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  • 351.
    Glad, Mathias
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Asplund, Helene
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Oro och nedstämdhet hos heterosexuella par som genomgår behandling med ägg- eller spermiedonation2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Every year children all over the world are born as a result of gamete donation. In Sweden oocyte donation has been legally used since 2003 and sperm donation has been regulated in law since 1984. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent of anxiety and depression in couples going through treatments with oocyte- or sperm donation. Participants of the study were men and women who received treatment with oocyte- and sperm donation at one of the seven fertility centers in Sweden. A total of 348 men and women answered two questioners, the first one at the beginning of the treatment and the second one around 10 weeks after the end of the treatment. The drop-out rate was 16 percent. Data collection was made with the HADS – Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale. When the data had been statistically processed the results showed following significant differences: 1.The women reported a higher degree of anxiety than the men before as well as after the treatment and a higher degree of depression after the treatment. 2. The extent of depression was higher among those women and men who didn´t become pregnant compared to those who did. 3. The women who didn´t become pregnant were more anxious after failed treatment than the women who became pregnant. The conclusion is that women who receive treatment with oocyte- or sperm donation are more anxious and depressed than their partners. The feelings are temporary and seem to decrease when the treatment results in pregnancy.

  • 352.
    Gonzalez, Pernilla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Man, Loretta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hur sjuksköterskan motiverar vuxna som lider av övervikt eller fetma till livsstilsförändring: en litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Övervikt och fetma är ett växande problem i världen. I dagens samhälle är lättillgängligheten till snabbmat en av de bidragande orsakerna till detta problem.

    Syfte: Att undersöka hur sjuksköterskan motiverar vuxna som lider av övervikt eller fetma till livsstilsförändring samt granska vilka datainsamlingsmetoder som använts.

    Metod: Detta är en beskrivande litteraturstudie. Resultatet baseras på tio vetenskapliga artiklar med både kvalitativ och kvantitativ ansats.

    Huvudresultat: För att kunna motivera patienter till livsstilsförändringar var det viktigt att se individen som helhet för att kunna få ut det bästa resultatet. Att använda sig av olika redskap och tekniker var ett bra sätt för att nå ut till olika grupper. Det fanns olika tillvägagångssätt för att få till en förändring och för att veta vilket sätt som passade bäst var det viktigt att först lära känna patienten som skulle göra förändringen. Att ha en bra kommunikation och att använda sig av rätt ord var en viktig del av processen i att motivera. Att använda sig av hjälpmedel vid kommunikationen med patienter såsom email och textmeddelanden, och att ge information om kosthållning kan leda till större viktnedgång.

    Slutsats: För att sjuksköterskor ska kunna motivera patienter som lider av övervikt eller fetma till en livsstilsförändring och känna sig säkrare i sin roll behöver de mer utbildning inom motiverande samtal.

  • 353.
    Gotthold, Gunilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Alternativa behandlingsmetoder för kvinnor med tidiga klimakteriebesvär.En litteraturstudie2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe complementary therapies for treating early climacteric complaints, around menopause. The study was conducted as a literature review with a descriptive design, where the author examined twenty scientific articles. The result shows five complementary therapies, acupuncture, yoga, physical activity, herbal medicines and phytoestrogens. Both acupuncture and yoga significantly reduced hot flushes and night sweats, they also improved subjective sleep quality and quality of life. Increased physical activity made women report fewer physical and psychological symptoms attributed to menopause and improved general well-being, but it had no effect on vasomotor symptoms. When herbal medicines and phytoestrogens have been compared with placebo, they all showed a similar small relief of hot flushes and night sweats and improvement in quality of life. None of the complementary therapies showed effect on vaginal tracts and did not improve urogenital symptoms. The conclusion from this literature review is that some complementary therapies show improvement in the early menopausal symptoms and quality of life, but some treatments are not more powerful than placebo. Further research, with larger randomized controlled studies are necessary, both to see the effect of the currently accessible alternative treatments, but also to examine how women perceive the impact.

  • 354.
    Gouffrich, Madeleine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Petersen Albert, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Faktorer som kan ha betydelse för patientens följsamhet av egenvård vid Diabetes Mellitus typ II: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Diabetes Mellitus type II is a chronic disease that is characterized by impaired insulin secretion an insulin-resistant tissue. This disease may, if insufficiently threated cause multiple symptoms like fatigue, difficulty sleeping and dry skin. Complications caused by the disease include arteriosclerosis where cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in diabetics. Self-care is relevant to decrease these symptoms and complications where Orem’s self-care model can provide insight.

    Aim: To explore the factors that may be of importance for the patient’s adherence to self-care and health promoting actions at Diabetes Mellitus type II. In addition, the included studies selection groups are described.

    Method: This study was conducted as a descriptive literature study with 11 articles with qualitative, quantitative and mixed approaches.

    Main Result: The adherence of self-care at Diabetes Mellitus type II may be affected by factors as if the patient has enough knowledge about the disease and self-care. Additional factors are if the patient is motivated or not, the effect of self-care on the daily life, complications, social support and if the patient is accepting the illness or not. The participants were recruited from different countries and included nurses specialized in diabetes, patients with diabetes and patients with hypertonia. In addition, the participants were recruited from mother studies, health centers and patient records.

    Conclusion: The nurse should work to promote health and to do that the nurse needs to see the whole patient as an individual and his or her needs. It is therefore important to have sufficient knowledge about the disease, as well as all the factors that may affect the patient's adherence to self-care in diabetes mellitus type II.

  • 355.
    Gran, Emma
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Söderberg, Svetlana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Same same but different: En litteraturstudie om att leva med diabetes mellitus typ 1. Erfarenheter beskrivna av barn i åldern 6-18 år2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Annually in Sweden, 43 children out of 100,000 are affected by type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Children, who are in a state of intellectual and psychological development, can have difficulties to apply the ideal therapeutic treatment. This aspect must be given particular consideration by the nurse. The complications that occur due to untreated diabetes, cause suffering for the individual, their family and the society.

    Purpose: Describe what experiences children in the age of 6-18 years have of living with diabetes mellitus type 1 as well as describe what methods of data collection have been used in the included articles.

    Method: A descriptive literature study. Theme, categories and data collection methods have been identified in eleven qualitative articles and compiled.  

    Main result: In all the articles presented in the result a clear theme appeared – the experience of being different. Experiences of learning how to manage self-care in the daily life were by the children described as challenging. Children's experiences in relation to the care were described as impersonal. Based on the methodological issue, it emerged that most of the included studies used interviews for their data collection.

    Conclusion: Children in the age of 6-18 years gathered similar experiences of living with T1DM. The theme "same same but different" was general in the articles and reflect the children's experiences of being perceived as "different" to others, from the environment or only in their own mind. The experience of being "different" put its stamp on the social and health relationships and jeopardized the management of self-care. The nurse should anchor their caring work to children’s unique experiences of living with the disease and tailor a treatment strategy based on the children’s individual needs.

  • 356.
    Granath, Sarah
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Högnelid, Julia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Effekter av husdjursinterventioner på äldreboenden: En litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Humans are affected on a social, mental and physical way by the changes that come with aging. A move to a nursing home can be necessary when the need of care becomes too substantial. Pets are used in different ways in health care. However, there is a great variety in what extent pets are used in nursing homes.Aim: The purpose of this study is to compile the results of pet interventions on residents living in nursing homes. A further purpose is to describe the study group of the included articles.Method: The present study is a literature review based on 15 quantitative scientific articles. The literature research was executed in the databases Cinahl and PubMed.Main result: Pet interventions in nursing homes have been shown to effect several factors such as social interaction, changes in behaviour and mental health. After the interventions social interaction increased between participants, staff, pets and decreased feelings of loneliness. The greatest increase in social interaction was shown with stimuli by a living pet compared to toypets. Behavioural changes such as agitation, wandering, restlessnes, diverge behaviour, uncoorporative behaviour and sleep disorder decreased after the interventions, but in several cases the duration of the effects was short. Effects have also been shown on behaviours during mealtime. Mental health improved after the interventions by decreasing depressive symptoms, anxiety, compulsive actions, somatisation, improved cognitive function, better mood, better perceieved quality of live and autonomy.Conclusion: The result demonstrates that pet interventions have positive effects and promotes health for residents living in nursing homes and can be used as a complement to other actions of nursing.

