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  • 351.
    Forsell Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Hedblom, Anna-Carin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Hur mödrar upplever postpartum depression och mötet med vården2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: Becoming a parent is one of the major changes in our lives. It is, in most cultures, perceived as a joyful experience. For some motherhood can instead become a time when they feel anxious, depressed and emotionally labile. These emotions normally pass over a period of a few weeks. But for some this turns into a postpartum depression. The guilt and shame often turns people away from seeking help and therefore the depression goes undiagnosed. Purpose: To describe the maternal experience of being affected by a postpartum Depression and describe how they experienced the meeting with caregivers. Method: The thesis work was done as a literature study built on 13 scientific articles, all with qualitative approach. The database Cinahl, PubMed and PsycINFO were used, with the restrictions peer-reviewed, Max 10 years, available via HiG. Mainresult: The most commonfeelings were guilt and concern that something might happen to the child. The nurse's attitude was of great importance to whether the mothers felt confident enough to share their thoughts and feelings. The mothers hope was that the nurse would bring up postnatal depression, and by doing so the mothers would dare to open up more about their own feelings. Because of this, the mothers wished to meet with the same nurse every time. Conclusion: In order to give women suffering from postnatal depression the best possible care, nurses need more knowledge in the field. Women avoid seeking help as they usually do not know where to turn and therefore it is important that the first meeting with the nurse will make women feel safe. Mothers want the nurse to have an empathetic attitude to create a safe environment. With knowledgeable caregivers, the relationship between them and the mothers will be strengthened.

    Keywords: Mother, Postpartum depression, Experience

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  • 352.
    Forsell, Evelina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Koontz, Natalie Marie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Endometrios och kvinnors möte med vården: - En litteraturstudie2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Endometriosis is a hormonal reactive syndrome affecting women of reproductive age. The cause of endometriosis is unknown, but known symptoms include dysmenorrhea and infertility. Symptoms can amount to emotional and psychosociological disorders/issues such as depression and isolation which can result in limited ability to work and lead a normal daily life. Aim: To describe women with endometriosis experiences of reception from healthcare professionals. Method: Descriptive literature study. Main Result: The experience of normalization and distrust in symptoms as well as the lack of adequate information and support from healthcare professionals were reoccurring themes in the results of this study. Accounts from the included studies within this thesis portrayed women’s experiences of confusion, anxiety, anger, and frustration as a consequence of perceived unsatisfactory reception from healthcare professionals due to inadequate support and information. Women experienced difficulties in feeling understood and taken seriously by healthcare professionals. However, in cases where women in the aforementioned studies were met with understanding as well as pertinent information and support was appreciation expressed. Conclusion: The results presented in this study concluded that knowledge of endometriosis was perceived as partially inadequate. Regarding reception, it seems of importance that healthcare professionals portray qualities such as empathy and understanding as a reflection of women’s needs occasionally depicted in this study’s results. Studies reviewed in this paper, whose participants described their experiences of reception by healthcare professional in relation to endometriosis, exemplify the importance that healthcare professionals, in addition to the ability to provide good communication, also possess the ability to communicate empathy and understanding towards patients.

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  • 353.
    Forslin, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Gunnarsson, Karolina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av att vårda vuxna patienter i livets slutskede inom slutenvården: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Approximately 15,000 people die in different hospital wards in Sweden each year. As a nurse, you will come in contact with and meet with these patients in the final stages of their lives. It is important as a nurse to be prepared for this care to be able to provide professional treatment and the best possible care.

    Aim

    The purpose of this study was to describe nurses' experiences of caring for adult palliative patients in hospital wards and to investigate the included articles data collection method.

    Method

    A descriptive literature study with qualitative articles. Articles have been searched in Medline and CINAHL databases and by manual search. The final number of included articles was 11. The articles were then reviewed by both authors to ensure that they correspond to the purpose of the current study.

    Results

    The result of the reviewed articles came to be highlighted in the results section of the current study and described under three mainheadings. These showed the importance of work experience among nurses that they would feel comfortable in their work situation. How much time factor affected the quality care and the emotions associated with the nurses caring for patients in the final stages of life. The reviewed articles datacollection method consisted of semi-structured interviews and unstructured interviews.

    Conclusion

    Nurses experience different feelings in this caring, both positive and negative. Further more, the nurse struggling to find enough time to and to allocate time between patients to match prevailing conditions to create a good end of life care for these patients. In this work, nurses feel that they required experience to manage the care of patients in the final stages of life. The nursing education is perceived to not adequately prepare nurses for this care.

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  • 354.
    Forsman, Henrietta
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Inger, Jansson
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Leksell, Janeth
    Högskolan Dalarna.
    Lepp, Margret
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Sundin Andersson, Christina
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Nilsson, Jan
    Sophiahemmet Högskola.
    Clusters of competence: Relationship between self-reported professional competence and achievement on a national examination among graduating nursing students2020In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 76, no 1, p. 199-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims

    To identify clusters based on graduating nursing students’ self‐reported professional competence and their achievement on a national examination. Furthermore, to describe and compare the identified clusters regarding sample characteristics, students’ perceptions of overall quality of the nursing programme and students’ general self‐efficacy.

    Design

    A cross‐sectional study combining survey data and results from a national examination.

    Methods

    Data were collected at two universities and one university college in Sweden in January 2017, including 179 students in the final term of the nursing programme. The study was based on the Nurse Professional Competence Scale, the General Self‐Efficacy scale and results from the National Clinical Final Examination. A Two‐Step Cluster Analysis was used to identify competence profiles, followed by comparative analyses between clusters.

    Results

    Three clusters were identified illustrating students’ different competence profiles. Students in Cluster 1 and 2 passed the examination, but differed in their self‐assessments of competence, rating themselves under and above the overall median value respectively. Students in Cluster 3 failed the examination but rated themselves at the overall median level or higher.

    Conclusion

    The study illustrates how nursing students’ self‐assessed competence might differ from competency assessed by examination, which is challenging for nursing education. Self‐evaluation is a key learning outcome and is, in the long run, essential to patient safety.

    Impact

    The study has identified clusters of students where some overestimate and others underestimate their competence. Students who assessed their competence low but passed the exam assessed their general self‐efficacy lower than other students. The findings illuminate the need for student‐centered strategies in nursing education, including elements of self‐assessment in relation to examination to make the students more aware of their clinical competence.

  • 355.
    Forsström, Diana
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    Wigzell, Ingeborg
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    HBTQ-personers erfarenheter av bemötande i hälso- och sjukvården2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Homo-, bi-, trans- och queerpersoner (HBTQ-personer) är en grupp människor som inte är heterosexuella eller identifierar sig med det kön de fötts med. HBTQ-personer är således människor som har en sexuell läggning eller könsidentitet annat än heteronormen. Denna norm beskriver att utgångspunkten för människors sexualitet och könsidentitet är att alla förväntas vara heterosexuella. Det är konstaterat att HBTQ-personer i större omfattning riskerar att drabbas av ohälsa. Att uppmärksamma HBTQ-personers erfarenheter inom hälso-och sjukvården är viktigt för att se till att kunskapen, medvetenheten och slutligen omvårdnaden av HBTQ-personer blir bättre. Syfte: Syftet med litteraturstudien var att beskriva HBTQ-personers erfarenheter av bemötande i hälso-och sjukvården. Metod: Litteraturstudie med beskrivande design. Litteraturstudien omfattar 11 artiklar om HBTQ-personers erfarenheter av bemötande i hälso- och sjukvården. Av dessa använde en mixed method, av resterande hade åtta en kvalitativ ansats och två hade en kvantitativ ansats. Huvudresultat: Resultatet av föreliggande litteraturstudie visade att HBTQ-personer har både positiva och negativa erfarenheter kring sjukvårdspersonalens bemötande, kunskap och förståelse samt kommunikation. Slutsats: I föreliggande litteraturstudie framkom det att HBTQ-personer har både positiva och negativa erfarenheter av bemötande inom hälso-och sjukvården. En ökad kunskap och medvetenheten hos sjuksköterskor och sjukvårdspersonal behövs kring HBTQ-frågor, för att HBTQ-personer ska uppleva ett positivt bemötande.

