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  • 351.
    Chen, Jian Hua
    et al.
    Department of Nursing, Medicine and Health College, Lishui University, Lishui, Zhejiang Province, China.
    Björkman, Annica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Zou, Ji Hua
    Department of Nursing, Medicine and Health College, Lishui University, Lishui, Zhejiang Province, China.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Self–regulated learning ability, metacognitive ability, and general selfefficacy in a sample of nursing students: A cross-sectional and correlational study2019In: Nurse Education in Practice, ISSN 1471-5953, E-ISSN 1873-5223, Vol. 37, p. 15-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The healthcare sector is fast-growing and knowledge-intensive, and to meet the demands associated with it, nursing students must have high levels of self-regulated learning (SRL), metacognition, and general self-efficacy (GSE). In this cross-sectional, correlational study, data were collected from 216 nursing students through a questionnaire. The aims were: 1) to describe the levels of SRL ability, metacognitive ability and GSE among second- and third-year nursing students; 2) to explore the relationships between the SRL ability, metacognitive ability and GSE of second- and third-year nursing students; 3) and to compare SRL ability, metacognitive ability and GSE between second- and third-year nursing students. Nursing students had moderate levels of SRL ability and metacognitive ability, but lower levels of GSE. Positive relationships between SRL ability, metacognitive ability, and GSE were observed. Third-year nursing students had a higher level of SRL ability but lower levels of GSE, compared to second-year students. In terms of metacognitive ability, no significant differences were observed between the student batches. Interventions are required for the improvement of nursing students’ SRL ability, metacognitive ability, and GSE.

  • 352.
    Chen, Ping
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Qian, Lidan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    The cognitive function of residents living in nursing home: A questionnaire study2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 353.
    Chen, Xiayu
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Lu, Yufang
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Women’s experiences after a myocardial infarction: A descriptive litterature review2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 354.
    Chen, Zhe
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Yang, Ni
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Women’s experiences of preeclampsia in pregnancy: A descriptive literature review2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 355.
    Chi, Cheng
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Wenbo, Tang
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    The effect of physical activity on the quality of life in patients with type-2 diabetesThe effect of physical activity on the quality of life in patients with type-2 diabetes: – A descriptive literature review2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 356.
    Chienh, Robin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Sjuksköterskans erfarenheter inom nutritionsomvårdnad: En litteraturstudie med deskriptiv design2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Malnutrition is common among elderly people in Sweden. There are clear guidelines on what kind of intervention should be made, yet there are few actions being taken. This shows a sign of inadequate organisation and management, or lack of expertise in staff performing nutrition nursing care.

    Aim

    The aim for this study is to describe nurses’ experience in nutritional nursing care. And describe the article’s data collection method.

    Method

    A descriptive literature study based on 10 scientific articles.

    Result

    Nurses had limited knowledge and skills in nutrition nursing care and therefore could not identify patients who were malnourished. They were also reluctant to use screening instruments because they do not know how to use it. The nurse has a major responsibility to perform nutritional nursing care, which at the same time must prioritize other tasks. The results were divided into three sections, which are listed under the headings: Insufficient Knowledge, Attitude, Responsibility and Priorities

    Conclusion

    Studies show that nurses have insufficient knowledge in nutrition care and use of screening instruments to identify malnourished patients. The Nurse needs more training in nutrition care and how to use screening instruments to better respond and treat malnourished patients.

  • 357.
    Christensen, Christine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    En studie om individers upplevelser av arbetslöshet, mindfulness och stress2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to examine individuals' experiences of participating in 5 week mindfulness program as a tool for job seekers. Qualitative methods were used to inter­view three students and two mindfulness educators. The informants were asked to an­swer questions about their experiences of having participated or practiced mindfulness in the project.

     

    The results showed that all respondents experienced the project as positive. The partici­pants describe that the project helped them to get out and meet other people and with routines in their life. The par­ticipants also said that unemployment caused alienation and they felt themselves to have poorer health when they were unemployed. Stress has been something that affected eve­ryone in different ways, but that all participants felt the stress when they were unem­ployed. All informants reported that mindfulness was a great tool for stress manage­ment, although some were skeptical about mindfulness when they initiated the project.

  • 358.
    Chunyi, Tang
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Qiongwei, Wang
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Quality of life among nursing home residents: – A questionnaire study2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 359.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    et al.
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Straker, Leon
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Pollock, Clare
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Diversity of tasks and information technologies used by office workers at and away-from-work2011In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 54, no 11, p. 1017-1028Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Musculoskeletal disorders have been associated with computer use among office workers and lack of variation caused by too little exposure diversity between work tasks has been proposed as an important etiological factor. However there is little information on the diversity of occupations and information and communication technologies (ICT) used by office workers and none which extends beyond the traditional workday. Whilst direct observation is expected to provide the most accurate data, it is resource intensive and self report and sampling alternatives may be a viable alternative.

    Method: This paper describes direct observation and self-report data on the occupations and ICT use of 24 Australian office workers in their natural environments at work and away-from-work, over 12 hours of a working day.

    Results: Participants were observed for a mean [SD] for 642[40] minutes, 67% of which was at the workplace. Productive occupations (405[122] minutes) accounted for 63% of the observation period, compared to 17% for instrumental (106[57] minutes), 12% for self-care (75[46] minutes) and 8% for leisure occupations (54[39] minutes). Non ICT tasks occurred during 44% of the observation period (285[89] minutes); New ICT accounted for 36 % (234[118] minutes), Old ICT accounted for 15% (98[73] minutes), and Combined ICT tasks 4% (24[30] minutes). The proportions of occupations and ICT use differed between work and away-from-work. Computer-based New ICT was most used for work tasks. Observed and self-reported time on occupations and ICT were similar, though with some differences. Self-reported time on occupations and ICT was similar for the first day and the subsequent 4 days.

    Conclusion: The first detailed description of occupations and ICT used by office workers at work and away-from-work shows that the variety of Old, New, Combined and Non-ICT used for performing typical work and non-work tasks offered a diversity of exposures for the workers. This information provides an important step for further investigations into exposure variation in this group, and possible musculoskeletal health risks.

  • 360.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    et al.
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Straker, Leon
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Pollock, Clare
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    ITKids Part I: Children's occupations and use of information and communication technologies2011In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 401-412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Reports in the popular media are that school children use modern information and communication technology (ICT) on a regular basis for a variety of purposes, however little has been documented in the scientific literature about how school children spend their time and the different types of ICT they use.

    Method: This paper describes the observed occupations and ICT use of nine Australian primary school children in their natural environments at school and away-from-school during one school day, and compares self-reported exposures with direct observations. Self-reported discomfort scores were obtained throughout the day.

    Results: The study identified that paper-based ICT (Old ICT) was used mostly for productive occupations at school, while electronics-based (New ICT) was used mostly during leisure in away-from-school locations. Tasks involving no ICT (Non ICT) accounted for the largest proportion of time in both locations during self-care, leisure and instrumental occupations. End-of-day self-reported time performing different occupations was consistent with data from independent observations. Self reported time using Old ICT and New ICT was marginally over-estimated, and time spent using Non-ICT was marginally under-estimated.

    Conclusion: The children in this study used a variety of ICT in the performance of daily occupations in their natural environments. New ICT use was primarily for leisure, but time spent was less than reported among other child studies. Discomfort reports among the participants were low. Children’s self-reports of daily occupations and ICT use has utility as an exposure assessment metric.

  • 361.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    et al.
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Straker, Leon
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Pollock, Clare
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    ITKids Part II: Variation of postures and muscle activity in children using different information and communication technologies2011In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 413-427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There are concerns that insufficient variation in postural and muscle activity associated with modern information and communication technology (ICT) tasks presents a risk for musculoskeletal ill-health among school children. However, scientific knowledge on physical exposure variation in this group is limited.

    Method: Postures of the head, upper back and upper arm, and muscle activity of the right and left upper trapezius and right forearm extensors were measured over 10-12 hours in nine school children using different types of ICT at school and away-from-school. Variation in postures and muscle activity was quantified using two indices, EVAsd and APDF(90-10).