  • 357.
    Granås, Åsa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Al-Shakarchi, Zainab
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Äldre personers upplevelse av sin munhälsa -en litteraturstudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: First, on the basis of literature describe how older people perceived their oral health, and second to review the quality of the studies regarding the methodological aspect data collection method.

    Methods: Descriptive literature study based on 16 articles searched in PubMed, Cinahl and by manual search. Literature study results were presented in a main category and five subcategories.Articles were reviewed for quality regarding data collection method. Most of thearticles were of the quantitative approach. Strengths and weaknesses of each article datacollection method were reviewed.

    Main Results: Oral health and appearance of their teeth was important to older people'squality of life. Old people with painful conditions experienced low oral health related quality of life. Older people with dentures or a low number of chewing teeth had poorer self-rated oral health. Negative self-perception of oral health was associated with nutritional deficits in the elderly. Similarly, there was a poorer self-rated oral health in patients with depression,older people with a greater need for help, older people who had suffered a stroke and patients with Alzheimer's disease. Worse socioeconomic factors were associated with a poorer selfrated oral health. There were some gender differences in self-rated oral health.

    Conclusion: Several factors had an impact on the self-perceived oral health in older people. It is of importance to possess knowledge of these factors in order to prevent poor oral health inolder people. More qualitative studies in this area could lead to a better understanding of older people's perception of their oral health.

  • 358.
    Green, Ulrika
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap.
    Nyutexaminerade specialistsjuksköterskors upplevelse av introduktionen på intensivvårdsavdelning2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to investigate how newly graduated intensive care nurses experienced their introduction at the intensive care unit. The data were collected by semi-structured interviews with ten new graduates further analysed using a qualitative content analysis method. The main result is presented in two themes. The first theme “External factors influencing the experience of introduction both negatively and positively”, included the categories: response, checklist/introduction program, supervision, mentorship, psychosocial environment and organisational factors. These external factors had an impact on the experience of the introduction, and the nurse herself/himself had difficult to influence those factors. The second theme “Individual factors influencing the experience of introduction both negatively and positively”, included the categories: social bonding among the graduates, to cope by herself/himself as a new graduate and sense of opportunity to influence. To be able to satisfy the needs of good quality introduction for newly graduate intensive care nurses, both external and individual factors must be considered.

     

  • 359.
    Grip, Victoria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Johansson, Madeleine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Upplevelser av livskvalitet efter stroke och faktorer som associeras med livskvalitet: En litteraturstudie2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to describe how persons who have had a stroke experience their quality of life and which factors are associated with quality of life. The design was a descriptive literature study and literature was sought in the databases Medline (via PubMed) and Cinahl. After the selection a sample of 15 articles was included in the study. The articles were reviewed and four main categories were found: quality of life post stroke, physical, psychological or social factors associated with quality of life. The result showed that persons who had a stroke often show decreased quality of life. Physical factors of importance were impaired body functions and decreased cognitive function. Older persons and women often measured their quality of life as lower compared to younger persons and men. The most important psychological factor was depression. A social factor of importance related to reduced quality of life was decreased social participation. The conclusion of the study was that knowledge about how persons who had a stroke experience their quality of life and which factors are associated with quality of life could give guidance for what kind of support and rehabilitation is needed.    

  • 360.
    Grudeborn, Emmy
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Petersson, Emma
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Personers upplevelser av identitet och självbild efter en traumatisk hjärnskada: En beskrivande litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Måttlig till svår traumatisk hjärnskada är en allvarlig skada som kan medföra varierande problematik så som psykiska, fysiska och kognitiva nedsättningar. Personer som drabbas av allvarliga sjukdomstillstånd kan uppleva förändringar i självbilden och identiteten. 

    Syfte: Syftet var att beskriva personers upplevelse av sin identitet och självbild efter en traumatisk hjärnskada samt att beskriva undersökningsgruppen i de valda artiklarna.

    Metod: En deskriptiv design användes för att besvara litteraturstudiens syfte och frågeställningar. Studien baserades på tio vetenskapliga kvalitativa artiklar som framkom vid sökningar i databaserna CINAHL och PsycINFO.

    Huvudresultat: I föreliggande studie framkommer upplevelser av förluster i identiteten och självbilden kopplat till fysiska och kognitiva nedsättningar samt sociala förändringar. Upplevelser av en inre bevarad självbild beskrivs också. Personerna med traumatisk hjärnskada beskrev också upplevelser av att skapa en ny identitet och självbild. Där acceptans var ett viktigt steg i denna process. Alla artiklar beskrev undersökningsgruppens storlek och hur många av deltagarna som var män och kvinnor. Flertalet av artiklarna beskrev undersökningsgruppen utifrån skadans svårighetsgrad, hur lång tid som gått sedan skadan och orsaken till skadan.

    Slutsats: Resultatet beskriver att personer som har drabbats av en traumatisk hjärnskada upplever förluster i identiteten och självbilden och upplevelser av att skapa en ny identitet och självbild. Att som sjuksköterska ta del av hur personer som drabbats av en traumatisk hjärnskada upplever sin identitet och självbild kan leda till en ökad kunskap och förståelse för denna grupp och därmed ge förutsättningar till att ge stöd, god kommunikation och vägledning.

  • 361.
    Grudzinska, Maja
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science.
    Sjuksköterskornas reflektioner om arbetet som konsultsköterska med fokus på telefonrådgivning med andra vårdgivare: En intervjustudie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Livslängden ökar i hela världen vilket gör att antalet multisjuka stiger och belastningen på hälso – och sjukvården och på kommunsjuksköterskorna ökar. Kommunsjuksköterskorna har idag en komplex roll och är alltmer rådgivande konsulter under sitt arbete. Telefonrådgivning med omvårdnadspersonalen blir vanligare och kan medföra svårigheter för kommunsjuksköterskorna att göra bedömningar och utföra patientsäker vård.

    Syfte: Syftet med föreliggande studien var att beskriva sjuksköterskornas reflektioner om arbetet som konsultsköterska med fokus på telefonrådgivning med andra vårdgivare.

    Metod: En intervjustudie med kvalitativ ansats med beskrivande design valdes för att beskriva kommunsjuksköterskornas upplevelser. Resultat: Kommunsjuksköterskorna ansvarade för ett stort antal patienter under sitt arbetspass. Alla bedömningar som skedde togs utifrån omvårdnadspersonalens beskrivningar per telefon. Tre kategorier framkom för att belysa deras upplevelser: Att arbeta med telefonrådgivning inom äldreboenden, Ett utmanande arbete samt Kommunikation med omvårdnadspersonalen.

    Slutsats: Kommunsjuksköterskorna har en komplex och växlande roll inom äldrevården, de arbetar som rådgivande konsulter dagligen. Praktiska förutsättningar som påverkar kommunsjuksköterskornas arbete försvårar deras bedömningsförmågor. Telefonrådgivning med omvårdnadspersonalen är utmanade och kräver erfarenheter och kunskaper hos kommunsjuksköterskorna. Studien kan leda till en ökad förståelse hos olika yrkeskategorier som kommer i kontakt med kommunsjuksköterskorna och ger en inblick i deras arbetssätt.

  • 362.
    Grudzinska, Maja
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Öberg, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Vuxna patienters upplevelser av att leva med HIV: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is a disease that affect the human immune system. Around 30–35 million people are living with HIV in the world. HIV affects people, both mentally and physically.

    Aim: To describe adults/adult patients experiences of living with HIV, focusing on mental and physical aspects, and to describe how the study group looks in the selected studies.

    Method: A descriptive literature study, based on 10 scientific articles with qualitative approach. The database that was used to find the articles was Cinahl.

