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  • 351.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Martin, Ljungström
    Kvalitet och arbetsutveckling- hur går det ihop?: En förstudie1994Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the 20th century taylorism has been dominating as a production. concept. But lately the companies has started to look for new concepts. Examples of these are presented in the report: Flexible taylorism, Computer Integrated Manufacturing, Socio-technic, Anthropocentric Production Systems, Lean Production, Time Based Management, Total Quality Management (TQM) and Reengineering. Quality as a strategy is getting stronger and stronger and the prior focus on work organization. and better jobs have now turned towards TQM. TQM consists of, except of different techniques and methods, development of organization, work and personnel.

    The main question in our study concern the connection between the development of quallity and work. The efficiency in changes is in many parts depending on the organization of work and the motivation and knowledge of the employees. In accordance to this we have used a model in six case-studies that distinguish the technical system and different quality methods used, but mainly the changes concerning personnel and organization. The results are:

    * The companies follow three quality strategies that affect the employees situation: Control, Motivation and Work development.

    * The choice of strategy depends on experiences from Work development and the production philosophy in the company.

    * The Control strategy can give better quality but poor productivity. There are no belief in workers and the work is controlled in detail.

    * The Motivation strategy upgrade the workers but only optimize the existing system. It can give contradictory work demands if the responsibility for quality inspection is not based on authorities.

    * The Working development strategy gives possibilities to a flexible manufacturing system and a good work. In ideal the development of work and quality is one process with the same persons involved.

    * Quality systems based on ISO 9000 have limited effects on the inner efficiency and bring a risk for a new hierarchy.

    * TQM-work can change the quality organization and create two different organizations. One that is working with product quality and one that is working across the traditional organization.

    * Kaizen-work has in the study only been seen on the shop floor and as a tool for optimizing the direct work/working place.

    * TQM is to make all processes in a company better. That makesmeasuring and feedback important. It can affect in total managementcontrol or give the opportunity to management by objectives.

    * The unions has no strategy for have to deal with quality strategies.

  • 352.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Niss, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    von Haartman, Robin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Combining master and apprentice roles: Potential for Learning in distributed manufacturing networks2010In: Creativity and Innovation Management, ISSN 0963-1690, E-ISSN 1467-8691, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 417-427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to explore possible effects for learning when a manufacturing plant takes a double role, as being both master plant and apprentice plant, in a globally distributed industrialization process. Industrialization is here understood as the process of preparing new products for volume manufacturing. Two research questions are addressed. The first is what characterizes the dual roles. The second concerns how the dual roles affect knowledge integration and learning processes, and whether this arrangement facilitates learning between master and apprentice. Based on a study of a global telecom equipment company, the paper provides insights into some of the challenges and effects of dynamic switching of roles. By separating the network function from the strategic role of the plant, the study identifies four options for learning. The case adds to the literature on learning in manufacturing networks and to previous research on how distributed processes affect innovation capability.

  • 353.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Stefan, Ioana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköpings universitet.
    Open innovation - Comparing global and local approaches2014In: The 25th annual POMS conference, Atlanta, 9-12 May, 2014: Celebrating 25th Anniversary Conference : Online proceedings, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In spite of the growing interest in open innovation, one of the core questions that remain unanswered is how different kinds of openness affect innovation performance. Moreover, the impact of the geographical dispersion of partners also needs further investigation, while there is a tension between the motives for global search and the needs for proximity in innovation processes. In this paper we will research the relationship between openness and performance outcome in manufacturing companies when taking the localisation of partners into account. The study is based on survey data from 415 companies. The openness is defined by three dimensions: partner breadth, partner depth and phase depth. Performance is measured in terms of cost, risk and time-to-market, innovativeness and economic performance. The results of this study confirm and illustrate the localisation dilemma. For manufacturing companies using a global approach, it seems advisable to collaborate more intensively with a reduced number of partners. In contrast, the companies applying a more spatially balanced approach could collaborate with an increased number of partners and still be innovative and cost efficient. This implies that different localisation strategies for external partner collaborations require different integration approaches in order to be successful.

  • 354.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Stefan, Ioana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköpings universitet.
    Open innovation: Global or local?2014In: Proceedings of the 21th EurOMA conference, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 355.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Söderberg, Lennart
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Outsourcing Maintenance – Not always a good idea?2013In: Proceedings of the 20th International Annual EurOMA conference, Dublin, Ireland, 9-12 June 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 356.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    von Haartman, Robin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Dabhilkar, Mandar
    Stockholms universitet.
    Outsourcing eller kunskapsintegration?2013In: Innovation eller kvartalskapitalism?: Utmaningar för global svensk produktion / [ed] Lars Bengtsson och Johnny Lind, Stockholm: Liber, 2013, 1, p. 58-75Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 357.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    von Haartman, Robin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Niss, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Alieva, Jamila
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Digitalisation of production: The significance of CI capability and teamwork2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 358.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    von Haartman, Robin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Niss, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Alieva, Jamila
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    People still matters: Digital transformation of production requires CI capabilitiesand teamwork2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 359.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Wang, Weihong
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Cost innovation: En studie av Huaweis globala produktionssystem2013In: Innovation eller kvartalskapitalism?: Utmaningar för global svensk produktion / [ed] Lars Bengtsson och Johnny Lind, Stockholm: Liber, 2013, 1, p. 61-78Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 360.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Wang, Weihong
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Cost innovation in global supply chains: the case of Huawei Technologies2016In: International Journal of Logistics Systems and Management, ISSN 1742-7967, E-ISSN 1742-7975, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 189-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cost innovation has been used to describe how firms offer a variety of customised and high-tech products at low prices. Insights into how this trade-off is overcome by supply chain design are lacking. This paper analyses the global supply chain strategies and practices of Huawei Technologies, and specifically how these contribute to cost innovation capability. The paper is based on interviews with managers at Huawei headquarters in Shenzhen, plus managers at two European supply chain centres. The case study shows that even though Huawei does not possess specifically unique supply chain solutions, there are some features that drive Huawei towards cost innovation in its supply chains. Some of them concern low-cost operations based on the location of main R&D, manufacturing and suppliers to China, in combination with a strong customer orientation, an integrated supply chain organisation and a balanced outsourcing strategy.

