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  • 301.
    Madeleine, Pascal
    et al.
    Laboratory for Work-Related Pain and Biomechanics, Center for Sensory-Motor Interaction (SMI), Department of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Arendt-Nielsen, Lars
    Laboratory for Work-Related Pain and Biomechanics, Center for Sensory-Motor Interaction (SMI), Department of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Changes in the degree of motor variability associated with experimental and chronic neck-shoulder pain during a standardised repetitive arm movement2008Ingår i: Experimental Brain Research, ISSN 0014-4819, E-ISSN 1432-1106, Vol. 185, nr 4, s. 689-698Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of experimental and chronic neck-shoulder pain on the magnitude of cycle-to-cycle variability of task timing, kinematics and muscle activation during repetitive arm movement performed for 3 or 5 min. In an experimental part, acute muscle pain was induced in healthy subjects by intramuscular injection of hypertonic saline in trapezius (n = 10) and infraspinatus (n = 10) muscles. In a clinical part, workers with (n = 12) and without (n = 6) chronic neck-shoulder pain were compared. Cycle-to-cycle standard deviations of task duration, arm and trunk movement in 3D and surface electromyographic (EMG) root mean square activity were computed to assess the degree of variability. The variability in task timing increased in presence of both experimental and chronic pain (P < 0.05) compared with non-painful conditions. Experimental pain increased the variability of the starting position of the arm (P < 0.05), the arm range of motion (P < 0.01), the arm and trunk movement area (P < 0.01) and the acceleration of the arm (P < 0.01). In the chronic pain condition, the variability of arm and trunk acceleration (P < 0.01) and EMG activity (P < 0.05) was decreased compared with healthy controls. These results indicate that pain alters the magnitude of motor variability, and that the transition from acute to chronic pain is accompanied by changes in motor patterns. Experimental pain likely resulted in a quest for a motor solution reducing nociceptive influx, while chronic pain was characterised by a diminished motor flexibility.

  • 302. Madeleine, Pascal
    et al.
    Voigt, Michael
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    The size of cycle-to-cycle variability in biomechanical exposure among butchers performing a standardized cutting task2008Ingår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 51, nr 7, s. 1078-1095Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of employment duration and pain development on motor variability were investigated during repetitive work. EMG and kinematics data from two previous studies were reanalyzed. Newly employed butchers were followed prospectively in relation to employment duration and pain development. Healthy butchers with long-term experience were compared with novices. The variability of the cycle time, EMG ratio, and arm and trunk movement was expressed as cycle-to-cycle standard deviations. During the first six months of employment, cycle time variability decreased, while posture and movement variability increased (P<0.05). In presence of pain, the variability of the initial arm position decreased while it increased for the trunk (P<0.05). Experienced butchers showed a larger variability than novices for work cycle and several kinematic variables, but a smaller EMG ratio variability (P<0.05). These findings indicate that the variability of motor patterns in repetitive work change with experience and pain. A change towards a more variable motor strategy may protect workers from work-related musculoskeletal disorders.

  • 303.
    Mather, Lisa
    et al.
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Narusyte, J.
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ropponen, A.
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research for Worker Health, The Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Blom, V.
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Helgadóttir, B.
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svedberg, P.
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sick leave due to mental disorders, morbidity and mortality: a prospective study of discordant twin pairs2019Ingår i: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To investigate if sick leave due to mental disorders increases the risk of morbidity measured by inpatient and specialized outpatient care, and mortality among women and men, independent of familial factors. Methods: An open cohort study of 4979 twin pairs discordant for sick leave due to mental disorders was conducted in 2005–2013. Twins were followed up in the cause of death and national patient registries until the end of study, emigration, death, and inpatient and specialized outpatient care. Conditional Cox proportional hazard regression, adjusting for the familial factors shared by the twins, was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). In case of non-proportional hazards, time-varying covariates were used. Results: Sick leave due to mental disorders increased the risk for inpatient care among men (HR: 1.90, CI 1.66–2.17) and women (HR: 1.39, CI 1.27–1.51). For men, the risk of outpatient care was higher the first 2 years (HR: 2.08, CI 1.87–2.31), after which it was attenuated (HR: 1.32, CI 1.02–1.70). For women, the HR was 1.57 (CI 1.47–1.68) for the whole study time. There was an increased risk of death among men (HR: 2.91, CI 1.70–4.99), but not among women (HR: 0.84, CI 0.53–1.35). Conclusions: Sick leave due to mental disorders was a risk factor for mortality for men only, and increased the risk of inpatient and specialized outpatient care among both women and men, but the risks were higher for men when stratifying for sex. 

  • 304.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Assessment of time patterns in long-term recordings of physical activity: 'exposure variation analysis' (EVA) reconsidered2010Ingår i: Nordic Conference 2010 - Interdisciplinary perspectives on health, participation and effects of sport and exercise, 2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 305.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Cost-efficient assessment of biomechanical exposures in occupational studies2013Ingår i: Eighth International Conference on Prevention of Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders; Abstracts, 2013, s. 31-34Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 306.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Diversity and variation in biomechanical exposure: What is it, and why would we like to know?2006Ingår i: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 37, nr 4, s. 419-427Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Trends in global working life suggest that the occurrence of jobs characterized by long-lasting low-level loads or repetitive operations is increasing. More physical "variation" is commonly believed to be a remedy against musculoskeletal disorders in such jobs. One aim of the present paper was to shortly review the validity of this conviction. An examination of the available epidemiologic literature pointed out that the effectiveness of initiatives like job rotation or more breaks is weakly supported by empirical evidence, and only for short-term psychophysical outcomes. Only a limited number of studies have been devoted to physical variation, and concepts and metrics for variation in biomechanical exposure are not well developed. Thus, as a second objective, the paper proposes a framework for investigating and evaluating aspects of exposure variation, based on explicit definitions of variation as "the change in exposure across time" and diversity as "the extent that exposure entities differ". Operational methods for assessing these concepts are also discussed.

  • 307.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Frisk- eller riskfaktorer2012Ingår i: Forte - ett forskningsmagasin från FAS, nr 1, s. 22-23Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 308.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Bolin, Malin
    Department of Social Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Olofsdotter, Gunilla
    Department of Social Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Johansson, Elin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Equal health at work? Protocol for an observational study of work organisation, workload and musculoskeletal complaints among women and men in grocery retail2019Ingår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 309.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Burdorf, Alex
    Department of Public Health, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Järvholm, Bengt
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University.
    Knardahl, Stein
    Department of Work Psychology and Physiology, National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo, Norway.
    Proper, Karin
    f National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven; and VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Punnett, Laura
    Department of Work Environment, University of Massachusetts Lowell, USA.
    Straker, Leon
    School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Søgaard, Karen
    Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Occupational epidemiology: six guiding principles for future studies of physical work load and its effects on health and performance2015Ingår i: Proceedings of the 19th Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, Melbourne 9-14 August 2015 / [ed] Gitte Lindgaard & Dave Moore, 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 310.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hygge, Staffan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöpsykologi.
    Can cognitive activities during breaks in repetitive manual work accelerate recovery from fatigue? A controlled experiment2014Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 11, artikel-id e112090Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Neurophysiologic theory and some empirical evidence suggests that fatigue caused by physical work maybe more effectively recovered during “diverting” periods of cognitive activity than during passive rest; a phenomenon of great interest in working life. We investigated the extent to which development and recovery of fatigue during repeated bouts of an occupationally relevant reaching task was influenced by the complexity of a cognitive activity between these bouts. Eighteen male volunteers performed three sessions, consisting of six 7-min bouts of reaching alternating with 3minutes of a memory test differing in complexity between sessions. Throughout the session, recordings were made of upper trapezius muscle activity using electromyography (EMG), heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) using electrocardiography,arterial blood pressure, and perceived fatigue (Borg CR10 scale and SOFI). A test battery before, immediately after and 1 hour after the work period included measurements of shoulder elevation strength (MVC), pressure pain threshold (PPT) over the trapezius muscles, and a submaximal isometric contraction. As intended, perceived fatigue, HRV, and EMG amplitude increased during the physical work bouts. Recovery did occur between the bouts, but fatigue accumulated throughout the work period. Neither EMG changes nor recovery of perceived fatigue during breaks were influenced by cognitive task complexity, while heart rate and HRV recovered the most during breaks with the most difficult task. Recovery of perceived fatigue after the 1 hour work period was also most pronounced for the most difficult cognitive condition, while MVC and PPT showed ambiguous patterns, and EMG recovered similarly after all three cognitive protocols. Thus, we could confirm that cognitive tasks between bouts of fatiguing physical work can,indeed, accelerate recovery of central components of fatigue, even if benefits may be moderate. Our results encourage further research into combinations of physical and mental tasks in an occupational context.