    Main Results: The result of this literature study shows that people living with HIV daily feel emotions of fear, depression, anxiety and stress due to living with the disease. The emotions connect directly to experiences of stigmatization and discrimination within the healthcare and community. People living with HIV are often afraid how other people will react their disease. Physical symptoms like fatigue affect their everyday life negative, and the ability to live a normal life is prevented. The study group is clearly presented based on what the authors of the audited studies describes.

    Conclusion: HIV-positive people can be found in all healthcare facilities. Emotions of guilt and shame often occure with people who are living with HIV. As a nurse, the attitude towards people with HIV is very important.

  • 363.
    Grönlund, Mia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Salehian, Hanan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Familjemedlemmars upplevelse om att leva med barn som har Diabetes Mellitus typ 12019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The chronic disease type 1 increases around the world. Complications of type 1 diabetes are serious. It is an autoimmune disease that usually develops at an early age and thus also the family members are affected by it. Family-focused nursing is an approach that is used in today's nursing and care. Family-related nursing means that the healthcare provider focuses on the importance of family members for the patient's experience of illness and disease. Previous studies focus on the nurse's role in the nursing work and few studies are available on the family perspective.

  • 364.
    Grönman, Christina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Israelsson, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Allmänsjuksköterskors upplevelse av mötet med patienter med psykisk ohälsa - En kvalitativ intervjustudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Mental illness is nowadays described as a fairly common health state among patients at hospitals, in the last few years mental illness among patients has increased. In the nurses meeting with patients, it is important to detect mental illness for a health-promoting way to help the patient, so it is important for nurses to have knowledge of how to care for patients with mental illness. Objective: The purpose of this study is to describe how nurses working with somatic care experience meeting with patients who have mental illness. Method: This study has a descriptive design with qualitative approach. Interviews were conducted with eight nurses in a somatic unit. Interviews were processed with a qualitative content analysis. Results: Nurses experience a limitation in knowledge and time to meet patients with mental illness. The experiences the nurses have of  meeting patients with mental illness relates to a large extent back to the nurses individual training, experience and knowledge. For nurses who meet patients with mental illness it can be problematic due to the time pressure and stress that exists within caring. The collaboration between professionals in healthcare should be developed more to the meeting between the nursing staff and a patient with mental illness to be satisfactory. Conclusion: The Nurse needs more knowledge to meet patients with mental illness. There is often a resource limitation in health care that makes it difficult for the nurse to meet patients with mental illness worthily and give them the time they need. Better collaboration of care between the various occupational categories would facilitate the care of patients.

  • 365.
    Gunnarsson, Cajsa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    Norin, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    Postoperativ smärta hos patienter som genomgått laparoskopisk kolecystektomi: En jämförande registerstudie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Att förebygga och behandla postoperativ smärta är anestesisjuksköterskans ansvar genom det perioperativa förloppet. Tidigare studier har visat att förekomsten av postoperativ smärta efter laparoskopisk kolecystektomi är hög.

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att beskriva postoperativ smärtskattning hos patienter som genomgått laparoskopisk kolecystektomi på en sluten operationsavdelning och en dagkirurgisk operationsavdelning. Syftet var också att undersöka skillnader i förekomst av postoperativ smärta mellan män och kvinnor, yngre och äldre patienter samt mellan patienter som opererats på sluten- respektive dagkirurgisk operationsavdelning.

    Metod: Studien var en retrospektiv registerstudie med kvantitativ ansats. Registerdata innehållande data från 338 patienter inhämtades från kvalitetsregistret Svenskt Perioperativt Register från år 2016–2018. Materialet analyserades med beskrivande och jämförande statistik.

    Resultat: Resultatet visade att 70 % av patienterna skattade måttlig till svår postoperativ smärta (NRS 4-10). Det framkom även att kvinnor samt yngre patienter (<50 år) på den dagkirurgiska operationsavdelningen skattade signifikant högre postoperativ smärta jämfört med män och äldre patienter.

    Slutsatser: Även om inga generella slutsatser kan dras tyder resultaten på att kvinnor samt patienter 50 år och yngre är särskilt utsatta för otillräcklig smärtbehandling i samband med laparoskopisk kolecystektomi. Eftersom alla människor har rätt till god smärtlindring behöver omvårdnaden således anpassas efter patientens individuella förutsättningar och behov. När anestesisjuksköterskan når en förtrolig relation till patienten finns goda förutsättningar för en tillfredställande postoperativ omvårdnad.

  • 366.
    Gunnarsson, Emma
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Persson, Sandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors möjligheter till att utföra omvårdnadsdokumentation: Litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 367.
    Gunnarsson, Malin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lindblom, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelse av motiverande samtal i omvårdnadsarbetet för livsstilsförändring hos patienter med diabetes typ II: En litteraturstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Diabetes typ II är den vanligaste formen av diabetes och sprids kraftigt över hela världen. Sjuksköterskan har en central roll i att vägleda och motivera patienten till livsstilsförändring för att minska risken för komplikationer relaterat till diabetes. Syfte: Syftet med studien var att beskriva hur sjuksköterskan via motiverande samtal kan stödja patienter med diabetes typ II till livsstilsförändringar samt beskriva vilka problem som sjuksköterskan kan uppleva med MI. Vidare var syftet att granska artiklar utifrån den metodologiska aspekten undersökningsgrupp. Metod: En litteraturstudie som har baserats på 11 artiklar med både kvantitativ och kvalitativ ansats. Resultat: Motiverande samtal (MI) i olika former var en stor del i omvårdnadsarbetet till att motivera patienter med diabetes typ II till livsstilsförändringar. Det fanns många olika program att följa som sjuksköterska och de flesta utvecklades ifrån den specifika omvårdnadsåtgärden MI. Sjuksköterskor upplevde omvårdnadsarbetet med livsstilsförändringar som något positivt. Dock fanns det hinder i omvårdnadsarbetet både från sjuksköterskan själv, verksamheten och patienterna.  Slutsats: Sjuksköterskan har flera möjligheter att motivera patienter med diabetes typ II till livsstilsförändring. För att detta ska lyckas krävs det att patienterna har en grundmotivation och att sjuksköterskan har ett intresse för arbetet. Vidare forskning om sjuksköterskans upplevelser i motivationsarbetet är nödvändig. Det behöver satsas mer tid och resurser på utbildning i MI.  

  • 368.
    Gunningberg, Lena
    et al.
    Uppsala University and University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden; University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.
    Mårtensson, Gunilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Uppsala University and University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mamhidir, Anna-Greta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Uppsala University and University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Florin, Jan
    Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Muntlin Athlin, Åsa
    Uppsala University and University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden; School of Nursing, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.
    Bååth, Carina
    Department of Nursing, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden; County Council of Värmland, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Pressure ulcer knowledge of registered nurses, assistant nurses and student nurses: a descriptive, comparative multicentre study in Sweden2015In: International Wound Journal, ISSN 1742-4801, E-ISSN 1742-481X, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 462-468Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe and compare the knowledge of registered nurses (RNs), assistant nurses (ANs) and student nurses (SNs) about preventing pressure ulcers (PUs). PU prevention behaviours in the clinical practice of RNs and ANs were also explored. A descriptive, comparative multicentre study was performed. Hospital wards and universities from four Swedish county councils participated. In total, 415 participants (RN, AN and SN) completed the Pressure Ulcer Knowledge Assessment Tool. The mean knowledge score for the sample was 58·9%. The highest scores were found in the themes ‘nutrition’ (83·1%) and ‘risk assessment’ (75·7%). The lowest scores were found in the themes ‘reduction in the amount of pressure and shear’ (47·5%) and ‘classification and observation’ (55·5%). RNs and SNs had higher scores than ANs on ‘aetiology and causes’. SNs had higher scores than RNs and ANs on 'nutrition'. It has been concluded that there is a knowledge deficit in PU prevention among nursing staff in Sweden. A major educational campaign needs to be undertaken both in hospital settings and in nursing education.