  • 361.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Wang, Weihong
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Stefan, Ioana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    How can they be so rapid? New product development in Chinese CE firms2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 362.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Wang, Weihong
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Stefan, Ioana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Rapid innovation processes in Chinese firms2017In: 18th International CINet Conference: Digitalization and innovation: designing the organization of the future, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 363.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Wang, Weihong
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Stefan, Ioana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Rapid innovators in emerging economies: An illustration of diversity in two Chinese firms2015In: Proceedings of the 22nd EurOMA Conference, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 364.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Wang, Weihong
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Stefan, Ioana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Rapid NPD processes in Chinese CE firms2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 365.
    Bennemo, Karin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Stockhaus, Jennie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Effektivisering av materialförsörjning mellan leverantör och kund: En fallstudie vid Emballagetillverkaren2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: A supply chain has a mayor impact on company’s competitiveness and profitability, this fact has led to increased interest in efficiencys of supply chains. This bachelor degree consist a case study at Emballagetillverkaren where the supply chain was analysed between supplier and customer with the intention of reducing tied up capital and lead times.Purpose: The aim of this thesis is to find prerequisites for a effective material supply between supplier and customer.Method: In order to answer the purpose of this thesis a case company called Emballagetillverkaren and its customer has been investigated. The case company and the supply chain between supplier and customer were observed and interview questions were formulated based on the observations. Interviews and observations were conducted to gain a deeper understanding of the problems of high tied up capital and long lead times.Results: A mapping of the current situation was established to clarify the methods of operation. The material and the information flow from both the case company and The Engeneering Company was mapped. The interviews have been devided into the categories "Planning and Forecasting", "Inventory and Materials" and "Communication".Conclusion:The prerequisites for effective material supply are an integrated and coordinated supply chain, healthy processes at work, the lean philosophy and its tools, supply chain efficiency, efficient and coordinated information and material flows, appropriate material supply method, inventory management, forecasts, good customer and supplier relationship and communication. As a conclusion we want to highlight forecasts, high resource utilization and communication to achieve a effective material supply between supplier and customer.

  • 366.
    Bennhult, Linnea
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Engren, Karolina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Bedömning av området energi: En jämförelse mellan Miljöbyggnad, Svanen, FEBY12 och PHI2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish building and property management sector are responsible for about 30 % of the total energy use. In order to take environmental consideration, different environmental assessment tools and standards are used. Miljöbyggnad, Svanen, FEBY12 and PHI are some of these. There has been increased interest to certify buildings and therefore it is of interest to evaluate the assessment of the energy field to see if relevant energy aspects are assessed. First a literature review was carried out with delimitation to evaluate the systems manuals and guidelines for new produced multi-apartment dwellings in Sweden. Then a comparison between the systems assessments and methods of calculations for the energy field as well as the systems considerations for the energy’s environmental effect was carried out. The comparison was based on emissions related to production and use and also depletion of non- renewable resources. Finally the theory from the literature review and the results from the comparison were discussed and that led to some recommendations for the systems.

    Different assessment systems that are used for the systems are grading systems, marking systems and certifications. The systems judge similar indicators and subfields for energy. Something that they all judge is building’s annual energy use but they define them differently. Beyond that, the systems distinguish in the judgements of the energy field. The requirements of the inputs for energy calculations are different for the systems. As well as the energy’s environmental impact, all systems take some consideration by judging the energy use. Some of the systems also take into consideration the environmental impact through assessment of energy source’s environmental impact or through energy form factors and primary energy factors for the energy type.

    For all systems the indicators and the subfields are mandatory but the criteria and requirement levels are different. The systems that take consideration to climatic zones allow buildings located in colder climate to use more energy and have more environmental impact, the systems should reformulate the criteria and requirements were consideration is not taken to climate zones. The requirements of the heat effect demand for buildings should not take consideration to the heating system because the heating system does not affect the heat effect demand.

    At the moment the systems are undeveloped when it comes to consideration to the energy’s environmental impacts and should therefore revise this. Some recommendations for the judgements of the energy field is to allocate the energy use/ per person and to judge primary energy or carbon dioxide emissions, other emissions and to judge the energy’s environmental impacts from “the cradle to the grave”. However it can be problematic to judge primary energy because today, there are no standards for how primary energy factors should be calculated currently.

    Key words: environmental assessment tools, Passive house standards, Miljöbyggnad, Svanen, FEBY12, PHI, energy, environmental impact 

  • 367.
    Benselfelt, Milena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Brändström, Sophia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Elledningars rättighetstyper; ledningsrätt, servitut och nyttjanderätt: Elbolagens och lantmäterimyndigheternas åsikter2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is constantly developing and it means more lines in the ground, which leads to more questions about their legal rights. The electricity grid is divided into three different sizes; the core network, the regional network and the local network. The electricity grid is an important part of the infrastructure, and it should be legally protected through for example, utility easement or agreement easement.. Issues may arise about the legal rights of power lines such as when a transfer occurs, etc. Thus it is important to examine how the power lines should be legally protected.

    The purpose of the study is to examine how the electricity companies legally protect their power lines, as well as the pros and cons of the legal rights, based on the aspects of electricity companies and cadastral authorities. The purpose is also to highlight the most common issue regarding the legal rights on power lines.

    The questions that were formulated according to the purpose were:

    1. How do electricity companies legally protect their power lines?

    2. What are the pros and cons of the legal rights based on the views of electricity companies and surveyors?

    3. What is the most common problem that electric companies have about legal rights of power lines?

    By using a qualitative method in form of an interview study, the data for the study has been obtained. The interview study consisted of 16 interviews with experts from electricity companies and cadastral authorities. As the study should cover all of Sweden, electricity companies and land surveyors were selected with a geographical spread.

    The study shows that electricity companies legally protect their power lines depending on their size. The study also shows the differences between the electricity companies and the cadastral authorities ́ views on the pros and cons of the legal rights. Issues may occur depending on who owns the land where the lines are to be constructed. 

  • 368.
    Berg, Björn
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Sun, Tao
    Johansson, Maj-Britt
    Sanborn, Paul
    Ni, Xiangying
    Lönn, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Magnesium dynamics in decomposing foliar litter - a synthesis2019In: Geoderma, ISSN 0016-7061, E-ISSN 1872-6259Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 369.
    Berg, Erika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Berglund, Terés
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Renskötselrätt vid lantmäteriförrättning: Hur beaktas rättigheten?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Renskötselrätt innebär enligt rennäringslagen en rätt för samer att använda mark inom ett renskötselområde till underhåll för sig och sina renar. Renskötselrätten grundas på urminnes hävd och tillkommer den som är same och medlem i en sameby. Renskötselrätt innebär en särskild rätt till fast egendom vilken existerar parallellt med äganderätten och omfattas av egendomsskyddet i 2 kap. 15 § regeringsformen.

    Enskilda individer kan tvingas till rådighetsinskränkningar eller till att avstå mark till förmån för allmänna intressen som infrastruktur och bebyggelse. Detta ska ske enligt reglerna för markåtkomst som återfinns i ett tjugotal lagar. Enligt Europakonventionen och regeringsformen ska den som tvingas avstå mark eller rättigheter ersättas.

    En fastighetsbildningsförrättning handläggs av lantmäterimyndigheten enligt reglerna i fastighetsbildningslagen. Ett återkommande problem är att värdera vilken skada en sameby lider när ersättning enligt lag måste prövas i samband med ett intrång.