    Results: Paper-based (Old) ICT tasks produced postures that were less neutral but more variable than electronics-based (New ICT) and Non-ICT tasks. Non-ICT tasks involved mean postures similar to New ICT tasks, but with greater variation. Variation of muscle activity was similar between ICT types in the right and left upper trapezius muscles. Non-ICT tasks produced more muscle activity variation in the right forearm extensor group compared to New and Old ICT tasks.

    Conclusion: Different ICT tasks produce different degrees of variation of postures and muscle activity. Combining tasks that use different ICT may increase overall exposure variation. More research is needed to determine what degree of postural and muscle activity variation is associated with reduced risk of musculoskeletal ill-health.

  • 362.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy & Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Straker, Leon
    School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Pollock, Clare
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Posture variation among office workers when using different information and communication technologies at work and away from work2014In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 57, no 11, p. 1678-1686Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Office workers perform tasks using different information and communication technologies (ICT) involving various postures. Adequate variation in postures and muscle activity is generally believed to protect against musculoskeletal complaints, but insufficient information exists regarding the effect on postural variation of using different ICT. Thus, this study among office workers aimed to determine and compare postures and postural variation associated with using distinct types of ICT. Upper arm, head and trunk postures of 24 office workers were measured with the Physiometer® over a whole day in their natural work and away-from-work environments. Postural variation was quantified using two indices; APDF(90-10) and EVA(sd).Various ICT had different postural means and variation. Paper-based tasks had more non-neutral, yet also more variable postures. Electronics-based tasks had more neutral postures, with less postural variability. Tasks simultaneously using paper- and electronics-based ICT had least neutral and least variable postures. Tasks without ICT usually had the most posture variability. Interspersing tasks involving different ICT could increase overall exposure variation among office workers and may thus contribute to musculoskeletal risk reduction.

  • 363.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    et al.
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Straker, Leon
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Pollock, Clare
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Variation in Muscle Activity Among Office Workers When Using Different Information Technologies at Work and Away From Work2013In: Human Factors, ISSN 0018-7208, E-ISSN 1547-8181, Vol. 55, no 5, p. 911-923Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To determine differences in muscle activity amplitudes and variation of amplitudes, when using different Information and Communication Technologies (ICT).

    Background: Office workers use different ICT to perform tasks. Upper body musculoskeletal complaints are frequently reported by this occupational group. Increased muscle activity and insufficient muscle activity variation are potential risk factors for musculoskeletal complaints.

    Method: Muscle activity of right and left upper trapezius and right wrist extensor muscle bundle (extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis) of 24 office workers (performing their usual tasks requiring different ICT at work and away-from-work) were measured continuously over 10-12 hours. Muscle activity variation was quantified using two indices, APDF(90-10) and EVAsd.

    Results: There was a trend for electronics-based New ICT tasks to involve less electromyography (EMG) variation than paper-based Old ICT tasks. Performing Combined ICT tasks (i.e. using paper- and electronics-based ICT simultaneously) resulted in the highest muscle activity levels and least variation; however, these Combined ICT tasks were rarely performed. Tasks involving no ICT (Non-ICT) had the greatest muscle activity variation.

    Conclusion: Office workers in this study used various ICT during tasks at work and away-from-work. The high EMG amplitudes and low variation observed when using Combined ICT may present the greatest risk for musculoskeletal complaints, and use of Combined ICT by workers should be kept low in office work. Breaking up Combined, New and Old ICT tasks; for example, by interspersing highly variable Non-ICT tasks into office workers’ daily tasks, could increase overall muscle activity variation and reduce risk for musculoskeletal complaints.

  • 364.
    Ciping, Zhang
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    Enhui, Huang
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    Nurses’ experience of workplace violence: A descriptive literature review2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 365.
    Classon, Olivia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Skogsberg, Hanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Upplevelser av att leva som anhörig till en person med demenssjukdom: En litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: 47.5 million people live with dementia today, and this number is expected to double every 20 year. This disease causes big changes for the person who suffers and the relative’s life and is often called "The relatives' disease". The relatives have an important role in the dementia sufferer's life, because he or she often has lived a large part of their life with the person with dementia, it is the relatives who know them the best, even though the disease leads to personality changes.

    Aim: To describe the experiences of living as a relative to a person with dementia (PWD) and to describe the study group in the included articles.

    Method: A literature study based on twelve qualitative scientific studies that was found through searches in the two databases PubMed and CINAHL. The material was processed and divided into content areas.

    Main results: The result showed that relatives of PWD often experienced feelings of frustration, anxiety and guilt due to lack of information and communication. They also described how they experienced the adaptation to the changes in their and the PWD lives and the ways in which they managed those changes.

    Conclusion: The perceived feelings that emerged in the results often came of loss of control and the changes that were difficult for the families to adapt to. Lack of confidence, poor communication and inadequate information were reasons for the lack of trust. By developing a good relationship between the nurse and the families, the families can experience trust and security. That in turn could help the care situations to be as good as possible for all involved parties. 

  • 366.
    Clavebro, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Brodin, Carola
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Övervikt hos barn och ungdomar, psykiska och sociala orsaker och konsekvenser samt förebyggande åtgärder. En litteraturstudie.2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe the mental and social causes to obesity among children and adolescents, their consequences and what preventive interventions that are used. The method used by the authors was to search for scientific articles in the database Medline, using the keywords: obesity, overweight, child, body image, social, family, school, depression, nursing, quality of life, social support, prevention and support. The study was performed as a literature review, with a descriptive design, and the result contained 22 scientific articles. The main result of this study showed that obesity among children and adolescents is not only an individual problem, it affects the whole family. The main causes to obesity among children and adolescents are the socioeconomic status of the family, their lifestyle, and even gender to a certain degree. The main consequences were that the quality of life for the obese children and adolescents has worsened, and they are less active. The main preventive interventions were that breast-feeding had a positive effect, as well as physical activity, and support for the whole family. Obesity among children and adolescents is an increasing problem in the Western world. There are many factors involved, which makes it a very complicated and difficult problem to solve.

  • 367.
    Clays, Els
    et al.
    Department of Public Health, Ghent University, Belgium.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Oakman, J.
    Department of Public Health, La Trobe University, Australia.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Objectively measured occupational physical activities in blue collar jobs: do psychosocial resources matter?2017In: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, ISSN 2047-4873, E-ISSN 2047-4881, Vol. 24, no 2SArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Occupational physical activity (OPA), and particularly static postures and physically exerting activities, is known to impact worker health and to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, musculoskeletal problems, sickness absence and premature retirement. The exploration of structural preventive measures at the workplace against the adverse health effects of excessive OPA is needed. The psychosocial work environment is hypothesised to buffer the adverse effects of OPA, and as such psychosocial resources might directly influence the performance of OPA. However, this has not been previously investigated with detailed objective measurements. The aim of this study is to describe OPA within blue-collar workers, and to examine the role of psychosocial job resources in the performance of OPA.

    Methods: Results are based on a sample of 198 blue-collar workers from the NOMAD (New method for Objective Measurements of physical Activity in Daily living) study, recruited from seven workplaces in Denmark. The sample included 112 men (56.6%) and 86 women (43.4%); the mean age was 44.9 years (SD 9.9). Data were collected with two Actigraph devices placed on the thigh and trunk, during four consecutive days. The accelerometer data were processed and analysed using the Acti4 software, to determine working time spent standing, walking, on feet and in activity of moderate to vigorous intensity level (MVPA). The level of influence and social support at work were assessed by questionnaire, and measured with a four-item scale. Analysis of (co-)variance and (multiple) linear regression models were conducted. All analyses were stratified by gender predominance of occupation.