  • 369.
    Gustafsson, Ann-Charlotte
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Strandberg, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Distriktssköterskors och sjuksköterskors bemötande av personer med alkohol och drogmissbruk2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The purpose of the study was to illustrate how district nurses’ in Primary Care and registered nurses’ in Detoxification clinics reflects on their attitudes regarding persons with alcohol and substance abuse and their reflections on how the care could improve for these patients. The study had a descriptive design where eight district nurses in Primary Care and eight registered nurses in Detoxification clinics from the South of Norrland were interviewed. The collected material was transcribed and analyzed using qualitative content analysis and resulted in the theme Right to equal value, which describes that persons with alcohol and substance abuse, should be treated equally as any other persons. Results are presented in five categories and fourteen subcategories. Category Thoughts of encounter describes the participants expe­riences positive and negative encounter, respectful encounter at home visits and acknowled­gement of the patient. The Holistic humanity described how the participants see on their pro­fessional approach, understanding of addiction disease and human dignity. Difficult situations highlighted participants’ experiences of aggression, insecurity and threat of violence at home visits. The category Organizational improvement areas outlined the participants’ desire for access to training, increasing resources to care for this group of persons well as cooperation be­tween all health facilities. The category Individual development includes the importance of showing respect and gain more knowledge.

    Keywords: Alcohol, equal value, nurses attitudes/encounter, substance abuse, primary health care

  • 370.
    Gustafsson, Emelie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Erfarenheter av att leva med en förvärvad hjärnskada - en litteraturstudie.2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Backround: An acquired brain injury is an injury on or in the brain tissue leading to impacts or drop outs on earlier mental, physical and social skills. An injury to the brain tissue occurs mainly through bleedings, trauma, ischemia, or alcohol and drug abuse. When a person suffer from an aquired brain injury, the persons closely associated gets highly emotional involved. The nurse's responsibility to provide support and be there for the brain-damaged person and its affiliates.

    Objective: The aim of this study is to describe the experiences of people with acquired brain injury and what inclusion and exclusion criteria the chosen articles used.

    Method: The literature review has used research articled with qualitative and quantitative approach. There are also articles with a combination out of both approaches. The data collection has been made through the nursing database CINAHL.

    Main Results: An acquired brain injury affects a person from a mental, social and emotional perspective. Cognitive and social difficulties are described affecting everyday life and the social interactions that may occur. By being met with relevant and good strategies to use in everyday life, the people describe that the recovery process was faciliated. They also describe prejudices and negative responses from the public, with a stigmatized approach related to the acquired brain injury.

    Conclusion: People with acquired brain injury describe their experiences as a cognitive problems affecting daily life through a subjective approach and in the interaction with the public and health professionals. Increased understanding of people with acquired brain injury can advantageously provide medical personnel prerequisites to pursue nursing in an optimal approach.

  • 371.
    Gustafsson, Erica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nylén, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Erfarenheter av att vara förälder till barn med diabetes typ 1: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Each year about 700 children get diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. There are many factors that can come into play. These factors can be hereditary, autoimmune and non-hereditary factors and the treatment for type 1 diabetes are lifelong.

    Aim: To describe the experiences of parents who have children with type 1 diabetes as well as describe the data collection method of the selected articles.

    Method: Descriptive literature that included 11 articles.

    Main result: The perceived experience of parents who have a child diagnosed with type 1 diabetes was the implication of life and everyday life and the perception that life would never be what it had once been. Family members such as siblings and other relationships were affected. A child with diabetes was perceived by parents as a daily extension of responsibilities as blood sugar levels had to be monitored day and night. Parents work schedules were adjusted to be more conductive to the child´s care during the day. Many parents feel insecure, stressed out and a loss of control when the kids weren´t around. Therefore, it was considered that tailored practical information and training for families affected was very beneficial to everyday life. Support groups and mentors perceived as valuable by the parents. The articles included used interviews and questionnaires as data collection method.

    Conclusion: Parents' experiences of living with a child who has type 1 diabetes has a profound impact on daily life, not to mention the added feelings of stress and anxiety. The importance of additional support from health care individuals, other parents with diagnosed children, and immediate family is crucial. It is important that nurses have the necessary skills and understanding of both the disease itself and the affects it has on the family, along with an ongoing education as advances in research come to fruition. These are all paramount in bringing the best possible care to the people affected by type 1 diabetes.

  • 372.
    Gustafsson, Matilda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kalander, Marie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Upplevelser av sjukdom och egenvård hos personer med Diabetes mellitus typ 22018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Diabetes is a disease that is increasing strongly worldwide, 80-90 percent have type 2 diabetes mellitus which is the most common type. Self-care is an important part of treatment that can prevent and delay the occurrence of sequelae and complications.

    Aim: To describe experiences of the disease and self-care in people with diabetes mellitus type 2, as well as describe how the data collection method was used in the reviewed articles.

    Method: A literature study with descriptive design.

    Results: People often found it difficult to live with new routines, but with strategies it became easier to maintain compliance with self-care. The individuals experienced fear and anxiety over the risk to develop complications and sequelae. With support and information, the motivation for lifestyle changes could increase. Some felt great support from family and friends, while others felt it was difficult with pointers or felt disappointing when the help was not available. The health care had a major impact on self-care. The majority of the collected articles' data collection method used individual interviews.

    Conclusion: With good knowledge of diabetes mellitus type 2 and the importance of self-care in healthcare professionals, it can help to provide information to people with the disease. Individualized care is crucial for individuals to be able to influence their self-care, which reduces the risk for complications and sequelae.

  • 373.
    Gustafsson, Sofie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Liv, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans attityder samt kvinnans upplevelser vid en inducerad abort: en litteraturstudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose; The purpose of this study is to describe the nurse´s attitude towards induced abortion and how the concerned woman experiences the induced abortion.

    Method; The study is of literature nature and takes on a descriptive approach. The study is based upon 15 scientific articles found via Cinahl, Medline/Pubmed and manual search.

    Results; No clear attitude towards abortions was found among the nurses. Some nurses reported a positive attitude and considered it to be a woman´s right, hence they should support their choice. On the other hand negative attitudes were also revealed where nurses acknowledged a judgmental attitude towards the woman’s choice. An abortion performed later during the pregnancy did give raise to a more negative attitude compared to an early abortion. The concerned women described a sense of unpreparedness regarding the decisions they face in conjunction with the abortion. Furthermore, the women experiences lack of information regarding the baby´s appearance. Women who feel supported during the process of the abortion have more easily adapted to the situation and therefore experienced less negative emotions.

    Summary; Women who are going through an abortion needs professional support as they are in the middle of a very emotional and exposed situation. Hence it is of importance that the nurse reflects over her own attitude towards abortion and the concerned woman.

  • 374.
    Gustafsson, Therese
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hillman, Caroline
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kvinnors upplevelser av att drabbas av missfall samt bemötande av vårdpersonal: En litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Miscarriage is also called spontaneous abortion and occurs in about 20 percent of all pregnancies. The majority of miscarriages occur before 12 weeks of pregnancy and the main causes are chromosomal abnormalities or damage to the fertilized egg.

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to describe women's experiences when they suffer a miscarriage and treatment from the medical staff during miscarriage. And to describe the data collection methods used in the included articles.

    Methods: A descriptive literature study based on 12 scientific articles with a qualitative approach. The CINAHL database was used for the article search and the keywords that was used were: Miscarriage and Experience.

    Main results: The result described the women who had suffered from a miscarriage experienced physical and mental pain.The miscarriage was described as a loss and crushed ambitions for the future. Emotions such as shame and guilt were common. Miscarriage was seen as a traumatic experience for the affected woman. Experiences as loneliness and omission were common, and that the women’s physical and mental pain was overlooked by the medical staff. Lack of empathy and compassion affected the women negatively. If themedical staff confirmed the grief it helped the women with their physical and emotional needs. Perceptions and feelings of security occurred when the women had a prior relationship to the obstetrician, who then knew their history and background. The data collection method used in all articles were individual audio recorded interviews.

    Conclusion: The conclusion to be drawn from this study is that the women who suffered miscarriages was affected both physically and mentally. The response and relevant information from the nursing staff has a major impact on how women perceive their situation when they have suffered a miscarriage.