  • 311.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hygge, Staffan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöpsykologi.
    Jahncke, Helena
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mixter, Susanna
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Kombination av fysiska och mentala arbetsuppgifter: en modell för effektiv arbetsrotation?2018Ingår i: FALF konferens 2018 Arbetet – problem eller potential för en hållbar livsmiljö?: Program och Abstracts / [ed] Lindberg, Per, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2018, s. 56-57Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Fysisk variation i arbetet anses allmänt av både forskare och praktiker att vara en förutsättning för god hälsa. Både för hög och för låg belastning kan med tiden leda till sämre välbefinnande och prestation. Den gällande föreskriften om belastningsergonomi (AFS 2012:2) anger specifikt att problem med repetitivt, styrt och bundet arbete ska förebyggas genom ökad variation, ”till exempel genom arbetsväxling, arbetsutvidgning eller pauser.” Samtidigt visar flera aktuella forskningsöversikter om variation och arbetsrotation att det vetenskapliga stödet för att dessa initiativ verkligen leder till bättre hälsa är otillräckligt. En anledning kan vara att de idéer till ökad variation som studerats har varit ineffektiva, till exempel därför att de arbetsuppgifter man växlat mellan har varit snarlika till sin belastning, eller att man, som i många studier av pauser, endast kunnat intervenera under en mindre del av arbetsdagen av hänsyn till produktionen. En modell för arbetsrotation med potential för att både säkra en hållbar produktion och leda till god fysisk och mental variation skulle kunna vara att kombinera fysiskt belastande arbets-uppgifter med produktiva uppgifter som ställer mentala krav, men inte är fysiskt krävande. Vid Forte-centret har vi under ett antal år arbetat med denna modell ur olika perspektiv.Det här symposiet ger en överblick över vår forskning. Vi kommer att sammanfatta det internationella forskningsläget, både om variation i stort och specifikt om kombinationer av fysiskt och mentalt belastande arbetsuppgifter. Vi kommer även att presentera en ny princip för hur man kan arbeta med belastning, variation och återhämtning: Guldlocks-principen. Vi kommer att visa resultat från våra egna studier av förekomsten av omväx-lande fysiska och mentala arbetsuppgifter i detaljhandel och industri, och vilka mönster av omväxling de anställda föredrar. Vidare kommer vi att gå igenom våra studier av stress och trötthetsutveckling då man kombinerar repetitivt fysiskt arbete med en mental uppgift av olika svårighetsgrader. Sammantaget kommer symposiet att visa både vilken forskning vi och andra bedrivit på området och vilka forskningsbehov som kvarstår för att svara på om en arbetsrotation som kombinerar fysiska och mentala arbetsuppgifter kan vara effektiv, både vad gäller hälsoeffekter och produktion.

  • 312.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Jackson, Jennie
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Punnett, Laura
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Work Environment, University of Massachusetts Lowell, USA.
    Statistical performance of observational work sampling for assessment of categorical exposure variables: A simulation approach illustrated using PATH data2014Ingår i: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 58, nr 3, s. 294-316Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. Observational work sampling is often used in occupational studies to assess categorical biomechanical exposures and occurrence of specific work tasks. The statistical performance of data obtained by work sampling is, however, not well understood, impeding informed measurement strategy design. The purpose of this study was to develop a procedure for assessing the statistical properties of work sampling strategies evaluating categorical exposure variables, and to illustrate the usefulness of this procedure to examine bias and precision of exposure estimates from samples of different sizes.

    Methods. From a parent data set of observations on 10 construction workers performing a single operation, the probabilities were determined for each worker of performing four component tasks and working in four mutually exclusive trunk posture categories (neutral, mild flexion, severe flexion, twisted). Using these probabilities, 5000 simulated data sets were created via probability-based re-sampling for each of six sampling strategies, ranging from 300 to 4500 observations. For each strategy, mean exposure and exposure variability metrics were calculated at both the operation- and task-levels and, for each of these, bias and precision were assessed across the 5000 simulations.

    Results. Estimates of exposure variability were substantially more uncertain at all sample sizes than estimates of mean exposures and task proportions. Estimates at small sample sizes were also biased. With only 600 samples, proportions of the different tasks and of working with a neutral trunk posture (the most common) were within 10% of the true target value in at least 80% of all the simulated data sets; rarer exposures required at least 1500 samples. For most task-level mean exposure variables and for all operation- and task-level estimates of exposure variability, performance was low, even with 4500 samples. In general, the precision of mean exposure estimates did not depend on the exposure variability between workers.

    Conclusions. The suggested probability-based simulation approach proved to be versatile and generally suitable for assessing bias and precision of data collection strategies using work sampling to estimate categorical data. The approach can be used in both real and hypothetical scenarios, in ergonomics as well as in other areas of occupational epidemiology and intervention research. The reported statistical properties associated with sample size are likely widely relevant to studies using work sampling to assess categorical variables.

  • 313.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Johansson, Elin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Bolin, Malin
    Forum för genusvetenskap, Mittuniversitetet i Sundsvall.
    Olofsdotter, Gunilla
    Forum för genusvetenskap, Mittuniversitetet i Sundsvall.
    Jämställd arbetshälsa? Genus, arbetsorganisation och fysisk belastning inom detaljhandeln2019Ingår i: Arbetsmiljö och ohälsa i ett genusperspektiv: Uppdragsforskning med relevans för tillsynsverksamheten, Stockholm: Arbetsmiljöverket , 2019, s. 22-42Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 314.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Johansson, Elin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Sitting, standing and physical activity among male and female office workers of different age: behaviours examined using compositional data analysis2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Excessive sitting is an increasing concern in working life. Negative health effects may, to some extent, be mitigated by interrupting prolonged sitting by standing or more active behaviours, like walking. Alternations between these behaviours may also influence variation in neck-shoulder-arm exposures, and thus musculoskeletal disorder risks. This study examined time spent sitting, standing and active among office workers, and determined the extent to which these behaviours differed by gender and age.

    Methods. Ninety-nine workers at a Swedish government agency (50/49 men/women; mean(SD) age 47.1(9.0) years) wore a thigh accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X) for five working days. Data were processed to give the percentage of time spent sitting in short (<30 min) and long (≥30 min) bouts, in standing, and in more active behaviours. In adding up to 100%, such data are constrained and inherently dependent. This requires further examination to be performed using Compositional Data Analysis (CoDA). Thus, Isometric Log-transformed Ratios were constructed, describing sitting vs. non-sitting (sit/nonsit), short-bout vs. long-bout sitting (shortsit/longsit), and standing vs. active (stand/active). These ratios were examined for pairwise correlations, and for associations with gender and age.

    Results. On average, workers spent 28.9%, 42.2%, 21.6%, and 7.3% time in shortsit, longsit, standing, and active. Sit/nonsit correlated negatively with shortsit/longsit (r=–0.49) and stand/active (r=–0.64); shortsit/longsit correlated positively with stand/active (r=0.19). Gender showed small associations with all three ratios (partial-ƞ2=0.01-0.03; p=0.08-0.43). Stand/active increased with increasing age (partial-ƞ2=0.07; p=0.01), while sit/nonsit and shortsit/longsit were very weakly associated with age (partial-ƞ2=0.01 and 0.01; p=0.26 and 0.40).