    Syftet med detta arbete är dels att bidra med ökad kunskap om renskötselrättens juridiska innebörd, och dels att synliggöra hur renskötselrätten i nutid beaktas vid markåtkomst inom en lantmäteriförrättning. Detta för att bidra till att skapa en samsyn och en enhetlig handläggning av åtgärder som påverkar renskötselrätten. För att svara på denna studies frågeställningar har studier av förrättningsakter och intervjuer med förrättningslantmätare och en representant från Länsstyrelsen genomförts.

    Resultatet av studien visar att det i dagsläget är oklart hur renskötselrätten ska beaktas inom en lantmäteriförrättning och att det saknas arbetsstöd för hur renskötselrätten ska värderas vid ett intrång. I slutsatserna i detta arbete framgår det att detta beror på att det finns luckor i rennäringslagen vilket gör att den inte integrerar väl med annan lag och att det många gånger är oklart vilken myndighet som äger vilken fråga rörande renskötselrätten. För en enhetlig handläggning av ärenden som berör renskötselrätten krävs utbildning, klarläggande av vissa begrepp och bättre samverkan mellan myndigheter. Men framförallt krävs en revidering av rennäringslagen och relationen mellan den och annan lag.

  • 370.
    Berg, Gustav
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Industrial design.
    Smoketrack - En digital plattform för personer som har bestämt sig för att sluta röka2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan cigaretten introducerades under 1800-talet har rökningens vara eller inte vara debatterats ständigt. Riskerna med rökning har lett till att fler och fler åtgärder införts för att försvåra tillgången till tobak, och möjligheterna att röka överallt har kraftigt begränsats. I samarbete med företaget Deversify och deras produkt Smoketrack avser examensarbetet att skapa en digital plattform i syfte med att erbjuda hjälp till ett rökfritt liv. 

    Arbetet behandlar vilka funktioner en applikation ska innehålla, och processen som ledde fram till det, för att i kombination med produkten Smoketrack uppmuntra till rökavvänjning. Arbetet har utförts genom en designprocess bestående av intervjuer och användartester samt litteraturdata. Resultatet av arbetet gestaltas genom en mobilapplikation med fokus på en community för sina medlemmar.

  • 371.
    Berg, Jonatan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Industrial design.
    Ett nytt användningsområde för materialet OrganoComp®: genom en materialdriven designprocess2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta projekt är att med hjälp av en materialinriktad designprocess skapa en produkt av biokompositmaterialet OrganoComp® för att demonstrera dess styrkor och möjligheter. Arbetet kommer att följa metoden ”Material Driven Design (MDD)”, vilket betyder att processen kommer att börja med en noggrann studie av materialet – dels tekniskt och ur ett användarcentrerat perspektiv, men även jämförelsemässigt mot andra material.

    Insikterna från dessa studier kommer sedan trattas ner och sammanfattas i en ”designintention” som ska sätta målet för designarbetet. Slutligen kommer ett antal koncept som uppfyller designintentionen arbetas fram, varav ett koncept – ett litet, ihopvikbart och nedbrytbart paraply/regnskydd kommer att väljas ut som det slutgiltiga. Paraplyet visar på materialets vattenavvisande egenskaper, i kombination med hårdhet och vikbarhet. 

    Målet med projektet är att skapa en demonstrator som även har potential att bli en användbar produkt i framtiden, och samtidigt ge företaget OrganoClick nya insikter och flera förslag på nya användningsområden för sitt material.

  • 372.
    Berg, Marianne
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Berglund, Helene
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Utvärdering av möjligheten att använda UAS vid gränsmätning i skogsmiljö2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Real properties in Dalarna often consist of small lots of forest or agriculture. These lots are often elongated and consequently impractical, therefore the Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority performs comprising land consolidations. These are to swap land between the owners of the properties, in order to form appropriate lots, for purpose of, inter alia, promoting investment and development opportunities in the region. In order to establish a map, a decision basis, for the valuation of the lot, the claimed proprietary right has to be surveyed. The work is performed with NRTK (network-RTK) or total station, and the maximum allowed planar deviation is 0.50 m (base level requirement). The purpose of this study was to examine whether there is a possibility of using Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) when claimed property boundaries are going to be surveyed. UAS is a system consisting of an unmanned aerial vehicle, a digital camera, a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, an Inertial Navigation System (INS) and a control station.

    In a delimitated area of about 24 ha in Norra Åbyggeby, north of Gävle, black and white and white markers, with the size of 0.40x0.40 m, were positioned in the terrain and then surveyed as ground control points or boundary points with network RTK. Mean planimetric coordinates have been calculated for the control points, which have been used as reference coordinates. These have been compared with the coordinates measured in an orthophotomosaic produced from flights with UAS at an altitude of 100 and 180 m. To get a further comparison, the coordinates were determined by a block adjustment in the software PhotoScan from Agisoft. The object identification of the markers, placed in different environments, and from different altitudes has been studied.

    The digitalization in the orthophotomosaic resulted in a Root Mean Square error (RMS-value) of 0.083 m at an altitude of 100 m and a value of 0.049 m at an altitude of 180 m. Corresponding RMS values were 0.071 m at an altitude of 100 m and 0.077 m at an altitude of 180 m when computed in PhotoScan. F-test has been calculated using the four RMS values, the result of the F-test showed that coordinates obtained in an orthophotomosaic, in ArcMap, are equivalent to coordinates obtained by block adjustment, in PhotoScan. The F-test also showed that the coordinates are equivalent from altitudes 100 and 180 m by block adjustment, but they are not equivalent when they are obtained in an orthophotomosaic from altitudes 100 and 180 m. If we disregard the systematic error at three of the points (orthophotomosaic 100 m) the F-test did not show any statistically significant difference between the two altitudes.

    All deviations were below the base level requirement. The largest planar deviation was 0.181 m at an altitude of 100 m and 0.083 m at an altitude of 180 m. Corresponding values for PhotoScan were 0.155 m and 0.148 m. How dense the forest was where the marker was placed and the impact of the sun, in terms of shadows and brightness, have affected the composition of the mosaic, and consequently the deviations. UAS can be used for surveying of claimed property boundaries, but there is no guarantee that all signalized boundary points can be surveyed directly in the orthophotomosaic. One recommendation is to use a less accurate method for the measurement of the ground control points (needed for the georeferencing of the point cloud/orthophotomosaic) than the method used in this thesis. The higher altitude is preferable because the time requirement of the flight will be shorter, and a smaller number of aerial photos need to be processed. Choose the method that the user is used to, manual digitizing in an orthophotomosaic or automatic calculation in a block adjustment.

  • 373.
    Berge, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Kommunikativa leksaker: Att kunna uttrycka känslor genom lek2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to develop a communicativetoy that gives children the opportunity to easiercommunicate and express themselves about their ownand others’ feelings.The range of today’s market of toys were examined tofind areas in which an interesting development couldbe possible. A study on children, play, toys, communication,Design for All and children with disabilitieswas made, to gather the necessary facts in order toclarify what is required of a toy and what the necessitiesare. A survey was also used to get a clearer pictureof the three emotions chosen to work on; happy, angryand sad. These studies have been the basis for thedesign process where I have worked with sketches andmodels. The work resulted in a final product in whicha series of toys were produced, the toyserie Honest. Theserie consists of three toys, with the same basic shapeto clearify that they belong to the same family, expressingdifferent emotions.The toys will in this way help children to express theirand others’ feelings and how they feel. The ability tocommunicate is vital to the psychological, social andcultural development. This is precisely why such a toy,an alternative mean of communication about how youand others feel, is so important.