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  • 356.
    Fransson, Katarina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Distriktssköterskors reflektioner och erfarenheter av det hälsofrämjande arbetet i möten med kvinnor från andra kulturer: En intervjustudie2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 357.
    Franzén, Sofie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Ohlsson, Spire
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Upplevelser av att leva med inflammatorisk tarmsjukdom (IBD): En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) includes the diseases Ulcerative Colitis and Morbus Crohn. Environmental factors and changing diets are thought to be reasons for IBD cases has increased in the US and Western Europe in a short time. It is in Sweden about 500 people affected of Morbus Crohn every year and Ulcerative colitis affects about 900 people per year. The disease has physical symptoms such as diarrhea, pain and weight loss, but also affects an individual psychosocial. Aim: The aim was to describe people's experiences of living with inflammatory bowel disease, and to present the study group as described in the included articles. Methods: This study is a descriptive literature study and 11 qualitative articles were used. PubMed and Cinahl were used to search for articles. Keywords used were: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Qualitative, Everyday Life and Lived Experiences. Main results: IBD is a chronic disease. Physical symptoms such as nausea, pain and fatigue which is also seen as a mental symptoms. The disease was found to influence the individual's daily life, eating habits, family life, and social relationships. All included articles presented the study group. Conclusion: IBD are becoming more common in the world. The symptoms are both physical and psychosocial and affects the afflicted person everyday life, social life and diet. Nurses face a big challenge in being able to confronting and care for these patients, since each individual has different perceptions of the same diagnosis.

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  • 358.
    Fredholm, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sköld, Helene
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av att möta personer med missbrukssyndrom samt sjuksköterskans attityder i vårdmötet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background Substance-use disorder is common in society and involves harmful use of different substances, for example. alcohol and drugs. The use is in progress despite adverse consequences for the person's life situation and increases the risk of unstable health. Which leads to an increased need for healthcare. Research has shown that people with substance-use disorder experience exclusion, stigma and shame in contact with healthcare  

    Aim To describe nursing experience of meeting people with substance-use disorder and the nurse's attitudes in the healthcare meeting, as well as describing the survey articles of the included articles.  

    Method A descriptive literature study. Ten items are included in the result. Article search was made in the PubMed and Cinahl databases. Discussion was conducted between the authors to compile an objective result.  

    Results Nurses had different opinions about if substance-use disorder were a disease or not. Persons with substance-use disorder were considered irresponsible for their health status according to nurses. Nurses described how they experienced the patient group as erratic and manipulative and that caused increased workload. Furthermore, a sense of frustration arose over their own missile and the uncertainty surrounding the patient group. Requests for education were expressed. According to the nurses, patience and support were important parts of care and to not reflect their own opinion.  

    Conclusion Depending on whether nurses saw the substance-use disorder as a state of illness or as self-inflicted, positive or negative attitudes and experiences have emerged. Knowledge and education in substance-use disorder is necessary to maintain an ethical approach within the nurse's profession.

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  • 359.
    Fredin, Karin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Holmqvist, Kristin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kvinnor som överlevt bröstcancer–erfarenheter och behov av socialt stöd från vården: En litteraturstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe women, from different cultures, experiences and needs of social care support after surviving their breast cancer. The aim was also to do a quality review of the methodological aspect selection sampling in the selected and reviewed articles.

    Method: A literature review with descriptive design.

    Result:  The result of this literature review shows that, within informationsupport, the women experience a lack of information regarding physical and mental health and a lack of information from the doctor about the side effects, guidelines, and lymphedema. It turned out that the women had a need for better and more information, separated information conversations with their health professionals and also the correct adapted information at the right time. Within the emotional support and valuation support the results show that women had experiences of language barriers, unmet relationship with physicians with a lack of holistic approach. The women were in need of an assigned contact-person and rehabilitation team, available healthcare and extra support in both the physical and psychological self-care, individual health care interventions. Mostly of the included articles had purposive samples.

    Conclusion: The literature review indicatesdeficiencies in the aftercare for women survivors of breast cancer and also highlights women's need for social support from health care. The women stated they need more and better information, that health professionals do not pay attention to their mental health enough and that careshould be based on a holistic approach to enable an improvement after treatment.

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  • 360.
    Fredriksson, Elin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Olsson, Hanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av samarbetet med läkare2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 361.
    Freiman, Agneta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Distriktssköterskors erfarenheter av fysiskt, psykiskt och sexuellt våld samt omsorgssvikt mot äldre personer över 65 år: En intervjustudie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research shows that the majority of abuse of older people over 65 occurs within the family but can also occurs in institutions for the elderly and other care facilities. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe nurses' experiences of physical, psychological and sexual violence, and neglect of the elderly people above 65 years of their close relationships in the ordinary or special accommodation. Method: The study had a descriptive design qualitative approach and was carried out through semi-structured interviews with eight district nurses working in municipal home care. The material was analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results: The analysis process resulted in six categories: Presence of physical violence hidden by the involved Psychological violence in the form of insults and threats Limited experience of sexual violence Neglect in the form of too little, too much or no care Emotionally affected by violent situations Good communication and support from employees but lack of support in the guidelines. Conclusion: The conclusion of this study is that the district nurses working in home health care come into contact with abused older people and that violence against these occur when the district nurse is the patient's home and when they are not there. Violence carried out can be physical, psychological, sexual or neglect and need for further research on the topic of violence in close relationships among the elderly is urgent.

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  • 362.
    Friberg, Caroline
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Strandberg, Josefine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kvinnors upplevelser av klimakteriet: - en beskrivande litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim – The purpose of this study was to describe women's experiences of menopause and to highlight one methodological aspect.

    Method – A descriptive literature study. 11 articles on women's experiences of menopause are compiled in this study. A review of the sampling and presentation of eventual drop-outs has been occurred. The articles were found in PubMed and Cinahl and a manual search has also been done.

    Main results - The experiences of menopause varies among individuals. Women's symptoms associated with menopause varied both in intensity and in frequency. Women also dealt with the symptoms in different ways. Some felt that it affected their everyday life, while others experienced that the climacteric phase was easy to pass.

    Conclusion - Menopause is a natural process that usually coinciding with other changes in life, therefore it was not rare that women experienced some form of identity crisis. During the climacteric phase it is advantageous for women to apply their coping strategies. A recurring dilemma was the demand of increased knowledge related to women's stories. The women desired ambient responsiveness and better support from healthcare during menopause. A large proportion of middle-aged women will somehow be in contact with health services. This means that general nurses also will meet these women.

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    Kvinnors upplevelser av klimakteriet
  • 363.
    Friberg, Stina
    et al.
    Falu Lasarett, Infektionskliniken.
    Jansson, Josefine
    Levia hälsovård, Rättvik.
    Westergren, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Lindberg, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Uppsala universitet.
    Grundutbildade sjuksköterskors upplevelse att börja arbeta på en barnavdelning2016In: Nordisk sygeplejeforskning, ISSN 1892-2678, E-ISSN 1892-2686, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 20-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Basic trained nurses experience to start working on a children’s ward

    The aim of the study was to describe nurses trained to a basic level experience of starting work on a children's ward. A qualitative study has been conducted with a purposively drawn sample of informants. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight basic trained nurses. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The results showed that respondents felt that the pediatrics course is not preparing for the professional work with children. Most felt that it was through real situations in the workplace that they gained necessary knowledge. Furthermore, it was found that only a few were satisfied with the induction. Spending time with many different supervisors was an important factor for experiencing dissatisfaction with the induction. Good support was received from employees; however the support of the organization was poor. Conclusion: Today's undergraduate education in nursing does not include enough pediatrics to prepare students for professional work with children and adolescents. Actions at individual and workplace levels are needed to increase knowledge of the basic trained nurse. Continuity and support during the induction is important for newly employed nurses to feel competent in their work.

  • 364.
    Frisegård, Matilda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans preventiva omvårdnadsåtgärder för patienter med trycksår i samband med sjukhusvistelse: En litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: As early as the 1500s in France the surgeon Ambroise Pare treated patients with what we today call pressure ulcers. Pressure ulcers are common in hospitalized patients and affect both the patients’ quality of life and contribute to high costs for society.

    Aim: To describe the nurses preventive care measures for pressure ulcer patients during hospital stays and to describe what data-collection methods chosen articles have used.

    Method: A literature review with descriptive design based on 12 scientific articles with either a qualitative and/or quantitative approach. The search for articles occurred in the databases Cinahl and PubMed.

    Result: Five categories were identified; inspection and skin assessment, documentation and education, support surfaces, repositioning and the importance of nutrition. The nurse responsibility is to inspect and assess the skin of patients as patients, especially the elderly, have difficulty in self-detect pressure ulcers. In order to prevent the occurrence of pressure ulcers requires good documentation systems and wider staff education regarding prevention measures and concrete guidelines in pressure ulcer prevention. Changing position of bedridden patients every three hours with 30-degrees is a good pressure ulcer prevention. Giving supplements for bedridden patients regardless of whether they already are malnourished or not has a positive impact in the development of pressure ulcers. It has also been shown to be a direct link between malnourished patients and the occurrence of pressure ulcers.

