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  • 301.
    Holmström, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Molander, Bo
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Jansson, John
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Barnekow-Bergqvist, Margareta
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Evaluation of a Swedish version of the Job Stress Survey2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 277-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    he present study assesses and evaluates the psychometric properties of a Swedish version of the Job Stress Survey (JSS; Spielberger, 1991; Spielberger & Vagg, 1999). This instrument is constructed to measure generic sources of occupational stress encountered by employees in a wide variety of work settings, settings that often result in psychological strain. The JSS was administered to metal assembly industry workers and medical service personnel in northern Sweden (n= 1186). The exploratory factor analysis showed that there is a high similarity between the present Swedish version and the original American version. Internal reliabilities of the scales, as well as test-retest reliabilities were shown to be high, and concurrent validity, as examined by comparisons with the Perceived Stress Questionnaire Index (Levenstein et al., 1993) was found to be satisfactory. The consistency of these findings is discussed with particular focus on groups of employees, gender, and cross-cultural evaluations.

  • 302.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    et al.
    National Research Institute for the Working Environment (NRCWE), Copenhagen.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Pinder, Andrew
    Health and Safety Executive, United Kingdom.
    Punakallio, Anne
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH), Helsinki.
    Veiersted, Bo
    National Institute of Occupational Health (STAMI), Oslo.
    Weber, Britta
    Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the German Social Accident Insurance (IFA), Sankt Augustin.
    Ditchen, Dirk
    Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the German Social Accident Insurance (IFA), Sankt Augustin.
    Takala, Esa-Pekka
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH), Helsinki.
    Draicchio, Francesco
    National Institute for Insurance against Accidents at Work (INAIL), Rome.
    Enquist, Henrik
    Lund University.
    Desbrosses, Kevin
    French National Research and Safety Institute for the prevention of occupational accidents and diseases (INRS), Vandoeuvre Les Nancy.
    Garcia Sanz, Maria
    Spanish National Institute for Safety and Hygiene at Work (INSHT), Madrid.
    Villar, Maria
    Spanish National Institute for Safety and Hygiene at Work (INSHT), Madrid.
    Malinska, Marzena
    Central Institute for Labour Protection - National Research Institute (CIOP-PIB), Warszawa.
    Wichtl, Michael
    Austrian Workers Compensation Board (AUVA), Wien.
    Strebl, Michaela
    Austrian Workers Compensation Board (AUVA), Wien.
    Forsman, Michael
    Karolinska Institutet (KI), Stockholm.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    National Research Institute for the Working Environment (NRCWE), Copenhagen.
    Hendriksen, Peter
    National Research Institute for the Working Environment (NRCWE), Copenhagen.
    Lusa, Sirpa
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH), Helsinki.
    Tokarski, Tomasz
    Central Institute for Labour Protection - National Research Institute (CIOP-PIB), Warszawa.
    Schellewald, Vera
    Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the German Social Accident Insurance (IFA), Sankt Augustin.
    Ellegast, Rolf
    Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the German Social Accident Insurance (IFA), Sankt Augustin.
    Assessing sedentary behaviour at work with technical assessment systems2017Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well documented that spending large amounts of time each day in sedentary behaviour is associated with increased risks of a variety of health impairments. The time engaged in sedentary behaviours is generally high in Europe, and has increased over recent decades during both work and leisure. This has resulted in considerable research and societal attention over the last decade.

    Sedentary behaviour in the workplace varies between occupations. It is high among office workers, and is likely to be high for job groups with lower education with constrained sittingbased working tasks like long-haul drivers and surveillance work in manufacturing. However, the question of whether spending large amounts of time in occupational sedentary behaviour is a causal risk factor for health impairments remains to be settled.

    An important reason for this could be the poor validity and reliability of many of the methods used to assess sedentary behaviour such as self-report and interviews. Another reason might be that the sedentary behaviour is often not measured in accordance with its proposed definition "

    any waking behaviour characterised by a low energy expenditure (≤1.5 METs) while in a sitting or reclining posture". Measurements of sedentary behaviour should therefore capture its two main components, namely posture and energy expenditure.

    Observational methods are also used to assess sedentary behaviour, but they are costly, time-consuming, and may lead to observational-bias. Measurements using wearable devices ("wearables") are thus recommended due to their objective nature, and their ability to be relatively low cost and to have little impact on the daily life of the participant.

    Numerous suitable small wearables, with long battery life and high data storage capacity, have become commercially available in recent years. However, none of the commercially available wearables can independently assess occupational sedentary behaviour in accordance with its definition (i.e. a sitting or lying posture with low energy expenditure). Therefore, deciding on how to assess sedentary behaviour is currently not easy.

    The wide variety of devices with the potential to assess sedentary behaviour is likely to leave practitioners and researchers wondering - "How can I choose the measurement system bestsuited to my aim, preferences, funding, and skills?" However, no practically useful guidance for researchers and practitioners exists on how to assess occupational sedentary behaviour.

    This report provides an overview of relevant technical systems and their general capabilities and gives examples of their appropriate use when assessing occupational sedentary behaviour. The report emphasises factors such as the target population, the need for accuracy, data accessibility, wearing comfort, expert knowledge for analyses, assessment duration, the number of participants needed, budget available, and the need for information on time patterns of sedentary and non-sedentary behaviour, including moderate and vigorous physical activity. Importantly, the need for assessing body posture, energy expenditure, or both, should be critically evaluated based on the work tasks undertaken by the target population and the aim of the project.

    The report highlights needs for developing of cheap, feasible wearables combining precise posture and energy assessments for a valid and reliable assessment of sedentary behaviour at work, which fulfils the current needs of both researchers and practitioners alike.

  • 303.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    et al.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Straker, Leon
    School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Promoting health and physical capacity during productive work: the Goldilocks Principle2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 90-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    In spite of preventive efforts, organizations and employees face several challenges related to working life and occupational health, such as a substantial prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders, social inequality in health and physical capacity, multi-morbidity, an obesity epidemic and an aging workforce. We argue that a new approach for occupational ergonomics and health is required, going beyond prevention of harm caused by work. We propose the ´Goldilocks Principle´ as a new approach of how productive work can be designed to literally promote health and physical capacity.

    Methods                 

    Physical (in)activity profoundly influences health and physical capacity, with effects depending on the extent and temporal structure of the (in)activity. Like the porridge, chair and bed that needed to be ‘just right’ for Goldilocks in the fairy-tale of ´The Three Bears´, physical activity during productive work needs to be ‘just right’ for promoting rather than deteriorating health and capacity. In many jobs, physical activity is, however, either ’too much/high/frequent’ or ’too little/low/infrequent’ to give positive biomechanical and cardiometabolic stimuli.

    Results

    The paper presents the rationale, concept, development, application and prospects of the Goldilocks Principle for how productive work can be designed to promote health and physical capacity.

    Conclusions

    We envision a great potential to promote health and physical capacity by designing productive work according to the Goldilocks Principle, thus leading to benefits with respect to the current challenges related to working life and occupational health for society, organizations and employees.