    Conclusions. Workers spending more time sitting also spent a larger part of that time in long, uninterrupted sitting bouts. However, when not sitting, these workers were more physically active than workers who sat less. These behaviours differed little by gender and age, besides older workers being relatively less active during non-sitting periods.

  • 315.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Lewis, Charlotte
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Fysisk variation och belastningsbesvär i arbetet2016Rapport (Refereegranskat)
  • 316.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Liv, Per
    Centre for Research and Development, Uppsala University / Region Gävleborg, Gävle, Sweden.
    Influence of task proportion errors on the effectiveness of task-based job exposure modeling2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background.Job-based exposure estimation using the occupational mean (JBM) is associated with substantial error. Many studies have therefore estimated job exposures from workers’ tasks, i.e. task-based modeling (TBM), typically by combining individual workers’ task proportions (TP) in the job with a general task exposure matrix. Studies of postures and muscle activity have, however, shown that TBM may be ineffective; one possible reason being that TPs are not correct. The present simulation study investigated the influence of random and systematic TP error on TBM performance.

    Methods.We constructed two virtual two-task jobs with task exposure contrasts of 0.2 and 0.8. In both, TPs and task exposures mimicked likely occupational scenarios. We then simulated four cases of TP error: no error, random error, bias, and bias and random error. For each case, we varied the TP error size, and compared the absolute errors of TBM- and JBM-based job exposures for 10,000 virtual workers.

    Results.For the low-contrast job, TBM with error-free TPs was, on average, only 6% more efficient than JBM, and the probability of TBM leading to a more correct job exposure than JBM was 56%. TP errors had negligible effects on effectiveness. With error-free TPs in the high-contrast job, TPM was 75% more efficient than JBM, and led to more correct job exposures for 71% of all workers. TP errors decreased TBM performance, down to being 34% better than JBM when both random and systematic errors were “large”; 62% of all individuals being more correctly assessed by TBM.

    Discussion.For jobs with limited task exposure contrast, TBM was essentially equivalent to JBM, while TP errors had marginal impact. In high-contrast jobs, TBM was more effec-tive, but was also more sensitive to both random and systematic TP errors. This may feed further discussion of the cost-efficiency of TBM in occupational settings.

  • 317.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Liv, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Wahlström, Jens
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Cost-efficient measurement strategies for posture observations based on video recordings2013Ingår i: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 44, nr 4, s. 609-617Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment of workingpostures by observation is a common practice in ergonomics. The present studyinvestigated whether monetary resources invested in a video-based posture observationstudy should preferably be spent in collecting many video recordings of thework and have them observed once by one observer, or in having multipleobservers rate postures repeatedly from fewer videos. The study addressed thisquestion from a practitioner’s perspective by focusing two plausible scenarios:documenting the mean exposure of one individual, and of a specific occupationalgroup. Using a data set of observed working postures among hairdressers, empiricalvalues of posture variability, observer variability, and costs for recordingand observing one video were entered into equations expressing the total costof data collection and the information (defined as 1/SD) provided by theresulting estimates of two variables: percentage time with the arm elevated<15 degrees and >90 degrees. Sixteen measurement strategies involving 1-4observers repeating their posture ratings 1-4 times were examined for budgetsup to €2000.  For both posture variablesand in both the individual and group scenario, the most cost-efficient strategyat any specific budget was to engage 3-4 observers and/or having observer(s)rate postures multiple times each. Between 17% and 34% less information wasproduced when using the commonly practiced approach of having one observer ratea number of video recordings one time each. We therefore recommend observationalposture assessment to be based on video recordings of work, since this allowsfor multiple observations; and to allocate monetary resources to repeated observationsrather than many video recordings.

  • 318.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Liv, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Wahlström, Jens
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Cost-efficient observation of working postures from video recordings – more videos, more observers or more views per observer?2012Ingår i: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, nr Suppl. 1, s. 2302-2306Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In ergonomics, assessing the working postures of an individual by observation is a very common practice. The present study investigated whether monetary resources devoted to an observational study should preferably be invested in collecting many video recordings of the work, or in having several observers estimate postures from available videos multiple times. On the basis of a data set of observed working postures among hairdressers, necessary information in terms of posture variability, observer variability, and costs for recording and observing videos was entered into equations providing the total cost of data collection and the precision (informative value) of the resulting estimates of two variables: percentages time with the arm elevated 90 degrees. In all 160 data collection strategies, differing with respect to the number of video recordings and the number of repeated observations of each recording, were simulated and compared for cost and precision. For both posture variables, the most cost-efficient strategy for a given budget was to engage 4 observers to look at available video recordings, rather than to have one observer look at more recordings. Since the latter strategy is the more common in ergonomics practice, we recommend reconsidering standard practice in observational posture assessment.

  • 319.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Belastningsskadecentrum.
    Nordander, Catarina
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University Hospital.
    Svendsen, Susanne W
    Department of Occupational Medicine, University Hospital of Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Wellman, Helen M
    Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety, Hopkinton, Massachusetts.
    Dempsey, Patrick G
    Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety, Hopkinton, Massachusetts.
    Task-based estimation of mechanical job exposure in occupational groups2005Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 31, nr 2, s. 138-51Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the validity of a common belief in epidemiology with respect to work-related musculoskeletal disorders, that individual mechanical job exposure is better estimated from tasks performed in the job than from the mean exposure of the occupational group. METHODS: Whole-day recordings of upper trapezius electromyography were obtained from 24 cleaners and 23 office workers. Trapezius activity was analyzed in the level (gap time) and frequency (jerk time) dimensions. On the same day, the job of each person was divided into periods of active work and breaks by means of continuous observations. The bootstrap re-sampling technique was used with this database to compare task-based job exposure estimates with estimates based on the occupational mean. For a particular person, the task-based estimate was obtained by combining the average work and break exposures in the occupation with the personal time proportions of the two tasks in the job. RESULTS: The task-based estimates were, in general, equivalent to, or less correct than, occupation-based estimates for both exposure parameters in both occupations and for individual exposures, as well as for group means. This was the result in spite of significant and consistent exposure differences between work and breaks, in particular among the cleaners. CONCLUSIONS: Even if task exposure contrasts are large, task-based estimates of job exposures can be less correct than estimates based on the occupational mean. Since collecting and processing task information is costly, it is recommended that task-based modeling of mechanical exposure be implemented in studies only after careful examination of its possible benefits.

  • 320.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Paquet, Victor
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, USA.
    The ability of limited exposure sampling to detect effects of interventions that reduce the occurrence of pronounced trunk inclination2010Ingår i: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 41, nr 2, s. 295-304Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ergonomics interventions often focus on reducing exposure in those parts of the job with the highest exposure levels, while leaving other parts unattended. A successful intervention will thus change the form of the job exposure distribution. This disqualifies standard methods for assessing the ability of various exposure measurement strategies to correctly detect the intervention effect on mean job exposure. This study used a non-parametric simulation procedure to evaluate the relationship between the number of measurements collected during a self-paced manufacturing job undergoing ergonomics interventions of varying effectiveness and the probability of correctly determining whether and to which extent the interventions reduced the overall occurrence of trunk flexion. Sixteen video-recordings taken at random times on multiple days for each of 3 workers were used to estimate the time distribution of each worker's exposure to trunk flexion of at least 20°. Nine ergonomics intervention scenarios were simulated in which the upper 1/8, 1/4, and 1/2 of the exposure distribution was reduced by 10%, 30% and 50%. Ten exposure measurement strategies were explored, collecting from 1 to 10 pre- and post-intervention exposure samples. For each worker, intervention scenario and sampling strategy, data were bootstrapped from the measured (pre-intervention) and simulated (post-intervention) exposure distributions to develop empirical data of the estimated intervention effect. Results showed that for the one to three most effective intervention scenarios, depending on worker, one to four pre- and post-intervention exposure samples were sufficient to reach an 80% probability of detecting that the intervention did, indeed, have an effect. However, even for these effective scenarios, seven or more samples were needed to obtain a probability larger than 50% of estimating the magnitude of the intervention effect to within ±50% of its true size. For less effective interventions, limited exposure sampling led to low probabilities of detecting any intervention effect, let alone its correct size.