  • 374.
    Bergendahl, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Johansson, Stina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Märkning av leveranser: En fallstudie utförd på Sandvik Materials Technology2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 375.
    Berggren, Christian
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Karabag, Solmas Filiz
    Linköpings universitet.
    Wang, Weihong
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Stefan, Ioana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Responses from established firms to rapid innovator challenges in emerging economies2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 376.
    Berggren, Christian
    et al.
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Bergek, Anna
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Sweden; Department of Leadership and Management, BI Norwegian School of Management, Norway.
    Exploring Knowledge Integration and Innovation2011In: Knowledge integration and innovation: Critical Challenges Facing International Technology-Based Firms / [ed] Christian Berggren, Anna Bergek, Lars Bengtsson, Michael Hobday, and Jonas Söderlund, Oxford: Oxford University Press , 2011, 1Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This introduction relates the principal idea behind the book - that knowledge integration is a vital part of the dynamics of the innovation process to previous literature on knowledge integration, with its focus on companies' 'routine' activities. It presents the book's main empirical focus: internationally competing technology-based firms in, for example, the automotive, heavy electrical equipment, packaging machinery, telecom, tooling, and aerospace industries. It also introduces three major trends that affect conditions for innovation and knowledge integration: internationalization of R&D and production, transformation of markets, and changes in the character of developments in science and technology. In contrast to most definitions, the introduction emphasizes that knowledge integration is more than combining, sharing, or transferring different knowledge bases; it is also a process of creating new knowledge. The introduction concludes with an overview of the twelve chapters, describing how they provide an understanding of knowledge integration as a multilevel process.

  • 377.
    Berggren, Christian
    et al.
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Bergek, AnnaDepartment of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Sweden.Bengtsson, LarsUniversity of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.Söderlund, JonasDepartment of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, Sweden; Department of Leadership and Management, BI Norwegian School of Management, Norway.Hobday, MichaelCentre for Research in Innovation Management (CENTRIM), University of Brighton, United Kingdom.
    Knowledge Integration and Innovation: Critical Challenges Facing International Technology-Based Firms2011Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technology-based firms continue to compete primarily on innovation, and are continuously required to present new solutions to an exacting market. As technological complexity and specialization intensifies, firms increasingly need to integrate and co-ordinate knowledge by means of project groups, diversified organizations, inter-organizational partnerships, and strategic alliances. Innovation processes have progressively become interdisciplinary, collaborative, inter-organizational, and international, and a firm's ability to synthesize knowledge across disciplines, organizations, and geographical locations has a major influence on its viability and success. This book demonstrates how knowledge integration is crucial in facilitating innovation within modern firms. This book provides original, detailed empirical studies of prerequisites, mechanisms, and outcomes of knowledge integration processes on several organizational levels, from key individuals, projects, and internal organizations, to collaboration between firms. It stresses the need to understand knowledge integration as a multi-level phenomenon, which requires a broad repertoire of organizational and technical means. It further clarifies the need for strong internal capabilities for exploiting external knowledge, reveals how costs of knowledge integration affect outcomes and strategic decisions, and discusses the managerial implications of fostering knowledge integration, providing practical guidance and support for managers of knowledge integration in high technology enterprises.

  • 378.
    Berggren, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Förnyelselagen, möjlighet eller hot?: Förnyelse av äldre inskrivna avtalsrättigheter, Gävle kommuns hantering av förnyelsekravet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to the so-called ”förnyelselagen”, the Renewal Act, all title registration of contractual rights registered before 1 July 1968 will be de-registered from the Real Property Register, unless renewal is applied for the right no later than 31 December 2018. The aim of the degree project is to pay attention to the renewal requirement. The objective is partly to investigate how the municipality of Gävle will handle the renewal requirement, and partly to facilitate the municipality to determine for which registered rights renewal needs to be sought.

    Unnecessary registered rights cause additional work and costs at cadastral procedures and the Renewal Act is considered to be an effective tool to de-register unnecessary registered rights. At the same time, concerns have been expressed that right holders will apply for renewal for all registered rights that are affected, without investigate which of them are unnecessary. In addition, there is also a concern that the renewal requirement may be overlooked by right holders for rights that are still relevant, which can lead to legal loss.

    Three methods were used in the study. Juridical method was used to investigate the legal situation regarding what happens with registered rights that are de-registered from the Real Property Register. To study how a major right holder acts, an investigation of registered rights was made in the Real Property Register regarding the municipality of Gävle. Furthermore, interviews were conducted with representatives of the municipality concerning the work with the renewal requirement.

    A result of the juridical method is that there are four different situations when an unregistered right may end. The result of the inventory in the Real Property Register, shows that there are about 1 400 registered rights that affect the properties of the municipality. The interviews resulted in that the municipality is informed about the renewal requirement and the municipality in most cases will investigate which registered rights should be renewed.

    The first conclusion is that unregistered contractual rights currently remain valid in the same manner as registered rights, but they may end in four situations if they are not monitored by the right holder. Such protection of unregistered rights is found to be practically impossible in most cases regarding the municipality of Gävle. The other conclusion is that the municipality will investigate which registered rights that need to be renewed, therefore the risk of legal loss can be assessed as low. Finally, it can be concluded that the Renewal Act is an opportunity rather than a threat for the municipality of Gävle.

  • 379.
    Berggren, David
    et al.
    Lantmäteriet.
    Paasch, Jesper M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Förnyelselagen - möjlighet eller hot?2018In: Samhällsbyggaren, ISSN 2000-2408, Vol. 27 maj, no 2, p. 38-39Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Riksdagen har beslutat att avtalsrättigheter som skrivits in i det statliga Lantmäteriets fastighetsregister före den 1 juli 1968 kommer att tas bort ur registret om inte rättighetshavaren senast den 31 december 2018 anmäler till Lantmäteriet att den ska finnas kvar. Hur arbetar rättighetshavare med förnyelsekravet och vad kan förnyelsekravet väntas få för konsekvenser?

  • 380.
    Berggren, Markus
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Bisi, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Upphävande av tomtindelningar och fastighetsplaner: handläggnings- och beslutsordningar i samband med fastighetsbildningsärenden2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In May 2011 the new Planning and Building Act was introduced, which makes it possible to regulate the division of property into property division’s provisions. Today, plot subdivisions and property regulation plans formed under previous legislation, counts as property division’s provisions according to the Planning and Building Act. Since the majority of these are either completed or outdated today, it becomes a problem connected to land parceling and therefore needs to be abolished.