  • 375.
    Gustafsson, Victoria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Holmberg, Malin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Nyutexaminerade sjuksköterskors upplevelser av sin första tid som yrkesverksam: En beskrivande litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The nursing profession is a multi-faceted profession in which the first time as a newly qualified nurse is important. There is a correlation between a good start in the profession and that newly graduated nurses stay in the profession. It is very important that graduated nurses remain in the profession to maintain continuity and experience, as this components leading to increased patient safety.

    Aim: To describe newly graduated nurses first experience as a registered nurse and to describe the included articles study-group. Method: A descriptive literature review based on twelve scientific articles. The articles were retrieved from databases CINAHL and PubMed through the University of Gävle. Results: The results of this study described the experiences of newly graduated nurses in their transition to professional. To obtain a satisfactory transition to the new profession, many details must be considered. Topics that emerged most clearly were the workplace induction, supervision, colleagues and the new professional role. Newly graduated nurses experienced workplace introduction as both positive and negative. How the supervision was experienced depended on the supervisor's professional experience and that the experience was described as significant for the development of skills. If the newly graduated nurses were integrated and accepted in a good way of new colleagues, the professional confidence increased. The newly qualified nurses experienced difficulties in dealing with their new professional role because of lack of knowledge and clinical experience. The total number of participants in the study were 396 and four continents were represented, such as Europe, Asia, Oceania and North America. Conclusion: The importance of a good workplace introduction and first time in the profession can’t be emphasized enough. Newly graduated nurses described that it was imperative that they got the support they needed and that they were permitted to be novices in their profession to have a solid foundation to stand on. Support for the newly graduated nurses should be an integrated part of healthcare.

  • 376.
    Gustavsson, Karin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Larsson, Elin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Att förebygga undernäring hos äldre patienter på sjukhus: En litteraturstudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Äldre patienter som har risk för undernäring eller är undernärda är vanligt förekommande på svenska sjukhus. Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att beskriva vad sjuksköterskan kan göra för att förebygga undernäring hos äldre patienter (65+) på sjukhus. En beskrivande litteraturstudie genomfördes där författarna granskade elva vetenskapliga artiklar. Artiklarna söktes i databaserna PubMed och Mosby´s index. Resultatet i studien visade att det finns flera olika mätmetoder för att upptäcka undernäring eller risk för undernäring hos äldre patienter inneliggande på sjukhus. Sjuksköterskan kunde vara uppmärksam på olika riskfaktorer för undernäring. För att förebygga alternativt åtgärda undernäring eller risk för undernäring kunde sjuksköterskan använda sig av vårdplaner avseende nutrition. Dialog och samarbete mellan olika yrkeskategorier var viktigt och det var av värde om sjuksköterskan hade kunskap och intresse om nutritionsfrågor. Sjuksköterskan kunde även ge näringsdrycker, anpassa kosten och se över måltidssituationen för patienterna. Slutsatsen av denna studie var att sjuksköterskan kunde ta hjälp av olika mätmetoder, använda sin kliniska blick och erfarenhet och sedan sätta in olika omvårdnadsåtgärder för att upptäcka och förebygga undernäring eller risk för undernäring hos äldre patienter på sjukhus.

  • 377.
    Göthberg Meiton, Sandra
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Olsson, Gisela
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Upplevelser av symtom och omvårdnadsbehov i det vardagliga livet hos personer med multipel skleros: en deskriptiv litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease with individually  varying symptoms. Each person with MS has their own care needs, depending on which symptoms he/she experiences. The person live with MS the rest of his/her life and new symptoms occur regularly. Aim: The purpose of this study was to describe how people with MS experience how symptoms and care needs affect their everyday lives and to describe the included articles sample method. Method: Descriptive literature review. Articles were searched out through Cinahl and via manual searches. A total of 11 scientific articles emerged, 10 qualitative and 1 withmixed approach, which was included in the study. Main results: The MS disease symptoms and care needs had a great impact on people's everyday lives and autonomy . The symptoms that had the greatest impact was fatigue and problems with the ability to move. No aspect of daily life was unaffected and in addition to the symptoms, care needs was an obstacle. The lack of energy and to be reliant on others so the daily life would work, was a big problem. They had a strongdesire to do more than they could and they did not want to feel disabled. It appeared that the articles chosen similar selection methods to answer their aim. Conclusion: MS is a disease that affects the person's everyday life in many ways, above all, the ability to live as before and the feeling of autonomy. They had to prioritize what was most important to them.

  • 378.
    Göthe, Therese
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Roininen, Mia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Frågar man inget, får man inget veta: Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av att fråga kvinnor om våld i nära relation: En deskriptiv litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The proportion of women in the world who are victims of intimate partner violence by a man is estimated between 15-71 %. The violence can take the form of physical, psychological and sexual impact and neglect. Nurses can meet these women in all health care settings.

    Aim: To describe nurses’ experiences of inquiring women about intimate partner violence in the health care setting. Also, to describe the study sample of the studies.

    Method: A descriptive literature review was conducted. 12 scientific articles were included. Nine of them were qualitative, two of them were quantitative and one was a mixed method.

    Main result: Nurses did not routinely inquire women about intimate partner violence, it was mainly conducted when the women had visible physical injuries. Knowledge was an important facilitator for the nurse to inquire about intimate partner violence. Many considered it as their role to inquire, while others believed the opposite. Nurses experienced barriers to inquireabout intimate partner violence. Nurses were emotionally affected by the meeting with the abused women. All studies reported the number of participant in their studies. The majority of the participants were women. However, not all studies specified genderof the participants or the number of years in the profession.

    Conclusion: Knowledge can be a motivating factor, while the lack of knowledge can be a barrier. The nurse’s experiences of inquiring about intimate partner violence brings an emotional impact on the nurse. It is important that there is sufficient knowledge and support regarding intimate partner violence in the health care setting to meet both the woman’s and the nurse’s needs.

  • 379.
    Göthlund, Matilda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Jannati, Sara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Estetik som ett hälsofrämjande redskap inom vården: en litteraturstudie2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim was to describe what the literature said about how the aesthetic elements of the healthcare can promote health.

    Method: The data was collected from the databases Cinahl and Discovery and via full text search, which resulted in 16 articles.

    Results: The articles address important issues regarding how aesthetics can be used as a supplement or substitute for a variety of drugs such as analgesic drugs, sedatives and anxiolytics. Convalescence could be reduced simply by ensuring that there was a window with a view and sunlight. Aesthetics could affect the mental state, alleviate depression, fear and anxiety and increase feelings of happiness and wellbeing. The absence of natural light could worsen the patient's condition. Aesthetics was also able to give coping strategies, for example to children who have not yet developed their own.

    Conclusion: Aesthetics can be a potent tool that should not be overlooked in healthcare. If you seek a holistic approach and to see the whole person and not just the illness, you should have an aesthetic awareness and knowledge of its effects on man.

  • 380.
    Gümüs, Alaa Salam
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Patienters upplevelser av att leva med långvarig smärta ur psykosocialt perspektiv samt sjukvårdens bemötande: en litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Chronic pain is defined as pain that has not gone over 3-6 months. Pain is an individual experience that cannot be objectively measured, but that experience knows how intense it is, and pain duration.

    Aim: The aim of this literature review was to describe patient's experiences of living with chronic pain from a psychosocial perspective. The aim was also to describe the data collection methods of scientific articles have used.

    Method: This literature review has a descriptive design. This literature review study's results are based on 12 scientific articles that have been found through the database CINAHL and PubMed.

    Result: The compilation of the included articles led to perceptions of emotional impact on patients' lives as a major suffering and negative thoughts about the future. Pain was felt also that the social constraints of working life, loss of identity and social relationships. Patients experienced a negative attitude of medical staff.