  • 321.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Sample size and statistical performance in studies of sedentary behaviour – a novel approach based on compositional data analysis2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Sedentary behaviour studies often describe the extent of sitting by a time proportion; typically per cent time spent sitting. Proportions are examples of so-called “compositional data,” since they add up to a constrained sum (i.e. 100%). Compositional data differ from non-compositional data in aspects of essential importance to their analy-sis and interpretation, including how to address variability. Compositional data analysis (CDA) acts in a space of logarithmically transformed ratios of proportions, rather than on the proportions per se. We compared the statistical properties of confidence intervals (CI) of group mean values of sitting-time proportions obtained using standard procedures and CDA, exemplified by sample sizes required to obtain a specified precision.

    Methods. Sitting and non-sitting time proportions calculated from whole-day accelerom-eter recordings in 25 office workers were used as a heuristic example. Variability between subjects was assessed using standard statistics and CDA. In both cases, the size and shape of a 95% CI on the estimated mean sitting-time proportion of n subjects was assessed for different sizes of the mean and values of n.

    Results. While standard CIs at a specific n are independent of the mean value and sym-metric, CDA-derived CIs are asymmetric, except at a mean of 50%, and wider at “medium” than at “extreme” mean values. In the example, a 95% CI of ±5% around the mean was ob-tained using n=26 subjects according to standard procedures. However, using CDA, upper 95% CI limits of +5% were obtained with n=5 for a mean value of 90%, but required n=58 when the mean value was 60%. Similar-sized lower 95% CI limits of -5% were obtained with n=13 and n=63 at 90% and 60% means, respectively.

    Discussion. CDA-based estimates of sample sizes differed markedly from estimates based on standard statistics. Properties and implications of CDA in sedentary behaviour research deserve further consideration.

  • 322.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöpsykologi.
    Ergonomics observation: development of efficient methods based on cognitive psychology2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 323.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Vingård, EvaArbets- och miljömedicin, Uppsala universitet.
    Inkluderande arbetsliv2009Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 324.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Wahlström, Jens
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Bias and imprecision in posture percentile variables estimated from short exposure samples2012Ingår i: BMC Medical Research Methodology, ISSN 1471-2288, E-ISSN 1471-2288, Vol. 12, s. 36-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Upper arm postures are believed to be an important risk determinant for musculoskeletal disorder development in the neck and shoulders. The 10th and 90th percentiles of the angular elevation distribution have been reported in many studies as measures of neutral and extreme postural exposures, and variation has been quantified by the 10th-90th percentile range. Further, the 50th percentile is commonly reported as a measure of "average" exposure. These four variables have been estimated using samples of observed or directly measured postures, typically using sampling durations between 5 and 120 min.

    Methods. The present study examined the statistical properties of estimated full-shift values of the 10th, 50th and 90th percentile and the 10th-90th percentile range of right upper arm elevation obtained from samples of seven different durations, ranging from 5 to 240 min. The sampling strategies were realized by simulation, using a parent data set of 73 full-shift, continuous inclinometer recordings among hairdressers. For each shift, sampling duration and exposure variable, the mean, standard deviation and sample dispersion limits (2.5% and 97.5%) of all possible sample estimates obtained at one minute intervals were calculated and compared to the true full-shift exposure value.

    Results. Estimates of the 10th percentile proved to be upward biased with limited sampling, and those of the 90th percentile and the percentile range, downward biased. The 50th percentile was also slightly upwards biased. For all variables, bias was more severe with shorter sampling durations, and it correlated significantly with the true full-shift value for the 10th and 90th percentiles and the percentile range. As expected, shorter samples led to decreased precision of the estimate; sample standard deviations correlated strongly with true full-shift exposure values.

    Conclusions. The documented risk of pronounced bias and low precision of percentile estimates obtained from short posture samples presents a concern in ergonomics research and practice, and suggests that alternative, unbiased exposure variables should be considered if data collection resources are restricted.

  • 325.
    Matsson, Marie-Loise
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och psykologi.
    Wikstrand, Elin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och psykologi.
    De lyckade fallen: En studie om återgång i arbetet efter långtidssjukskrivning för psykisk ohälsa2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this study was to illustrate the organizations importance to female staff within education, health and social care on return to work after long term sick leave due to mental illness. The aim of this study was also to identify improvement opportunities. A qualitative study was made with seven interviewees that had return to work after long term sick leave for mental illness. The material was analyzed with an inducitve thematic method. The main themes that emerged was: Information and consulting, Social support from managers and colleagues, Changed attitude and participation in the rehabilitation process and Improvement opportunities. The main result showed that the social support from managers and colleagues and the changed attitude towards the illness mattered the most to the interviewees for a successful return to work. The result also showed that the interviewees had a great need of information about the sick leave process. According to the interviewees the understanding and knowledge about mental illness has to increase. 

  • 326.
    Maznychenko, Andrey V.
    et al.
    Department of Movement Physiology, Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology, National Academy of Sciences, Kiev, Ukraine.
    Pilyavskii, Alexander I.
    Department of Movement Physiology, Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology, National Academy of Sciences, Kiev, Ukraine.
    Kostyukov, Alexander I.
    Department of Movement Physiology, Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology, National Academy of Sciences, Kiev, Ukraine.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Vlasenko, Oleh V.
    Laboratory of Experimental Neurophysiology, Pirogov National Medical University, Vinnitsa, Ukraine.
    Maisky, Vladimir A.
    Department of Movement Physiology, Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology, National Academy of Sciences, Kiev, Ukraine.
    Coupling of c-fos expression in the spinal cord and amygdala induced by dorsal neck muscles fatigue2007Ingår i: Histochemistry and Cell Biology, ISSN 0948-6143, E-ISSN 1432-119X, Vol. 128, nr 1, s. 85-90Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    c-fos gene expression in the cervical spinal cord and amygdala was examined in anaesthetized rats following muscle fatigue caused by intermittent high-rate (100 s(-1)) electrical stimulation of the dorsal neck muscles (m. trapezius and m. splenius). Fatigue-related increases in c-fos expression were observed on the stimulated muscle side in the cervical C2-C4 (layers 1, 3-5, 7 and 10) spinal segments, bilaterally in the lumbar L4-L6 (layer 1) segments and in contralateral central (Ce), medial (Me), and basomedial (BM) amygdaloid nuclei. A scarce number of staining cells were found within lateral and basolateral nuclei. The rostro-caudal extent of c-fos expression in the spinal cord supports functional coupling of the cervical and lumbar regions during the neck muscle fatigue development. The distinct c-fos expression in the Ce and Me amygdaloid nuclei suggests that they may contribute to mediating the neck muscle fatigue-related nociception, autonomic and behavioural responses.

  • 327.
    Meinertz Dantoft, Thomas
    et al.
    Danish Research Centre for Chemical Sensitivities, Copenhagen University Hospital, Gentofte, Denmark; Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Skovbjerg, Sine
    Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Capital Region, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Andersson, Linus
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lind, Nina
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nordin, Steven
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Brix, Susanne
    Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Inflammatory mediator profiling of n-butanol exposed upper airways in individuals with multiple chemical sensitivity2015Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 11, artikel-id e0143534Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) is a chronic condition characterized by reports of recurrent symptoms in response to low level exposure to various chemical substances. Recent findings suggests that dysregulation of the immune system may play a role in MCS pathophysiology.

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine baseline and low dose n-butanol-induced upper airway inflammatory response profiles in MCS subjects versus healthy controls.

    METHOD: Eighteen participants with MCS and 18 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Epithelial lining fluid was collected from the nasal cavity at three time points: baseline, within 15 minutes after being exposed to 3.7 ppm n-butanol in an exposure chamber and four hours after exposure termination. A total of 19 cytokines and chemokines were quantified. Furthermore, at baseline and during the exposure session, participants rated the perceived intensity, valence and levels of symptoms and autonomic recordings were obtained.

