opportunity to use the term as a linguistic strategy in order to reach own goals.

     

    Suggestions for future research: Future research should in order to discern any connections between individuals’ opinions of team spirit, and their environment, consist of qualitative interviews. An increased field of research might comprise the questions how team spirit is achieved, what effects it has, and how a leader influences it.

     

    Contribution of the thesis: The thesis points out that team spirit is a concept not easily defined, which also can be used in several different ways. Anyone working with the making of team spirit, or discussing team spirit, draws benefit of shaping their own conscious perspective of the concept. In this respect, this thesis constitutes a helpful contribution.

  • 332.
    Huang, Xiansong
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Respondent lobbying on the proposed disclosure information of goodwill impairment test and assumption2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Goodwill accounting treatment has been a subject of heated debate for a long time in many countries around the world. Changing to international accounting standards and settings was much discussed in Sweden. International Accounting Standard Board (IASB) issued Exposure Drafts, which were related to goodwill accounting treatment in 2002. In this thesis, two respondents groups’ positions, regarding the disclosure information on goodwill impairment test, and assumption are examined by studying comment letters that submitted to the IASB. It is suggested that the two groups lobbied the proposal because the new standard has economic consequences. The result shows that, as hypothesized, non-preparer group supported more than the preparer group for disclosing variety information on goodwill impairment test and assumption. Furthermore, it would be interesting to see what kind of arguments from two different groups, and how they argue for their positions. The result is both groups used IASB framework are based on useful arguments to support their positions at the same extent, although the objects behind the lobbying activities are different from two groups.

  • 333.
    Hugg, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Wahlström, Jenny
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Nedskrivningsprövning av Goodwill - En kvantitativ2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since the year 2005 listed companies are supposed to use international accounting standards when they set up their group accountancy. One thing that has changed with the new standards is the accounting of goodwill and long-lived intangible assets. Earlier companies were supposed to write of their goodwill during the years they had expected the extra profit to arise. According to the new regulation, an impairment test shall be done annually, as well as when there is an indication of decreased value. According to IAS 36 point 134, the company shall provide information in their accountancy about the impairment test.

    The aim of this study is to find out if some companies may be willing to reveal less information in their accountancy, and if there are any factors that affect this. We will investigate if there is any relation between how much the three largest owners in each company hold both in equity- and vote share and how much information that is provided in the accountancy. We will also investigate if there is any relation between the expectations of returns from the market and how much information that is provided. The first hypothesis is: If companies are expected to get a high future cash flow, which implies a high market value in relation to book value of equity, then the company will reveal less information conveying much knowledge about the market to their competitors. The second hypothesis claim that if the three largest owners together holds a large equity- vote share, where small asymmetric information exists, then the company should want to disclose less information in their accountancy.

    In this research we analyse the accountancy of each company listed at the OMX exchange by 31 Dec 2005. To see how much information that is disclosed in the accountancy, we have chosen to analyse how and if the companies accomplish their accounting according to IAS 36 point 134. To be able to compare how much information the companies provided about this, we have created a score structure. Furthermore we have used SPSS to make a regression analysis, which should show if there are any relations. Our results however show that there is no relation between how much information that is given and how large the market value compared to book value of equity is. Neither did we find any relation between how large the three largest owners where and how much information that was provided. Our results differ from earlier studies. One cause for that might be that we only picked three variables, while their studies could have included a lot more variables. Our study only focuses on a small part of the accountancy; if we had analyzed the entire accountancy we might have arrived to a different result. The year 2005 was furthermore the first year that the companies were obliged to follow the standard, which also could have had a certain impact on the result.

  • 334.
    Hurum, Jerry
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Change Management or continuous improvements: Planning a company to transform into a Lean Enterprise2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It seems commonly accepted that today’s competitive environment with changing customer values, the need to introduce products faster, and financial expectations of stockholders demand a change in the old way of doing things.

    In 2003 Dyno Nobel merged with an American company, Ensign Bickford, which had developed very promising results over the last few years. The Ensign Bickford Company had recently received the Szhingo Prize for their excellent implementation of Lean Production (Toyota Production System). It was now decided to implement “Lean” in all of the new Dyno Nobel.

    LEAN is about creating more value for customers by eliminating activities that are considered waste. This implies that any activity that consumes resources, adds cost or time without creating customer value is a target for elimination.