     

    The aim with this report is to describe and analyze how older plot subdivisions and property regulation plans are dealt with in connection to land parceling. The report will explore which handling and decision-making systems are used when abolishing plot subdivisions and property regulation plans. A secondary objective is to provide suggestions on how to improve the handling and decision-making process according to the new Planning and Building Act.

     

    The methods consist of a literature review, case studies and a questionnaire survey. The studied literature was scientific papers, legal texts, law proposals and other appropriate literature. The case studies were conducted to describe and analyze the handling and decision-making process in different land surveying agencies. The survey was sent to active land surveyors in Dalarnas and Gävleborgs counties, to obtain a deeper knowledge and their opinions on plot subdivisions and property regulation plans.

     

    The literature review shows that the need to regulate land use has long existed and still exists today. By determining how land is divided into parcels it could prevent uncontrolled expansion of the city. The legislation has changed over the years and several new features have been introduced in the new Planning and Building Act, i.e. plan notices. The case studies and questionnaires shows that the surveying authorities manages the handling and decision-making process differently. There are differences between national and municipal surveying authorities regarding communication and establishing records. The National Land Surveying Agency in Dalarna, unlike the municipal surveying authority in Gävle, does not have a delegation decision from the town planning committee to abolish plot subdivisions and property plans. There are also differences in how to establish records, the National Land Surveying Agency lack a uniform format while the municipal surveying authority in Gävle has established templates.

     

    The conclusion is that the handling and decisions-making process can be simplified by establishing uniform records. The National Land Surveying Agency should continue to create planning proposals. A legislative amendment may be made to provide the National Land Surveying Agency a temporary right to make the decision to abolish property regulation plans. It is proposed that the plan notice should be exempt from the handling and decision-making process.

  • 381.
    Bergh, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Wistbacka, Stefan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Projekt privat webshop2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Beställaren har efterfrågat för sin hobbyverksamhet en egen webshop där hon kan sälja sina produkter. Beställaren vill ha en användarvänlig sida för att kunna locka så bred publik som möjligt. I framtiden så kan sidan utvecklas till att låta fler säljare ha sina produkter på sidan. Sidan ska ha grundläggande funktioner som en fungerande varukorg, tydlig produktvy samt ett gränssnitt för att administrera produkter. De språk som sidan har utvecklats i är PHP, HTML5, MySQL och CSS. Sidan är en grund med möjlighet till många utvecklingsmöjligheter både funktions och designmässigt. Vårt mål är att göra en fungerande prototyp.

  • 382.
    Bergholm, Marie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mathematics. Linköpings universitet, Matematiska institutionen.
    Gymnasieelevers kommunikativa strategier i matematikklassrummet: En fallstudie av ett smågruppsarbete om derivata2014Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This case study takes its focus on upper secondary school students’ work in small groups with a problem related to the derivative. The analysis aims to identify factors that promote or hinder an individual’s participation in and development of the mathematical communication in the classroom. The theoretical basis of the study is Anna Sfard’s commognitive framework, where learning mathematics is seen as participating in a mathematical discourse.

    For more than a decade, reports about Swedish students’ decreasing levels of school mathematical knowledge have been put forward. Research points to various factors behind this development. The prevailing educational culture, where students largely work individually from the textbook, is seen as one explanation for the deterioration in the results, and that teaching does not give students the opportunity to develop all the required competencies in the curriculum. To achieve this, both research and the new Swedish curriculum from 2011 emphasize the importance of student communication in mathematics. In this perspective, there is a need to highlight the differences in student participation in the communication of mathematics in the classroom, particularly in the context of small group learning, and how this is assumed to influence students’ opportunities for learning.

    The focus of the research is directed towards the participants’ contributions to the group’s mathematical discourse, i.e. when they communicate about mathematical objects or processes, and how these affect students’ opportunities and participation in the communication. Focus is also directed to the communication that involves participants in the group, what the students are doing and how they evaluate each other’s way to participate in the mathematical discourse in the classroom. This type of communication is in the framework referred to as subjectifying, and is assumed to affect the individual’s mathematical learning.

    Data collection methods used are interviews, audio and video recordings, as well as “smart pens” to combine verbal and written communication. In the first step of the analysis, the mathematical discourse was studied regarding differences in the content of the participants’ utterances. The second step of analysis focused on the interaction flow of the group to understand more of the differences in each student’s participation and contribution to the communication.

    The results point to big differences regarding participation and content in student communication, both at group level and individual level. The development of students’ mathematical discourse benefits from the use of multiple mediators to represent the mathematical objects. When connections to a previously acquired discourse are offered, this leads to discursive advancements. Students were observed to have difficulties to interpret and use the formal mathematical symbolic language that would support their mathematizing. Students’ interpretation of the equality sign, the sign for inequality, and the symbol f´(x) on a process level, create obstacles to developing the mathematical discourse in the desired direction. The discourse about the participants and their own traits  (identification) constitutes about 10% of all utterances and are almost all negative reviews, frequently used in order to exclude or incorporate themselves or others from participating in the mathematizing activity.

    This research study points to a need for more knowledge about how mathematics teachers can best organize work in small groups to increase student engagement and the quality of their mathematizing. The study also indicates the importance of mathematics teachers highlighting and varying the use of different mediators to represent the mathematical objects to learn. The case study also highlights the importance of building up a permissive environment in which students do not evaluate themselves and others, but instead dare to ask questions that will make them increasingly involved in the mathematical discourse. A need emerges for further research not only on the assessment between teacher and student, but also on the assessment that goes on in the classroom between the students, which can affect what roles they take or are assigned to in the classroom. This can be assumed to be of great importance to the way students communicate about mathematics with other students in the classroom, which is also likely to influence learning.

  • 383.
    Bergkvist, Benjamin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Modellering av fukt i en yttervägg på ett fritidshus2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 384.
    Bergkvist, Ida
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Trädplantering: i städer med hårdgjorda ytor.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    > This report treats how to best prepare the ground before planting trees in cities with hard surfaces. It includes what to keep in mind and how to do it practically to give the trees the best conditions as possible. The purpose of this report was to compile information about tree planting in cities with hard surfaces to facilitate the practical work with this. This is because time is money and that it´s not often a priority to ensure that there is the right knowledge for the purpose. The report contains information about materials, the building of the plant bed, a compiled wordlist with words often used in these contect and an example of a listed workingprocess. A literature study was conducted and has resulted in this scientifically structured report, which is addressed to those who are working with the planning, designing, projecting the treeplanting and those who are planting the trees. The work is focused on trees, skeletal soil, cities, deciduous trees and those trees that thrive in a soil with a "normal" pH-value (6,5). This study shows that there is much to consider when planting trees in cities with hard surfaces and that those persons with sufficient knowledge is of great importance for the final result. It is important to consider the conditions on site and the intended use and on that basis implement a well thought-out plant- and soilchoice. There are different ways to prepare the ground and to build a construction that can withstand the intended load on the site are a use of so-called technical solutions. The technical solutions cater to the tree's needs and provides space for any lines in the ground and are holding for the intended load. One of these technical solutions is skeletal soil which is the method that is in the focus of this report as it is the most common, most proven, preferred and recommended method in Sweden. In terms of materials, it is a minor jungle but as you work with this type of facility it will get clearer. There are also some different tools, however, the focus should not be on what you use, the important thing is that the moment is beeing done. More time is needed on the subject that this studytreats if a complete assessment should be done which can result in a handbook.