    RESULTS: The physiological and psychophysical measurements during the n-butanol exposure session verified a specific response in MCS individuals only. However, MCS subjects and healthy controls displayed similar upper airway inflammatory mediator profiles (P>0.05) at baseline. Likewise, direct comparison of mediator levels in the MCS group and controls after n-butanol exposure revealed no significant group differences.

    CONCLUSION: We demonstrate no abnormal upper airway inflammatory mediator levels in MCS subjects before or after a symptom-eliciting exposure to low dose n-butanol, implying that upper airways of MCS subjects are functionally intact at the level of cytokine and chemokine production and secretory capacity. This suggests that previous findings of increased cytokine plasma levels in MCS are unlikely to be caused by systemic priming via excessive upper airway inflammatory processes.

  • 328.
    Mixter, Susanna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Alternations between physical and cognitive tasks in repetitive work – Effect of cognitive task difficulty on fatigue development in women2019Ingår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 62, nr 8, s. 1008-1022Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In a context of job rotation, this study determined the extent to which the difficulty of a cognitive task (CT) interspersed between bouts of repetitive, low-intensity work (pipetting) influences recovery from fatigue. Fifteen participants performed three experimental sessions, each comprising 10 repeats of a 7 min + 3 min combination of pipetting and CT. The CT was easy, moderate or hard. Surface electromyography (EMG amplitude of the forearm extensor and trapezius muscles) and self-reports was used to assess fatigability. Perceived fatigue and trapezius EMG amplitude increased during sessions. CT difficulty influenced fatigue development only little, besides forearm extensor EMG increasing more in CT3 than in CT1 and CT2. During CT bouts, fatigability recovered, and to a similar extent irrespective of CT. Thus, CT difficulty influenced recovery of perceived as well as performance fatigability to a minor extent, and may not be a critical issue in job rotation comprising alternating physical and cognitive tasks.

  • 329.
    Mixter, Susanna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Alternations between physical and mental tasks – a viable option for job rotation?2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 330.
    Mixter, Susanna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Bjärntoft, Sofie
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Alternations between physical and cognitive tasks – does temporal pattern and cognitive task difficulty influence fatigue development?2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Some evidence suggests that alternations between physical and cognitive work tasks may be a viable option for job rotation, since production can be maintained without excessive fatigue. Effects on fatigue and pain of the temporal distribution of physical and cognitive tasks are, however, uncertain. The aim of this study was to examine development of fatigue and pain during physical and cognitive work tasks of different difficulties, alternating in different temporal patterns.

    Methods

    Fifteen women performed alternating bouts of a physical task (phys) and a cognitive task (CT) for a total of 100 minutes. Four experimental conditions were tested in a repeated-measures design. Conditions 1 and 2 consisted of five long-cycle sequences (phys+CT, 14+6 minutes), and in conditions 3 and 4, 10 short-cycle sequences (7+3 minutes) were performed. Each temporal pattern was completed with an easy or a difficult CT. Muscle fatigue was assessed using surface electromyography (EMG) from the right trapezius, and perceived fatigue and pain in the right shoulder was assessed using CR-10 ratings. Effects of time and experimental condition on these outcomes were tested using ANOVA.

    Results

    Perceived fatigue and pain in right shoulder after pipetting work bouts increased in all four conditions (long-cycle, fatigue F=5.68, p<0.001, pain F=4.12, p=0.01; short-cycle, fatigue F=10.59, p<0.001, pain F=5.45, p<0.001). Trapezius EMG did not change significantly across work bouts (long-cycle, F=2.14, p=0.09; short-cycle, F=1.03, p=0.42). Irrespective of the temporal alternation pattern, neither EMG nor fatigue and pain were influenced by CT difficulty (CT main effect and CT×time interaction: EMG, all F≤2.5, p≥0.1; fatigue and pain, all F≤2.0, p≥0.7).

    Conclusions

    The temporal pattern of alternations between a repetitive physical task and a CT did not influence fatigue development, and the difficulty level of the CT did not significantly influence fatigue and pain, irrespective of the temporal alternation pattern.

  • 331.
    Mixter, Susanna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Jahncke, Helena
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University.
    Does the difficulty of a memory task interspersed between bouts of repetitive work influence recovery?2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Controlled experiments suggest that active breaks with mental activity interspersed between physical work bouts can lead to more effective recovery from fatigue than passive rest. However, most of these studies investigated a highly stereotyped physical task until exhaustion. Research investigating the effects of mental breaks in tasks of higher occupational relevance is limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent to which a working memory task performed at three difficulty levels would enhance recovery of perceived fatigue after a repetitive physical work task.

    Methods. 12 women (mean age 26.4) performed 10 work cycles each comprising seven minutes of pipetting (to model repetitive work) followed by three minutes devoted to a working memory task. Three difficulty levels (MT1, MT2, MT3) of the memory task were tested on three different days in a randomized order across participants. During the last minute of pipetting and after the memory task, participants rated fatigue on the Borg CR-10 scale. Before, during and after each experiment, salivary a-amylase was measured.

    Results. Perceived fatigue in the right shoulder during the last minute of pipetting increased with time (p<0.001) but did not significantly differ between types of MT (p=0.314). Perceived fatigue in the right shoulder just after the memory task also increased with time (p<0.001), and in a pattern differing between MT types (time*MT: p=0.042), while MT type showed no significant main effect (p=0.169). Post-hoc tests showed that MT3 led to better recovery than MT1 (effect of MT: p=0.041; time*MT: p=0.025). Salivary a-amylase increased with time (p=0.001) but showed no significant effects of MT type (p=0.214).

    Discussion. Our results indicate that recovery of perceived fatigue after a repetitive task was better when performing a difficult — as compared to an easy — memory task. This effect was not accompanied by any differences in a-amylase response.

  • 332.
    Mixter, Susanna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dimberg, Kenth
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektroteknik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Biologi.
    Jahncke, Helena
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Stress-related responses to alternations between repetitive physical work and cognitive tasks of different difficulties2019Ingår i: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This experimental study aimed to determine the extent to which a repetitive physical task alternatingwith a cognitive task (CT) influences stress responses and whether the CT difficulty is important. Fifteen women performed three sessions of 10 consecutive work bouts, each including a seven-minutere petitive physical task and a three-minute CT at either of three difficulty levels. Stress-related responses were assessed using heart rate variability, blood pressure, salivary alpha-amylase, salivary cortisol, perceived stress and cognitive performance.The alternating work did not result in any marked increase in perceived stress or changes in stressresponses. CT difficulty did not influence stress responses (all p>0.05), apart from alpha-amylase which was higher during the easiest CT (F= 5.34, p= 0.02). Thus, introducing cognitive work bouts into repetitive physical work did not result in increased levels of stress, suggesting this approach to be viable in job rotation.

  • 333.
    Monnier, Andreas
    et al.
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; Swedish Armed Forces, Regional Medical Service Mälardalen, Berga, Sweden.
    Djupsjöbacka, Mats
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Larsson, Helena
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; Swedish Armed Forces, Headquarters, Medical Services, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Norman, Kjell
    Swedish Armed Forces, 1st Marine Regiment, 2nd Amphibious Battalion, Berga, Sweden.
    Äng, Björn O.
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; Centre for Clinical Research Dalarna, Falun, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Risk factors for back pain in marines; A prospective cohort study2016Ingår i: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 17, nr 1, artikel-id 319Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It is recognised that back pain (BP) is a debilitating medical problem in the soldier community, which limits operational readiness as well as work ability. As such, identification of risk factors is a necessity for effective preventive actions, but also regarded as important from a safety perspective. The aim of this prospective cohort study was therefore to identify risk factors for back pain and BP limiting work ability in active duty marines within a 6 and 12-month period. Methods: Demographic characteristics, health-related factors and occupational exposure information, as gathered from questionnaires, as well as clinical test of movement control among 137 Swedish marines were regressed with multivariable logistic regressions, and strength of associations was presented as odds ratio (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI). BP within 6 and 12 months were used as primary outcomes, whereas BP limiting work ability within 6 and 12 months served as secondary outcomes. Results: Previous BP and tall body height (≥1.86 m) emerged as risk factors for back pain within 6 months (OR 2.99, 95 % CI 1.22-7.30; OR 2.81, 95 % CI 1.16- 6.84, respectively), and 12 months (OR 6.75, 95 % CI 2.30-19.80; 2.75, 95 % CI 1.21-6.29, respectively). Previous BP was also identified as risk factor for BP limiting work ability within 12 months (OR 6.64, 95 % CI 1.78-24.78), and tall body height emerged as a risk within both six (OR 4.30, 95 % CI 1.31-14.13) and 12 months (OR 4.55, 95 % CI 1.53-13.57) from baseline. Conclusions: Marines with a history of BP are at risk of further BP episodes, which, thus, emphasise the importance of early BP preventive actions. Tall body height also emerged as an important risk which may reflect that personal equipment and work tasks are not adapted for the tallest marines. While this should be considered when introducing new work equipment, further studies are warranted to clarify the underlying mechanism of this association.