    Results: The different types of OPA significantly varied by particular job type. Within male predominant occupations, job type accounted for 50–70% of explained variance, depending on the type of OPA. Manufacturing workers showed the highest average proportions of working time standing (33%) and on feet (79%), while garbage collectors had the highest proportion of working time in MVPA (33%). Mobile plant operators and construction workers had the lowest average working time spent walking and in MVPA. Differences in OPA between job types in female predominant occupations were less pronounced, but healthcare workers and cleaners had higher average proportions of time spent walking and in MVPA compared to assembly workers. The addition of age and psychosocial resources to the models did not contribute to a larger explained variance in OPA and the relations with job type remained significant. Social support at work showed an independent positive relation with working on feet, and with standing in female predominant jobs only. Influence at work was not related to OPA.

    Conclusion: The positive relation of social support with working on feet and standing is likely to be explained by the nature of the work tasks, as jobs that require these activities probably comprise more close interactions and as such create more intensified levels of cooperation at the work floor. Overall, our hypothesis that psychosocial job resources would affect the performance of OPA within blue-collar workers was not confirmed. These findings suggest that the performance of OPA within blue-collarjobs – and particularly within male predominant occupations – is mostly affected by work organisational factors related to specific job type, and not by psychosocial job resources.

  • 368.
    Clays, Els
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Ghent University, Belgium.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Oakman, Jodi
    Department of Public Health, Centre for Ergonomics and Human Factors, La Trobe University, Australia.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Objectively measured occupational physical activity in blue-collar workers: What is the role of job type, gender and psychosocial resources?2019In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 82, article id 102948Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to describe occupational physical activity (OPA) and examine the role of psychosocial job resources among blue-collar workers. In a sample of 198 workers (57% male; mean age 44.9 (SD 9.9) year) from 7 companies in Denmark, two accelerometers (Actigraph) were placed on the thigh and trunk during 1-5 consecutive days, to determine working time spent standing, walking, on feet and in activity of moderate to vigorous intensity level (MVPA). The level of influence and social support at work were assessed by questionnaire. The exposure to OPA significantly varied by particular job type, especially in male predominant occupations. Overall, psychosocial job resources did not affect the exposure to OPA. These findings suggest that workplace interventions aiming to prevent adverse outcomes of OPA among blue-collars workers ought to focus on task redesign and target work organizational factors related to specific job type.

  • 369.
    Cluer, Sarah
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Åsblom, Lena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Barns upplevelser av att ha en förälder med cancer: En litteraturstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this literature review was to describe children’s experiences of having a parent with cancer and to examine the quality of the articles relating to the sampling process, response rates and withdrawal.

    Method: Databases CINAHL and PubMed were used to search for relevant articles published between 2003 and 2013. The result is based on thirteen articles.

    Results: Three general themes were found. 1) The effects on children’s wellbeing: The children were strongly affected by their experience but rarely showed clinical symptoms. Some children were at greater risk of poor health than others. 2) Life changes and fears which influence the children’s experiences: The children had many fears which impinged on their quality of life. Life changes consisted of increased emotional and practical responsibility within the family. A need to maintain normality through a social network outside of the family-home was identified.  3) The children’s communication and information needs: The needs were great and open communication within the family was important for the children’s wellbeing. Professional information was appreciated.

    Difficulties in recruiting participants and possible response bias, affected the reliability of several studies.

    Conclusion: The result backs up Socialstyrelsen’s (The National board of Health and Welfare) staff looking after the ill parent sees to the needs of these children. The general nurse needs to have good knowledge and understanding of general child development and these children’s specific situations, in order to help and support them in the best way possible.

  • 370.
    Coenen, Pieter
    et al.
    School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth, Australia; Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Korshøj, Mette
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hallman, David M.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Huysmans, Maaike A.
    Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    van der Beek, Allard J.
    Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Straker, Leon M
    School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Differences in heart rate reserve of similar physical activities during work and in leisure time - A study among Danish blue-collar workers2018In: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 185, p. 45-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies suggest that while leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) promotes general health, engaging in occupational physical activity (OPA) may have negative health consequences. It has been hypothesized that the different health effects from OPA and LTPA can be explained by differences in physical activity (PA) intensity in these two domains. To assess the intensity of OPA and LTPA, we aimed to study the percentage heart rate reserve (%HRR) during similar types of OPA and LTPA during workdays. Data from the NOMAD study on Danish blue-collar workers (n=124) with objective measurements of PA (using accelerometers) and heart rate (using heart rate monitors) for 4 workdays were analysed. Activities of sitting, standing, moving, walking, and stair climbing were identified and %HRR in each of these activities was determined for work and leisure. %HRR was significantly higher during OPA than LTPA. These differences were more pronounced in men than in women. Although not statistically significant in the fully adjusted model, we found indications that these differences were more pronounced in those with low compared to high fitness. To our knowledge, this is the first study with objective measurements showing that %HRR is higher during the same gross-body postural activities when performed at work compared to leisure-time during workdays. This elevated intensity may help explaining the negative health consequences of engagement in high levels of OPA. Future guidelines should distinguish OPA from LTPA, possibly by advising workers to remain active during their leisure time, in particular when they are highly active at work.

  • 371.
    Coenen, Pieter
    et al.
    Department of Public and Occupational Health, VU University Medical Center, The Netherlands.
    Korshøj, Mette
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    van der Beek, Allard
    Department of Public and Occupational Health, VU University Medical Center, The Netherlands.
    Straker, Leon
    School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Differences in heart rate reserve during occupational and leisure time physical activity in Danish blue-collar workers2017In: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, ISSN 2047-4873, E-ISSN 2047-4881, Vol. 24, no 2S, p. 33-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Physical activity (PA) is considered to be an important factor in the prevention of various cardiovascular diseases. However, recent studies suggest that while leisure time PA promotes cardiovascular health, occupational PA might impair cardiovascular health. An explanation for this PA health paradox may be a difference in the intensity and associated physical demands between occupational and leisure time PA. Occupational PA often consists of low-intensity, long-lasting physically demanding tasks, such as repetitive work and prolonged static working postures, which are presumed to cause sustained elevated heart rate that may stress the cardiovascular system. Despite this notion, the differences in physiological responses between occupational and leisure time PA are not well understood. Therefore, we aimed: (a) to study the difference in intensity of occupational and leisure time PA (expressed in percentage heart rate reserve; % HRR); and b) to assess whether this potential difference varies by gender and cardiorespiratory fitness level.

    Methods: We used data from the NOMAD study, in which Danish blue-collar workers from seven different workplaces took part in a four-day protocol of objective measurements of PA (using hip and thigh-worn accelerometers) and heart rate (using an ambulatory heart rate monitor). During occupational and leisure time, activities of sitting, standing, moving, walking and stair climbing were identified, and %HRR in each of these activities was determined. Differences in %HRR between occupational and leisure time PA were tested using generalised estimating equations (expressed in regression coefficient – beta with 95% confidence interval (CI)) adjusted for personal, health,work and lifestyle confounders.

    Result: In 124 workers with data on PA and heart rate, %HRR was higher for occupational PA compared to leisure time PA (beta1.9, 95% CI2.4,1.4,P<0.001). Differences in %HRR between occupational and leisure time PA were more pronounced in men than in women, and in those with high cardiorespiratory fitness compared to those with low cardiorespiratory fitness.

    Conclusion: This study is the first to assess differences in %HRR between occupational and leisure time PA, using objectiv emeasurements in blue-collarworkers. Cardiovascular intensity was higher in occupational activities (possibly due to additional physical and/or mental workloads) compared to the same activities during leisure time. The increase in cardiovascular intensity at work maybe a contributing factor to the health paradox of occupational and leisure time PA, suggesting negative cardiovascular health consequences for engagement in occupational PA (see Figure 1).

  • 372.
    Coenen, Pieter
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia; VU University Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Body@Work, Research Center on Physical Activity, Work and Health, the Netherlands.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kingma, Idsart
    VU University Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Body@Work, Research Center on Physical Activity, Work and Health, the Netherlands.
    Boot, Cécile
    Body@Work, Research Center on Physical Activity, Work and Health, the Netherlands; EMGO Institute, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Bongers, Paulien
    Body@Work, Research Center on Physical Activity, Work and Health, the Netherlands; TNO Healthy Living, Hoofddorp, the Netherlands.
    van Dieën, Jaap
    VU University Amsterdam, the Netherlands; King Abdulaziz University,Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    Bias and power in group-based epidemiologic studies of low-back pain exposure and outcome: effects of study size and exposure measurement efforts2015In: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 59, no 4, p. 439-454Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Exposure-outcome studies, for instance on work-related low-back pain (LBP), often classify workers into groups for which exposures are estimated from measurements on a sample of workers within or outside the specific study. The present study investigated the influence on bias and power in exposure-outcome associations of the sizes of the total study population and the sample used to estimate exposures.