  • 304.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    et al.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment (NRCWE), Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Schellewald, Vera
    German Sport University Cologne (DSHS), Köln, Germany; Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the German Social Accident Insurance (IFA), Sankt Augustin, Germany.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment (NRCWE), Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Pinder, Andrew
    HSE's Health & Safety Laboratory (HSL), Buxton, Derbyshire, United Kingdom.
    Punakallio, Anne
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH), Helsinki, Finland.
    Veiersted, Kaj Bo
    National Institute of Occupational Health (STAMI), Oslo, Norway.
    Weber, Britta
    Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the German Social Accident Insurance (IFA), Sankt Augustin, Germany.
    Takala, Esa-Pekka
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH), Helsinki, Finland.
    Draicchio, Francesco
    National Institute for Insurance Against Accidents at Work (INAIL), Rome, Italy.
    Enquist, Henrik
    Lund University, Skane Medical Services, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund, Sweden.
    Desbrosses, Kevin
    French National Research and Safety Institute for the Prevention of Occupational Accidents and Diseases (INRS), Vandoeuvre Les Nancy, France.
    Garcia Sanz, Maria Penahora
    Spanish National Institute for Safety and Hygiene at Work (INSHT), Madrid, Spain.
    Malinska, Marzena
    Central Institute for Labour Protection - National Research Institute (CIOP-PIB), Warszawa, Poland.
    Villar, Maria
    Spanish National Institute for Safety and Hygiene at Work (INSHT), Madrid, Spain.
    Wichtl, Michael
    Austrian Workers' Compensation Board (AUVA), Wien, Austria.
    Strebl, Michaela
    Austrian Workers' Compensation Board (AUVA), Wien, Austria.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Karolinska Institutet (KI), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lusa, Sirpa
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH), Helsinki, Finland.
    Tokarski, Tomasz
    Central Institute for Labour Protection - National Research Institute (CIOP-PIB), Warszawa, Poland.
    Hendriksen, Peter
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment (NRCWE), Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Ellegast, Rolf
    Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the German Social Accident Insurance (IFA), Sankt Augustin, Germany.
    A practical guidance for assessments of sedentary behavior at work: a PEROSH initiative2017In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 63, p. 41-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sedentary behavior is defined as sitting or lying with low energy expenditure. Humans in industrialized societies spend an increasing amount of time in sedentary behaviors every day. This has been associated with detrimental health outcomes. Despite a growing interest in the industrialized world in the health effects of sedentary behavior at work, associations remain unclear, plausibly due to poor and diverse methods for assessing sedentary behavior. Thus, good practice guidance for researchers and practitioners on how to assess occupational sedentary behavior are needed.

    The aim of this paper is to provide a practical guidance for practitioners and researchers on how to assess occupational sedentary behavior.

    Ambulatory systems for use in field applications (wearables) are a promising approach for sedentary behavior assessment. Many different small-size consumer wearables, with long battery life and high data storage capacity are commercially available today. However, no stand-alone commercial system is able to assess sedentary behavior in accordance with its definition. The present paper offers decision support for practitioners and researchers in selecting wearables and data collection strategies for their purpose of study on sedentary behavior.

    Valid and reliable assessment of occupational sedentary behavior is currently not easy. Several aspects need to be considered in the decision process of how to assess sedentary behavior. There is a need for development of a cheap and easily useable wearable for assessment of occupational sedentary behavior by researchers and practitioners.

  • 305.
    Hovelius, Lennart
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Orthopedics, Gävle Hospital, Gävle, Sweden.
    Sandström, Björn
    Department of Orthopedics, Gävle Hospital, Gävle, Sweden.
    Saebö, Modolv
    Department of Radiology, Gävle Hospital, Gävle, Sweden.
    One hundred eighteen Bristow-Latarjet repairs for recurrent anterior dislocation of the shoulder prospectively followed for fifteen years: Study II - the evolution of dislocation arthropathy2006In: Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery, ISSN 1058-2746, E-ISSN 1532-6500, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 279-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dislocation arthropathy after surgical treatment of recurrent anterior dislocation of the shoulder has been a subject of discussion over the years. The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate the Bristow-Latarjet repair at 2 and 15 years after surgery with respect to arthropathy and to evaluate factors responsible for this development. At 2 and 15 years after a Bristow-Latarjet repair for recurrent anterior dislocation, we prospectively analyzed the radiographs of 115 of 118 shoulders. The majority of the patients also had radiography of the nonindex shoulder (111/118). Dislocation arthropathy was found on ordinary anteroposterior views in 46 of 115 shoulders (mild in 39, moderate in 5, and severe in 2). The anteroposterior view angulated 45 degrees from above gave the best visualization of the humeral osteophyte and, together with the axial view, doubled the incidence of moderate and severe arthropathy at follow-up (mild in 40, moderate in 11, and severe in 5). Of 38 shoulders with a postoperative position of the transferred coracoid process 2 to 4 mm medial to the glenoid rim and the screw and transplant parallel to the glenoid, 3 had moderate arthropathy (8%) compared with 8 shoulders with moderate arthropathy and 5 with severe arthropathy out of 77 shoulders with a nonoptimal position of the coracoid (17%) (P = not significant). The degree of restriction of outward rotation at 2 years did not influence the degree of arthropathy after 15 years. Global assessment of the operative result was not related to arthropathy at follow-up. When the first dislocation occurred before age 23 years, the incidence of arthropathy was significantly lower than when it occurred in age 23 years or older (P = .006). When all views were included, moderate or severe dislocation arthropathy was found in 14% of the shoulders, and a further 35% had mild arthropathy. When follow-up studies of operated series of shoulder dislocations with the Bristow-Latarjet method are done, it is important to have the same radiologic views to compare the incidence of dislocation arthropathy correctly.

  • 306.
    Hulsegge, Gerben
    et al.
    Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam Public Health research institute, VU University Medical Center, the Netherlands.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Proper, Karin
    Centre for Nutrition, Prevention and Health Services, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, the Netherlands.
    von Lobenstein, Natasja
    Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam Public Health research institute, VU University Medical Center, the Netherlands.
    IJzelenberg, Wilhelmina
    Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Earth & Life Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam Public Health research institute, the Netherlands.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    van der Beek, Allard
    Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam Public Health research institute, the Netherlands.
    Shift work is associated with reduced heart rate variability among men but not women2018In: International Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 0167-5273, E-ISSN 1874-1754, Vol. 258, p. 109-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Imbalance in the autonomic nervous system due to a disrupted circadian rhythm may be a cause of shift work-related cardiovascular diseases.

    Objective

    We aimed to determine the association between shift work and cardiac autonomic activity in blue-collar workers.

    Methods

    The study included 665 blue-collar workers aged 18–68 years in different occupations from two Danish cohort studies. Time and frequency domain parameters of heart rate variability (HRV) were measured during sleep using the Actiheart monitor, and used as markers of cardiac autonomic function. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to investigate differences in HRV between day and shift workers.

    Results

    Shift workers had no significantly different HRV parameters than day workers, except for a lower VLF (B: 0.21; 95% CI: −0.36–0.05). The lower VLF was only present among non-night shift workers (p < 0.05) and not among night shift workers (p > 0.05). Results differed significantly by gender (p for interaction < 0.10): among men, shift work was negatively associated with RMSSD (B: −7.83; 95% CI: −14.28–1.38), SDNN (B: −7.0; 95% CI: −12.27–1.78), VLF (B: −0.27; 95% CI: −0.46–0.09) and Total Power (B: −0.61; 95% CI: −1.20–0.03), while among women, shift work was only associated with the LF/HF ratio (B: −0.29; 95% CI: −0.54–0.03).

    Conclusion

    Shift work was particularly associated with lower HRV during sleep among men. This indicates that shift work causes imbalance in the autonomic nervous system among men, which might increase their risk of cardiovascular diseases.