    It’s often said that Lean is more a philosophy than it is a system. We need to change the way we think. It’s to continuously improve the way we operate. An endless fight against waste.

    The problem here is how to transform the European part of Dyno Nobel into becoming a “Lean Enterprise”. The objective of this thesis is to develop a change plan (method or model), which can be used as a basis when managing the Lean implementation in this part of Dyno Nobel (in all practical respects we’re actually talking about the Scandinavian part of the company).

    From all available literature, input from other sources as well as advises given by other professionals a transformation or implementation plan (model) has been created. Then some of the theories from the plan have been tested in real life at some pilot areas of the organisation.

    In this study, besides the theories and philosophies around Lean and the Toyota production system itself, the core of the Plan developed has been created around the methodology as outlined by J.P. Kotter in his book "Leading Change" and by the systematic approach to a problem as described by Dr. W. Edwards Deming and the continuous improvement spiral, the PDCA wheel. Dr. Deming's approach is actually said to be the catalyst for the development of the Toyota production system in the first place. The hole spirit of Lean circles around continuous improvements, never to relax and be satisfied, to always strive for improvements and to do so by the “Plan – Do – Check – Act” approach described by Dr. Deming.

    The cases studied here can all be seen as preliminary studies in implementing different parts of the Lean Philosophy in practise. Through Value Stream Mapping of all the major value streams at the company, the cases to study, or rather the cases to start with, where selected.

    Based on the results and the experience gained from those pilot areas the plan have been evaluated and or adjusted. The strategy chosen here was to conduct a survey in literature and mixed also with input from visiting other companies that have conducted similar changes and then create a first version of the Plan. To improve the Plan and to verify the methods some in-house case studies have been conducted.

    A qualitative research approach has been utilised for this study, researching the implications of transforming an organisation to become Lean, in other words to make individuals change behaviour in their interaction with others.

    The essential idea here is that the researcher goes "into the field" to observe the phenomenon in its natural state or in situ. As such, it is most related to the method of participant observations.

    Based on the experiences gained from the cases run, combined with input from literature, the outcome of this study is a plan for how to manage the transformation of a specific company to become a Lean Enterprise that might also be of interest to others considering similar changes in other companies. However, as outlined by the author, an organisation’s culture is unique and the world of commerce is constantly changing, as the circumstances of today may not be relevant in a week or few months time. As a consequence, this plan should not be considered to generally be valid for other companies.

    In short, the conclusion is that change is possible. You need a simple understandable plan, the company top management to lead the way and constant focus.

  • 335.
    Hussain, Imdad
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för nationalekonomi.
    What can be learnt by economy-wide models of transport investment planning?2004Report (Other academic)
  • 336.
    Hyder, Akmal
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Fregidou-Malama, Maria
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    International services marketing: What can be learnt from a medical case?2006In: ILTG conference in Graz, Austria, 6-7 April 2006.: 2nd International Conference on Intercultural Communication Competence, 2006Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The international market of services is growing at a faster rate. Despite the importance of the service sector in both domestic and world markets, the amount of empirical research addressing the internationalization of services remains relatively low. Nature and characteristic of services have made service marketing and study related to it difficult. If the service is set for international market, question around intangibility, quality, and the demand for simultaneous production and consumption is likely to aggravate the situation. As people across the borders are different from a cultural viewpoint, the same service element can be perceived differently making the service internationalization process further difficult. This paper deals with a case of Swedish medical service marketing process in Egypt and offers a profound insight on the complex issue of international services marketing by addressing the following research questions:

    The data collection was a rigorous process and mainly took place in the form of direct interviews. Eight people including the managing director and the major owner of the Swedish-Egyptian firm were interviewed. Further three local consultants were interviewed and two seminars were held in Egypt to have an idea on general business practice in the host country. The conceptual framework is based on three variables, i.e. cultural adaptation, trust and network. Selling service internationally requires that the service provider is aware of the local taste, preference and habit. To be successful in internationalization, it is usually necessary that some cultural adaptation takes place, probably from both sides. The intangible characteristic of the services requires that trust is built and maintained throughout if the internationalization process has to be successful. Network represents a critical point of investigation in understanding internationalization. Network development is very important where the uncertainty is high due to physical and cultural distance, communication gap and service characteristics themselves which make the offerings heterogeneous, perishable and difficult to readily display. This study shows that cultural adaptation has taken place in respect to timing, building trust in the local environment, handling bureaucratic issues, local traditions and offering services to the clients. Problem of intangibility, heterogeneity and quality has been solved by providing consistent services and establishing links with the medical colleges and other institutions. This research work offers several opportunities for learning. First, it is important to recognize cultural differences and local traditions to design the service concept. Second, there is a need to develop sufficient local contacts and trust to make the service offerings tangible. Finally, the adaptation needs to take place from both sides, otherwise promising factors and strength may be kept outside the final business concept offered to the clients.