    Methods: At baseline, lifting, trunk flexion, and trunk rotation were observed for 371 of 1131 workers allocated to 19 a-priori defined occupational groups. LBP (dichotomous) was reported by all workers during three years of follow-up. All three exposures were associated with LBP in this parent study (p<0.01).

    All 21 combinations of n=10,20,30 workers per group with an outcome, and k=1,2,3,5,10,15,20 workers actually being observed were investigated using bootstrapping, repeating each combination 10,000 times. Odds ratios (OR) with p-values were determined for each of these virtual studies. Average OR and statistical power (p<0.05 and p<0.01) was determined from the bootstrap distributions at each (n,k) combination.

    Results: For lifting and flexed trunk, studies including n≥20 workers, with k≥5 observed, led to an almost unbiased OR and a power >0.80 (p-level 0.05). A similar performance required n≥30 workers for rotated trunk. Small numbers of observed workers (k) resulted in biased OR, while power was, in general, more sensitive to the total number of workers (n).

    Conclusions: In epidemiologic studies using a group-based exposure assessment strategy, statistical performance may be sufficient if outcome is obtained from a reasonably large number of workers, even if exposure is estimated from only few workers per group.

  • 373.
    Coenen, Pieter
    et al.
    Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU University Amsterdam.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kingma, Idsart
    Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU University Amsterdam.
    Boot, Cécile
    Body@Work, Research Center on Physical Activity, Work and Health, The Netherlands.
    Bongers, Paulien
    Body@Work, Research Center on Physical Activity, Work and Health, The Netherlands.
    van Dieën, Jaap
    Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU University Amsterdam.
    Group-based exposuremeasurement strategies and their effects on trunk rotation and low-back pain exposure-outcome associations2013In: Occupational & Environmental Medicine: 23rd Conference on Epidemiology in Occupational Health EPICOH 2013: Improving the Impact June 18–21, 2013, Utrecht, The Netherlands, BMJ Journals , 2013, p. A101-A102Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives In epidemiological studies of occupational exposures (e.g. lifting) and low-back pain (LBP), group-based exposure measurement strategies are common. Workers are classified into exposure groups; exposure is measured only in a selection of workers in each group, and their mean exposure is assigned to all workers in the group. Exposure-outcome relationships are then determined by regression, relating exposure estimates with individual LBP data from all subjects. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of different group-based measurement strategies on exposure-outcome associations.

    Methods 1122 workers, classified into 19 groups on the basis of job-related exposure, participated in this study. In each group, videos were collected from ~25% of the workers (in total, 370 workers), and percentage of the work day spent in trunk rotation was estimated by observation of the videos. This estimate of trunk rotation was significantly associated with self-reported LBP during three years of follow-up (OR:1.43 (1.06–1.93)).

    Using a bootstrap simulation, workers per group (n = 10, 20, 30, 40) and percentage of observed workers (k = 10, 20, 30, 40, 50%) were varied. For each combination, (nk) workers were selected with replacement in each job group among those observed, and n (100-k) workers among those not observed. The mean exposure of the observed workers was assigned to all group members which was related to individual LBP data. ORs and accompanying p-level was estimated using logistic-regression.

    Results A group-based measurement protocol led to significant (p < 0.05) ORs when the total number of workers was larger than n = 30 in each job group, and ≥20% was actually observed.

    Conclusions The proportion of observed workers did have an effect on p-values, but it appeared weaker than that of changing the total group size. These results suggest that it may be sufficient to observe only a minor proportion of workers if the overall size of the population is reasonably large.

  • 374.
    Coenen, Pieter
    et al.
    Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU University Amsterdam.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kingma, Idsart
    Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU University Amsterdam.
    Boot, Cécile
    Body@Work, Research Center on Physical Activity, Work and Health, The Netherlands.
    Bongers, Paulien
    Body@Work, Research Center on Physical Activity, Work and Health, The Netherlands.
    van Dieën, Jaap
    Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU University Amsterdam.
    The effect of group-based exposure measurement strategies on the statistical significance of an association between lifting and low-back pain2013In: Eighth International Conference on Prevention of Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders; Abstracts, 2013, p. 175-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 375.
    Coenen, Pieter
    et al.
    Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU University Amsterdam.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kingma, Idsart
    Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU University Amsterdam.
    Boot, Cécile
    EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam.
    Bongers, Paulien
    TNO Healthy Living, Hoofddorp.
    van Dieën, Jaap
    Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU University Amsterdam.
    The effect of the presence and characteristics of an outlying group on exposure-outcome associations2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 65-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Physical exposures (e.g., lifting or bending) are believed to be risk factors for low-back pain (LBP), but the literature is inconsistent. Exposure and LBP prevalence differ considerably between occupations, and so exposure-outcome associations could be severely modified by the presence of particular occupational groups. We aimed at investigating the influence of such outlying groups on the properties of associations between exposure and LBP.

    Methods: Lifting and trunk flexion were observed for 371 of 1131 workers within 19 groups. LBP was obtained from all workers during three follow-up years. Both exposure variables were associated with LBP (p<0.01) in this parent dataset.

    By removing the 19 groups one-by-one and performing logistic regressions analysis on the 18 remaining groups, we demonstrated that one group, mainly road workers, with outlying exposures and LBP prevalence substantially affected the exposure-outcome association in the total population. In order to further examine this phenomenon, we assessed, by simulation, the influence of realistic sizes (n=4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128), mean exposures (e=2000, 3000, 4000 lifts and e=30, 40, 50% trunk flexion time) and LBP prevalences (p=70, 80, 90, 100%) of the outlying group on the strength and certainty of the eventual relationship between exposure and LBP. For each combination of n, e and p, 3000 virtual studies were constructed, including the simulated group together with the other 18 original groups from the parent data-set. Average OR, OR confidence limits, and power (p<0.05) were calculated across these 3,000 studies as measures of the properties of each virtual study design.

    Results: ORs were attenuated more towards 1 and power decreased with smaller values of n, e and p in the outlying group. Changes in group size and prevalence had a larger influence on OR and power than changes in mean exposure.

    Conclusions: The size and characteristics of a single group with high exposure and outcome prevalence can strongly influence both the OR point estimate and the likelihood of obtaining significant exposure-outcome associations in studies of large populations. These findings can guide interpretations of prior epidemiological studies and support informed design of future studies.

  • 376.
    Coenen, Pieter
    et al.
    Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    van der Beek, Allard
    Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Correction of bias in self-reported sitting time among office workers – a study based on compositional data analysis2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Emerging evidence suggests that excessive sitting has negative health effects. However, this evidence largely relies on research using self-reported sitting time, which is known to be biased. To correct this bias, we aimed at developing a calibration model estimating "true" sitting from self-reported sitting.

    Methods: Occupational sitting time was estimated by self-reports (the International Physical Activity Questionnaire) and objective measurements (thigh-worn accelerometer) among 99 Swedish office workers at a governmental agency, at baseline and 3 and 12 months afterwards. Following compositional data analysis procedures, both sitting estimates were transformed into isometric log-ratios (ILR). This effectively addresses that times spent in various activities are inherently dependent and can be presented as values of only 0−100%. Linear regression was used to develop a simple calibration model estimating objectively measured "true" sitting ILR (dependent variable) from self-reported sitting ILR (independent variable). Additional self-reported variables were then added to construct a full calibration model. Performance of the models was assessed by root-mean-square (RMS) differences between estimated and objectively measured values. Models developed on baseline data were validated using the follow-up datasets.