    Conclusion: To reduce the occurrence of pressure ulcers nurses should work from categories such as: inspection and skin assessment, documentation and education, support surfaces, repositioning and the importance of nutrition. Awareness of pressure ulcers and lack of time for nursing care should also be improved.

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  • 365.
    Frykman, Madeleine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Wikström, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av att arbeta på akutmottagning: litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Emergency department is a part of the hospital where patients comes with a critical condition and unexpected ilness for a first judgment. The healthcare provided is intense and demanding of the nurses.

    Aim: The aim of the study was to describe the nurses experiences of working in the emergency department. Our purpose is also to describe the study participants in the selected studies.

    Methods: The present literature review has a decpriptive design. PubMed was used and 15 articles were included, eight had a qualitative approach and seven had a quantitative. The limits that were used in the data collection was years, language and access for the university of Gävle. The data were analysed by color-coding and reading and the result is presented by four themes.

    Main Results: It was revealed the emergency department nurses were affected by the experience of various forms of stress. The patient population is constantly increasing, which concerned the nurses, which in turn led to increased workload. The need of education and more resources of nurses is big, and the work enviroment is demanding with a high patient flow, violence and hectic days. In the selected articles there was in total 1492 participants.

    Conclusion: The experience of stress affected the nurses emotionally and physically, which also affected the social life. The emergency department is unorganized with a high patientflow that affects the work enviroment and the patient safety. The high patient flow contributed also to a long waiting time which increased the risk of violence. More resources of nurses and education is needed

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  • 366.
    Frykman, Martina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Andersson, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Färdigheter och förutsättningar för sjuksköterskor i mötet med patienter med psykisk ohälsa: En litteraturstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    The definition of mental illness is characterized by a lack of management regarding mood, thoughts or behavior. It is difficult for the person to cope with everyday duties as well as relationships with other people.

    The study revealed that the society should take action to prevent social isolation for those with mental illness. The central concepts of care theory is love, learning and well-being, where nurses' conditions and actions create results in the patient.

    Aim:

    Describe skills and prerequisites nurses need at the meeting of patients with mental illness. A further aim was to examine the ethical considerations included studies made use of.

    Method:

    A descriptive literature study

    Main result:

    Nurses feel they do not have skills regarding mental illness. When nurses care for patients with mental illness are often formed stigmatizations regarding these patient groups and care will suffer. That creates difficulties in dealing with situations where patients' mental health problems are preventing optimal care efforts. The nurses felt that the general nursing care was better if the right knowledge and training in mental health raised further.

    Conclusion:

    Nurses need increased knowledge and training regarding mental illness in order to have skills and opportunities.

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  • 367.
    Fröjd, Camilla
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Psychosocial Oncology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lampic, Claudia
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Larsson, Gunnel
    Department of Medical Sciences, Section of Endocrine Oncology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Birgegård, Gunnar
    Department of Medical Sciences, Section of Haematology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    von Essen, Louise
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Psychosocial Oncology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Patient attitudes, behaviours, and other factors considered by doctors when estimating cancer patients' anxiety and desire for information2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 523-529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to describe the patient attitudes, behaviours, and other factors, considered by doctors when estimating cancer patients' worry about how the disease may develop and the desire for information about the disease and its treatment. Data was gathered through semi-structured interviews with 19 doctors regarding 29 patients within endocrine oncology and haematology care, and the data were analysed by content analysis. The doctors considered the patients' verbal expressions, verbal behaviours, questions, body language, and facial expressions together with their own professional knowledge and experience, when estimating the patients' worry and desire for information. The doctors also considered contextual factors, patients' demographical factors, and medical situation when estimating the patients' worry, and also when estimating the patients' desire for information. The findings illustrate that estimating patients' worry and desire for information is a multifaceted and complex task, and that doctors consider not only the patients' verbal and nonverbal cues, but also factors, such as their own professional knowledge and experience, contextual factors, and patients' demographical variables. The findings should be communicated to doctors who meet cancer patients in medical consultations in order to illuminate the complexity of the medical consultation. The awareness of potentially important patient cues and other factors may aid doctors in their efforts to gain insight about their patients' emotions and informational needs.

  • 368.
    Fröjd, Camilla
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Psyc hosocial oncology, Uppsala Un iversity, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Larsson, Gunnel
    Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala Un iversity, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lampic, Claudia
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap. Department of Public Health and Caring Sc iences, Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    von Essen, Louise
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Psyc hosocial oncology, Uppsala Un iversity, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Health related quality of life and psychosocial function among patients with carcinoid tumours: a longitudinal, prospective, and comparative study2007In: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, ISSN 1477-7525, E-ISSN 1477-7525, Vol. 5, article id 18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim was to investigate HRQoL and psychosocial function among patients with carcinoid tumours, longitudinally and prospectively, and to compare HRQoL among patients with carcinoid tumours to that of the Swedish general population. The aim was also to investigate the prevalence of distress during the first year after diagnosis. Methods: At four assessments during the first year after diagnosis, HRQoL was measured by the EORTC QLQ-C30 3.0, anxiety and depression by the HADS, and prevalence, and worst aspects of distress by an interview guide. ANOVA was performed in order to study changes over time with regard to HRQoL, anxiety and depression. Comparisons regarding HRQoL between patients and the Swedish population were made by the use of one-sample t-tests and changes over time regarding the prevalence of distress was investigated by means of Cochran's Q. Results: High levelsof physical-, emotional-, cognitive-, and social function and somewhat lower levels of role function and global quality of life were reported at all assessments. Role- and emotional function increased over time. Patients reported lower role function and global quality of life and more problems with fatigue and diarrhoea than the Swedish general population, at all assessments. Fatigue, limitations to work and pursue daily activities, and worry that the illness will get worse were among the most prevalent aspects at all assessments. At all assessments the majority reported worrying about the family's situation, the ability to care for the family, and worrying before the check-up. Conclusion: It is concluded that HRQoL and psychosocial function among patients with carcinoid tumours remains stable during the first year, that the patients report a lower HRQoL than the Swedish general population, and that a majority of the patients report a number of aspects of emotional distress. In the clinical care, it should be considered that the majority of patients report not only fatigue and diarrhoea but also worries about their prognosis, their families, tests, and examinations. Efforts to reduce these worries should be made.

  • 369.
    Färdigs, Desirée
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Johansson, Matilda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Personers upplevelser av livskvalité och det dagliga livet efter att ha överlevt hjärtstopp: En beskrivande litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Under 2016 rapporterades 7938 fall i Sverige där personer drabbats av hjärtstopp, varav 1317 personer överlevde. Syrebristen som uppstår vid ett hjärtstopp kan orsaka skador på kroppen efter endast några minuter, därför är det av vikt att se hur dessa personer upplever livskvaliteten och det dagliga livet.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att beskriva personers upplevelser av livskvalité och det dagliga livet efter att ha överlevt hjärtstopp, samt vilka undersökningsgrupper som använts i artiklarna.

    Metod: Designen var en beskrivande litteraturstudie som byggde på 14 vetenskapliga artiklar varav fem av kvalitativ ansats och nio av kvantitativ ansats. Artiklarna söktes fram i databasen Medline via PubMed.

    Huvudesultat: Resultatet baseras på 1566 stycken deltagare. Fysiska och psykiska begränsningar förekom och kunde påverkade deltagarnas dagliga liv. Gällande livskvalitén kunde den upplevas olika, även om de flesta upplevde bra livskvalité efter hjärtstoppet. Även deltagarnas sociala liv påverkades och den förändrade livssituationen kunde bli en utmaning. Detta gjorde att stödgrupper kunde vara bra för att hantera det dagliga livet.

    Slutsats: Efter ett hjärtstopp upplevdes livskvalitén hos deltagarna olika. Fysiska, psykiska och sociala begränsningar kunde förekomma vilket kunde ha negativ betydelse för livskvalitén och upplevas som en utmaning i det dagliga livet. Det kan därför vara av vikt för sjuksköterskan att redan vid omvårdnaden av patienten på sjukhus informera och stödja patienten i de förändringar som efter utskrivning kan förekomma, samt att efter utskrivning ge fortsatt stöd till patienterna för att underlätta återhämtningen i det dagliga livet.