  • 307.
    Huysmans, Maaike A.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Public and Occupational Health, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam; Research Center for Insurance Medicine, AMC-UMCG-UWV-VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, USA.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Consistency of sedentary behavior patterns among office workers with long-term access to sit-stand workstations2019In: Annals of Work Exposures and Health, ISSN 2398-7308, Vol. 63, no 5, p. 583-591Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Sit-stand workstations are a popular intervention to reduce sedentary behavior (SB) in office settings. However, the extent and distribution of SB in office workers long-term accustomed to using sit-stand workstations as a natural part of their work environment are largely unknown. In the present study, we aimed to describe patterns of SB in office workers with long-term access to sit-stand workstations and to determine the extent to which these patterns vary between days and workers. METHODS: SB was objectively monitored using thigh-worn accelerometers for a full week in 24 office workers who had been equipped with a sit-stand workstation for at least 10 months. A comprehensive set of variables describing SB was calculated for each workday and worker, and distributions of these variables between days and workers were examined. RESULTS: On average, workers spent 68% work time sitting [standard deviation (SD) between workers and between days (within worker): 10.4 and 18.2%]; workers changed from sitting to standing/walking 3.2 times per hour (SDs 0.6 and 1.2 h-1); with bouts of sitting being 14.9 min long (SDs 4.2 and 8.5 min). About one-third of the workers spent >75% of their workday sitting. Between-workers variability was significantly different from zero only for percent work time sitting, while between-days (within-worker) variability was substantial for all SB variables. CONCLUSIONS: Office workers accustomed to using sit-stand workstations showed homogeneous patterns of SB when averaged across several days, except for percent work time seated. However, SB differed substantially between days for any individual worker. The finding that many workers were extensively sedentary suggests that just access to sit-stand workstations may not be a sufficient remedy against SB; additional personalized interventions reinforcing use may be needed. To this end, differences in SB between days should be acknowledged as a potentially valuable source of variation.

  • 308.
    Huysmans, Maaike
    et al.
    Department of Public and Occupational Health and the EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Commissaris, Dianne
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. BTR coaching & consultancy, Helvoirt, The Netherlands.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Koppes, Lando
    NIVEL, Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Hendriksen, Ingrid
    Body@Work Research Center Physical Activity, Work and Health TNO-VU/VUmc, Amsterdam; Expertise Centre Life Style, TNO, Leiden, The Netherlands .
    Interventions to reduce sedentary behaviour and increase physical activity during productive work: Preliminary results of a systematic review2015In: Proceedings of the 19th Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, Melbourne 9-14 August 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 309.
    Huysmans, Maaike
    et al.
    EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam.
    Commissaris, Dianne
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Koppes, Lando
    Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research, Utrecht.
    Hendriksen, Ingrid
    TNO Leiden.
    Interventions to reduce sedentary behaviour and increase physical activity during productive work time : Effects on work performance and metabolic and physiological outcomes2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. In a systematic literature review, we investigated the effect on work performance and metabolic and physiological outcomes of interventions aimed at reducing sedentary behaviour (SB) and/or increasing physical activity (PA) during productive work time.

    Methods. Scopus was searched for articles published from 1992 until March 12, 2015. We included studies: (1) addressing interventions aimed at reducing SB and/or increasing PA at the workplace, during productive work; (2) using a design including a control group or control condition; (3) being published as a full-length paper in a peer-reviewed journal in English; (4) reporting on work performance outcomes and metabolic and physiological outcomes (i.e. lipid and metabolic profiles, hemodynamic and cardiorespiratory measures and anthropometric measures). Relevant studies were evaluated using the Quality Assess-ment Tool for Quantitative Studies and summarized in a best evidence synthesis.

    Results. 18 interventions were included and organized into two categories: (1) alternative workstation interventions (n=15), i.e. sit-stand workstations or “active” workstations; and (2) personalized behavioural interventions (n=3), i.e. interventions involving personalized goals and/or giving behavioural feedback using prompts or messages.There was moderate evidence for alternative workstations not influencing hemodynamics and cardiorespiratory fitness as well as personalized behavioural interventions notinfluencing anthropometric measures. Evidence was insufficient (alternative workstations) or conflicting (personalized behavioral interventions) on lipid and metabolic profiles. For work performance, there was insufficient evidence for personalized behavioural interven-tions and conflicting evidence for alternative workstations. But for the latter, only one out of 11 studies showed a negative effect.

    Discussion. Current evidence suggests that work performance is not negatively affected by alternative workstations. Furthermore, there is no strong case for introducing interven-tions aimed at reducing SB and/or increasing PA during productive work time in the hope of getting a positive effect on metabolic and physiological outcomes. However, large-scale, high quality studies with long-term follow-ups are needed before more definite conclusions on this topic can be drawn.

  • 310.
    Hägg, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Antonsson, A B
    Schmidt, L
    Holmefalk, C
    Musculoskeletal disorders in cleaning: 17 cleaners' views on own musculoskeletal injury claims2007In: Sixth International Scientific Conference on Prevention of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders, 2007, p. 190-Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 311.
    Hägg, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kihlstedt, Annika
    School of Technology and Health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Checkout cashier work and counter design: Video movement analysis, musculoskeletal disorders and customer interaction2011In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 201-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was conducted in order to analyse checkout cashiers’ movements at a checkout counter during interaction with customers and the prevalence of work-related stress and musculoskeletal disorders in checkout cashiers. In one shop, six cashiers were videotaped during the workday, and 50 cashiers from seven shops from the same chain of stores responded a questionnaire. Cashier activities and movements, customer interaction and counter design issues were analysed from the video data. Prevalence of work-related stress and musculoskeletal disorders was obtained from the questionnaire. It was found that 76% of all items were manually turned or angled. With a better adjustment of the scanner and a standardised positioning of the EAN-code, many of these movements could be avoided. Furthermore the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders was quite high (68% for the neck). The questionnaire results showed that many cashiers experienced stress, giving a high percentage of cashiers in the “dedication under pressure” group. The behaviour of the customers was the major cause of stress. Other sources of stress arose from bad design or function of the computer system or other technical equipment.

    Relevance to industry: In this study several problems regarding cashier work were identified and solutions, relevant to counter and package designers, shop managers and cashiers are suggested. Data obtained on cashier movements and prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders are given.

  • 312.
    Hägg, Göran
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Pettersson, B
    Differences in accumulated EMG-gap time between truck drivers with and without shoulder/neck disorders2007In: Sixth International Scientific Conference on Prevention of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders, 2007, p. 106-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 313.
    Häggman-Henrikson, Birgitta
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nordh, E.
    Clinical Neurophysiology, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Zafar, Hamayun
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Per-Olof
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Head immobilization can impair jaw function2006In: Journal of Dental Research, ISSN 0022-0345, E-ISSN 1544-0591, Vol. 85, no 11, p. 1001-1005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Findings that jaw-opening/-closing relies on both mandibular and head movements suggest that jaw and neck muscles are jointly activated in jaw function. This study tested the hypothesis that rhythmic jaw activities involve an active repositioning of the head, and that head fixation can impair jaw function. Concomitant mandibular and head-neck movements were recorded during rhythmic jaw activities in 12 healthy adults, with and without fixation of the head. In four participants, the movement recording was combined with simultaneous registration of myoelectric activity in jaw and neck muscles. The results showed neck muscle activity during jaw opening with and without head fixation. Notably, head fixation led to reduced mandibular movements and shorter duration of jaw-opening/-closing cycles. The findings suggest recruitment of neck muscles in jaw activities, and that head fixation can impair jaw function. The results underline the jaw and neck neuromuscular relationship in jaw function.