    Results: Uncalibrated self-reported sitting ILR showed an RMS error of 0.767. Simple and full calibration models (incorporating body mass index, office type, and gender) reduced this error to 0.422 (55%) and 0.398 (52%), respectively. In the validations, model performance decreased to 57%/62% (simple models) and 57%/62% (full models) for the two follow-up data sets, respectively.

    Conclusions: Calibration adjusting for errors in self-reported sitting led to substantially more correct estimates of "true" sitting than uncalibrated self-reports. Validation indicated that model performance would change somewhat in new datasets and that full models perform no better than simple models, but calibration remained effective.

  • 377.
    Coenen, Pieter
    et al.
    Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    van der Beek, Allard J.
    Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Jackson, Jennie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Calibration of self-reported physical behaviours among office workers: A compositional data analysis2019In: ICAMPAM 2019: Oral Abstracts, Maastricht: ICAMPAM , 2019, article id O.11.2Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate calibration models to predict objectively measured time spent sitting, standing and walking during office work from self-reported time-use compositions using a compositional data analysis (CoDA) approach. Ninety-nine office workers (49 women) at the Swedish Transport Administration participated in an intervention study on relocation to activity-based offices. At baseline and at a 3-months follow-up, physical behaviours (sitting, standing and walking) at work were assessed for five days using a thigh-mounted accelerometer (Actigraph) and by self-report (IPAQ). The time-use composition of the three behaviours was expressed in terms of isometric log-ratios (ILR). Calibration models predicting accelerometry-based time-use from self-reported compositions were constructed using linear regression on baseline data, and then validated using follow-up data. The accelerometer data showed that, on average, workers spent 69.9% of their day sitting, 23.7% standing, and 6.4% walking. The corresponding percentages for self-reports were 71.7%, 21.6%, and 7.4%, respectively. Non-calibrated self-reports were biased: the RMS errors obtained from the ILRs expressing sitting, standing and walking were 0.73, 1.09 and 1.05, respectively. Calibration models reduced these errors by 45% (sitting), 56% (standing), and 76% (walking). Validation of the calibration models using follow-up data from the same workers showed calibration remained equally effective; RMS errors were reduced by 55% (sitting), 58% (standing), and 75% (walking). In conclusion, calibration models for compositional time-use data were effective in reducing bias in self-reported physical behaviours at work, and the models remained effective when used on new data from the same workers. Calibrated self-reports may represent a cost-effective method for obtaining physical behaviour data with a satisfying accuracy in large-scale cohort and intervention studies.

  • 378.
    Commissaris, Dianne A. C. M.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Departments of Sustainable Productivity & Employability; Work, Health & Care; and Expertise Centre Lifestyle, TNO, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Huysmans, Maaike A.
    Department of Public and Occupational Health and the EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Body@Work Research Center Physical Activity, Work & Health TNO-VU/VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Koppes, Lando L.J.
    Department of Sustainable Productivity and Employability; Work, Health and Care; and Expertise Centre Life Style, TNO, Leiden, The Netherlands; NIVEL, Netherlands Institute for Health Services Research, Utrecht, The Netherlands..
    Hendriksen, Ingrid J.M.
    Department of Sustainable Productivity and Employability; Work, Health and Care; and Expertise Centre Life Style, TNO, Leiden, The Netherlands; Body@Work Research Center Physical Activity, Work & Health TNO-VU/VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands..
    Interventions to reduce sedentary behavior and increase physical activity during productive work : a systematic review2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 181-191Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Many current jobs are characterized by sedentary behaviour (SB) and lack of physical activity (PA). Interventions addressing SB and PA at the workplace may benefit workers’ health. The present review is the first to focus on the effectiveness of interventions implemented during productive work with the intention to change workers’ SB and/or PA while working.

    Methods: Scopus was searched for articles published from 1992 until March 12, 2015. Relevant studies were evaluated using the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies and summarized in a best-evidence synthesis.

    Results: 40 studies describing 41 interventions were included and organized into three categories: alternative workstations (20), interventions promoting stair use (11) and personalized behavioural interventions (10). Strong evidence was found for alternative workstations leading to positive effects on overall SB, while evidence was conflicting for effects on SB and PA at work, overall PA, and work performance. Evidence was moderate for alternative workstations to have no effect on hemodynamics and cardiorespiratory fitness. Stair use promotion interventions were found to increase PA at work, while personalized behavioural interventions increased overall PA; both with moderate evidence. Personalized behavioural interventions were found to have no effect on anthropometric measures (moderate evidence). Regarding work performance and lipid and metabolic profiles, evidence was either conflicting or insufficient.

    Conclusions: Current evidence supports that introduction of alternative workstations may have positive effects on overall PA and SB, likely without reducing work performance, while the long-term health effects of all three reviewed categories of interventions remain to be established.

  • 379.
    Connick, Mark J.
    et al.
    School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
    Beckman, Emma
    School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
    Vanlandewijck, Yves
    Faculty of Kinesiology and Rehabilitation Sciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Malone, Laurie A.
    Lakeshore Foundation, Birmingham, Alabama, USA.
    Blomqvist, Sven
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Tweedy, Sean M.
    School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.
    Cluster analysis of novel isometric strength measures produces a valid and evidence-based classification structure for wheelchair track racing2018In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 52, no 17, p. 1123-1129, article id 097558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The Para athletics wheelchair-racing classification system employs best practice to ensure that classes comprise athletes whose impairments cause a comparable degree of activity limitation. However, decision-making is largely subjective and scientific evidence which reduces this subjectivity is required.

    AIM: To evaluate whether isometric strength tests were valid for the purposes of classifying wheelchair racers and whether cluster analysis of the strength measures produced a valid classification structure.

    METHODS: Thirty-two international level, male wheelchair racers from classes T51-54 completed six isometric strength tests evaluating elbow extensors, shoulder flexors, trunk flexors and forearm pronators and two wheelchair performance tests-Top-Speed (0-15 m) and Top-Speed (absolute). Strength tests significantly correlated with wheelchair performance were included in a cluster analysis and the validity of the resulting clusters was assessed.

    RESULTS: All six strength tests correlated with performance (r=0.54-0.88). Cluster analysis yielded four clusters with reasonable overall structure (mean silhouette coefficient=0.58) and large intercluster strength differences. Six athletes (19%) were allocated to clusters that did not align with their current class. While the mean wheelchair racing performance of the resulting clusters was unequivocally hierarchical, the mean performance of current classes was not, with no difference between current classes T53 and T54.

    CONCLUSIONS: Cluster analysis of isometric strength tests produced classes comprising athletes who experienced a similar degree of activity limitation. The strength tests reported can provide the basis for a new, more transparent, less subjective wheelchair racing classification system, pending replication of these findings in a larger, representative sample. This paper also provides guidance for development of evidence-based systems in other Para sports.

  • 380.
    Conradzon, Jessica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nilsson, Ida
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av samtal om sexualitet med patienter diagnostiserade med cancer: En deskriptiv litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 381.
    Cordova, Viktoria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Andersson, Linn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hur faderlig postpartumdepression påverkar familjens livssituation samt vilka tecken och riskfaktorer som finns för faderlig postpartumdepression: en litteraturstudie2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The purpose of this literature study was partly to describe how paternal postpartum depression effects the life situation of the family and to decribe which signs and risk factors that exist for paternal postpartum depression. Empirical articles were searched in Medline database (PubMed) and fourteen articles were selected. The articles were reviewed for quality regards the selection and dropping. Tables of the articles method and result description was compiled. Result of the present study revealed that an increased risk of "couple morbidity" existed and even the children were affected. Children of depressed fathers were more likely to have temperament problems. Depressed fathers felt difficulties in dealing with their childs temperament. The fathers became more irritable and had less patience for the child which resulted in fewer positive parent-child interactions, which in turn affected the children's vocabulary development negatively. The results of the present study also revealed that the father may display emotional expressions in the form of irritation as well as anger as a sign of postpartumdepression and that prenatal depression was a risk factor for the father to suffer from depression. After performed review none of the selected studies were judged to have low quality and only two studies were judged to have medium quality.