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  • 370.
    Färlin, Charlotte
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Norman, Maria
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Hur kvinnor med bröstcancer skattar sitt optimistiska och pessimistiska personlighetsdrag före och efter strålbehandling - en studie om stabilitet2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to evaluate if the optimistic/pessimistic trait among women with breast cancer are changed by undergoing radiation treatment. The study had a comparative design and the sample was selected through convenience sampling. The sample consisted of 67 women in the age 30 to 86 years with treatable breast cancer. The optimistic trait was estimated before and after the radiation treatment by means of a validated scale, LOT-R. The questionnaire is a ten-item self report measure, responded to on a scale of five (0="Strongly disagree", …, 4="Strongly agree"). The points were summarized to get a total, an “optimistic score” (0-24 points). Four categories were created to interpret the result: major pessimist (0-6 points), small pessimist (7-12 points), small optimist (13-18 points) and major optimist (19-24 points). A majority of the women was in the category “small optimist” both before and after the treatment. The median score was 17 points before the radiation treatment, and 18 points after the treatment. The estimation before as well as after the radiation treatment was compared by means of Wilcoxon’s signed ranked test. The result showed no significant difference between the estimations before and after the radiation treatment (p=0.141; Z=-1.471). The main result of the study was that the optimistic trait is stable among women with treatable breast cancer, and does not change by undergoing radiation treatment.

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  • 371.
    Färlin, Lena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Jonsson, Hannah
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hur anhörigvårdare till personer med Huntingtons sjukdom upplever sin livssituation: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Huntington’s disease (HD) is a neurologic disease that’s genetic hereditary and can affect both women and men equally. The disease infect nerve cells in the brain that controls muscle regulation, leading to involuntary movements. Cognitive loss is another symptom, as well as influenced speech and breathing. HD is a progressive disease and is divided into various phases. In the last phase the victim is completely dependent on others. The disease is called a relative’s disease because the relative often takes the care role to the person with HD.

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to describe how family caregivers to persons with Huntington’s disease experience their situation in life. Furthermore to describe the included scientific articles study group.

    Method: A descriptive literature study based on ten scientific articles with qualitative approach. The databases used for the literature research were Cinahl and PsycINFO.

    Main results: Family carers of people with Huntington's disease described an emotional stress that often led to depression and isolation. Their lives were sidelined while caring occupied most of their time and they often felt alone in their situation. The fear of being affected themselves by the disease was imminent. Incomprehension and ignorance were common, both from the medical staff and the surroundings. Obtaining support from family, friends and support groups were significant and desirable.

    Conclusion:  Family carers experienced an emotional strain while caring for their family member with Huntington's disease. Nurses should learn from their experiences to improve nursing care and treatment against family carers.

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  • 372.
    Gardulf, Ann
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; The Japanese Red Cross Institute for Humanitarian Studies, Tokyo, Japan.
    Nilsson, Jan
    The Japanese Red Cross Institute for Humanitarian Studies, Tokyo, Japan; Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Florin, Jan
    Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Leksell, Janeth
    Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden; Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lepp, Margret
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Østfold University College, Halden, Norway.
    Lindholm, Christina
    Sophiahemmet University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nordström, Gun
    Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden; Hedmark University College, Hedmark, Norway.
    Theander, Kersti
    Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden; County Council of Värmland, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Wilde-Larsson, Bodil
    Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden; Hedmark University College, Hedmark, Norway.
    Carlsson, Marianne
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Johansson, Eva
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The Nurse Professional Competence (NPC) Scale: Self-reported competence among nursing students on the point of graduation2016In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 36, p. 165-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: International organisations, e.g. WHO, stress the importance of competent registered nurses (RN) for the safety and quality of healthcare systems. Low competence among RNs has been shown to increase the morbidity and mortality of inpatients.

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate self-reported competence among nursing students on the point of graduation (NSPGs), using the Nurse Professional Competence (NPC) Scale, and to relate the findings to background factors.

    METHODS AND PARTICIPANTS: The NPC Scale consists of 88 items within eight competence areas (CAs) and two overarching themes. Questions about socio-economic background and perceived overall quality of the degree programme were added. In total, 1086 NSPGs (mean age, 28.1 [20-56]years, 87.3% women) from 11 universities/university colleges participated.

    RESULTS: NSPGs reported significantly higher scores for Theme I "Patient-Related Nursing" than for Theme II "Organisation and Development of Nursing Care". Younger NSPGs (20-27years) reported significantly higher scores for the CAs "Medical and Technical Care" and "Documentation and Information Technology". Female NSPGs scored significantly higher for "Value-Based Nursing". Those who had taken the nursing care programme at upper secondary school before the Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) programme scored significantly higher on "Nursing Care", "Medical and Technical Care", "Teaching/Learning and Support", "Legislation in Nursing and Safety Planning" and on Theme I. Working extra paid hours in healthcare alongside the BSN programme contributed to significantly higher self-reported scores for four CAs and both themes. Clinical courses within the BSN programme contributed to perceived competence to a significantly higher degree than theoretical courses (93.2% vs 87.5% of NSPGs).

    SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION: Mean scores reported by NSPGs were highest for the four CAs connected with patient-related nursing and lowest for CAs relating to organisation and development of nursing care. We conclude that the NPC Scale can be used to identify and measure aspects of self-reported competence among NSPGs.

  • 373.
    Gavanlooi, Sima
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Transkulturell omvårdnad2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syftet med studien var att beskriva och belysa vilka faktorer som är av betydelse i sjuksköterskans omvårdnad och möte med patient med en annan kulturell bakgrund än sjuksköterskans egen kultur. Utifrån detta syfte var det främst följande frågor som lyftes fram: Vilka faktorer kunde ha betydelse i mötet mellan vårdpersonal och patient med annan kulturell bakgrund än vårdpersonalen egen kultur? Hur kan vårdpersonalen bemöta en patient med en annan kulturell bakgrund än vårdpersonalen egen kultur, för att denne skall känna sig respekterad och trygg?

    Metoden bestod i att aktivt söka efter vetenskapliga artiklar i databasen Academic Search Elite. 25 artiklar valdes ut.

    Resultatet visade att det är svårt att utforma en modell eller en riktlinje som kan beskriva hur mötet med patienter med annan kulturell bakgrund bör ske. Det finns olika faktorer som är beroende av varandras samverkan och utgör varandras förutsättningar. Varje individ är unik med egna värderingar, uppfattningar och sin kulturella bakgrund. Individen är inte en slav under sina normer och traditioner. Kultur är en process som utvecklas och förändras kontinuerligt. En sjuksköterska bör ha en holistisk människosyn och se patienten utifrån ett helhetsperspektiv.

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  • 374.
    Ghanem, Amani
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Jakobsson, Kawisara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Personers upplevelser av livet efter en stroke: En beskrivande littraturstudie2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Stroke is a widespread disease that affected approximately 25 500 people in 2018 and nearly 6 200 died of the disease in Sweden. Remaining symptoms that occur at stroke, depending on which side of the brain that been affected, effects the patient physically and psychically, which in turn affects the patient socially. The nurse in this case has a great responsibility to take  a deference about patient's condition and nursings needs after the stroke.

    Aim: The aim with this literature study was to describe person’s experience of the life after a stroke. 

    Method: A descriptive literature study that includes 15 scientific articles with both qvalitativ and qvantitativ sample. The Medline database via PubMed was used to search for the articles.

    Results: Persons who affected of stroke described experiences about their physically changes, psychically changes, and sociallity life changes. The functional obstacle created for example fear, depression, anxiety, debt feeling, changes of self-image and self-feeling. All of these circumstances led the affected individuals to self-isolate themselves, which affected their social network. Despite these factors, the affected person’s experienced a hope that recovery would eventually be achieved.

    Conclusion: The persons who affected of stroke described experiences of various psychically and sociality obstacles as result of a stroke. Despite these factors, persons experienced a hope, motivation and positive emotions. For the nurse it’s important to have sufficient knowledge about everything that concerns stroke, to be able to cater for person’s nursing needs, which help them to understand, manage the condition and recover themselves without any major difficulties.

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    Personers upplevelser av livet efter en stroke
  • 375.
    Ghawi, Birgitte
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Handledning inom verksamhetsförlagd utbildning från sjuksköterskans synvinkel: en litteraturstudie2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to describe the factors that may affect nurses' ability in supervision of  nursing students during their clinical training. Nurse´s precepts students in daily clinical practice. The nurse should be able to manage their work as well as being preceptor for students. The study is a literature review with a descriptive design in which fourteen articles were reviewed. The results showed that in ten of the fourteen articles negative factors were described as high workload and insufficient time allocated for learning and feedback to the student in the clinical environment. Positive factors were described as received support from colleagues and from the School of Nursing. It appeared in eleven articles that factors such as higher scientific education and a training in supervision facilitated the preceptoring nurses  in their task to give students a stimulating clinical practice. In six of the fourteen articles results showed a need for the School of Nursing to have a good coordination with the preceptor and to provide information on students' knowledge and goals of the clinical training.