  • 314.
    Hämphälä, Hillevi
    et al.
    Ergonomi och aerosolteknologi, Lunds universitet, Lund, Sweden.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lindberg, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Heiden, Marina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Nylén, Per
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm.
    A risk assessment method for visual ergonomics, VERAM2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A valid, reliable, practical and easy-to-use risk assessment method for visual ergonomics named VERAM (Visual Ergonomics Risk Analysis Method) has been developed. With this method, risk factors in the visual environment can be detected, and interventions implemented to reduce the prevalence of symptoms related to poor visual ergonomics among workers can be evaluated.

    The visual environment can affect our wellbeing in many ways. Glare from luminaires or windows within the visual field can cause disability glare or discomfort glare. Glare while performing computer tasks causes visual fatigue and leads to strabismus measured with fixation disparity (harder for the eyes to focus). Strabismus leads to eyestrain, and eyestrain can lead to musculoskeletal discomfort.  Non-visual effects, such as flicker from luminaires can cause eyestrain or headache/migraine. Insufficient visual ability can lead to increased workload and contribute to eyestrain and musculoskeletal discomfort that in turn could lead to sick leave. As human beings, we need daylight to get a normal circadian rhythm. The visual environment needs to be designed to allow daylight entering, but have a possibility to prevent disturbing daylight.

    No method for evaluating the visual environment together with the individual’s subjective strain has previously existed. Personnel from occupational health departments (75 individuals) have used the developed visual ergonomics risk analysis method at several work places. Before using the method they were given a course in visual ergonomics and taught how to use the method.

    VERAM consists of two main parts. The first part is a subjective questionnaire with questions regarding the individual’s problem such as eyestrain and headache, but also their rating of the visual environment.

    The second objective part is performed by the assessors and consists of:

    • measuring the illuminance and luminance
    • rating of the visual environment and different risks (risk for glare, flicker, work task, daylight, work posture etc.)
    • Feedback from the subjective part, the light measurements and the ratings
    • Recommendations

    To increase wellbeing at work and reduce sick leave, the visual environment needs to be good. This includes sufficient illuminance, a good luminance ratio, no glare from luminaires or windows, no flicker, and a good visibility of the work task. Education in risk analysis of the visual environment is essential for many different occupations such as lighting designers, ergonomists, working life inspectors, optometrists, to ensure a better understanding of the impact on wellbeing that the visual environment have. The main purposes of this study is to develop a visual environment risk analysis method and to increase the awareness and knowledge visual ergonomics.

  • 315.
    Högvall Nordin, Maria
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    "Dom brukar jämföra det med en stridspilot": föreställningar om arbetsmiljö och risker i skogsmaskinarbete: en studie i organisationskommunikation2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this dissertation is on how communication regarding work environment and work related risks can be understood from an organizational communication perspective. Based on a case study of communication about work environment and work related risks in the Swedish forest industry, the present study discusses institutional influences on organizational sense making processes. A central question has been how to understand the organizational field as a cultural and communicative arena where concepts and ideas connected with issues in the field are communicated between different actors.

    The empirical data was gathered using different methods. A questionnaire aiming at screening media habits and information gathering strategies of forest machine contractors was used. Based on information from that screening, mass media content was analysed, such as daily newspapers, trade press and advertisements for forest machines. Also, interviews with actors in the field were analysed thematically with respect to how to unveil hidden key symbols and cultural valuations of forest machine work, the work environment and how to handle work related risks in forest work. The key symbols that were identified to organise conceptions about forest work and occupational risks connected with it contained information about different attitudes towards how to handle risks and other problems in the work environment. Two main types of conceptions were identified, technologically oriented conceptions and person oriented conceptions.

    The analysis revealed a fragmented picture of forest work. Yet, the picture was more or less common to the organizational field as a whole. Building on institutional theory and theories of sense making, the study results in a deeper understanding of sense making in relation to work environmental issues by applying an organizational dimension to risk communication in an organizational field.

  • 316.
    Ineland, Lisa
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Division of Psychiatry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Division of Psychiatry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Salander Renberg, Ellinor
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Division of Psychiatry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sjölander, Per
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Södra Lapplands Forskningsenhet, Vilhelmina, Sweden.
    Attitudes towards mental disorders and psychiatric treatment: changes over time in a Swedish population2008In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 62, no 3, p. 192-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the years a lot of research of attitudes towards mental disorders, towards people with mental illness and towards psychiatric services and treatment have shown a persistent negative attitude. There are, however, few studies on changes over time. The aim of this study was to compare responses to a questionnaire on attitudes towards mental disorders and psychiatric patients and the perception of psychiatric treatment in a community in northern Sweden in 1976 and 2003. In 1976 a random sample of 391 persons 18-70 years of age were asked and in 2003 a new sample of 500 persons from the same community were approached with the same questions. There are considerable changes over time. In 2003, almost 90% agree to the statement that mental illness harms the reputation more than physical illness, compared with 50% in 1976. In 2003, 51% agreed to the statement "Most people with mental disorders commit violent acts more than others" compared with 24% in 1976. There is an apparent ambivalence towards psychiatric treatment. Whilst 88% would advice a person with mental problems to contact a psychiatrist, still 26% would not like themselves to be referred to a psychiatrist. We argue that improving treatment methods is as important as changing attitudes through accurate information.

  • 317.
    Jackson, Jennie A.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Uppsala universitet.
    Bias and Precision in Biomechanical Exposure Assessment: Making the Most of our Methods2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Insufficient exposure assessment is a suggested contributing factor to the current lack of clearly characterised relationships between occupational biomechanical risk factors and musculoskeletal disorders. Minimal attention has been paid to the potential bias of measurement tools from expected true values (i.e. accuracy) or between measurement tools, and empirical data on the magnitudes of variance contributed by methodological factors for measurement tool precision are lacking.

    Aim: The aim of this thesis was to quantify aspects of bias and precision in three commonly employed biomechanical risk factor assessment tools - inclinometry, observation, and electromyography (EMG) - and provide recommendations guiding their use. Methods: Upper arm elevation angles (UAEAs) were assessed using inclinometers (INC) and by computer-based posture-matching observation, and bias relative to true angles was calculated. Calibration models were developed for INC data, and their efficacy in correcting measurement bias was evaluated. The total variance of trapezius and erector spinae (ES) EMG recordings during cyclic occupational work was partitioned into biological and methodological sources, including the variance uniquely attributable to sub-maximal normalisation. Using algorithms to estimate the precision of a group mean, the efficacy of different trapezius EMG study designs was evaluated. Using precision criteria, the efficacy of different normalisation methods was assessed for ES EMG recordings.

    Results and Discussion: Inclinometer measured UAEAs were biased from true angles, with increasing bias at higher angles. In contrast, computer based posture-matching observations were not biased from true angles. Calibration models proved effective at minimizing INC data bias. The dispersion of estimates between- and within- observers at any given set angle underlined the importance of repeated observations when estimating UAEAs. For EMG, a unique but relatively small component of the total variance was attributable to the methodological process of normalisation. Performing three repeats of the trapezius EMG normalisation task proved optimal at minimizing variance for one-day EMG studies, while two repeats sufficed for multi-day EMG studies. A prone normalisation task proved superior for maximizing normalised lumbar ES EMG precision.