    The authors of the present study consider that depression in the father should be identified and addressed, since depression not only can have consequences for the partner but also on the child's welfare and development.

    Keywords: Paternal postpartum depression, Family, Life situation, Risk factors, Prevention.

  • 382.
    Crenshaw, Albert
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bronee, Lars
    Department of Exercise and Sports Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Krag, Ida
    Department of Exercise and Sports Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Jensen, Bente R.
    Department of Exercise and Sports Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Oxygenation and EMG in the proximal and distal vastus lateralis muscle during submaximal isometric knee extension2010In: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 28, no 10, p. 1057-1064Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Muscle oxygenation responses are reportedly greater in the distal muscle region than in the proximal muscle region. We combined near infrared spectroscopy and electromyography (EMG) to determine whether regional differences in oxygenation are associated with differences in (1) muscle activation and/or (2) fatigue development. Nine males performed 2-min sustained isometric knee extensions at 15% and 30% maximum voluntary contraction during which oxygenation and EMG were recorded simultaneously from proximal and distal locations of the vastus lateralis muscle. Near infrared spectroscopy variables for oxygen saturation (StO2%) were initial slope at contraction onset, peak drop, and recovery slope at contraction end. Electromyography produced the root mean square to indicate muscle activation and mean power frequency changes over time (decreasing slope) to indicate fatigue development. For StO2%, significantly greater peak drop and steeper recovery slope were found for the distal muscle region than for the proximal muscle region. Root mean square, however, was not different between locations. Mean power frequency decreased throughout the contractions but changes were not different between locations. Our results indicate that for modest submaximal contractions, regional differences in oxygenation are not associated with differences in muscle activation or with fatigue development (as interpreted by changes in mean power frequency over time).

  • 383.
    Crenshaw, Albert
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Djupsjöbacka, Mats
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Svedmark, Å
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Oxygenation, EMG and position sense during computer mouse work: impact of active versus passive pauses2006In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 97, no 1, p. 59-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the effects of active versus passive pauses implemented during computer mouse work on muscle oxygenation and EMG of the forearm extensor carpi radialis muscle, and on wrist position sense. Fifteen healthy female subjects (age: 19-24 years) performed a 60-min mouse-operated computer task, divided into three 20 min periods, on two occasions separated by 3-6 days. On one occasion a passive pause (subjects resting) was implemented at the end of each 20-min period, and on another occasion an active pause (subjects performed a number of high intensity extensions of the forearm) was implemented. Also at the end of each 20-min period, test contractions were conducted and subjective ratings of fatigue and stress were obtained. Another parameter of interest was total haemoglobin calculated as the summation of oxy-and deoxy-haemoglobin, since it reflects blood volume changes. The most interesting findings were an overall increasing trend in total haemoglobin throughout the mouse work (P<0.001), and that this trend was greater for the active pause as compared to the passive pause (P<0.01). These data were accompanied by an overall increase in oxygen saturation (P<0.001), with a tendency, albeit not significant, toward a higher increase for the active pause (P=0.13). EMG amplitude and median frequency tended to decrease (P=0.08 and 0.05, respectively) during the mouse work but was not different between pause types. Borg ratings of forearm fatigue showed an overall increase during the activity (P<0.001), but the perceptions of stress did not change. Position sense did not change due to the mouse work for either pause type. While increasing trends were found for both pause types, the present study lends support to the hypothesis of an enhancement in oxygenation and blood volume for computer mouse work implemented with active pauses. However, a presumption of an association between this enhancement and attenuated fatigue during the mouse work was not supported.

  • 384.
    Crenshaw, Albert G.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Komandur, S.
    Dep of Industrial Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle.
    Johnson, P. W.
    Dep of Environmental and occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle.
    Finger flexor contractile properties and hemodynamics following a sustained submaximal contraction: A study using electrical stimulation and near-infrared spectroscopy2010In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 153-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined the effect of a low-level sustained contraction on the muscle contractile properties, hemodynamics and oxygenation of the flexor digitorum superficialis muscle (FDS) of the finger. We tested the hypothesis that hemodynamics and oxygenation, reflecting the muscle metabolic characteristics, would recovery more quickly than the muscle contractile properties. Eleven subjects (26 ± 4 yrs) were equipped with electrodes for electrical stimulation and a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) probe on the forearm over the FDS. The experimental protocol consisted of three baselines measurements (-60 min, -30 min, pre-exercise), immediately after a sustained 15-min contraction of the FDS at 10% maximal voluntary contraction (post-exercise), and after 30 min, 60 min and 120 min of recovery. For each time point, participants were subjected to a battery of test that included upper arm venous occlusion (at rest), a computer-mouse point and click task (standardized voluntary task), and electrical stimulation. For venous occlusion (50 mmHg, 1 min), slopes were calculated for NIRS-derived total hemoglobin (HbTslope) and deoxyhemoglobin (HHbslope) as estimates of blood flow and oxygen consumption, respectively. The computer-mouse task entailed using the mouse to point and click on targets presented on the screen during which NIRS signals were monitored for determination of change in total hemoglobin (ΔHbT) and oxygen saturation (ΔStO2%). Electrical stimulation (2 Hz, 5 trains of 15 twitches) provided twitch force (Tw-force), contraction time (CT) and one-half relaxation time (½RT) data. Statistical analysis revealed significant changes over time for all contractile parameters as well as for HHbslope (P < 0.05 for each). Post-hoc testing demonstrated significant decreases for Tw-force post-exercise and at 60 min; for CT at post-exercise, 30 min and 60 min; and for ½RT at post-exercise and at 30 min. HHbslope was significantly higher post-exercise as compared to pre-exercise. During the computer-mouse point and click task, no significant differences were detected forΔHbT, however,ΔStO2% showed a tendency to decrease, albeit not significant (P = 0.11). Further testing showedΔStO2% was significantly lower post-exercise and at 30 min as compared to pre-exercise. The present study shows that NIRS provides insight into muscle hemodynamics and oxygenation for low-level sustained activity to fatigue. The overall quick recovery of hemodynamic and oxygenation responses, and a more prolonged recovery of contractile responses confirms our hypothesis, and this may fit well with the classical definition of low frequency fatigue.

  • 385.
    Crenshaw, Albert
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Heiden, Marina
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Flodgren, Gerd
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Umeå universitet.
    Hellström, Fredrik
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Impact of time pressure and pauses on physiological responses to standardized computer mouse use: a review of three papers with focusing on mechanisms behind computer-related disorders2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, no 3, p. 68-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews three computer mouse studies in our laboratory where our emphasis was on mechanisms behind computer related disorders. Our approach was sequentially (i) to determine validity of a laboratory model of computer mouse use (painting rectangles) for studying musculoskeletal disorders; to use this model (ii) to study time pressure and precision demands on position sense and muscular oxygenation; and (iii) to determine the effect of pauses (active vs passive) on these parameters. (i) Kinematic data for the painting model showed constrained movements of the wrist similar to CAD work; a support for its validity for a real life situation. (ii) Changes in forearm oxygenation were associated with time pressure and precision demands; a potential for insight into the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. (iii) Increasing trends in oxygenation and blood volume were associated with pauses, especially active; possible explanation for the alleviating effect of discomfort experienced in real life situations when a pause is implemented.