  • 334.
    Monnier, Andreas
    et al.
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Stockholm ; Swedish Armed Forces, Regional Medical Service Mälardalen, Berga.
    Larsson, Helena
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Stockholm ; Swedish Armed Forces, HR Centre, Stockholm.
    Djupsjöbacka, Mats
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Brodin, Lars-Åke
    Department of Medical Engineering, School of Technology and Health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Huddinge.
    Äng, Björn O
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Stockholm ; Centre for Clinical Research Dalarna, Falun ; Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm.
    Musculoskeletal pain and limitations in work ability in Swedish marines: a cross-sectional survey of prevalence and associated factors2015Ingår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 5, nr 10, artikel-id e007943Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of self-rated musculoskeletal pain and pain limiting work ability in Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) marines, and to study factors potentially associated with pain limiting work ability for the most prevalent pain regions reported.

    Design Population-based, cross-sectional survey.

    Participants There were 272 SAF marines from the main marine battalion in Sweden included in the study.

    Outcomes Self-assessed musculoskeletal pain and pain limiting the marines' work ability within a 6-month period, as obtained from structured questionnaires. The association of individual, health and work-related factors with musculoskeletal pain limiting work ability was systematically regressed with multiple logistic models, estimating OR and 95% CI.

    Results Musculoskeletal pain and pain limiting work ability were most common in the back, at 46% and 20%, and lower extremities at 51% and 29%, respectively. Physical training ≤1 day/week (OR 5.3, 95% CI 1.7 to 16.8); body height ≤1.80 m (OR 5.0, 95% CI 1.6 to 15.1) and ≥1.86 m (OR 4.4, 95% CI 1.4 to 14.1); computer work 1/4 of the working day (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.0 to 10.0) and ≥1/2 (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.1 to 10.1) of the working day were independently associated with back pain limiting work ability. None of the studied variables emerged significantly associated with such pain for the lower extremities.

    Conclusions Our findings show that musculoskeletal pain and resultant limitations in work ability are common in SAF marines. Low frequency of physical training emerged independently associated with back pain limiting work ability. This suggests that marines performing physical training 1 day per week or less are suitable candidates for further medical evaluation and secondary preventive actions. While also associated, body height and computer work need further exploration as underlying mechanisms for back pain limiting work ability. Further prospective studies are necessary to clarify the direction of causality.

  • 335.
    Monnier, Andreas
    et al.
    Division of Physiotherapy, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden; Swedish Armed Forces, Military Academy Karlberg, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larsson, Helena
    Division of Physiotherapy, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; Swedish Armed Forces, Headquarters, Medical Services, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nero, Håkan
    Department of Orthopedics, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Djupsjöbacka, Mats
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Äng, Björn O.
    Division of Physiotherapy, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden; Center for Clinical Research, Uppsala University, Falun, Sweden.
    A longitudinal observational study of back pain incidence, risk factors and occupational physical activity in Swedish marine trainees2019Ingår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 9, nr 5, artikel-id e025150Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the occurrence of low back pain (LBP) and LBP that limits work ability, to identify their potential early risks and to quantify occupational physical activity in Swedish Armed Forces (SwAF) marines during their basic 4 month marine training course.

    DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study with weekly follow-ups.

    PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-three SwAF marines entering the training course.

    OUTCOMES: Incident of LBP and its related effect on work-ability and associated early risks. Occupational physical activity, as monitored using accelerometers and self-reports.

    RESULTS: During the training course, 68% of the marines experienced at least one episode of LBP. This yielded a LBP and LBP limiting work ability incidence rate of 13.5 (95% CI 10.4 to 17.8) and 6.3 (95% CI 4.2 to 10.0) episodes per 1000 person-days, respectively. Previous back pain and shorter body height (≤1.80 m) emerged as independent risks for LBP (HR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.3; HR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.3, respectively), as well as for LBP that limited work ability (HR 3.6, 95% CI 1.4 to 8.9; HR 4.5, 95% CI 2.0 to 10.0, respectively). Furthermore, managing fewer than four pull-ups emerged as a risk for LBP (HR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.0), while physical training of fewer than three sessions per week emerged as a risk for LBP that limited work ability (HR 3.0, 95% CI 1.2 to 7.4). More than 80% of the work time measured was spent performing low levels of ambulation, however, combat equipment (≥17.5 kg) was carried for more than half of the work time.

    CONCLUSIONS: Incidents of LBP are common in SwAF marines' early careers. The link between LBP and previous pain as well as low levels of exercise highlights the need for preventive actions early on in a marine's career. The role of body height on LBP needs further investigation, including its relationship with body-worn equipment, before it can effectively contribute to LBP prevention.

  • 336. Morrison, Janet
    et al.
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    When no one has time: measuring the impact of computerization on health care workers2008Ingår i: AAOHN journal, ISSN 0891-0162, Vol. 56, nr 9, s. 373-378Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Technological change is a constant in today's workplace, especially the modern health care workplace. The introduction of electronic health records changes workloads, job demands, interactions with other health care professionals, and work roles-all elements that have previously been noted to increase work stress and impact health. Despite the significant changes that accompany computerization, it is seldom studied as a source of stress. Also, the health effects of computerization within health care have not been extensively studied. This article summarizes the potential environmental impact of computerization on workers, with special reference to health care workers, and suggests ways occupational health nurses can monitor the health consequences of new technology and intervene in case of adverse health impact. In many health care organizations, high work pressure and staff shortages make it impractical, and perhaps impossible, to use standard in-depth research methods to investigate this issue. Therefore, several less obtrusive methods that can be triangulated are suggested as an alternative.

  • 337.
    Neumann, W. P.
    et al.
    National Institute for Working Life, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Design Sciences, Lund Technical University, Lund, Sweden; Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada.
    Winkel, J.
    National Institute for Working Life, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Medbo, L.
    Department of Transport and Logisitics, Chalmers Technical University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Magneberg, R.
    National Institute for Working Life, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Production system design elements influencing productivity and ergonomics: a case study of parallel and serial flow strategies2006Ingår i: International Journal of Operations & Production Management, ISSN 0144-3577, E-ISSN 1758-6593, Vol. 26, nr 8, s. 904-923Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: A strategic change from parallel-cell based assembly (OLD) to serial-line assembly (NEW) was investigated in a Swedish company with special reference to how production system design elements affect both productivity and ergonomics.

    Methods: Multiple methods, including records and video analysis, questionnaires, interviews, biomechanical modelling, and flow simulation were applied.

    Findings: The NEW system, unlike the OLD, showed the emergence of system and balance losses as well as vulnerability to disturbances and difficulty handling all product variants. Nevertheless the NEW system as realised partially overcame productivity barriers in the operation and management of the OLD system. The NEW system had impaired ergonomics due to decreased physical variation and increased repetitiveness with cycle times that were 6% of previous thus increasing repetitiveness, and significantly reduced perceived influence over work. Workstations’ uneven exposure to physical tasks such as nut running created a potential problem for workload management. The adoption of teamwork in the NEW system contributed to significantly increased co-worker support – an ergonomic benefit.