    Conclusion: Key aspects of measurement tool accuracy, bias between tools, and tool precision were quantified, and recommendations were made to guide future research study design.

  • 318.
    Jackson, Jennie A.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Callaghan, Jack
    Department of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.
    Dempsey, Patrick
    National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Pittsburgh, USA.
    Precision based guidelines for sub-maximal normalisation task selection for trunk extensor EMG2017In: Journal of Electromyography & Kinesiology, ISSN 1050-6411, E-ISSN 1873-5711, Vol. 37, p. 41-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The object of this study was to quantify the contribution of sub-maximal normalisation to the overall variance of exposure parameters describing erector spinae (ES) activity, and to provide guidelines for task selection which minimize methodological variance. Methods: ES EMG was measured from three locations (T9, L1 and L5 levels) on fifteen men performing a manual materials handling task in the laboratory on three separate days. Four repeats of each of eleven sub-maximal normalisation tasks (eight static, three dynamic) were collected, work data were normalised to each task and repeat, and exposure parameters calculated. The unique contribution of normalisation to the overall variance was determined for each task and exposure parameter using variance component analyses. Normalisation tasks were scored according to their relative contributions to the overall variance and coefficients of variation.

    Results: A prone task, similar to the Biering-Sørensen test posture, was the most repeatable for all electrode locations and across all exposure parameters. Thoracic level normalisation typically showed poorer repeatability than lumbar normalisation.

    Discussion: We recommend that future ES EMG studies employing sub-maximal normalisation utilise said prone task. An alternate normalisation task specific to thoracic level ES muscles may be warranted.

  • 319.
    Jackson, Jennie A
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada ; Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety, Hopkinton, USA.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Dempsey, Patrick G.
    Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety, Hopkinton, USA.
    Methodological variance associated with normalization of occupational upper trapezius EMG using submaximal reference contractions2009In: Journal of Electromyography & Kinesiology, ISSN 1050-6411, E-ISSN 1873-5711, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 416-427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To quantify the variance introduced to trapezius electromyography (EMG) through normalization by submaximal reference voluntary exertions (RVE), and to investigate the effect of increased normalization efforts as compared to other changes in data collection strategy on the precision of occupational EMG estimates. Methods: Women performed four RVE contractions followed by 30 minutes of light, cyclic assembly work on each of two days. Work cycle EMG was normalized to each of the RVE trials and seven exposure parameters calculated. The proportions of exposure variance attributable to subject, day within subject, and cycle and normalization trial within day were determined. Using this data, the effect on the precision of the exposure mean of altering the number of subjects, days, cycles and RVEs during data collection was simulated. Results: For all exposure parameters a unique component of variance due to normalization was present, yet small: less than 4.4% of the total variance. The resource allocation simulations indicated that marginal improvements in the precision of a group exposure mean would occur above three RVE repeats for EMG collected on one day, or beyond two RVEs for EMG collected on two or more days.

  • 320.
    Jackson, Jennie A.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Dempsey, Patrick G.
    Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety, Hopkinton MA, USA.
    Methodological variance associated with normalization of trapezius EMG using submaximal reference contractions2006In: Proceedings of the 16th World Congress of the International Ergonomics Association / [ed] Ernst Koningsveld, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While electromyography (EM G) is commonly used to quantify levels of muscle activity in different jobs and tasks, less attention has been paid to the size and sources of exposure variability between and within individuals at work. In particular , few attempts have been made to discriminate between biological sources of variabilityand methodological uncertainty, including the effects of the EMG normalization procedure. The present study aimed to quantify the testretest repeatability of reference voluntary effort (R VE) contractions of the upper trapezius and the amount of variance introduced to EMG exposure parameters due to normalization trial variance.

    EMG data was collected from the right trapezius muscle of 15 female subjects during 36 work cycles of simulated industrial assembly work on t wo separate days. For all cycles, EMG was norrnalized to each of the four RVE calibration trials collected on the day. From the normalized data the following exposure parameters were calculated for all cycles and norrnalizations: 1 St, 10th, 50th, 90th, and 99th percentile APDF values; mean EMG amplitude; time spent at 'rest' « 6.7% RVE); and time spent at 'large activation levels' (> 100% RVE). Exposure variability due to subjects, day within subject, work cycle within day, and normalization trial was determined using a variance component analysis based on ANOV A algorithms. For all parameters, the dominate source of variance occurred between subjects. For all parameters, except the 1 st APDF percentile and the time spent at rest, the proportions of variance due to norrnalization and cycle were no more than 5% of the sum of all variance components. The betweenday variance for mean and all APDF parameters besides the 1 st APDF percentile ranged from 7 -19% of the total variance, indicating changes in work style or activation patters between days do exist. The effects of normalization reported here are likely at the low end of the range (test-retest coefficient of variation = 0.07) compared to the expected effects when data are collected in the field using less meticulously controIled RVE trials.

  • 321.
    Jackson, Jennie A.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Liv, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Centre for Research and Development, Uppsala University/Region Gävleborg, Gävle.
    Observer performance in estimating upper arm elevation angles under ideal viewing conditions when assisted by posture matching software2016In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 55, p. 208-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selecting a suitable body posture measurement method requires performance indices of candidate tools. Such data are lacking for observational assessments made at a high degree of resolution. The aim of this study was to determine the performance (bias and between- and within-observer variance) of novice observers estimating upper arm elevation postures assisted by posture matching software to the nearest degree from still images taken under ideal conditions. Estimates were minimally biased from true angles: the mean error across observers was less than 2°. Variance between observers was minimal. Considerable variance within observers, however, underlined the risk of relying on single observations. Observers were more proficient at estimating 0°and 90° postures, and less proficient at 60°. Thus, under ideal visual conditions observers, on average, proved proficient at high resolution posture estimates; further investigation is required to determine how non-optimal image conditions, as would be expected from occupational data, impact proficiency.

  • 322.
    Jackson, Jennie A.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Grado Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
    Identification of individual working styles in a long-cycle assembly task using kinematic and EMG variables2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background.Increased motor variability while performing repetitive tasks has been suggested to decrease the risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders. However, support for this positive effect is lacking outside of short, simple, highly controlled tasks. It is also currently unknown whether or not existing motor variability metrics are viable for characterising occupational tasks. The purpose of this study was to assess motor variability during a long-cycle simulated occupational task. Using metrics previously validated for short-cycle tasks, this study aimed to determine the extent to which: (1) individuals dif-fered in motor variability with respect to kinematics and/or EMG activation; (2) individual motor variability was consistent across days; and (3) kinematics and EMG motor variability were correlated.

    Methods.Following a stringent, three-day training regime, 15 females proved sufficiently proficient to participate. On two occasions, participants performed 36 cycles of an assembly task (combining gross and fine motor skills) at 110 MTM pacing (51 s per cycle). For each cycle, multiple upper arm kinematic and trapezius EMG summary mean and SD variables were calculated; for each variable, the variability across the 36 cycles was assessed. The relative size of variability across individuals, and the consistency of each individual’s motor behaviour across days were assessed using kinematic and EMG vari-ables. The correlation between kinematic and EMG variables was also assessed.

    Results.Distinct individual behaviours were observed across days: some participants were clearly more consistent in their motor behaviour than others. Further, a high correlation was found between some kinematic and muscle activation variables.