    Conclusion: Experiences of pain affect patients psychologically and socially. Pain has led to the emotional impact and led to social constraints in both working life and relationship to family, friends and children. Experience of healthcare professionals experienced negative treatment of patients where the pain is not taken seriously. This in turn affected the receive any treatment or medication. The author of this literature review means that based on present literature studies results are deficiencies in health care, this in turn may help to increase medical knowledge of these patients experience chronic pain as well as to cope with the in a dignified and respectful manner, believing the pain and to extend helping hand to patients

  • 381.
    Hag, Linnéa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Larsson, Sigrid
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kvinnors erfarenheter av vardagen efter en hjärtinfarkt: en litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Myocardial infarction is the most common cause of death in Sweden and is usually caused by a blood clot that formed from a plaque rupture in one of the coronary arteries. The risk of suffering a heart attack increases with age, but also factors such as diabetes, hereditary predisposition, stress, smoking, high blood pressure and obesity are risk factors for developing the disease. Men are affected more often by heart diseases than women, and women's symptoms at onset can sometimes be diffuse to make a diagnosis. The nurse need to be able to meet the basic needs of people with heart disease that requires good skills. The goal is to promote health and well-being of the patient and to prevent illness and relieve suffering. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe how women experiences the everyday life after a heart attack. Furthermore, the aim was to describe the articles included data collection method. Method: A descriptive literature of ten scientific articles. Main Results: The results reflect how the women on a physical and emotional way are affected by the myocardial infarction. They feel a fear that they will suffer a heart attack again and they need to do some lifestyle changes. The support and help from the family, is important for them such as touch and intimate relationships and its significant part in the recovery of women. Conclusion: After myocardial infarction have been related to a major significant role in the recovery process. To maintain a good self-care, it is important that women receive help from skilled health professionals. As a nurse, it is important to have knowledge about women's experiences and about the disease

  • 382.
    Hagberg, Jeanette
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Jern, Ann-Christine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Kvinnors livskvalitet vid endometrios: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Endometriosis is a gynaecological disease that affects a large number of women throughout the world. These women are often treated by the lack of knowledge, distrust and normalizing attitudes. That causes delay in diagnosis care and treatment, which creates unnecessary suffering. Nurses have an important function in the treatment of these women by supporting the woman, create a good alliance and provide relevant information.

    Aim: The aim of the study was to describe women's experiences of quality of life in endometriosis and to examine and describe the articles included data collection methods.

    Method: Literature study has a descriptive design. Data were collected through Medline / PubMed and CINAHL and twelve articles were found, all with qualitative approach. These articles were the basis for this study.

    Results: Endometriosis results in a greatly reduced quality of life that affects their partner, relationship and social life, such as work, school and hobbies. A lack of knowledge in health-care leads to normalization and delayed diagnosis that creates unnecessary suffering for these women. Many of the women created their own strategies to deal with their symptoms in daily life. All twelve articles with descriptive design have collected data by interviewing women about their experiences of living with endometriosis.

    Conclusion: Endometriosis affects significantly the women's daily lives, and all the relationships, in a negative way. Their health is affected physically, psychologically and socially with the result that they get their quality of life greatly reduced. Significant financial savings can be made by increased knowledge in the field and diagnosis at an earlier stage. Suffering from Endometriosis would be reduced, and the quality of life for those women’s will significantly increase.

  • 383.
    Hagerman, Heidi
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Working Life Among First-Line Managers and Their Subordinates in Elderly Care: an Empowerment Perspective2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this thesis was to study the working life of first-line managers and their subordinates in elderly care from an empowerment perspective. Methods: Paper I and II used a qualitative approach, and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 male and 14 female first-line managers. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Paper III and IV used a quantitative approach with a longitudinal, correlational and multilevel design. 78 first-line managers and 1398 subordinates filled in the questionnaire at T1 and 56 first-line managers and 769 subordinates at T2. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, multivariate analyses (III &amp; IV) and multilevel modelling (IV). Results: In Paper I and II, the first-line managers reported having a challenging and complex work situation. Although the first-line managers sometimes expressed a need for better access to structural empowerment in terms of information, resources and support, they experienced psychological empowerment in their work. In Paper III, the results indicated that the more access the first-line managers had to structural empowerment over time, the more likely they were to feel psychologically empowered over time, resulting in lower ratings of their stress symptoms and higher ratings of their own self-rated leadership-management performance over time. Another finding in Paper III was the influence the number of subordinates per first-line manager had on the first-line managers’ ratings of structural empowerment and the subordinates’ ratings of structural empowerment and stress symptoms. In Paper IV, the results indicate that the more access the first-line managers had to structural empowerment at T1, the more access the subordinates had to structural empowerment at T2, and the higher the subordinates rated their first-line manager’s leadership-management performance at T2, when controlling for psychological empowerment. Conclusions: The working life of first-line managers in elderly care is complex and challenging, and they seem to need better access to structural empowerment (Paper I-IV). However, although deficiencies in access to structural empowerment were reported, the first-line managers experienced their work as a positive challenge (Paper 1) and felt that, though the work was not easy, it was worth it (Paper II).

  • 384.
    Hagerman, Heidi
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Häggström, Elisabeth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wadensten, Barbro
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Skytt, Bernice
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Male first-line managers’ experiences of the work situation in elderly care: an empowerment perspective2015In: Journal of Nursing Management, ISSN 0966-0429, E-ISSN 1365-2834, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 695-704Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    To describe male first-line managers' experiences of their work situation in elderly care.

    Background

    First-line managers' work is challenging. However, less attention has been paid to male managers' work situation in health care. Knowledge is needed to empower male managers.

    Method

    Fourteen male first-line managers were interviewed. The interview text was subjected to qualitative content analysis.

    Result

    Work situations were described as complex and challenging; challenges were the driving force. They talked about ‘Being on one's own but not feeling left alone’, ‘Having freedom within set boundaries’, ‘Feeling a sense of satisfaction and stimulation’, ‘Feeling a sense of frustration’ and ‘Having a feeling of dejection and resignation’.

    Conclusion

    Although the male managers report deficiencies in the support structure, they largely experience their work as a positive challenge.

    Implications for nursing management

    To meet increasing challenges, male first-line managers need better access to supportive structural conditions. Better access to resources is needed in particular, allowing managers to be more visible for staff and to work with development and quality issues instead of administrative tasks. Regarding organisational changes and the scrutiny of management and the media, they lack and thus need support and information from superiors.

  • 385.
    Hagerman, Heidi
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Nursing Department, Medicine and Health College, Lishui University, Lishui, China .
    Wadensten, Barbro
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Skytt, Bernice
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    How do first-line managers in elderly care experience their work situation from a structural and psychological empowerment perspective?: An interview study2019In: Journal of Nursing Management, ISSN 0966-0429, E-ISSN 1365-2834, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 1208-1215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    The work situation for first-line managers in elderly care is complex and challenging. Little is known about these managers' work situation from a structural and psychological empowerment perspective.

    AIM:

    To describe first-line managers' experiences of their work situation in elderly care from a structural and psychological empowerment perspective.

    METHOD:

    Interviews from 14 female first-line managers were analysed using qualitative content analysis.

    RESULTS:

    The theme described the managers' work situation as "It's not easy, but it's worth it." In the four subthemes, the managers described their work in terms of "Enjoying a meaningful job," "A complex and demanding responsibility that allows great authority within set boundaries," "Supported by other persons, organisational preconditions and confidence in their own abilities" and "Lacking organisational preconditions, but developing strategies for dealing with the situations."

    CONCLUSION:

    The managers described having various amounts of access to structural empowerment and experienced a feeling of meaning, competence, self-determination and impact, that is, psychological empowerment in their work.

    IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT:

    It is vital that first-line managers have access to organisational support. Therefore, upper management and first-line managers need to engage in continuous dialogue to customize the support given to each first-line manager.

  • 386.
    Haglund, Ulrika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hermansson, Emmy
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Beröringens betydelse vid vård och omsorg av personer med demenssjukdom-en litteraturstadie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To investigate the role of physical touch in the care of people with dementia. The aim was also to examine the quality of the selection method and non-response sample of the included articles.

    Method: A descriptive literature study based on 13 scientific articles with qualitative and quantitative approach. The literature research was made in the databases PubMed, Medline, Cinahl and Psycinfo.