    Implications: Design decisions made early in the development process affect both ergonomics and productivity in the resulting system. While the time pattern of 3 physical loading appeared to be controlled by flow and work organisation elements, the amplitude of loading was determined more by workstation layout. Psychosocial conditions appear to be affected by a combination of system elements including layout, flow, and work organisation elements.

    Practical Implications: Strategic use of parallelisation elements in assembly, perhaps in hybrid forms from configurations observed here, appears to be a viable design option for improved performance by reducing the fragility and ergonomic problems of assembly lines.

    Value: The interacting design elements examined here pose potential ‘levers’ of control by which productivity and ergonomics could be jointly optimised for improved total system performance.

  • 338.
    Neumann, W. Patrick
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada.
    Winkel, Jörgen
    Department of Sociology and Work Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Palmerud, Gunnar
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Innovation and employee injury risk in automotive disassembly operations2018Ingår i: International Journal of Production Research, ISSN 0020-7543, E-ISSN 1366-588X, Vol. 56, nr 9, s. 3188-3203Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineering innovations in car disassembly systems are studied for affects on system operators’ risk of repetitive strain injury (RSI). Objective instrumented measures of injury risk factors with synchronized video-based task analyses were used to examine changes in operators’ RSI risk during two cases of engineering innovation: 1) a shift in industrial model from traditional extracting saleable parts to line-based full material recovery, and 2) the prospective effects of a simulated “Lean” inspired process improvement in the line system.

    Both cases of innovation showed significantly increased movement speeds and reduced muscular recovery opportunities, implying increased RSI risk. This case study reveals a mechanism by which innovation may increase RSI risks for operators. Managers responsible for engineering innovation should ensure their teams have the tools and mandate necessary to control injury hazards as part of the development and design process. These cases suggest how failure to manage RSI hazards in the innovation process may allow increases of injury risks that can compromise operational performance. This “innovation pitfall” has implications for operator health and organizational sustainability. Alternative pathways are discussed.

  • 339.
    Neupane, Subas
    et al.
    Unit of Health Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.
    Karstad, Kristina
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Rugulies, Reiner
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Objectively measured versus self-reported occupational physical activity and multisite musculoskeletal pain: A prospective follow-up study at 20 nursing homes in Denmark2019Ingår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    To explore the prospective association of objectively measured and self-reported occupational physical activity (OPA) with multisite musculoskeletal pain (MSP) among Danish eldercare workers.

    Methods

    The study population consisted of eldercare workers in 20 Danish nursing homes (N = 553, response rate 59%, 525 female). Baseline data were collected in 2013–2014 and the 1-year follow-up was completed in 2016. At baseline, we measured objective OPA by a thigh-worn ActiGraph GT3X + accelerometer during work and self-reported OPA by a questionnaire survey. Information on musculoskeletal pain during the past four weeks in seven different body sites was reported by a structured questionnaire at baseline (n = 389) and by SMS and telephone interview during follow-up (n = 284). MSP was defined as having pain in two or more body sites. Using log-binomial models we calculated risk ratios (RRs) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to estimate the association between objectively measured and self-reported OPA and MSP.

    Results

    We found statistically significant positive associations between self-reported OPA (RR for high OPA 1.24, 95% CI 1.05–1.46) and MSP while there was no significant association found between objective OPA and MSP.

    Conclusion

    Our study indicates that self-reported, but not objectively measured OPA is positively associated with MSP. This finding highlights the need for better understanding, use, and interpretation of self-reported and objectively measured OPA in the study of MSP.

  • 340.
    Nilsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Landström, Ulf
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Exponering och upplevelser av trafikbuller på arbetsplatser2006Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 341.
    Nordlöf, Hasse
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Socialmedicin.
    Prerequisites and Possibilities for Manufacturing Companies to Prioritize and Manage Occupational Health and Safety2015Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetsmiljölagen kräver att människors hälsa och säkerhet på arbetet ska tryggas genom att risker kontinuerligt ska bedömas och åtgärdas. Många företag saknar idag ett fungerande systematiskt arbetsmiljöarbete (SAM) som uppfyller lagens krav fullt ut. Istället tycks andra dagliga aktiviteter ha högre prioritet.

    Det övergripande syftet med denna avhandling var att undersöka förutsättningar och möjligheter för tillverkande företag att prioritera och arbeta med säkerheten och arbetsmiljön; med särskilt fokus på yrkesroller, företagsstorlek, säkerhet och finansiella nyckeltal.

    Fyra delstudier (I–IV) ingår i denna avhandling, vilka är baserade på tre datainsamlingar. En enkät som mätte arbetsmiljöprioritering besvarades av 249 representanter vid 142 tillverkande företag (I & II). Fokusgruppintervjuer genomfördes med 66 arbetare på ett stort ståltillverkningsföretag, där deras erfarenheter och uppfattningar om säkerhet och risker i arbetet diskuterades (III). En enkät som mätte SAM, säkerhetskultur och arbetsmiljöprioritering besvarades av 280 representanter vid 197 tillverkande företag (IV). Information om företagens finansiella nyckeltal hämtades från ett kreditupplysningsföretag.

    De viktigaste resultaten från de fyra delstudierna kan bland annat sammanfattas med att lönsamheten uppfattades vara det mest prioriterade intresset vid företagen (I), och att avvägningar mellan produktivitet och säkerhet ansågs vara ett hinder för att kunna arbeta på ett säkert sätt (III). Chefer uppfattade generellt att arbetsmiljön prioriterades mer på företagen än vad skyddsombuden gjorde (I & IV). Uppfattningar om arbetsmiljöprioritering skiljde sig dock inte åt beroende på företagsstorlek (II & IV). Ansvaret för säkerheten på arbetet ansågs främst vila hos den enskilda individen, och risktagande betraktades komma ur en kombination av individuella faktorer och yttre omständigheter i arbetsmiljön (III). Att vara ett större företag, ha positiv säkerhetskultur och hög kreditvärdighet visade sig ha samband med att också ha ett bättre utvecklat SAM (IV). På motsvarande sätt, att vara ett mindre företag, ha negativ säkerhetskultur och låg kreditvärdighet befanns ha samband med att också ha ett sämre utvecklat SAM.

    Sammanfattningsvis verkar därmed strukturella, sociala såväl som ekonomiska aspekter vara väsentliga för företags möjligheter att prioritera och arbeta med säkerheten och arbetsmiljön. Detta ger uppslag till rekommendationer för industrin samt vidare forskning.

  • 342.
    Nordlöf, Hasse
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    What is safety culture and risk-taking like at a large steel manufacturing company?2012Ingår i: Work: Proceedings for the 18th Triennial International Ergonomics Association's (IEA) Congress, 2012, Vol. 41 suppl. 1, nr Suppl. 1, s. 5831-5832Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Focus group interviews were conducted at a large steel manufacturing company with 1000 employees, in order to answer the research question: what is the safety culture and risk-taking like at the company, according to employees? Ten focus groups were used for data collection consisting of 6-8 employees each. The participants were operators from production. The interviews lasted 75 min and were digitally recorded and thereafter verbatim transcribed. Descriptive data was also collected from all participants by allowing them to fill out a short questionnaire. The results of this study will be presented at the conference as a poster presentation.

  • 343.
    Nyman, Teresia
    et al.
    MM Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Sweden; School of Technology and health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Kristina
    MM Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; School of Technology and health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Forsman, Mikael
    MM Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    A proposed web-based model for teaching risk assessment methods2015Ingår i: Proceedings 19th Triennial Congress of the IEA, Melbourne 9-14 August 2015, 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades much research has focused on the association between work-related exposures and musculoskeletal disorders, and a number of risk assessment methods for physical ergonomics have been developed (Neumann 2007, Takala, Pehkonen et al. 2010).

    However, recent studies have shown that the knowledge about these methods is very limited among ergonomists in the occupational health services (OHS). The ergonomists often assess risks in the work environment by sole observation, based on his/her own knowledge and experience, without the use of any specific method (K. Eliasson et al., manuscript). Further, a survey investigating the use of evidence based practice within the OHS concluded that there is a need for education and training in reliable and valid methods (Alipour, Nyman et al. 2012).