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  • 376.
    Gholamhassani, Farzaneh
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Distriktssköterskors erfarenheter och reflektioner av följsamhet till livsstilsrekommendationer bland patienter med typ 2 diabetes: En intervjustudie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Diabetes type 2 is a chronic disease with rising prevalence worldwide. The implementation of lifestyle changes is an important part of diabetes treatment. Nurses in primary care have a central role to support and guide diabetics for starting and retaining lifestyle changes to prevent later diabetes complications. Aim: The purpose of this study was to describe the primer care nurse’s experiences regarding the type 2 diabetes patients’ compliance to their advice regarding lifestyle changes. The aim was also to describe the primary care nurse’s experiences and reflections of contributing and hindering factors of compliance. Method: A descriptive design with a qualitative approach is used in this study. Eight diabetes nurses from seven health centers were interviewed. Semi-structured interviews conducted and data analyzed by qualitative content analysis method. Results: The emerged theme from the result was that compliance varies and is affected by different influential factors. Factors such as patients’ motivation and understanding of illness, other simultaneous physical and mental disorders, language difficulties and cultural differences have either contributing or hindering effects on compliance. Primary care nurses reported that they used different strategies, such as justifying the small changes at the beginning, establishing of mutual communication and confirmative relationship and give personalized lifestyle advice to improve patient compliance. According to interviews the items that could be improved are arrangements for group therapy sessions, active involvement of the family members in diabetes care, and assigning more resources to approach the desired goals. Conclusion: Compliance to lifestyle advice is a variable affected positively or negatively by various factors such as the individual characteristic, motivation, self-awareness, language difficulties and cultural differences. Diabetes nurses use strategies which improve compliance of diabetics to their lifestyle advice. Group Training, the involvement of the family and access to more resources are areas that need to be developed.

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  • 377.
    Gillström, Sara
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Ekbo, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Livskvalitet hos stomiopererade patienter: En litteraturstudie2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The aim of this literature review was to describe the quality of life in stoma patients after stomasurgery. Different combinations of the keywords “stoma”, “Quality of Life”, “stomasurgery” were used when searching in the databases Medline, Cinahl, Academic Search Elite and PubMed. A total of nineteen articles were used in the result. Fifteen studies had comparing design and four studies had describing design. Eighteen studies used questionnaires and one study used interviews for data collecting. Five studies did not concern the instruments' validity or reliability, fourteen studies referred to previously performed reliability's/validity tests. The sample sizes varied from 7 to 704 patients. Long-term quality of life in stoma patients shows contradictory results. Four studies showed that a brook uniting reservoir/pouch more or less did not change the quality of life. But that the body perception became better. One study showed that men´s Quality of Life was not effected by having a stoma, while women were effected to a greater extent, which led to a changed lifestyle and self-image among the women. Three studies showed that patients that are fecal incontinent has better social quality of life if they undergo stomasurgery. Four studies showed that patients with colon or rectal cancer and stoma had poorer quality of life than non-stoma cancer patients. Four studies showed that more therapy such as colostomy irrigation and relaxation gives better quality of life.

    Keywords; “Quality of Life”, “stoma” and “stomasurgery”

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  • 378.
    Glad, Mathias
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Asplund, Helene
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Oro och nedstämdhet hos heterosexuella par som genomgår behandling med ägg- eller spermiedonation2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Every year children all over the world are born as a result of gamete donation. In Sweden oocyte donation has been legally used since 2003 and sperm donation has been regulated in law since 1984. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent of anxiety and depression in couples going through treatments with oocyte- or sperm donation. Participants of the study were men and women who received treatment with oocyte- and sperm donation at one of the seven fertility centers in Sweden. A total of 348 men and women answered two questioners, the first one at the beginning of the treatment and the second one around 10 weeks after the end of the treatment. The drop-out rate was 16 percent. Data collection was made with the HADS – Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale. When the data had been statistically processed the results showed following significant differences: 1.The women reported a higher degree of anxiety than the men before as well as after the treatment and a higher degree of depression after the treatment. 2. The extent of depression was higher among those women and men who didn´t become pregnant compared to those who did. 3. The women who didn´t become pregnant were more anxious after failed treatment than the women who became pregnant. The conclusion is that women who receive treatment with oocyte- or sperm donation are more anxious and depressed than their partners. The feelings are temporary and seem to decrease when the treatment results in pregnancy.

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  • 379.
    Gonzalez, Pernilla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Man, Loretta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hur sjuksköterskan motiverar vuxna som lider av övervikt eller fetma till livsstilsförändring: en litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Övervikt och fetma är ett växande problem i världen. I dagens samhälle är lättillgängligheten till snabbmat en av de bidragande orsakerna till detta problem.

    Syfte: Att undersöka hur sjuksköterskan motiverar vuxna som lider av övervikt eller fetma till livsstilsförändring samt granska vilka datainsamlingsmetoder som använts.

    Metod: Detta är en beskrivande litteraturstudie. Resultatet baseras på tio vetenskapliga artiklar med både kvalitativ och kvantitativ ansats.

    Huvudresultat: För att kunna motivera patienter till livsstilsförändringar var det viktigt att se individen som helhet för att kunna få ut det bästa resultatet. Att använda sig av olika redskap och tekniker var ett bra sätt för att nå ut till olika grupper. Det fanns olika tillvägagångssätt för att få till en förändring och för att veta vilket sätt som passade bäst var det viktigt att först lära känna patienten som skulle göra förändringen. Att ha en bra kommunikation och att använda sig av rätt ord var en viktig del av processen i att motivera. Att använda sig av hjälpmedel vid kommunikationen med patienter såsom email och textmeddelanden, och att ge information om kosthållning kan leda till större viktnedgång.

    Slutsats: För att sjuksköterskor ska kunna motivera patienter som lider av övervikt eller fetma till en livsstilsförändring och känna sig säkrare i sin roll behöver de mer utbildning inom motiverande samtal.

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  • 380.
    Gotthold, Gunilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Alternativa behandlingsmetoder för kvinnor med tidiga klimakteriebesvär.En litteraturstudie2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe complementary therapies for treating early climacteric complaints, around menopause. The study was conducted as a literature review with a descriptive design, where the author examined twenty scientific articles. The result shows five complementary therapies, acupuncture, yoga, physical activity, herbal medicines and phytoestrogens. Both acupuncture and yoga significantly reduced hot flushes and night sweats, they also improved subjective sleep quality and quality of life. Increased physical activity made women report fewer physical and psychological symptoms attributed to menopause and improved general well-being, but it had no effect on vasomotor symptoms. When herbal medicines and phytoestrogens have been compared with placebo, they all showed a similar small relief of hot flushes and night sweats and improvement in quality of life. None of the complementary therapies showed effect on vaginal tracts and did not improve urogenital symptoms. The conclusion from this literature review is that some complementary therapies show improvement in the early menopausal symptoms and quality of life, but some treatments are not more powerful than placebo. Further research, with larger randomized controlled studies are necessary, both to see the effect of the currently accessible alternative treatments, but also to examine how women perceive the impact.

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  • 381.
    Goude, Isabelle
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Svedberg, Zara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Att vårda någon med tvång: En deskriptiv litteraturstudie om sjuksköterskors upplevelser och erfarenheter av tvångsvård inom psykiatrin2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background In Sweden approximately 12 000 men and women are treated with forced care annually. Forced care is regulated by laws and may only be given to persons who are considered a danger to themselves or their surroundings. This form of care aims to maintain safety for both the patient and the surroundings, the goal is always for the patient to receive voluntary care. Caring for someone with coercion is complex and can lead to difficult situations for nurses, therefore care should be performed as careful as possible to promote patient autonomy and participation. 

    Aim To describe the experiences of nurses working with involuntary treatment in psychiatric care. 

    Method The study was conducted with a descriptive design. The articles were searched in the databases PubMed, Cinahl och PsychINFO. Ten qualitative articles and one quantitative article were used the study’s result. The articles have been analyzed and then themes and subthemes have been distinguished.

    Results The result showed that nurses lack alternatives to coercive measures and this has led to ethical dilemmas and negative emotions. Despite this, nurses understood the purpose of the coercive measures and it was seen as a part of the work. Compulsive care was descibed as having a negative impact on health care relationships, and thus the importance of a good and trusting relationship between nurse and patient was also described. The results were descibed in three themes and four subthemes. 

    Conclusions Based on the results of the present literature study, the authors have concluded that there are shared opinions about the view of forced care in nurses. In summary the authors conclude that there was a desire for possible alternatives to coercive measures and more research is needed on the subject. 