    Discussion. Using previously validated upper arm assessment metrics, we were able to differentiate between individuals performing a long-cycle assembly task based on their degree of motor variability. Given the nature of our study task, we believe the metrics that we found to be successful at identifying individual behaviours could be used for assessing field tasks.

  • 323.
    Jackson, Jennie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Uppsala University.
    Banerjee-Guénette, Priyanka
    University of Waterloo, Department of Kinesiology, Faculty of Applied Health Sciences.
    Gregory, Diane
    Wilfrid Laurier University, Health Sciences Program and Department of Kinesiology.
    Callaghan, Jack
    University of Waterloo, Department of Kinesiology, Faculty of Applied Health Sciences.
    Should we be more on the ball?: The efficacy of accommodation training on lumbar spine posture, muscle activity, and perceived discomfort during stability ball sitting2013In: Human Factors, ISSN 0018-7208, E-ISSN 1547-8181, Vol. 55, no 6, p. 1064-1076Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of a nine-day accommodation protocol on reducing perceived discomfort while sitting on a stability ball (SB); trunk muscle activity levels and lumbar spinal postures were also considered.

    Background: Previous studies have compared SB sitting to office chair sitting with few observed differences in muscle activity or posture; however, greater discomfort during SB sitting has been reported.  These findings may indicate an accommodation period is necessary to acclimate to SB sitting.

    Methods: Six males and six females completed two separate, two-hour sitting sessions on an SB.  Half the participants completed a nine-day accommodation period between the visits while the other half did not use an SB during the time. On both occasions, self-reported perceived discomfort ratings were collected along with erector spinae and abdominal muscle activity and lumbar spinal postures.

    Results: Discomfort ratings were reduced in female participants following the accommodation; no effects on muscle activation or lumbar spine postures were observed.

    Conclusion: Accommodation training may reduce perceived low back discomfort in females. Trunk muscle activity and lumbar spine postures during seated office work on an SB did not differ between groups; however, greater sample power was required to conclusively address these variables.

    Application: When deciding whether to use an SB in place of a standard office chair, this study indicates females electing to use an SB can decrease discomfort by following an accommodation protocol; no evidence was found to indicate SB chair use will improve trunk strength or posture, even following an accommodation period. 

  • 324.
    Jackson, Jennie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Institutet för miljömedicin, Karolinska institutet, Stockholm.
    Heiden, Marina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Waleh Åström, Amanda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Symposium: Measuring posture in working life: Observation or inclinometry? [Mätning av arbetsställningar: observation eller inklinometri?]2018In: FALF KONFERENS 2018 Arbetet – problem eller potential för en hållbar livsmiljö?   10-12 juni 2018 Gävle: Program och abstracts / [ed] Lindberg, Per, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2018, p. 38-40Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantifying postures during work is a key aspect of understanding the physical loads experienced by the body at work. Two commonly used tools to assess posture are observation and inclinometry. Observation can be performed in many ways, from real-time observations made at the worksite assessing gross body postures, to estimates of individual joint angles made by observers assessing still images taken from video recorded at the work site. Inclinometry is a direct technical measurement tool which typically uses tri-axial accelerometers to determine angles of specific body segments with respect to the line of gravity. Regardless of which tool is used, it will introduce some variability between repeated measurements of a same posture – this is called method-logical variability. Over the past ten years we have worked extensively in our Cost-efficient measurement of physical exposures research program to quantify the magnitude of error resulting from different measurement strategies – both in terms of bias (that is, the difference between the truth and the measured values) and precision (that is, how different repeated estimates of a same posture are). Further, we have compared the monetary costs and relative performances (in terms of measurement quality) of different measurement strategies. From these studies we have developed a set of recommendations to guide effective posture assessment.

    We assessed bias in both observation and inclinometry to determine how close posture estimates were to the true body segment angles. Under ideal observation conditions, observers were not biased in estimating upper arm elevation angles (1). Conversely, we found a systematic underestimation of upper arm elevation angles made using inclino-metry, particularly for angles at or above 60° (2). We developed a simple, on-body incli-nometry calibration procedure, and determined it was effective at reducing inclinometer bias (2).

    We investigated how data sampling should be distributed within and across days, and how much data was required to obtain a specific level of precision. Regardless of the tool, we found that efficiency was improved by distributing shorter sampling periods using a fixed-interval strategy across an entire day or days rather than collecting one longer period (3,4). Precision of inclinometer data is high and thus a single measurement of an event is sufficient. In contrast, observation requires repeated estimates of an image, even under ideal conditions (1, 5). For observation of still images from videos, we determined that efficiency was improved by assessing images extracted at set intervals across the recorded data (i.e. a work sampling approach) rather than making estimates based on continuously viewed intervals of video data (5). Further, repeated observations by one or more observers of a smaller number of frames of data improved the precision of angle estimates compared with a single observer rating a larger number of frames (6). In the case that a worker is obstructed from the camera view, additional frame analysis may be required and the uncertainty of the angle estimate may increase (7).

    We developed models to assess the net cost of each method, including equipment acquisition, data collection and data analysis. While the initial expense may seem higher for inclinometers, cost gains are made during collection and analysis stages compared to the work-intensive post-collection efforts required for observation. We found that inclinometry was more cost efficient than observation in certain settings (8), but that uncertainty exists even in cost assessment models and thus that cost-efficiency is situation-dependent (9).

    There are strengths and weaknesses to both tools and one must evaluate the goals of each data collection and the relative merits of each tool when determining the appropriate assessment method. Observation may be preferable for studies seeking a general impression of a working day, identifying the tasks comprising a working day, assessing twisting during work, or assessing whether anatomical segments are loaded or supported during work. Inclinometers may be preferred for studies requiring full day or multi-day assessments, a high degree of accuracy and precision in angle estimates, information on segmental movement velocities, and/or studies where workers cannot be adequately filmed. Rapid advances in inclinometer technology and smart phone analogues will serve to further minimise set-up times and acquisition costs, making direct technical measurement increasingly feasible.

    1. Jackson, J. A., Mathiassen, S. E. & Liv, P. Observer performance in estimating upper arm elevation angles under ideal viewing conditions when assisted by posture matching software. Appl. Ergon. 55, 208–215 (2016).

    2. Jackson, J. A., Mathiassen, S. E., Wahlström, J., Liv, P. & Forsman, M. Is what you see what you get? Standard inclinometry of set upper arm elevation angles. Appl. Ergon. 47, 242–252 (2015).

    3. Liv, P., Mathiassen, S. E. & Svendsen, S. W. Theoretical and empirical efficiency of sampling strategies for estimating upper arm elevation. Ann. Occup. Hyg. 55, 436–449 (2011).

    4. Liv, P., Mathiassen, S. E. & Svendsen, S. W. Accuracy and precision of variance components in occupational posture recordings: A simulation study of different data collection strategies. BMC Med. Res. Methodol. 12, 58–68 (2012).

    5. Rezagholi, M., Mathiassen, S. E. & Liv, P. Cost efficiency comparison of four video-based techniques for assessing upper arm postures. Ergonomics 55, 350–360 (2012).

    6. Liv, P., Mathiassen, S. E. & Wahlström, J. Statistical power and measurement requirements in studies comparing observed postures between groups. (PhD Thesis, Umeå University, 2012).

    7. Trask, C., Mathiassen, S. E., Rostami, M. & Heiden, M. Observer variability in posture assessment from video recordings: The effect of partly visible periods. Appl. Ergon. 60, 275–281 (2017).