  • 337.
    Hyder, Akmal
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Lönnstedt, Lars
    North Carolina State University.
    Penttinen, Markku
    Finnish Forest Research Institute.
    Outline of accounting for non-industrial private woodlots1994In: Silva Fennica, ISSN 0037-5330, E-ISSN 2242-4075, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 115-137Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 338.
    Hyder, Akmal
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Lönnstedt, Lars
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Penttinen, Markku Juhani
    Finnish Forest Research Institute.
    Accounting as a management tool for non-industrial private forestry1999In: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 173-191Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 339.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    School of Technology and Society, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Institutional factors and strategic alliances in eastern and central Europe2008In: Baltic Journal of Management, ISSN 1746-5265, E-ISSN 1746-5273, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 289-308Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 340.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    Product and skills development in small- and medium-sized high-tech firms through international strategic alliances2004In: Singapore management review: Asia-Pacific journal of management theory and practice, ISSN 0129-5977, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 1-24Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Major studies on strategic alliances have until now concentrated on large firms, thus opportunities and problems related to the formation and operation of alliances by small- and medium-sized firms remain unexplored. This study concentrates on product and skills development in high-tech small- and medium-sized firms (SMHT) through international strategic alliances. Due to the explorative nature of the study, a qualitative method has been used for data collection and analysis. A theoretical framework consisting of motives, resources, learning, network, and performance has been applied to analyse case studies. Learning, complementarity of resources, and development of long-term relationships are found to be closely related with performance. Another finding is that environmental issues often have significant impact on the development of alliances.

    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  • 341.
    Hyder, Akmal S
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    Strategic alliances in Eastern and Central Europe2003 (ed. 1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 342.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    Strategic alliances in the Baltic states: a case of Swedish firms2006In: Competitiveness Review, ISSN 1059-5422, Vol. 16, no 3/4, p. 173-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of the Baltic states has increased due to increase of capital inflow from the West. A large part of the foreign involvement takes the form of alliance with local partners in the region. But how these alliances operate and fulfill the objectives of the partners in the Baltic states remain almost unexplored. By the help of depth interviews, four alliances, two in Estonia and the other two in Lithuania, have therefore been studied in this research work. The theoretical framework is based on the concepts of motives, resources, learning, network, performance and general environment. Cost reduction, market seeking, and development and maintenance of services have been the main motives of foreign firms in entering into the alliances. No clear cut motive is observed from the local partners’ side. Learning has been found important for both the partners and concerns cultural differences, local knowhow and adaptation to the Western way in doing business. A broader view of performance is presented by including network development in the article. Profitability, market share, and sales have been seen as short term while network development and relationships as longterm performance criteria in the alliances. The role of general environment on alliances and its impact on network development have also been observed. This study further suggests that alliances offering service dominated products concentrate on the local markets, while alliances offering products with less service elements have export as the target.