    Keywords Compulsory care, Coercive measures, Nurse

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  • 382.
    Gouffrich, Madeleine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Petersen Albert, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Faktorer som kan ha betydelse för patientens följsamhet av egenvård vid Diabetes Mellitus typ II: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Diabetes Mellitus type II is a chronic disease that is characterized by impaired insulin secretion an insulin-resistant tissue. This disease may, if insufficiently threated cause multiple symptoms like fatigue, difficulty sleeping and dry skin. Complications caused by the disease include arteriosclerosis where cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in diabetics. Self-care is relevant to decrease these symptoms and complications where Orem’s self-care model can provide insight.

    Aim: To explore the factors that may be of importance for the patient’s adherence to self-care and health promoting actions at Diabetes Mellitus type II. In addition, the included studies selection groups are described.

    Method: This study was conducted as a descriptive literature study with 11 articles with qualitative, quantitative and mixed approaches.

    Main Result: The adherence of self-care at Diabetes Mellitus type II may be affected by factors as if the patient has enough knowledge about the disease and self-care. Additional factors are if the patient is motivated or not, the effect of self-care on the daily life, complications, social support and if the patient is accepting the illness or not. The participants were recruited from different countries and included nurses specialized in diabetes, patients with diabetes and patients with hypertonia. In addition, the participants were recruited from mother studies, health centers and patient records.

    Conclusion: The nurse should work to promote health and to do that the nurse needs to see the whole patient as an individual and his or her needs. It is therefore important to have sufficient knowledge about the disease, as well as all the factors that may affect the patient's adherence to self-care in diabetes mellitus type II.

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  • 383.
    Gran, Emma
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Söderberg, Svetlana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Same same but different: En litteraturstudie om att leva med diabetes mellitus typ 1. Erfarenheter beskrivna av barn i åldern 6-18 år2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Annually in Sweden, 43 children out of 100,000 are affected by type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Children, who are in a state of intellectual and psychological development, can have difficulties to apply the ideal therapeutic treatment. This aspect must be given particular consideration by the nurse. The complications that occur due to untreated diabetes, cause suffering for the individual, their family and the society.

    Purpose: Describe what experiences children in the age of 6-18 years have of living with diabetes mellitus type 1 as well as describe what methods of data collection have been used in the included articles.

    Method: A descriptive literature study. Theme, categories and data collection methods have been identified in eleven qualitative articles and compiled.  

    Main result: In all the articles presented in the result a clear theme appeared – the experience of being different. Experiences of learning how to manage self-care in the daily life were by the children described as challenging. Children's experiences in relation to the care were described as impersonal. Based on the methodological issue, it emerged that most of the included studies used interviews for their data collection.

    Conclusion: Children in the age of 6-18 years gathered similar experiences of living with T1DM. The theme "same same but different" was general in the articles and reflect the children's experiences of being perceived as "different" to others, from the environment or only in their own mind. The experience of being "different" put its stamp on the social and health relationships and jeopardized the management of self-care. The nurse should anchor their caring work to children’s unique experiences of living with the disease and tailor a treatment strategy based on the children’s individual needs.

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  • 384.
    Granath, Sarah
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Högnelid, Julia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Effekter av husdjursinterventioner på äldreboenden: En litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Humans are affected on a social, mental and physical way by the changes that come with aging. A move to a nursing home can be necessary when the need of care becomes too substantial. Pets are used in different ways in health care. However, there is a great variety in what extent pets are used in nursing homes.Aim: The purpose of this study is to compile the results of pet interventions on residents living in nursing homes. A further purpose is to describe the study group of the included articles.Method: The present study is a literature review based on 15 quantitative scientific articles. The literature research was executed in the databases Cinahl and PubMed.Main result: Pet interventions in nursing homes have been shown to effect several factors such as social interaction, changes in behaviour and mental health. After the interventions social interaction increased between participants, staff, pets and decreased feelings of loneliness. The greatest increase in social interaction was shown with stimuli by a living pet compared to toypets. Behavioural changes such as agitation, wandering, restlessnes, diverge behaviour, uncoorporative behaviour and sleep disorder decreased after the interventions, but in several cases the duration of the effects was short. Effects have also been shown on behaviours during mealtime. Mental health improved after the interventions by decreasing depressive symptoms, anxiety, compulsive actions, somatisation, improved cognitive function, better mood, better perceieved quality of live and autonomy.Conclusion: The result demonstrates that pet interventions have positive effects and promotes health for residents living in nursing homes and can be used as a complement to other actions of nursing.

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    Effekter av husdjursinterventioner på äldreboenden
  • 385.
    Granås, Åsa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Al-Shakarchi, Zainab
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Äldre personers upplevelse av sin munhälsa -en litteraturstudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: First, on the basis of literature describe how older people perceived their oral health, and second to review the quality of the studies regarding the methodological aspect data collection method.

    Methods: Descriptive literature study based on 16 articles searched in PubMed, Cinahl and by manual search. Literature study results were presented in a main category and five subcategories.Articles were reviewed for quality regarding data collection method. Most of thearticles were of the quantitative approach. Strengths and weaknesses of each article datacollection method were reviewed.

    Main Results: Oral health and appearance of their teeth was important to older people'squality of life. Old people with painful conditions experienced low oral health related quality of life. Older people with dentures or a low number of chewing teeth had poorer self-rated oral health. Negative self-perception of oral health was associated with nutritional deficits in the elderly. Similarly, there was a poorer self-rated oral health in patients with depression,older people with a greater need for help, older people who had suffered a stroke and patients with Alzheimer's disease. Worse socioeconomic factors were associated with a poorer selfrated oral health. There were some gender differences in self-rated oral health.

    Conclusion: Several factors had an impact on the self-perceived oral health in older people. It is of importance to possess knowledge of these factors in order to prevent poor oral health inolder people. More qualitative studies in this area could lead to a better understanding of older people's perception of their oral health.

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  • 386.
    Green, Ulrika
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap.
    Nyutexaminerade specialistsjuksköterskors upplevelse av introduktionen på intensivvårdsavdelning2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to investigate how newly graduated intensive care nurses experienced their introduction at the intensive care unit. The data were collected by semi-structured interviews with ten new graduates further analysed using a qualitative content analysis method. The main result is presented in two themes. The first theme “External factors influencing the experience of introduction both negatively and positively”, included the categories: response, checklist/introduction program, supervision, mentorship, psychosocial environment and organisational factors. These external factors had an impact on the experience of the introduction, and the nurse herself/himself had difficult to influence those factors. The second theme “Individual factors influencing the experience of introduction both negatively and positively”, included the categories: social bonding among the graduates, to cope by herself/himself as a new graduate and sense of opportunity to influence. To be able to satisfy the needs of good quality introduction for newly graduate intensive care nurses, both external and individual factors must be considered.

     

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 387.
    Grip, Victoria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Johansson, Madeleine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Upplevelser av livskvalitet efter stroke och faktorer som associeras med livskvalitet: En litteraturstudie2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to describe how persons who have had a stroke experience their quality of life and which factors are associated with quality of life. The design was a descriptive literature study and literature was sought in the databases Medline (via PubMed) and Cinahl. After the selection a sample of 15 articles was included in the study. The articles were reviewed and four main categories were found: quality of life post stroke, physical, psychological or social factors associated with quality of life. The result showed that persons who had a stroke often show decreased quality of life. Physical factors of importance were impaired body functions and decreased cognitive function. Older persons and women often measured their quality of life as lower compared to younger persons and men. The most important psychological factor was depression. A social factor of importance related to reduced quality of life was decreased social participation. The conclusion of the study was that knowledge about how persons who had a stroke experience their quality of life and which factors are associated with quality of life could give guidance for what kind of support and rehabilitation is needed.    

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 388.
    Grudeborn, Emmy
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Petersson, Emma
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Personers upplevelser av identitet och självbild efter en traumatisk hjärnskada: En beskrivande litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Måttlig till svår traumatisk hjärnskada är en allvarlig skada som kan medföra varierande problematik så som psykiska, fysiska och kognitiva nedsättningar. Personer som drabbas av allvarliga sjukdomstillstånd kan uppleva förändringar i självbilden och identiteten. 

    Syfte: Syftet var att beskriva personers upplevelse av sin identitet och självbild efter en traumatisk hjärnskada samt att beskriva undersökningsgruppen i de valda artiklarna.

    Metod: En deskriptiv design användes för att besvara litteraturstudiens syfte och frågeställningar. Studien baserades på tio vetenskapliga kvalitativa artiklar som framkom vid sökningar i databaserna CINAHL och PsycINFO.