    Main Results: In people with dementia, physical touch contributes to peace and quiet. During and after treatment many falls asleep, which is a sign of relaxation and that contributes to a better quality of full sleep. Physical contact also contributes to the improvement of everyday pain.People with behavioral symptoms should be given physical touch gently, during communication and observation and everyone's individual needs must be taken care of. A physical action gives comfort in the form of confirmation. It creates feelings of thoughtfulness and pleasure for example.Oxytocin, that is important for the wellbeing, gets released by human touch.

    Conclusion: The majorities of the included articles are based on people with dementia and the results appear to show a positive reaction of touch on several factors.

  • 387.
    Haglöf Bolinder, Martina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Löfström Danielsson, Martina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Sjuksköterskors attityder och erfarenheter av att möta personer som har ett substansmissbruk: En litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Sweden it´s estimated that 29,500 people have developed a problematic drug abuse. Drugs affect the parts of the brain that affect feelings of desire and pleasure. Drugs are addictive, harmful to health and affects the whole person. The society’s stigma against people who have substance abuse can lead to alienation, inferiority and reduced tendency to seek hospital treatment.

    Aim: The aim of this literature review were to describe nurses' attitudes and their experience of meeting people who have a substance use disorder and to describe the selected articles method of data collection.

    Method: A literature study with descriptive design. Eleven articles was included in the study, 4 questionnaire, 1 questionnaire with an open question and 6 interviews. The search of the articles were carried out in the databases Cinahl and Pubmed.

    Findings: Nurses have different attitudes about the cause of substance use, some considered it to be because of lack of responsibility and others because of life circumstances. Nurses described people who have a substance use disorder as manipulative, violent and demanding, which was based on previous experiences. Other nurses had a more holistic approach and saw the person behind the substance use. Honesty and straightforwardness were important factors in meeting people with substance use disorder. Education and previous experience were important to the nurse's attitudes and experience.

    Conclusion: Experience, humanity and education played a major part in the interaction between the nurse and the person who has a substance use disorder. Where there is lack of education and experience feelings of distrust and frustration lead to rejection. Positive attitudes were linked to the nurse's ability to have a holistic approach and openness toward people who have a substance use disorder.

  • 388.
    Halin, Thomas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Selerup, Kristian
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Patienters livskvalité och erfarenheter av att leva med implanterbar cardioverterdefibrillator (ICD): En litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Behandling med implanterbar cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) kan ges iprimärt- eller sekundärt syfte. ICD: n har till uppgift att upptäcka och behandlaallvarliga rytmrubbningar och vid behov avge en stöt/stötar. Patienter som lever med enICD kan få svårt att acceptera sina nya liv samt att deras livssituation kan påverkas.Sjuksköterskan har en viktig roll att individanpassa omvårdnaden för dessa patienter.Syfte: Syftet var att beskriva patienters livskvalité och erfarenheter av att leva medimplanterbar cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). Syftet var också att beskriva urval ochundersökningsgrupp i de inkluderade artiklarna.Metod: En deskriptiv litteraturstudie där 11 vetenskapliga artiklar inkluderades varavsex kvalitativa, fyra kvantitativa och en artikel hade mixad metod. Artiklarna har sökts idatabasen Pubmed med begränsning på 6 år.Resultat: Patienter som lever med en ICD beskriver en oro och rädsla för att ICD: n skaavge stötar. Erfarenhet som patienter betonar är att diskussion om avaktivering av ICD ilivets slutskede ansågs vara bristfällig eller helt utesluten. Då livskvalitén påverkas ochpatienterna beskrev sig bli begränsade i vardagen så kan coping vara ett verktyg för attfinna lösningar. Tio av resultatartiklarna angav tydligt urvalsmetoden. Samtligaredogjorde för antalet deltagare och hur många som var män respektive kvinnor.Medelåldern på deltagarna redovisades tydligt i alla artiklarna.Slutsats: Livskvalitén har visats påverkad hos patienter med en ICD, även oro ochrädslor för stötar. Sjuksköterskan bör ha ett holistiskt synsätt för att se hela patientenoch dennes behov.

  • 389.
    Hall, Sarah
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Wallner, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hur vuxna personer med ADHD hanterar och upplever sitt dagliga liv med fokus på familje- och arbetsliv: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is defined as a neuropsychiatric disability which means significant difficulty in getting a functional day. The main symptoms often manifest themselves as attention problems, poor impulse control and hyperactivity. Most will be diagnosed in early childhood, the problems are often persisting into adulthood and research suggests certain heredity.

    Aim: To describe how adults with ADHD manage and experience their daily life with a focus on family and work and to report on the data collection method used in the selected articles.

    Method: Literature study was conducted with descriptive design, consisting of eleven scientific articles. The articles are from the University of Gävle library databases: Scopus, PsycINFO, CINAHL and PubMed. Five central categories were found when the included articles were reviewed and collected literature results of the study.

    Results: It was found that individuals with ADHD experience the symptoms complicate family and work situations, but can contribute to increased creativity. To manage the symptoms, the individuals switched work and/or partners often. Prescribed drugs reported to contribute to increased focus. Self-medication with illegal drugs are common to suppress the symptoms. Data collection methods included in the articles comprised in the majority of semi-structured interviews.

    Conclusion: The results showed that individuals with ADHD consistently experienced similar symptoms, those perceived as negative as they affected the everyday life with difficulty in functioning relationships in family and working life. Increased knowledge in this area is of great importance when the nurse can help the patient to find an equilibrium in their lives. The knowledge gap in the field is great and the need for further research are significant.

  • 390.
    Hallberg, Catharina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Edwall, Gustav
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Sjuksköterskestudenters uppfattningar av betydelsefulla omvårdnadsbeteenden för att ge patienter en god omvårdnad.2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The aim with the study was to describe and to compare nurse students' views about important

    caring behaviors in order to give good caring. An empirical comparative study was

    implemented on a college in the middle of Sweden. Nurse students in the beginning and at the

    end of their education sorted and prioritized 50 caring behaviors (CARE-Q). The result showed

    that the students' description of important caring behaviors has many similarities. However, the

    result also showed that there were significant differences between the student-groups where the

    students at the beginning of their education rated several caring behavior as significant more

    important than the students in the end of their education. The findings showed that there were

    significant differences in 7 caring behaviors. “Gets to know the patient as an individual

    person”, “Volunteers to do “little” things for the patient, e.g., brings a cup of coffee, a paper

    etc.”, “Offers reasonable alternatives to the patient, such as choice of appointment times, bath

    times etc.”, “Is cheerful”, “Introduces herself/himself and tells the patient what he/she does”,

    “Touches the patient when he/she needs comfort”, “Knows when to call the doctor”. The result

    showed on that there was not any significant difference between the study-groups in CARE-Q

    different dimensions. Conclusion; In those cases where differences were found between the

    student groups these most often concerned caring behavior of human nature, i e. the more

    fundamental in the nurse trade's area of responsibility and that students at beginning of their

    education assessed these as more important in order to provide good care.

    Keywords: Nursing student, Caring behavior, Perceptions, CARE-Q.

  • 391.
    Hallin, Karin
    et al.
    Avdelningen för omvårdnad, Mittuniversitetet, Sundsvall.
    Bäckström, Britt
    Avdelningen för omvårdnad, Mittuniversitetet, Sundsvall.
    Häggström, Marie
    Avdelningen för omvårdnad, Mittuniversitetet, Sundsvall.
    Kristiansen, Lisbeth
    Avdelningen för omvårdnad, Mittuniversitetet, Sundsvall.
    High-fidelity simulation: Assessment of student nurses' team achievements of clinical judgment2016In: Nurse Education in Practice, ISSN 1471-5953, E-ISSN 1873-5223, Vol. 19, p. 12-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nursing educators have the challenge of preparing nursing students to handle complex patient care situations in real life, but much remains unknown about the ability to make clinical judgments. In this study, high-fidelity simulation (HFS) was used at a Swedish university to find answers about pre-licensure nursing students' success in clinical judgment in terms of team ability and relationships with theoretical achievements, and personal and scenario circumstances. The matrix Lasater Clinical Judgment Rubric (LCJR) was used to analyze and score the students' ability in teams to notice, interpret and respond to complex care situations. Overall, the results showed the student teams in their first meeting with HFS in a complex care situation achieved low clinical judgment points; most teams were in the stages of Beginning and Developing. For attaining high team achievements the majority of the students in the team should theoretically be "high performance". Being observers and having HFS experience before nursing education was significant too. However, age, health care experience, and assistant nurse degrees were of secondary importance. Further research at universities regionally, nationally, and internationally is needed.