  • 385.
    Berglund, Amanda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    Altzar, Emelie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    A methodology development for layout planning regarding gates in marine terminals: A case study in a Swedish port2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The research purpose is to, in a systematic way, build a method to develop suggestions regarding layout planning of gates in a marine terminal and additionally conduct a base for a simulation model.

    Approach: Firstly, a literature review has been conducted in the fields relevant to port security and gate configurations in marine terminals. Secondly, a case study has been executed in a Swedish marine terminal. The case study consisted of interviews and observations at the case company, who also provided this thesis with numerical raw data. Additionally, a benchmarking was conducted at a company in the same port area where interviews and observations was executed.  

    Findings: The findings in this thesis resulted in a methodology improvement, which contains important procedure steps that need to be considered while conducting a layout for a gate in a marine terminal. The procedure resulted in a conceptual model that was conducted as a result of the literature review and verified by being tested in the case study.

    Limitation: The thesis is limited to one case company. Even though it verified and validated the findings, additional case companies are recommended to fully validate the conceptual model which applies for further research. Further limitations to this thesis is that the financial- and technical factors will not be executed.  

    Theoretical implications: Companies who plans to increase the security in their marine terminal area or implement a new gate system can benefit from the findings. This thesis contributes to science by adding new theory.  

    Practical implications: This thesis conducted a conceptual model for a layout procedure which recommends to follow while planning a layout for a gate in a marine terminal. The model were verified with a case company and provided two layout suggestions that can be implemented at the specific company.

  • 386.
    Berglund, Amanda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    Svanteson, Marie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    Sustainable E-commerce: How to integrate the dimensions of sustainability within the e-commerce sector2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to investigate how the three dimensions of sustainability (environmental, economic and social) can be integrated within the e-commerce sector to make it more sustainable.

    Methods: Firstly, a literary research was conducted to get an overall picture of the chosen topic for the study, which later was elaborated into a literature framework. Secondly, two case studies were conducted in order to collect empirical data. The data was collected through interviews, where a total of three interviews was conducted. The literature framework and the multiple case studies were then cross-analyzed with each other.

    Findings: Throughout the thesis several trade-offs regarding the three dimensions of sustainability have been identified and evaluated, and they are all clearly presented in a compiled table. The findings also indicates that the sustainable actions a company may make needs to be thoroughly communicated through their websites since the e-commerce disables the face-to-face interactions. It is of great importance for companies to increase the consumer awareness and knowledge in order to motivate them in to being sustainable.

    Theoretical Contribution: This thesis contributes to science by the unification of the e-commerce and the three dimensions of sustainability. The study thus merge science with empirics to create a deeper knowledge and contribute to the body of literature with a compiled table of trade-offs.

    Practical Contribution: Practitioners will be enlightened of the importance of all the three dimensions of sustainability, and they will understand the concept and events of trade-offs for sustainability when working within e-commerce. The thesis also provides insight for companies to learn how very important it is with better communication about sustainability factors to its consumers.

    Limitations: This study is delimited to the e-commerce connected to business to consumer (B2C). The study will only involve Swedish companies and will not investigate them on an intra-organizational level. They will be treated as “black boxes”, as the focus only will be on the three dimensions of sustainability in relation to e-commerce, and not any organizational structures or consumers in detail. 

  • 387.
    Berglund, Jessica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Mathematics.
    Vill du spela bingo med mig?: En studie med laborativt material för att utveckla elevers kunskaper om positionssystemet2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 240 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte är att med hjälp av en learning study med förtest och eftertest undersöka elevers förkunskaper om positionssystemet samt om elever genom laborativt material kan fördjupa sina kunskaper om positionssystemet. Studiens teoretiska utgångspunkt är hämtad från variationsteorin. Att arbeta med ett laborativt material möjliggör för eleverna att utveckla en utökad förståelse för positionssystemet med basen 10. En av slutsatserna från denna studie är att ett variationsteoretiskt perspektiv på undervisningen underlättar lärandet.

  • 388.
    Berglund, Johannes
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    "Musik är ju matematik": en studie om förskollärares syn på kombinationen matematik och musik2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka om/hur förskollärare använder sig av kombinationen matematik och musik i den pedagogiska verksamheten, samt att undersöka hur de ser på kombinationen av dessa ämnen. För att ta reda på detta har observationer och intervjuer använts. Resultatet visar att de utvalda förskolorna för studien arbetar med matematik och musik kombinerat, det finns en röd tråd i hur de integrerar musiken och matematiken i verksamheten. Samtliga intervjuade förskollärarna ser kombinationen musik och matematik som något naturligt, som hör ihop och de är samtidigt hungriga att lära sig mer kring detta. Slutsatserna som kan dras av den här studien är att musik och matematik hör ihop och att det går att kombinera de två ämnena tillsammans. Det som behövs är att tänka i nya banor hela tiden och se lite längre, att ta på sig de rätta glasögonen.

  • 389.
    Berglund, Kent
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    Roots, Andreas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics.
    Processutveckling i ett tjänsteföretag med unik kvalitétsgaranti: Fallstudie vid Radonkonsult AB2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna fallstudie kommer ett tjänsteföretags huvudprocess att undersökas. Processtyrning är identifierat som en viktig faktor för många organisationer och det finns flertal företag som har brister inom processerna. I tjänsteföretag är det viktigt att skapa en bild av huvudprocessen då det oftast existerar dolda brister som är tydligare i ett tillverkningsföretag i form av mer mätbara resultat. Syftet med rapporten är att kartlägga huvudprocessen hos ett tjänsteföretag med en unik kvalitétsgaranti samt identifiera brister och följaktligen formulera eventuella förbättringsförslag.