    Huvudresultat: I föreliggande studie framkommer upplevelser av förluster i identiteten och självbilden kopplat till fysiska och kognitiva nedsättningar samt sociala förändringar. Upplevelser av en inre bevarad självbild beskrivs också. Personerna med traumatisk hjärnskada beskrev också upplevelser av att skapa en ny identitet och självbild. Där acceptans var ett viktigt steg i denna process. Alla artiklar beskrev undersökningsgruppens storlek och hur många av deltagarna som var män och kvinnor. Flertalet av artiklarna beskrev undersökningsgruppen utifrån skadans svårighetsgrad, hur lång tid som gått sedan skadan och orsaken till skadan.

    Slutsats: Resultatet beskriver att personer som har drabbats av en traumatisk hjärnskada upplever förluster i identiteten och självbilden och upplevelser av att skapa en ny identitet och självbild. Att som sjuksköterska ta del av hur personer som drabbats av en traumatisk hjärnskada upplever sin identitet och självbild kan leda till en ökad kunskap och förståelse för denna grupp och därmed ge förutsättningar till att ge stöd, god kommunikation och vägledning.

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  • 389.
    Grudzinska, Maja
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Sjuksköterskornas reflektioner om arbetet som konsultsköterska med fokus på telefonrådgivning med andra vårdgivare: En intervjustudie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Livslängden ökar i hela världen vilket gör att antalet multisjuka stiger och belastningen på hälso – och sjukvården och på kommunsjuksköterskorna ökar. Kommunsjuksköterskorna har idag en komplex roll och är alltmer rådgivande konsulter under sitt arbete. Telefonrådgivning med omvårdnadspersonalen blir vanligare och kan medföra svårigheter för kommunsjuksköterskorna att göra bedömningar och utföra patientsäker vård.

    Syfte: Syftet med föreliggande studien var att beskriva sjuksköterskornas reflektioner om arbetet som konsultsköterska med fokus på telefonrådgivning med andra vårdgivare.

    Metod: En intervjustudie med kvalitativ ansats med beskrivande design valdes för att beskriva kommunsjuksköterskornas upplevelser. Resultat: Kommunsjuksköterskorna ansvarade för ett stort antal patienter under sitt arbetspass. Alla bedömningar som skedde togs utifrån omvårdnadspersonalens beskrivningar per telefon. Tre kategorier framkom för att belysa deras upplevelser: Att arbeta med telefonrådgivning inom äldreboenden, Ett utmanande arbete samt Kommunikation med omvårdnadspersonalen.

    Slutsats: Kommunsjuksköterskorna har en komplex och växlande roll inom äldrevården, de arbetar som rådgivande konsulter dagligen. Praktiska förutsättningar som påverkar kommunsjuksköterskornas arbete försvårar deras bedömningsförmågor. Telefonrådgivning med omvårdnadspersonalen är utmanade och kräver erfarenheter och kunskaper hos kommunsjuksköterskorna. Studien kan leda till en ökad förståelse hos olika yrkeskategorier som kommer i kontakt med kommunsjuksköterskorna och ger en inblick i deras arbetssätt.

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    Maja Grudzinska
  • 390.
    Grudzinska, Maja
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Öberg, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Vuxna patienters upplevelser av att leva med HIV: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is a disease that affect the human immune system. Around 30–35 million people are living with HIV in the world. HIV affects people, both mentally and physically.

    Aim: To describe adults/adult patients experiences of living with HIV, focusing on mental and physical aspects, and to describe how the study group looks in the selected studies.

    Method: A descriptive literature study, based on 10 scientific articles with qualitative approach. The database that was used to find the articles was Cinahl.

    Main Results: The result of this literature study shows that people living with HIV daily feel emotions of fear, depression, anxiety and stress due to living with the disease. The emotions connect directly to experiences of stigmatization and discrimination within the healthcare and community. People living with HIV are often afraid how other people will react their disease. Physical symptoms like fatigue affect their everyday life negative, and the ability to live a normal life is prevented. The study group is clearly presented based on what the authors of the audited studies describes.

    Conclusion: HIV-positive people can be found in all healthcare facilities. Emotions of guilt and shame often occure with people who are living with HIV. As a nurse, the attitude towards people with HIV is very important.

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    Vuxna patienters upplevelser av att leva med HIV
  • 391.
    Grönlund, Mia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Salehian, Hanan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Familjemedlemmars upplevelse om att leva med barn som har Diabetes Mellitus typ 12019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The chronic disease type 1 increases around the world. Complications of type 1 diabetes are serious. It is an autoimmune disease that usually develops at an early age and thus also the family members are affected by it. Family-focused nursing is an approach that is used in today's nursing and care. Family-related nursing means that the healthcare provider focuses on the importance of family members for the patient's experience of illness and disease. Previous studies focus on the nurse's role in the nursing work and few studies are available on the family perspective.

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  • 392.
    Grönman, Christina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Israelsson, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Allmänsjuksköterskors upplevelse av mötet med patienter med psykisk ohälsa - En kvalitativ intervjustudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Mental illness is nowadays described as a fairly common health state among patients at hospitals, in the last few years mental illness among patients has increased. In the nurses meeting with patients, it is important to detect mental illness for a health-promoting way to help the patient, so it is important for nurses to have knowledge of how to care for patients with mental illness. Objective: The purpose of this study is to describe how nurses working with somatic care experience meeting with patients who have mental illness. Method: This study has a descriptive design with qualitative approach. Interviews were conducted with eight nurses in a somatic unit. Interviews were processed with a qualitative content analysis. Results: Nurses experience a limitation in knowledge and time to meet patients with mental illness. The experiences the nurses have of  meeting patients with mental illness relates to a large extent back to the nurses individual training, experience and knowledge. For nurses who meet patients with mental illness it can be problematic due to the time pressure and stress that exists within caring. The collaboration between professionals in healthcare should be developed more to the meeting between the nursing staff and a patient with mental illness to be satisfactory. Conclusion: The Nurse needs more knowledge to meet patients with mental illness. There is often a resource limitation in health care that makes it difficult for the nurse to meet patients with mental illness worthily and give them the time they need. Better collaboration of care between the various occupational categories would facilitate the care of patients.

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    Grönman & Israelsson
  • 393.
    Gunnarsson, Cajsa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    Norin, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    Postoperativ smärta hos patienter som genomgått laparoskopisk kolecystektomi: En jämförande registerstudie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Att förebygga och behandla postoperativ smärta är anestesisjuksköterskans ansvar genom det perioperativa förloppet. Tidigare studier har visat att förekomsten av postoperativ smärta efter laparoskopisk kolecystektomi är hög.

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att beskriva postoperativ smärtskattning hos patienter som genomgått laparoskopisk kolecystektomi på en sluten operationsavdelning och en dagkirurgisk operationsavdelning. Syftet var också att undersöka skillnader i förekomst av postoperativ smärta mellan män och kvinnor, yngre och äldre patienter samt mellan patienter som opererats på sluten- respektive dagkirurgisk operationsavdelning.

    Metod: Studien var en retrospektiv registerstudie med kvantitativ ansats. Registerdata innehållande data från 338 patienter inhämtades från kvalitetsregistret Svenskt Perioperativt Register från år 2016–2018. Materialet analyserades med beskrivande och jämförande statistik.

    Resultat: Resultatet visade att 70 % av patienterna skattade måttlig till svår postoperativ smärta (NRS 4-10). Det framkom även att kvinnor samt yngre patienter (<50 år) på den dagkirurgiska operationsavdelningen skattade signifikant högre postoperativ smärta jämfört med män och äldre patienter.

    Slutsatser: Även om inga generella slutsatser kan dras tyder resultaten på att kvinnor samt patienter 50 år och yngre är särskilt utsatta för otillräcklig smärtbehandling i samband med laparoskopisk kolecystektomi. Eftersom alla människor har rätt till god smärtlindring behöver omvårdnaden således anpassas efter patientens individuella förutsättningar och behov. När anestesisjuksköterskan når en förtrolig relation till patienten finns goda förutsättningar för en tillfredställande postoperativ omvårdnad.