  • 386.
    Csöff, Rosina-Martha
    et al.
    Evangel Hsch Ludwigsburg, Ludwigsburg, Germany.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Lindert, Jutta
    Evangel Hsch Ludwigsburg, Ludwigsburg, Germany.
    Körperliche Beschwerden bei älteren Migranten in Deutschland [Somatic Complaints among Elderly Migrants in Germany]2010In: Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, ISSN 1661-4747, E-ISSN 1664-2929, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 199-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bodily complaints are widespread among the elderly; few surveys investigating bodily complaints among elder migrants exist in Germany and internationally. Our multi-centric cross section study examined bodily complaints among persons between 60 and 84 years dwelling in Stuttgart on the basis of the short version of the Giessen Complaint Questionnaire (GBB-24). In Germany 648 were explored with 13.4% (n = 87) born outside of Germany. Gender distribution was equal among migrants and non-migrants; socioeconomic status was lower among the migrants: 8.0% (n = 7) of the migrants and 2.5% (n = 14) of the non-migrants had at most four years of education; 12.6% (n = 11) of the migrants and 8.2% (n = 46) of the non-migrants held a net income of below 1000 (sic); 26.4% of the migrants and 38.1% (n = 214) of the non-migrants disposed over 2000 (sic) monthly. The incidence of somatic complaints was 65.5% (n = 57) among the migrants and 55.8% (n = 313) among the non-migrants. Women (61.8%) displayed more often somatic complaints than men (51.8%). Somatic complaints increased with age. Except of the group aged between 70-74 years no significant difference between migrants and non-migrants could be shown concerning the incidence of bodily complaints. Outlook: population based studies on bodily complaints among migrants are urgently needed.

  • 387.
    Cuibe, Catarina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Socialsekreterares upplevelse av hur sociala relationer till arbetskollegor påverkar hälsan.: En intervjuundersökning2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine how social workers experience and describe the social relations with work colleagues and how relationships with coworkers affects selfperceived health. The methodology used was qualitative interviews with five social workers. The result shows that the sense of vulnerability is reduced when there is a supporting workgroup. Working relationships with colleagues are perceived to contribute to a feeling that one is not alone with all the difficult decisions, all heavy meetings, the high workload, and so on. Reduced sense of disclosure affects well being by leading to more energy, less stress and anxiety,  job satisfaction increases, and so on. Conclusions drawn from the study is that the good social relationships with colleagues are essential in the work of social workers to health and to be able to do a good job. This study, together with previous research shows that it is important to work on relationships with colleagues in the workplace and develop the quality of social support.

  • 388.
    Cutts, F T
    et al.
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine Keppel St.
    Dos Santos, C
    Ministry of Health Mozambique.
    Novoa, A
    Eduardo Mondlane Faculty of Medicine Mozambique.
    David, P
    London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine Keppel St.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Eduardo Mondlane Faculty of Medicine Mozambique.
    Soares, A C
    Eduardo Mondlane Faculty of Medicine Mozambique.
    Child and Maternal Mortality during a Period of Conflict in Beira City, Mozambique1996In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 349-356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Child mortality rates have been declining in most developing countries. We studied child and maternal mortality and risk factors for child mortality in Beira city in July 1993, after a decade of conflict in Mozambique.       

    Methods A community-based cluster sample survey of 4609 women of childbearing age was conducted. Indirect techniques were used to estimate child mortality (‘children ever born’ method and Preceding Birth Techniques [PBT]), and maternal mortality sisterhood method). Deaths among the most recent born child, born since July 1990, were classified as cases (n = 106), and two controls, matched by age and cluster, were selected per case.                 

    Results Indirect estimates of the probability of dying from birth to age 5 (deaths before age 5 years, 5q0 per 1000) decreased from 246 in 1977/8 to 212 in 1988/9. The PBT estimate for 1990/91 was 154 (95% confidence interval(CI): 124–184), but recent deaths may have been underreported. Lack of beds in the household (odds ratio[OR] = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.1–3.8), absence of the father (OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.2–4.8), low paternal educational level (OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 0.8–5.4), young maternal age (OR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.0–3.7), self-reported maternal illness (OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.2–4.9), and home delivery of the child (OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.2–4.5) were associated with increased mortality, but the sensitivity of risk factors was low. Estimated maternal mortality was 410/100 000 live births with a reference date of 1982.                 

    Conclusions Child mortality decreased slowly over the 1980s in Beira despite poor living conditions caused by the indirect effects of the war. Coverage of health services increased over this period. The appropriateness of a risk approach to maternal-child-health care needs further evaluation.

  • 389.
    Cyrén, Monika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Karlström, Ylva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors uppfattningar och erfarenheter av personcentrerad omvårdnad i olika vårdkontexter: En beskrivande litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Personcentrering är en term som förekommer allt oftare inom vård och omvårdnad. Den beskriver en vård som organiseras med utgångspunkt från patientens individuella behov och har blivit synonymt med hög kvalitet inom vården. Personcentrerad vård har visat sig kunna leda till kortare vårdtider, tryggare patienter, ökad livskvalitet och färre medicinska komplikationer. I Sverige finns intentionen att införa mer personcentrering i vården.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att beskriva sjuksköterskors uppfattningar och erfarenheter av personcentrerad vård i olika vårdkontexter, samt att utföra en metodologisk granskning av den urvalsmetod som de valda artiklarna redovisade.

    Metod: En beskrivande litteraturstudie som baseras på nio artiklar, samtliga med kvalitativ design.

    Resultat: Sjuksköterskor från olika typer av sjukhusavdelningar, primärvård samt boenden för personer med demenssjukdom beskrev betydelsen av att se hela människan bakom patienten, att etablera en relation för att kunna individanpassa vården och att göra patienten delaktig i den egna vården. Majoriteten av de deltagande sjuksköterskorna hade erfarenheter av olika svårigheter med personcentrerad vård. Sex studier använde ändamålsenligt urval, två hade bekvämlighetsurval och en studie beskrev inte urvalsmetod utan benämnde att studie hade en pre/post-test/follow-up design.

    Slutsatser: Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter visade på likheter i uppfattningar och erfarenheter av personcentrerad vård oavsett vårdkontext. Personcentrerad vård är ett etiskt förhållningsätt och för att vården ska kunna bli personcentrerad måste hela hälso- och sjukvårdsorganisationen stödja personcentrerad vård.

  • 390.
    Czarnowska, Magdalena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lansén, Susanne
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Känslan av sammanhang och tilltro till sin egen förmåga hos patienter med stroke och patienter med kronisk njursvikt: En empirisk studie2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of the study was to describe and compare the sense of coherence and self-efficacy of patients with stroke and chronic kidney disease.

    Methods: The questionnaires GSE and SOC was used to measure the sense of coherence and self-efficacy of patients with stroke (n=63) and patients with chronic kidney disease (n=54). The study groups were chosen from the international classification of disease (ICD-10) from a county in Central Sweden.

    Results: Both of the study groups rated highest on the comprehensibility sub-scale and lowest on the meaningfulness sub-scale. There were significant differences between younger and older patients with stroke regarding the comprehensibility sub-scale. There were no significant differences between younger and older patients with chronic kidney disease. Both of the studygroups estimated self-efficacy comparable the same.

    Conclusion: The result of this study shows that elderly stroke patients perceive to have greater intelligibility than younger patients, which may be caused by life experience which is consistent with previous studies. There were no differences in how patient groups estimated confidence in their own ability, so how they estimate appears to be due to chronic illness rather than a specific disease.It is also described in previous research. Knowledge of how patients with chronic diseases are using copingresources can lead to getting better at making use of patients ' internal and external resources to develop the quality of nursing care.

    Keywords: Chronic kidney disease, stroke, sense of coherence, self-efficacy, GSE, SOC

  • 391.
    Daerga, Laila
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Southern Lapland Research Department, Vilhelmina, Sweden.
    Edin-Liljegren, Anette
    Southern Lapland Research Department, Vilhelmina, Sweden.
    Sjölander, Per
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Southern Lapland Research Department, Vilhelmina, Sweden.
    Quality of life in relation to physical, psychosocial and socio-economic conditions among reindeer-herding Sami2008In: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 1239-9736, E-ISSN 2242-3982, Vol. 67, no 1, p. 8-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. To analyse different aspects of health-related quality of life factors among members of reindeer-herding families.

    Study design. Cross-sectional study based on data from a comprehensive survey.

    Methods. The health-related quality of life (SF-36) factors were analysed on 99 (56 men, 43 women) adult members of reindeer-herding families. Comparisons were made between the reindeer-herding family members and a Swedish reference population. Associations between mental and physical component summary measures and a number of sociodemographic, biomedical, physical, psychosocial and socio-economic variables were analysed with multivariate regression statistics.