    Radonkonsult AB är ett av Sveriges ledande företag inom radonsanering med en av den högsta kundnöjdheten inom området. Bakgrunden i rapporten redogör företagets höga kundnöjdhet och beskriver fallföretagets slutprodukt, som alltid uppnår kundernas krav. Trots företagets höga kundnöjdhet uppstår det en del brister som påverkar hela organisationen och dess processer negativt. Bristerna har identifierats främst i organisationens huvudprocess och påverkar inte bara slutprodukten och dess kvalité utan även de anställda. Studien är en fallstudie där datainsamlingen bygger på intervjuer och observationer. Fallstudien kommer att redogöra vilka brister företaget besitter och varför de uppstår. De identifierade bristerna som analysen av fallstudien kommer att beröra är främst planering, kommunikation, stress och kvalitét. Med hjälp av litteratur från ett flertal författare så visade de att somliga verktyg har varit mer anpassade än andra jämfört med vilka förutsättningar organisationen besitter. Resultatet av fallstudien visar att företagets främsta brister är planering, kommunikation, materialhantering, felprioriteringar och stress. Verktyg som en processkarta, träddiagram och PDCA presenteras vidare i analysen som lösningsförslag för att se hur dessa brister bör motverkas och varför de bör motverkas. Följaktligen har potentiella förbättringsförslag framställts genom en prototyp av en alternativ kartläggningsbild av huvudprocessen. Kartläggningen lyfter de huvudsakliga bristerna och de påföljder som uppstår i huvudprocessens olika faser. Rapporten redovisar att fallföretaget bör ändra sitt planeringsarbete inför varje projekt samt att de bör använda sig av PDCA för att öka kvalitén och ständigt utveckla sin slutprodukt. Genom att fallföretaget utvecklar sin slutprodukt med hjälp av planeringsarbete och PDCA så uppnår de sin kvalitetsgaranti enklare och billigare. Kvalitetsgarantin är nödvändig för fallföretagets marknadsposition.

  • 390.
    Berglund, Martin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Karlsson, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Den juridiska odlingsgränsen och dess inverkan på förvärv av statlig mark: En studie av markförvärv i samband med samhällsomvandlingen i Kiruna2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Two urban transformations are in progress in northern Sweden today, in Kiruna and in Malmberget, due to expanding mining operations. The relocation of the two cities requires land acquisition. In Kiruna there are specific conditions due to certain protection provided by the so called cultivation border. The purpose of the study is to give a wide perspective on this unique cultivation border and indicate its association with land acquisition. In order to achieve the purpose of the study the history of the cultivation border, the urban transformations and national interests were investigated, as well as the process of land acquisition and how it can be improved. A literature study, qualitative interviews and visits at Kiruna and Malmberget was used to gain knowledge within the topic.As early as in the 1500s, the Swedish government started to take control of the northern parts of the country and encouraged its colonization. The cultivation border was created in the late 1800s to protect the Sami people and their industry from the settlers. The urban transformations are very extensive and have major impacts on the environment. Involved participants want to construct new areas before deconstructing the old ones. There are several different national interests in Kiruna and in Malmberget areas that have to be taken into account in the planning process. Two of those interests are the reindeer and mining industries. The mining industry takes precedence due to its economic benefits to the whole country. The State owns lots of land in Kiruna and in order to acquire it, the government has to give its approval. An application for such an acquirement must be adjudicated by the Swedish Board of Agriculture, the County Administrative Board, affected Sami villages and the National Property Board of Sweden. The high amount of authorities involved makes the process of aquisition long and an improvement to shorten it is to increase the competence of the involved parties and their intercommunication. The purpose of the cultivation border is still considered to be valid, although today for example the tourism is more important than the agriculturing to protect the Sami people.

  • 391.
    Berglund, Oskar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Förbättring av det grafiska användargränssnittet i Autodesk Maya i relation till måttriktig 3D-modellering2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom 3D-grafik, visualiseringar, spel och VR finns ett behov av måttriktig modellering. Traditionellt så används CAD-program för att uppnå ett exakt eller precist resultat. Men då CAD-program inte utmatar polygonal geometri så fungerar det inte att använda resultatet direkt i tidigare nämnda kategorier. Denna studie ämnar att underlätta måttriktig polygonal modellering i Autodesk Maya genom ett tillägg i form av ett grafiskt användargränssnitt. Effektiviteten av detta mäts genom tidtagning på modellering av CAD-ritningar i polygoner hos en testgrupp både med och utan tillägget samt en kvalitetskontroll där resultatet jämförs med specifikationen. Medelresultatet av testgruppens användning av tillägget var en förbättring i tidsåtgång gentemot endast Maya. Geometrin hade även bättre måttriktighet.

  • 392.
    Bergman, Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Lindgren, Samuel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering.
    Brunifiering av Öjaren: Analys och framtida utsikter2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The colouring of water in many lakes across the Northern hemisphere is increasing. This is also the case in Lake Öjaren in Sandviken municipality in Sweden. The lake is the main water source in Sandviken and has a high and increasing watercolour. This leads to more complex cleaning methods and higher costs for the society. This study focuses on the changing and increasing watercolour in the lake over a period from 1995-2015. The factors analysed in this study are those who is considered to have an effect on the watercolour in the lake.

    The reasons for increased brownification are different depending on which type of water body is studied. Climate, soil conditions and pollutants contributes in varying extent to brownification. Increased levels in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and iron are common reasons for brownification in Lake Öjaren and other water bodies, in Lake Öjaren increased levels of manganese are also shown to affect brownification.

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the correlation between the watercolour and the factors: iron, pH, COD, manganese, temperature and precipitation. The aim is also to investigate which actions are possible to apply to prevent increased watercolour.

    Water samples from Lake Öjaren between the years 1995-2015 have been the basis for the executed statistical analysis. Evaluating the correlation between the factors we have used Minitab 17 and calculated Pearson´s correlation coefficient. To further explain the relationship between the factors a principal component analysis (PCA) has been performed. Future scenarios and current trends have also been produced, in order to develop a better foundation for further studies.

    The correlation analysis reveals that the most significant connection with watercolour are iron, COD and manganese. The result of the PCA also corroborates this connection where three factors are the ones that are most co-variating.

    The trend and the future scenario for all the factors in Lake Öjaren are that they all are increasing and the watercolour is expected to be increasing by 63 % until year 2050. This scenario means that actions are needed to counteract the increasing colouring of the water.

  • 393.
    Bergman, Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Evaluation of ventilation for an office building: Situated in Gävle, Sweden2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since the CO

    2-emissions and electricity prices are ever increasing many companies have tried to reduce their energy consumption in order to reduce both CO2-emissions and the cost of using energy. Therefore, in this article an office building situated in Sweden have been investigated with its current ventilation flow and what saving poten-tials can be made from heat recovery and a different ventilation flow in regards to health, energy and cost. Empirical data have been collected to be able to calculate ener-gy savings made by heat recovery and new ventilation flow. A ventilation flow of 25 l/s per office were chosen and that the conference room should have at least 3 l/s per m² the dining room and locker was not investigated thoroughly and therefore a ventilation flow from the recommendations of Sweden was followed. The total flows became, 530 l/s respectively 630 l/s for the top and bottom floor. A rotating heat exchanger with an es-timated efficiency of 80% was used for heat recovery and through the two methods combined an energy reduction up to 96,4 % for heating and 83,4 % from the electricity could be reduced.