  • 343.
    Hyder, Akmal S
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Eriksson, Lars Torsten
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Success is not enough: The spectacular rise and fall of a strategic alliance between two multinationals2005In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 34, no 8, p. 783-796Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 344.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Fregidou-Malama, Maria
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Services marketing in a cross-cultural environment: the case of Egypt2009In: Journal of Services Marketing, ISSN 0887-6045, E-ISSN 0887-6045, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 261-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to analyze how adaptation/standardization, trust and network development are achieved when marketing services in a culturally distant country through handling the problems of intangibility and heterogeneity. Design/methodology/approach - Qualitative data are collected in the form of unstructured interviews and direct observation to conduct a single case study on Gamma Knife. Findings - Adaptation/standardization plays the central role in internationalization of services marketing. For service development and quality maintenance, values and ideas of the foreign company dominate the adaptation (i.e. standardization), while market-related adaptation is carried out in response to local culture and practices. Research limitations/implications - The research is based on a single case. Future research can involve similar in-depth study examining how internationalization of services works in culturally distant countries, the results of which can be compared with the current study. Practical implications - In international services marketing, in addition to meeting formal and official requirements, managers must concentrate on building trust and informal contacts. Originality/value - The research uses an empirical illustration to provide a model on internationalization of services marketing based on adaptation/ standardization, trust and network, to overcome intangibility- and heterogeneity-related difficulties. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 345.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Gaddefors, Johan
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Towards a typology of strategic alliances for small firms2009In: International Journal of Strategic Management, ISSN 1555-2411, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 78-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many studies have been conducted on strategic alliances, but mainly from large and medium-sized companies’ perspectives. This work concentrates on small firms and suggests a typology of small firm alliances to reveal their opportunities and constraints relating to alliance formation and development. By combining network and Entrepreneurship orientation (EO), an alliance typology consisting of four categories: (1) stable-proactive, (2) stable-innovative, (3) dynamic-proactive and (4) dynamic-innovative is developed. The proposed typology is exemplified by the help of in-depth case illustration which performs a two-fold function: it examines the applicability of the typology and it offers guidance to the entrepreneurs as how to combine effectively network and EO and also position the firm in the appropriate typology in managing business. All the alliance type can be appropriate for small firms, but the nature of business will decide which type will be employed. One limitation of this study is the focus on service firms. Two studies can be suggested in this regard: a focus exclusively on the manufacturing firms to compare with the result of the current study and to combine both service and manufacturing firms to illustrate the theoretical contribution.

  • 346.
    Hyder, Akmal S
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Ghauri, Pervez N
    Managing international joint venture relationships: A longitudinal perspective2000In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 205-218Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 347.
    Hyder, Akmal S.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Lövblad, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    The repatriation process: a realistic approach2007In: Career Development International, ISSN 1362-0436, E-ISSN 1758-6003, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 264-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - This paper aims to present how a realistic view of the situation for the repatriate can help companies increase the retention rate among this important group of employees. A complete understanding of the repatriation process is crucial to offering repatriating employees proper backing and moral support needed during the process. Design/methodology/approach - A thorough review of the literature on repatriation is carried out to present a repatriation process model and a number of research propositions. Findings - This paper suggests that by focusing on motives and individuals' experience of the repatriation process, researchers and practitioners will be better able to understand the measures and support needed in the repatriation process to increase the retention of an organization's repatriated employees. Research limitations/implications - Suggestions for future research include a test of propositions by a survey, a longitudinal study of repatriates and closer look at the variables of motives and repatriation experience. Originality/value - This paper combines existing knowledge with new insights for understanding the repatriation process.

  • 348.
    Häggström, Olle
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Grönqvist, Johan
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Multinationella koncerners internprissättningspolicies2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose:

    - To examine whether OECD:s guidelines are accepted among the reviewed multinational corporations and to describe what Transfer Pricing models they use.

    - To describe what kind of effects they try to accomplish with their Transfer Pricing.

    - To examine to what degree the tax issue has on Transfer Pricing.

    - To examine how these Multinational Corporations document their Transfer Pricing and how the new demands on documentation will affect them

  • 349.
    Iggland, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    En studie om Svenska företag i Asien2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of the thesis is to look closer what is behind Swedish companies decisions to expand internationally. More exactly look into which factors are most important for the Swedish companies when they choose country in Asia?

    Method: I have collected two types of data for this study. Those are:

    • Literature

    • Interviews

    Result & Conclusion: The conclusion is that Swedish companies that are going to expand to Asia should pick a country that gives them the most profit. The companies are aware of the cultural differences and to lower them and the language differences they need to employee domestic personnel. The political factors the companies believe that it’s the same for all Asian countries. The company’s strategy is different depending on the intention for the expansion to an Asian country.

    Suggestions for future research:

    • It would be really interesting to conduct a study with more companies and not only Swedish companies.

    • It would also be interesting to study companies in Asia that didn’t succeed, they will most likely have a different point of view regarding Culture, language, political and strategically issues.

    Contribution of the thesis: The thesis gives Swedish companies insight in what is needed to take into consideration when companies expand to Asia. What is important and what is less important for the organisation.

  • 350.
    Iggland, Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Johansson, Dan
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    En studie om Varumärken i media - Hur ska GävleTidningar förhålla sig till Arbetarbladet och GefleDagblad?2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with the study is to examine the complex problem of brands, in a competition - and cooperation situation.

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