    Results. Men scored higher than women on physical and social functioning and vitality. The average scores on the subscales for the reindeer-herding family members were similar to those of

    the Swedish reference population, except for reindeer-herding men who scored higher on physical functioning and lower on bodily pain. For women, the quality of life was related to age, sense of coherence, life-style and behavioural variables, as well as to issues such as diseases among close relatives, social networks and the economy of their business. For men, it was mainly related to musculoskeletal pain conditions, age, sense of coherence and physical and psychosocial working conditions.

    Conclusions. Men and women of the reindeer-herding families need partly different conditions to enjoy a high quality of life. From the results, it might be predicted that poor somatic and psychosocial health, increased intrusion from exploiters on the grazing land and declining profit in reindeer husbandry constitute important threats to a good quality of life among members of reindeer-herding families

  • 392.
    Dahl Lassen, Anne
    et al.
    National Food Institute, Danish Technical University, Denmark.
    Thorsen, Anne Vibeke
    National Food Institute, Danish Technical University, Denmark.
    Haapala, Irja
    School of Applied Educational Sciences and Teacher Education, Savonlinna, Finland; School of Social and Political Sciences, the University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Lennernäs Wiklund, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    Nyberg, Maria
    Department of Food and Meal Science, Kristianstad University, Sweden.
    Beck, Anne Marie
    Institute of Nutrition and Midwifery, Metropolitan University College, Denmark.
    Fagt, Sisse
    National Food Institute, Danish Technical University, Denmark.
    Food at Work around the Clock – The Nordic Model: Report from a Nordic Workshop, November 4, 2016, Copenhagen, Denmark2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report brings together 12 invited presentations and outcomes of a workshop on food and meals for employees working irregular hours “around the clock”. The workshop, “Food at work around the clock – The Nordic Model”, was hosted by the National Food Institute at the Technical University of Denmark on November 4, 2016, in Lyngby, near Copenhagen, Denmark. This was a culmination of the collaboration started in 2015 between researchers from the hosts institute, Gävle University and Kristianstad University in Sweden, and the School of Applied Educational Sciences and Teacher Education in Finland. The workshop was funded by the Nordic Council of Ministers.

  • 393.
    Dahlberg, Emma
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Åkerman, Marcus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Homosexuellas upplevelser av bemötande från vårdpersonal: En litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Homosexuality historically had a series of laws that spoke against their human rights. In Sweden, a healthcare law about fair treatment exists, however, not everyone got the same care. A nurse's key area of expertise is the care and understanding of patient treatment.

     

    Aim: The aim of the literature study was to explore homosexual experiences of treatment in the meetings with healthcare professionals and to look at the included articles sample groups.

     

    Method: Literature study with descriptive design based on 12 qualitative scientific articles from the search engine MedLine and manual searches.

     

    Main results: The results showed both negative and positive experiences of meetings with healthcare professionals. The elements that influenced how the meetings were experienced were the professionals' attitudes, knowledge about the subject and usage of heteronormative words. Most of the included articles informed about the participants' ages and inclusion criteria. The largest part of participants were women and nine of twelve articles were made in Europe.

     

    Conclusion: This have shown that the treatments homosexual patients got could have been influenced by the healthcare professionals’ knowledge, attitudes and personal values. The homosexuals described both positive and negative experiences where heterosexual assumption, certain word choices and feelings of doubt have occurred. An increased knowledge and education about questions concerning homosexual’s and their experiences in the meeting with healthcare can help the undergraduate nurses to develop the capability for a more individual and positive encounter for homosexual people.

  • 394.
    Dahlbo, Jonatan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences.
    Intervjuer om hinder och motiv med fjorton tidigare gymtränande fysiskt inaktiva individer2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 395.
    Dahlgren, Birgitta
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Omvårdnadsåtgärder för att reducera hallucinationer, mardrömmar och overkliga upplevelser som förekommer hos patienter som vårdats på intensivvårdsavdelning. Litteraturstudie.2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 396.
    Dahlgren, Morgan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Förskollärares kunskap om stress och stresshantering bland barnen på förskolan2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 397.
    Dahlin, Madelene
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ragnarsson, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Upplevelser och hantering av traumatisk stress hos sjuksköterskor innom akutsjukvård: En litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Nurses and other professionals who work with traumatic events and disasters have a stressprotection that will help them in difficult situations. But sometimes events penetrate through that protection and trigger a traumatic stress reaction. Most people who work in emergency care meet at least one traumatic event in a week, some even more. To have a good copingstrategy becomes important to be able to continue their work.

    Purpose: To describe how nurses in emergency care experience and handle traumatic stress. Further,the methodological aim is to describe the selection groups in the included articles.

    Method: Compilation of nine scientific articles by qualitative approach was made. Systematic searches were made for articles in four different databases.

    Results: Nurses' experiences of traumatic stress were described as different feelings of psychic illness such as anger and anxiety. Recurring memories in body and soul were common. Sound, smell and images could trigger the memories of the situations. Some reported feelings of guilt and shame. The coping was mostly about a good social network both private and professional, flaws were reported in both areas. To find a meaning and to have an inner dialogue with oneself were described as important. Avoidant strategy were seen when the nurses avoided certain patients.

    Conclusion: Lack of support from employers and colleagues have been demonstrated and therefore the authors think that it is important to ask the employer in emergency care to constantly develop and improve the professional assistance to nurses who have experienced traumatic events in their work. There is a need for more qualitative research in the field and research should be continuously updated as the care and nurses' work situations are constantly evolving.

  • 398.
    Dahlin, Olov
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för religionsvetenskap.
    Hälsoparken Fjärran Höjder i Gävle: Sveriges mest uthålliga och integrativmedicinska hälsoanläggning : rapport avseende: förstudie av integrativ hälsomottagning vid Fjärran Höjder : ett projekt finansierat av Gävle Kommun och Region Gävleborg2009Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet ”Förstudie av integrativ hälsomottagning vid Fjärran Höjder” har genomförts under hösten 2008. Arbetet har varit inriktat på att följa och genomföra den projektbeskrivning som gavs i samband med ansökan om medel. Till stöd i arbetet har projektledaren haft Arbetsgruppen för en integrativ hälsomottagning vid Fjärran Höjder, vilken sammanträtt fyra gånger under projekttiden. Flera av medlemmarna i arbetsgruppen har också deltagit i studieresorna och föreläsningsserien som anordnats. I syfte att undersöka förutsättningarna för en etablering av hälsomottagningen har en attitydundersökning genomförts bland ett antal utvalda vårdtagare och vårdgivare, politiker, anställda och arbetsgivare, samt besökare vid Fjärran Höjder. Undersökningen visar i korthet att det finns ett stöd för anläggandet av en hälsopark vid Fjärran Höjder. De studieresor och den föreläsningsserie med avslutande dialogmöte som genomförts, har syftat till att förankra idén hos de hälsoaktörer som kan tänkas bli involverade i projektet framöver. Arbetet i arbetsgruppen har mycket handlat om att arbeta fram en projektidé, ett program eller en projektplan för den föreslagna integrativa hälsomottagningen. En viktig del i en sådan plan har varit att sätta in mottagningen i ett större sammanhang, det vi nu vill kalla Hälsoparken Fjärran Höjder. Hälsomottagningen skulle då ingå i en större helhet, en miljö vars samtliga delar syftar till att främja hälsan hos parkens besökare. Visioner och mål för hälsoparken har arbetats fram, liksom ett preliminärt förslag till utformning av hälsoparken och verksamhet där vid. I fortsättningen av projektet avses att söka medel från Osherstiftelsen och i det fall projektet får fortsatt stöd från Gävle Kommun och Region Gävleborg även EU-medel, eftersom det krävs egenfinansiering vid sådana ansökningar. Förslag till hur projektet kan vidareutvecklas lämnas i rapportens avslutande del.

  • 399.
    Dahlin, Olov
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Tvärvetenskaplig hälsoforskning vid svenska lärosäten: en omvärldsanalys2008Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 400.
    Dahlkvist, Eva
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Konflikter och konflikthantering inom sjuksköterskeyrket: - en litteraturstudie2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
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