  • 394.
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Burman, Joseph
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences; anterbury Christ Church UniversityCanterburyUK.
    Jonason, Dennis
    Linköping University.
    Larsson, Mattias C.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Ryrholm, Nils
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Westerberg, Lars
    Linköping University.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University.
    Clear-cuts are temporary habitats, not matrix, for endangered grassland burnet moths (Zygaena spp.)2019In: Journal of Insect Conservation, ISSN 1366-638X, E-ISSN 1572-9753Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Burnet moths (Zygaena spp.) are day-flying Lepidoptera considered indicative of species-rich grasslands. In the present study, our aim was to clarify whether clear-cuts are habitat, supporting habitat or matrix for three species of Zygaena. We did so by sampling these species with sex pheromones on 48 clear-cuts, varying in amount of host and nectar plants, in southern Sweden. To compare the efficiency of such sampling, we also conducted transect walks on these clearcuts. Overall, host-plants on clear-cuts best explained the abundance of Zygaena spp. recorded, better than nectar-plants or connectivity with nearby grasslands. These results indicate that clear-cuts with an abundance of host plants are used as a fully functional habitat, and not a supporting habitat in the sense of only providing nectar. There is no support in these results for considering clear-cuts as an inert matrix. With about half the work-effort, pheromone traps recorded 100 times more Zygaena spp. as transect walks. The poor correspondence between observations during transects walks and pheromone trap catches suggest Zygaena spp. being difficult to monitor by transect walks. In contrast to grasslands, clear-cuts are short-term in nature requiring repeated recolonization, indicating the importance of permanent grasslands. However, clear-cuts are important temporary insect habitats due to their great acreage, and suitable management can increase the time they remain a habitat.

  • 395.
    Bergman, Oscar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Industrial design.
    Hållbar formgivning för framtidens elvägar: Gestaltningsidéer och vidareutveckling av eHighway2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete omfattar en designprocess med målsättningen att ge ett nytt formförslag för framtidens elvägar för tung trafik. Dessa elvägar eller eHighway som det också benämns är ett nytt fenomen som är ett resultat av den strävan att minska användningen av fossila bränslen som finns idag finns i samhället. För att utveckla och testa tekniken har Trafikverket tillsammans med Region Gävleborg drivit ett projekt med företag från Sveriges näringsliv där man har gjort en två kilometer lång demonstrationssträcka på Europaväg 16. Komponenter till eHighway är i dagsläget utformade och anpassade för användning av höghastighetståg vilket har lett till att ett missnöje har uppstått kring dess visuella påverkan på vägrummet. Denna problematik blev grunden för denna rapport där syftet var att ta fram ett koncept på en ny utformning av eHighway som stämmer överens med dess hållbara intentioner samt gynnar framtida utveckling av tekniken för elväg med tung trafik. Designprocessen som användes har varit anpassad för att se till allmänhetens behov kring vägrummet där enkätundersökning, omröstningar och diskussioner har varit verktyg för att inkludera allmänhetens önskningar. Designarbetet som har gjorts har innefattat en hel del skissande och idégenerering som har utvärderats med hjälp utav olika metoder som har valts med omsorg för att uppnå bästa möjliga resultat. För en effektiv kommunikation av resultatet gjordes en modell i skala 1:18 samt presentationsbilder. Resultatet av detta examensarbete blev slutkonceptet ”Velum”  som betyder segel på latin. Velum är en stolpe till eHighway där intentionen under projektet har varit att ha ett holistiskt perspektiv med fokus på allmänhetens behov. Resultatet är inspirerat av naturens former och med hjälp av konstruktionens vajrar förs tankarna till lövens ådringar, dessa vajrar är även tänkt att kunna fungera som stöd åt lättskötta klätterväxter som skulle kunna planteras vid stolparna för ett mer bonat vägrum. Stolpen är också tänkt att kunna vara kompatibel med att kombineras med annan teknik som till exempel vägbelysning.

  • 396.
    Bergman, Simon
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Ekonomisk och miljömässig värdering av en sänkt returtemperatur i ett fjärrvärmenät: En studie av ett fjärrvärmenät i Bollnäs2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For district heating companies it is extremely important that the heat they produce is utilized as efficiently as possible by their customers. However, there are a lot of problems with customers heat exchangers, which create obstacles to this goal. The heat exchangers tend to send a certain amount of uncooled water back to the district heating plant. Round passages and drain valves are other examples of problem areas in a district heating network.

     

    Bollnäs Energi AB wants to review how the district heating network and production facility in Bollnäs would be affected economically and environmentally if the return temperature dropped. What primarily is dealt with in this report is how it would affect the flue gas condenser.

     

    Flue gas condensation is when the amount of energy that has been used to produce steam by the moisture in the fuel during combustion again becomes liquid. This amount of energy is being utilized by heat exchanging it with the district heating network return line. It is simplistic to say that the lower the return temperature, the higher the effect output will be made possible from the flue gas condenser.

     

    If 1 MWh of energy is extracted from the flue gas condenser, that is 1 MWh less that needs to be burned in the company's boilers. If there are several boilers running simultaneously operated with different fuels, it is the fuel that has the highest cost that will be saved into. However, it can cause problems when the boiler is loaded into a cogeneration unit, ie, that it produces both heat and electricity, because even electricity production will then be reduced.

     

    Data has been collected from the company's logs and a simulated reduction in the return temperature has been made. This has demonstrated that lowering the return temperature by one degree would lead to a saving of approximately 442 000 SEK per year.

     

    When this "free energy" comes from flue gas condenser instead from waste or oil combustion so it also becomes a major environmental gain. Therefore, the amount of energy from the flue gas condensation was compared with if the same amount of energy would have been produced by burning waste or oil. The calculations show that the same reduction as above would reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 378 and 762 tonnes per year respectively.

  • 397.
    Bergquist, Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Ämnesintegrering i NO-undervisningen för år 1-7: Ämnesintegration av fysik och idrott2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 398.
    Bergqvist, Ida
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Kemi som pedagogiskt verktyg: En studie som berör barnens utveckling och lärande i förskola2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 399.
    Bergqvist, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Industrial design.
    Mot en grön framtid: Ett examensarbete där designprocessen använts för att öka barnfamiljers konsumtion av vegetarisk mat2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kan man genom design utveckla en produkt eller tjänst som skapar medvetenhet, nyfikenhet samt intresse hos barnfamiljer kring vegetarisk mat? Det var frågan jag ställdes inför i inledningsskedet av mitt examensarbete och som jag sedan undersökte. Bakgrunden till frågeställningen är en kombination av min egen livsstil som vegetarian tillsammans med det växande samhällshotet som den ökande köttkonsumtionen utgör. Jag har använt mig av olika metoder och verktyg som intervjuer, litteratur och workshops för att utforska mitt problemområde på djupet. Processen resulterade i en applikation som på ett enkelt och roligt sätt hjälper barnfamiljer att äta mer vegetarisk mat och samtidigt ökar barnens delaktighet i både inhandlingen och tillagningen av maten. I den här uppsatsen kommer jag grundligt berätta hur jag gått till väga för att nå mitt slutresultat.

  • 400.
    Bergroth, Simon
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Electronics.
    Implementering av MPPT-enhet med återkoppling: avsedd för solceller2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
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