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  • 394.
    Gunnarsson, Emma
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Persson, Sandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors möjligheter till att utföra omvårdnadsdokumentation: Litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 395.
    Gunnarsson, Malin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lindblom, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelse av motiverande samtal i omvårdnadsarbetet för livsstilsförändring hos patienter med diabetes typ II: En litteraturstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Diabetes typ II är den vanligaste formen av diabetes och sprids kraftigt över hela världen. Sjuksköterskan har en central roll i att vägleda och motivera patienten till livsstilsförändring för att minska risken för komplikationer relaterat till diabetes. Syfte: Syftet med studien var att beskriva hur sjuksköterskan via motiverande samtal kan stödja patienter med diabetes typ II till livsstilsförändringar samt beskriva vilka problem som sjuksköterskan kan uppleva med MI. Vidare var syftet att granska artiklar utifrån den metodologiska aspekten undersökningsgrupp. Metod: En litteraturstudie som har baserats på 11 artiklar med både kvantitativ och kvalitativ ansats. Resultat: Motiverande samtal (MI) i olika former var en stor del i omvårdnadsarbetet till att motivera patienter med diabetes typ II till livsstilsförändringar. Det fanns många olika program att följa som sjuksköterska och de flesta utvecklades ifrån den specifika omvårdnadsåtgärden MI. Sjuksköterskor upplevde omvårdnadsarbetet med livsstilsförändringar som något positivt. Dock fanns det hinder i omvårdnadsarbetet både från sjuksköterskan själv, verksamheten och patienterna.  Slutsats: Sjuksköterskan har flera möjligheter att motivera patienter med diabetes typ II till livsstilsförändring. För att detta ska lyckas krävs det att patienterna har en grundmotivation och att sjuksköterskan har ett intresse för arbetet. Vidare forskning om sjuksköterskans upplevelser i motivationsarbetet är nödvändig. Det behöver satsas mer tid och resurser på utbildning i MI.  

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  • 396.
    Gunningberg, Lena
    et al.
    Uppsala University and University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden; University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.
    Mårtensson, Gunilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Uppsala University and University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mamhidir, Anna-Greta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Uppsala University and University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Florin, Jan
    Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Muntlin Athlin, Åsa
    Uppsala University and University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden; School of Nursing, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.
    Bååth, Carina
    Department of Nursing, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden; County Council of Värmland, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Pressure ulcer knowledge of registered nurses, assistant nurses and student nurses: a descriptive, comparative multicentre study in Sweden2015In: International Wound Journal, ISSN 1742-4801, E-ISSN 1742-481X, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 462-468Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe and compare the knowledge of registered nurses (RNs), assistant nurses (ANs) and student nurses (SNs) about preventing pressure ulcers (PUs). PU prevention behaviours in the clinical practice of RNs and ANs were also explored. A descriptive, comparative multicentre study was performed. Hospital wards and universities from four Swedish county councils participated. In total, 415 participants (RN, AN and SN) completed the Pressure Ulcer Knowledge Assessment Tool. The mean knowledge score for the sample was 58·9%. The highest scores were found in the themes ‘nutrition’ (83·1%) and ‘risk assessment’ (75·7%). The lowest scores were found in the themes ‘reduction in the amount of pressure and shear’ (47·5%) and ‘classification and observation’ (55·5%). RNs and SNs had higher scores than ANs on ‘aetiology and causes’. SNs had higher scores than RNs and ANs on 'nutrition'. It has been concluded that there is a knowledge deficit in PU prevention among nursing staff in Sweden. A major educational campaign needs to be undertaken both in hospital settings and in nursing education.

  • 397.
    Gustafsson, Ann-Charlotte
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Strandberg, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Distriktssköterskors och sjuksköterskors bemötande av personer med alkohol och drogmissbruk2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The purpose of the study was to illustrate how district nurses’ in Primary Care and registered nurses’ in Detoxification clinics reflects on their attitudes regarding persons with alcohol and substance abuse and their reflections on how the care could improve for these patients. The study had a descriptive design where eight district nurses in Primary Care and eight registered nurses in Detoxification clinics from the South of Norrland were interviewed. The collected material was transcribed and analyzed using qualitative content analysis and resulted in the theme Right to equal value, which describes that persons with alcohol and substance abuse, should be treated equally as any other persons. Results are presented in five categories and fourteen subcategories. Category Thoughts of encounter describes the participants expe­riences positive and negative encounter, respectful encounter at home visits and acknowled­gement of the patient. The Holistic humanity described how the participants see on their pro­fessional approach, understanding of addiction disease and human dignity. Difficult situations highlighted participants’ experiences of aggression, insecurity and threat of violence at home visits. The category Organizational improvement areas outlined the participants’ desire for access to training, increasing resources to care for this group of persons well as cooperation be­tween all health facilities. The category Individual development includes the importance of showing respect and gain more knowledge.

    Keywords: Alcohol, equal value, nurses attitudes/encounter, substance abuse, primary health care

  • 398.
    Gustafsson, Emelie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Erfarenheter av att leva med en förvärvad hjärnskada - en litteraturstudie.2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Backround: An acquired brain injury is an injury on or in the brain tissue leading to impacts or drop outs on earlier mental, physical and social skills. An injury to the brain tissue occurs mainly through bleedings, trauma, ischemia, or alcohol and drug abuse. When a person suffer from an aquired brain injury, the persons closely associated gets highly emotional involved. The nurse's responsibility to provide support and be there for the brain-damaged person and its affiliates.

    Objective: The aim of this study is to describe the experiences of people with acquired brain injury and what inclusion and exclusion criteria the chosen articles used.

    Method: The literature review has used research articled with qualitative and quantitative approach. There are also articles with a combination out of both approaches. The data collection has been made through the nursing database CINAHL.

    Main Results: An acquired brain injury affects a person from a mental, social and emotional perspective. Cognitive and social difficulties are described affecting everyday life and the social interactions that may occur. By being met with relevant and good strategies to use in everyday life, the people describe that the recovery process was faciliated. They also describe prejudices and negative responses from the public, with a stigmatized approach related to the acquired brain injury.

    Conclusion: People with acquired brain injury describe their experiences as a cognitive problems affecting daily life through a subjective approach and in the interaction with the public and health professionals. Increased understanding of people with acquired brain injury can advantageously provide medical personnel prerequisites to pursue nursing in an optimal approach.

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    Erfarenheter av att leva med en förvärvad hjärnskada.
  • 399.
    Gustafsson, Erica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nylén, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Erfarenheter av att vara förälder till barn med diabetes typ 1: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Each year about 700 children get diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. There are many factors that can come into play. These factors can be hereditary, autoimmune and non-hereditary factors and the treatment for type 1 diabetes are lifelong.

    Aim: To describe the experiences of parents who have children with type 1 diabetes as well as describe the data collection method of the selected articles.

    Method: Descriptive literature that included 11 articles.

    Main result: The perceived experience of parents who have a child diagnosed with type 1 diabetes was the implication of life and everyday life and the perception that life would never be what it had once been. Family members such as siblings and other relationships were affected. A child with diabetes was perceived by parents as a daily extension of responsibilities as blood sugar levels had to be monitored day and night. Parents work schedules were adjusted to be more conductive to the child´s care during the day. Many parents feel insecure, stressed out and a loss of control when the kids weren´t around. Therefore, it was considered that tailored practical information and training for families affected was very beneficial to everyday life. Support groups and mentors perceived as valuable by the parents. The articles included used interviews and questionnaires as data collection method.

    Conclusion: Parents' experiences of living with a child who has type 1 diabetes has a profound impact on daily life, not to mention the added feelings of stress and anxiety. The importance of additional support from health care individuals, other parents with diagnosed children, and immediate family is crucial. It is important that nurses have the necessary skills and understanding of both the disease itself and the affects it has on the family, along with an ongoing education as advances in research come to fruition. These are all paramount in bringing the best possible care to the people affected by type 1 diabetes.

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  • 400.
    Gustafsson, Matilda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kalander, Marie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Upplevelser av sjukdom och egenvård hos personer med Diabetes mellitus typ 22018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Diabetes is a disease that is increasing strongly worldwide, 80-90 percent have type 2 diabetes mellitus which is the most common type. Self-care is an important part of treatment that can prevent and delay the occurrence of sequelae and complications.

    Aim: To describe experiences of the disease and self-care in people with diabetes mellitus type 2, as well as describe how the data collection method was used in the reviewed articles.

    Method: A literature study with descriptive design.

    Results: People often found it difficult to live with new routines, but with strategies it became easier to maintain compliance with self-care. The individuals experienced fear and anxiety over the risk to develop complications and sequelae. With support and information, the motivation for lifestyle changes could increase. Some felt great support from family and friends, while others felt it was difficult with pointers or felt disappointing when the help was not available. The health care had a major impact on self-care. The majority of the collected articles' data collection method used individual interviews.

    Conclusion: With good knowledge of diabetes mellitus type 2 and the importance of self-care in healthcare professionals, it can help to provide information to people with the disease. Individualized care is crucial for individuals to be able to influence their self-care, which reduces the risk for complications and sequelae.

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