    8. Trask, C., Mathiassen, S. E., Jackson, J.A. & Wahlström, J. Data processing costs for three posture assessment methods. BMC Med. Res. Methodol. 13, 124–137 (2013).

    9. Waleh Åström, A., Heiden, M., Mathiassen, S. E. & Strömberg, A. Uncertainty in monetary cost estimates for assessing working postures using inclinometry, observation or self-report. in review, (2018).

  • 325.
    Jackson, Jennie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    The trade-off between meticulousness and methodological variance in normalization of low back EMG2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, no Suppl. 1, p. 2307-2314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Normalization of surface electromyography (EMG) is a common and recommended practice, however this methodological step itself introduces variability to a data set. Quantification of this variance is necessary to correctly interpret overall EMG variability. This information is also paramount to identifying experimentally and clinically relevant normalization task(s) which minimize induced variance yet are time-efficient. Purpose: The goal of this study was to quantify the within-day variance of two commonly reported, sub-maximal tasks utilised for low back EMG normalization: one collected with a high degree of meticulousness, and the other collected in a more rapid manner. Results: Only minimal differences were seen between tasks in the magnitude of within-day variance for EMG amplitude at all recording sites, save the right-side L5 location, which showed a significant difference (p=0.020). For trunk posture, within-day variance for the highly meticulous tasks was significantly higher than for the less-meticulous task (p=0.011). Conclusion: A less meticulous sub-maximal normalization task performed in a standing position was equal or superior to a more meticulously collected task in terms of kinematic task repeatability and within-day EMG variance. These findings are encouraging for field study applications where meticulous methods are not feasible, and provide a time saving strategy for lab studies.

  • 326.
    Jackson, Jennie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Wahlström, Jens
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Liv, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Centre for Research and Development, Uppsala University/County Council of Gävleborg, Gävle, Sweden .
    Forsman, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Digging deeper into the assessment of upper arm elevation angles using standard inclinometry2015In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 51, p. 102-103Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 327.
    Jackson, Jennie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Wahlström, Jens
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University.
    Liv, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Centre for Research and Development, Uppsala University/County Council of Gävleborg.
    Forsman, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Is what you see what you get? Standard inclinometry of set upper arm elevation angles2015In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 47, p. 242-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research suggests inclinometers (INC) underestimate upper arm elevation. This study was designed to quantify possible bias in occupationally relevant postures, and test whether INC performance could be improved using calibration.

    Participants were meticulously positioned in set arm flexion and abduction angles between 0° and 150°. Different subject-specific and group-level regression models comprising linear and quadratic components describing the relationship between set and INC-registered elevation were developed using subsets of data, and validated using additional data.

    INC measured arm elevation showed a downward bias, particularly above 60°.  INC data adjusted using the regression models were superior to un-adjusted data; a subject-specific, two-point calibration based on measurements at 0° and 90° gave results closest to the ‘true’ set angles.

    Thus, inclinometer measured arm elevation data required calibration to arrive at ‘true’ elevation angles. Calibration to a common measurement scale should be considered when comparing arm elevation data collected using different methods.

  • 328.
    Jackson, Jennie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Punnett, Laura
    Department of Work Environment, University of Massachusetts Lowell.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Statistical precision of categorical PATH observations of trunk posture2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, no Suppl. 1, p. 5519-5521Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Field studies assessing biomechanical occupational exposures frequently utilize direct observation. PATH (Postures, Activities, Tools, and Handling) is a tool for systematically observing occupational exposures during non-cyclic or long, irregular-cycle jobs. While PATH has been used in many studies, its statistical performance under different data collection strategies has not yet been investigated. The purpose of the current study was to examine this issue. Methods: Data from labourers performing the four tasks comprising a ‘Jacking Pit Construction’ operation was extracted from a previously collected data set. Using a probability based re-sampling bootstrap approach, categorical trunk posture exposure data was compared across nine simulated data collection strategies. Results/Conclusion: At the operational level, dispersion curves showed consistent trends of increased precision with increased sizes of the data set and curves tended to intersect at the expected value seen in the parent data set. At the task level, curves did not always follow the predicted pattern, highlighting the potential pitfalls of using PATH for infrequent tasks and the striking effect that individual workers can have on group exposure estimates of such tasks.

  • 329.
    Jackson, Jennie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Consistent individual motor variability traits demonstrated by females performing a long-cycle assembly task under conditions differing in temporal organisation2019In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low motor variability (MV) during repetitive work has shown association with higher risk for developing work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Whether consistent individual MV characteristics exist across working conditions remains unknown. This study aimed to determine if individual MV traits were consistent during complex assembly work performed under conditions differing in temporal organisation.

    Fifteen women performed cyclic-assembly under four conditions differing in pace and organisation (line-type, batch-type). Variability of trapezius muscle activity and upper arm elevation was quantified. Total MV variance was partitioned into components attributable to subjects, days and conditions.

    For all metrics, a non-zero between-subjects variance was found, indicating consistent individual MV traits across conditions. Variance between subjects was higher for EMG MV metrics compared with kinematic metrics.

    Our results showed individuals exhibited consistent MV traits across working conditions differing in pace and production process, and support continued research into MV as a possible individual risk factor for MSDs.

  • 330.
    Jackson, Jennie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Is movement variability a consistent personal trait? Kinematic evidence from long-cycle assembly work2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 331.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    How much does irrelevant speech impair employees' work performance in open-plan offices?2013In: Noise & Vibration Worldwide, ISSN 0957-4565, E-ISSN 2048-4062, Vol. 44, no 9, p. 10-15Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When people are talking in the background of an open-plan office it can be experienced as disturbing. However, it is not well specified how much irrelevant speech actually disrupts performance. The aims of the present study were, first, to investigate how much cognitive performance is impaired by irrelevant background speech with varying degrees of speech intelligibility, and second, to determine whether some office-related tasks are more susceptible than others. The results showed that cognitive performance decreased as a function of background speech intelligibility, the higher the intelligibility depicted by the Speech Transmission Index (STI), the worse the performance. The results indicated that the STI-value should be less than 0.50 (between the speaker and the listener), to avoid a negative influence on performance. Further, performance was more impaired by background speech if the focal task required episodic memory and rehearsal — such as word memory and information search. Interestingly, some tasks were insensitive for speech. This study also shows that the efforts to minimize speech intelligibility will yield increases in cognitive performance with a varying degree, depending on the type of focal task.

  • 332.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Omväxlande fysiska och mentala arbetsuppgifter i detaljhandel och industri – hur mycket förekommer det, och vad önskar de anställda? 2018In: FALF KONFERENS 2018. Arbetet - problem eller potential för en hållbar livsmiljö? Gävle 10-12 juni 2018: Program och Abstracts / [ed] Lindberg, Per, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2018, p. 56-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 333.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    The effects of office noise on cognitive performance2014In: INTER-NOISE and NOISE-CON Congress and Conference Proceedings: NoiseCon14, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, pages 539-1128, 2014, p. 1096-1103(8)Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 334.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Björkeholm, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Department of Psychology.
    Marsh, John E.
    University of Central Lancashire, School of Psychology.
    Odelius, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental, and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Office noise: can headphones and masking sound attenuate distraction by background speech?2016In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 55, no 3, p. 505-513Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Background speech is one of the most disturbing noise sources at shared workplaces in terms of both annoyance and performance-related disruption. Therefore, it is important to identify techniques that can efficiently protect performance against distraction. It is also important that the techniques are perceived as satisfactory and are subjectively evaluated as effective in their capacity to reduce distraction.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to compare three methods of attenuating distraction from background speech: masking a background voice with nature sound through headphones, masking a background voice with other voices through headphones and merely wearing headphones (without masking) as a way to attenuate the background sound. Quiet was deployed as a baseline condition.