    Although there already exist both shorter courses and master programs in ergonomics at university level, there is a lack of more informal, easy-to-access educational material on risk assessment methods.

    Web-based education and training often allows self-directed, self-paced instruction and can be considered a good alternative to traditional learning methods for ergonomists wanting to increase their professional competence. However, there is a lack of studies investigating the pros and cons of using e-learning within this field.

    The present study is part of the OBS-project, an on-going project with the overall purpose to evaluate six observational methods for assessment of biomechanical exposures. The six methods are: Assessment of Repetitive Tasks (ART) (Ferreira, Gray et al. 2009), Hand Arm Risk Assessment Method (HARM) (Douwes and de Kraker 2012), Model for assessment of repetitive work by the Swedish Work Environment Authority (SWEA) (The Swedish Work Environment Authority 2011), Occupational Repetitive Actions (OCRA) checklist (Occhipinti and Colombini 2006), Quick Exposure Check (QEC) (David, Woods et al. 2008), and Strain Index (SI) (Moore and Garg 1995).

    The specific objective of this sub-study was to evaluate a web-based pedagogical model targeting OHS professionals aimed at facilitating the teaching and the dissemination of observational risk assessment methods.

  • 344.
    Nyman, Teresia
    et al.
    IMM Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Eliasson, Kristina
    IMM Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; School of Technology and health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Huddinge.
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Rehn, Ida-Märta
    Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council.
    Kjellberg, Katarina
    IMM Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council.
    Palm, Peter
    Department of Medical Sciences Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, and Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden.
    Forsman, Mikael
    IMM Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council .
    A Web-Based Model for Teaching Risk Assessment Methods2014Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    1.  Introduction

    During the last decades many risk assessment methods for physical ergonomics have been developed. However, recent studies have shown that the knowledge about these methods is very limited among ergonomists in the occupational health services. Although there are both shorter courses and full Master programs on ergonomics on advanced level within the regular educational system (university level), there is a lack of more informal, easy-to-access educational material on different risk assessment methods.

    2.  Methods

    As a part of a larger ongoing project investigating the validity, reliability and usability of six observational methods for risk assessment of repetitive work, a web-based pedagogical model aimed at facilitating the teaching and the dissemination of risk assessment methods has been developed.

    The web-based model consists of recorded lectures and self-supported training using a video library of different work tasks. The model uses a web-based platform originally developed for student-teacher communication in a university setting. The platform supports group discussions and possibilities for interaction with teachers.

    As a part of the project, the model are now being tested, by letting 12 ergonomists from the occupational health services with more than 5 years of experience of ergonomic risk assessments learn six different observational methods for risk assessment of repetitive work. The six methods are:

    1. Occupational Repetitive Actions (OCRA) checklist
    2. Quick exposure checklist Quick Exposure Check (QEC)
    3. Strain Index (SI)
    4. Assessment of Repetitive Tasks (ART)
    5. Hand Arm Risk-assessment Method (HARM)
    6. Model for assessment of repetitive work by the Swedish Work Environment Authority

    After learning the six different methods, the ergonomists are given an evaluation questionnaire, specific for each method. The questionnaires are then used for designing group interviews concerning both the usability of the methods, as well as the web-based pedagogical model.

    3.  Results

    Preliminary questionnaire analyses and interviews indicate that the ergonomists are mainly positive to the present web-based pedagogical model. Group interviews are carried out during spring 2014, and further results will be presented at the conference.

  • 345.
    O’Sullivan, Leonard
    et al.
    Design Factors Reserach Group, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland.
    Power, Valerie
    Design Factors Reserach Group, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland.
    Virk, Gurvinder Singh
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Masud, Nauman
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Haider, Usman
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för elektronik, matematik och naturvetenskap, Elektronik.
    Christensen, Simon
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Bai, Shaoping
    Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Cuypers, Ludo
    OMmeto, Hamburg, Belgium.
    D’Have, Michel
    OMmeto, Hamburg, Belgium.
    Voncke, Kristl
    University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.
    End user needs elicitation for a full-body exoskeleton to assist the elderly2015Ingår i: 6TH International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE 2015) and the  affiliated conferences / [ed] Ahram, T., Karwowski, W. and Schmorrow, D., Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2015, s. 1403-1409Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    For ageing individuals, declining physical functional capacity can lead to loss of independence, decreased engagement in the community and reductions in quality of life. As such, solutions that can effectively and affordably supplement older adults’ diminishing functional capacity, and thus facilitate maintained independence and social participation over time are urgently required. The AXO-SUIT project - funded by the European Commission under the Ambient Assisted Living Joint Programme is developing assistive exoskeleton devices for older adults with impaired mobility and/or difficulties in performingactivities of daily living. This paper will report on-going research which aims to identify end user needs, and thus provide inputs to specify the design requirements of the AXO-SUIT exoskeletons. The objectives of this initial questionnaire study are to identify the functional assistance requirements of potential end users of the AXO-SUIT in terms of mobility, reaching and handling, and full-body support for performing activities of daily livingat home and in the wider community. The end user requirements identified will be used to formulate functional specifications for the AXO-SUIT lower-body and upper-body sub-systems, which will ensure that the AXO-SUIT prototypes will provide for the specific mobility, reaching and handling needs of end users, and also to provide useful insights into the perspectives and needs of end users in relation to assistive exoskeletons in general.

  • 346.
    Palm, Peter
    et al.
    Arbets- och miljömedicin, Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala.
    Eliasson, Kristina
    Sensia Företagshälsovård & Enheten för ergonomi, KTH Stockholm.
    Lindberg, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hägg, Göran
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Belastningsergonomisk riskbedömning: Vägledning och metoder2014Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 347.
    Palm, Peter
    et al.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Forsman, Mikael
    IMM Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Birk Jørgensen, Marie
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Madeleine, Pascal
    Department of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Whole workday measurements of arm elevation andassociations with neck shoulder pain among blue-collar workers in the DPHACTOcohort2017Ingår i: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 348.
    Palm, Peter
    et al.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University.
    Forsman, Mikael
    IMM Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    Upper arm elevation in blue‐collar work with and without exclusion of arm elevation during sitting2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 349.
    Palm, Peter
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Johansson, Elin
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet.
    Kjellberg, Katarina
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet.
    Josephson, Malin
    Department of Medical Sciences Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University.
    Differences in cashiers work technique regarding wrist movements when scanning groceries2012Ingår i: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, s. 5436-5438Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Checkout cashier work can be repetitive and hand-intensive. Differences in workstyle might explain why some cashiers develop symptoms and other do not. Work technique is one part of the workstyle concept. The aim of this study was to analyze if there were differences in work technique among cashiers in to what extent they use large or small wrist movements when scanning groceries. Wrist movements of 17 cashiers were video recorded. The results revealed large variation among the cashiers in if they use large or small wrist movements when handling the groceries. This indicated there is a potential for some cashiers to improve their work technique.

  • 350.
    Palm, Peter
    et al.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University Hospital.
    Josephson, Malin
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University Hospital.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Kjellberg, Katarina
    Unit of Occupational Medicine, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Reliability and criterion validity of an observation protocol for working technique assessments in cash register work2016Ingår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 59, nr 6, s. 829-839Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluated the intra- and inter-observer reliability and criterion validity of an observation protocol, developed in an iterative process involving practicing ergonomists, for assessment of working technique during cash register work for the purpose of preventing upper extremity symptoms. Two ergonomists independently assessed 17 15-min videos of cash register work on two occasions each, as a basis for examining reliability. Criterion validity was assessed by comparing these assessments with meticulous video-based analyses by researchers. Intra-observer reliability was acceptable (i.e. proportional agreement >0.7 and kappa>0.4) for 10/10 questions. Inter-observer reliability was acceptable for only 3/10 questions. An acceptable inter-observer reliability combined with an acceptable criterion validity was obtained only for one working technique aspect ‘Quality of movements’. Thus, major elements of the cashiers’ working technique could not be assessed with an acceptable accuracy from short periods of observations by one observer, such as often desired by practitioners.

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