    METHODS: Thirty students participated in an experiment employing a repeated measures design.

    RESULTS: Performance (serial short-term memory) was impaired by background speech (1 voice), but this impairment was attenuated when the speech was masked – and in particular when it was masked by nature sound. Furthermore, perceived workload was lowest in the quiet condition and significantly higher in all other sound conditions. Notably, the headphones tested as a sound-attenuating device (i.e. without masking) did not protect against the effects of background speech on performance and subjective work load.

    CONCLUSIONS: Nature sound was the only masking condition that worked as a protector of performance, at least in the context of the serial recall task. However, despite the attenuation of distraction by nature sound, perceived workload was still high – suggesting that it is difficult to find a masker that is both effective and perceived as satisfactory.

  • 335.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Edvinsson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bjärntoft, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bergsten, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Flexibelt arbete - Hälsofrämjande interventioner för en hållbar digitalisering: Delområde Centrala funktioner2017Report (Other academic)
  • 336.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Edvinsson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bjärntoft, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bergsten, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Flexibelt arbete - Hälsofrämjande interventioner för en hållbar digitalisering: Delområde Investering2017Report (Other academic)
  • 337.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Edvinsson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bjärntoft, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bergsten, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Flexibelt arbete - Hälsofrämjande interventioner för en hållbar digitalisering: Delområde IT2017Report (Other academic)
  • 338.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Edvinsson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bjärntoft, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bergsten, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Flexibelt arbete - Hälsofrämjande interventioner för en hållbar digitalisering: Delområde Planering2017Report (Other academic)
  • 339.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Edvinsson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bjärntoft, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bergsten, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Flexibelt arbete - Hälsofrämjande interventioner för en hållbar digitalisering: Delområde Resultatenheterna Färjerederiet, Trafikverksskolan, Fordonsresurser och Förarprov2017Report (Other academic)
  • 340.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Edvinsson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bjärntoft, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bergsten, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Flexibelt arbete - Hälsofrämjande interventioner för en hållbar digitalisering: Delområde Stora projekt2017Report (Other academic)
  • 341.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Edvinsson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bjärntoft, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bergsten, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Flexibelt arbete - Hälsofrämjande interventioner för en hållbar digitalisering: Delområde Trafikledning2017Report (Other academic)
  • 342.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Edvinsson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bjärntoft, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bergsten, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Flexibelt arbete - Hälsofrämjande interventioner för en hållbar digitalisering: Delområde Underhåll2017Report (Other academic)
  • 343.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Edvinsson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bjärntoft, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bergsten, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Uppsala universitet, Arbets- och miljömedicin.
    Flexibelt arbete: Hälsofrämjande interventioner för en hållbar digitalisering: Kartlägning hösten 20162017Report (Other academic)
  • 344.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Edvinsson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bjärntoft, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Symposium: Återhämtning och ledarskap i flexibla arbeten: resultat från ett forskningsprojekt på Trafikverket2018In: FALF KONFERENS 2018 Arbetet – problem eller potential för en hållbar livsmiljö?   10-12 juni 2018 Gävle: Program och abstracts / [ed] Lindberg, Per, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2018, p. 78-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion

    Den stressrelaterade ohälsan ökar i samhället i stort och det är möjligt att bristande återhämtning kan vara bidragande. Det finns dock ännu inte några tydliga svar på hur ett gynnsamt mönster av arbete och återhämtning bör se ut. Frågan om balansen mellan krav i arbetet och möjligheter till återhämtning är särskilt aktuell i yrken där digital teknik möjliggör flexibelt arbete, dvs. ett arbete där de anställda till stor del själva kan styra över sin arbetstid, sitt arbetsställe och/eller sitt arbetssätt. Möjligheten att arbeta flexibelt kan innebära både för- och nackdelar för såväl individen som organisationen och medföra nya utmaningar för chefer när det gäller hur de ska leda sina medarbetare på ett hälsofrämjande sätt. Samtidigt kan flexibiliteten underlätta för medarbetare att få ihop livspusslet och att anpassa arbetsinsatsen utifrån arbetstoppar, vilket kan gynna organisationens produktivitet. Risken är dock att den stressrelaterade ohälsan ökar om balansen mellan arbete och återhämtning rubbas genom t.ex. övertidsarbete och ständig tillgänglighet till arbetet på ogynnsamma tider.

    Det här symposiet presenterar resultat från ett forskningsprojekt som undersökt flexibelt arbete på Trafikverket. I ett första steg genomfördes en kartläggning av arbetsvillkor, återhämtning och hälsa med hjälp av en webbaserad enkät till 4926 anställda. Resultaten från kartläggningen har sedan legat till grund för fokusgruppsdiskussioner med chefer och medarbetare, där åtgärdsförslag har tagits fram i syfte att förstärka fördelarna och reducera riskerna med flexibelt arbete. Även åtgärdsförslagen från fokusgrupperna kommer att presenteras vid symposiet.

  • 345.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Edvinsson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Delrapport kontor A: Effekter av aktivitetsbaserade kontor på stillasittande, koncentration och hälsa i jämförelse med traditionella kontor2016Report (Other academic)
  • 346.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Edvinsson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Delrapport kontor B: Effekter av aktivitetsbaserade kontor på stillasittande, koncentration och hälsa i jämförelse med traditionella kontor2016Report (Other academic)
  • 347.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Edvinsson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Delrapport kontor C: Effekter av aktivitetsbaserade kontor på stillasittande, koncentration och hälsa i jämförelse med traditionella kontor2016Report (Other academic)
  • 348.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Edvinsson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Delrapport kontor D: Effekter av aktivitetsbaserade kontor på stillasittande, koncentration och hälsa i jämförelse med traditionella kontor2016Report (Other academic)
  • 349.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Edvinsson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Delrapport kontor E: Effekter av aktivitetsbaserade kontor på stillasittande, koncentration och hälsa i jämförelse med traditionella kontor2016Report (Other academic)
  • 350.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Eriksson, Karolina
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Naula, Sanna
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The effects of auditive and visual settings on perceived restoration likelihood2015In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 17, no 74, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has so far paid little attention to how environmental sounds might affect restorative processes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of auditive and visual stimuli on perceived restoration likelihood and attitudes towards varying environmental resting conditions. Assuming a condition of cognitive fatigue, all participants (N = 40) were presented with images of an open plan office and urban nature, each under four sound conditions (nature sound, quiet, broadband noise, office noise). After the presentation of each setting/sound combination, the participants assessed it according to restorative qualities, restoration likelihood and attitude. The results mainly showed predicted effects of the sound manipulations on the perceived restorative qualities of the settings. Further, significant interactions between auditive and visual stimuli were found for all measures. Both nature sounds and quiet more positively influenced evaluations of the nature setting compared to the office setting. When office noise was present, both settings received poor evaluations. The results agree with expectations that nature sounds and quiet areas support restoration, while office noise and broadband noise (e.g. ventilation, traffic noise) do not. The findings illustrate the significance of environmental sound for restorative experience.

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