  • 392.
    Hallin, Karin
    et al.
    Avdelningen för omvårdnad, Mittuniversitetet, Sundsvall.
    Häggström, Marie
    Avdelningen för omvårdnad, Mittuniversitetet, Sundsvall.
    Bäckström, Britt
    Avdelningen för omvårdnad, Mittuniversitetet, Sundsvall.
    Kristiansen, Lisbeth
    Avdelningen för omvårdnad, Mittuniversitetet, Sundsvall.
    Correlations between Clinical Judgement and Learning Style Preferences of Nursing Students in the Simulation Room2016In: Global Journal of Health Science, ISSN 1916-9736, E-ISSN 1916-9744, Vol. 8, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Health care educators account for variables affecting patient safety and are responsible for developing the highly complex process of education planning. Clinical judgement is a multidimensional process, which may be affected by learning styles. The aim was to explore three specific hypotheses to test correlations between nursing students’ team achievements in clinical judgement and emotional, sociological and physiological learning style preferences.

    METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with Swedish university nursing students in 2012-2013. Convenience sampling was used with 60 teams with 173 nursing students in the final semester of a three-year Bachelor of Science in nursing programme. Data collection included questionnaires of personal characteristics, learning style preferences, determined by the Dunn and Dunn Productivity Environmental Preference Survey, and videotaped complex nursing simulation scenarios. Comparison with Lasater Clinical Judgement Rubric and Non-parametric analyses were performed.

    RESULTS: Three significant correlations were found between the team achievements and the students’ learning style preferences: significant negative correlation with ‘Structure’ and ‘Kinesthetic’ at the individual level, and positive correlation with the ‘Tactile’ variable. No significant correlations with students’ ‘Motivation’, ‘Persistence’, ‘Wish to learn alone’ and ‘Wish for an authoritative person present’ were seen.

    DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION: There were multiple complex interactions between the tested learning style preferences and the team achievements of clinical judgement in the simulation room, which provides important information for the becoming nurses. Several factors may have influenced the results that should be acknowledged when designing further research. We suggest conducting mixed methods to determine further relationships between team achievements, learning style preferences, cognitive learning outcomes and group processes.

  • 393.
    Hall-Larsson, Åsa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Pettersson, Lotta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Anhörigvårdarens upplevelse av sin egen livskvalitet. En kvalitativ intervjustudie.2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 394.
    Hallqvist, Carola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Gustavsson, Nina
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Hur föräldrar till barn med läpp- käk- och gomspalt upplever beskedet samt bemötande från vårdpersonal: -en litteraturstudie2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to, from scientific articles, illustrate how parents with children born suffering from cleft lip and palate (CLP) reacted when informed of their childs diagnosis, how they experienced the first time period after the birth and the attitude and support from the caregivers. The 15 scientific articles used were found in Medline. Parents with children with CLP are at first in a vulnerable situation beacuse of their many questions and need of support. The result of this study showed that an important factor for the well-being of the parents was profound information and support from well-educated personnel which not only focused on the malformation of the child but also their health. During the hospitalization the caregivers should observe the possible needs the parents could have and how they could be involved in the care of their own child. Further, the result found that prenatal diagnosis had a positiv affect on the parents experience when having a child with cleft lip and palate. The result also proved that the caregivers attitude and their selection of words towards the parents was very important of how the parents experienced the situation. Another important aspect for the parents experience was the possibilty of contact with psychologist and other parents with children with CLP.

  • 395.
    Hallqvist, Linda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lovén, Marléne
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Föräldrars hantering av sorgen efter att ha förlorat ett barn2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Varje år förlorar ett stort antal föräldrar sina barn i sjukdom, olyckor och våldsbrott. Sorgen som drabbar föräldrarna är förödande och livet blir svårt att hantera. Trots att stora sorger skapar starkare band inom familjen så kommer de föräldrar som har barn kvar i livet att få mindre tid till sin egen sorgebearbetning.

    Syfte: Att beskriva hur föräldrar hanterar sorgen efter att de förlorat ett barn.

    Metod: Beskrivande litteraturstudie som grundats på tolv studier med varierande ansatser.  

    Resultat: Det framkommer olika sätt för föräldrarna att hantera sorgen på. Som till exempel att träffa andra som är i samma situation och att prata om barnet. Trots att det väcktes starka känslor så upplevdes den fortsatta kontakten med sjukhuset som betydelsefull. De flesta föräldrarna beskrev att de fått ett nytt perspektiv på livet.  Relationer inom familjen visade sig stärkas på grund av sorgen man delar, dock beskrev föräldrarna det som en utmaning att handskas med syskonens sorg samtidigt som de själv sörjde. Många av föräldrarna menar att förlusten med tiden gjort de starkare och att de upplever det lättare att handskas med andra svårigheter i livet. Föreliggande litteraturstudie beskriver även vilken datainsamlingsmetod som användes i de inkluderade artiklarna.

    Slutsats: Förlusten av ett barn hanterades på olika sätt beroende på hur föräldrarnas livssituation såg ut. Viktiga saker för föräldrarna var till exempel att hålla minnet av barnet levande, träffa andra som har varit med om samma förlust samt hålla sig sysselsatta. Efter en förlust av ett barn så ändras föräldrarnas värderingar av livet. För att underlätta mötet med dessa sörjande föräldrar så är det viktigt att sjuksköterskan bär på kunskap om hur han/hon ska agera. Ett bra bemötande kan lindra föräldrarnas lidande och på så vis främja för föräldrarnas hälsa och välbefinnande.

  • 396.
    Halvorsen, Alexander
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Preoperativ oro hos barn: Anestesisjuksköterskors erfarenhet att bemöta och lindra oro hos barn : intervjustudie2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction To prepare a child for anesthesia put the nurses in a complex situation. The child is worried about the unknow that is going to happen and therefore the nurse needs to reduce the child’s level of anxiety and worry. The parents are supposed to comfort the child and together with the nurse they should help the child to manage the difficult situation. Aim: Describe the anesthesia nurses experience in addressing and reducing anxiety in children who are about to undergo anesthesia. Method:A qualitative interview study of 8 nurses with different age and work experience where included and interviewed. Result: Based on the experience of the nurses it showed that the most important thing where to create comfort, use distractions and the ability to use their previous professional experience. To be able to cooperate with the parents, create a relationship with the child as well as excellent preoperative preparation seemed to create comfort in both the child and the parents. The nurses used distracting strategies to transfer the negative anxiety to something more positive.  Since there are no written guidelines of how to comfort children about to undergo anesthesia the nurses had to use and incorporate their previous experience as an anesthesia nurse. The nurses mentioned that it is crucial to be able to sense and evaluate the situation and then act based on the conclusion. The most important thing was to adapt and conform to the need of the child and not rush the process. Conclusion: The study highlighted the experience of the nurse’s preoperative care. The result showed that the nurses experienced difficulty to care for worried children as well as the complex situation they were presented with. Sometimes worried parents made the situation more complex for the anesthesia nurse since they were not able to cooperate and work together. However, the corporation could be improved if the anesthesia nurse and the parent had the same goal and a joint way of handling the situation. The anesthesia nurse were required to have high professional competence, advanced humility as well the ability to make sure that the child  is comfortable and relaxed.

  • 397.
    Hamad, Arazo
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    Rasoul, Louzan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    Hur vuxna personer upplever att det är att leva med en obotlig cancersjukdom och hur det påverkar deras livskvalitet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: I Sverige diagnostiserades ca 60 000 personer med cancer under år 2016 och många av dessa erhåller palliativ vård eftersom cancersjukdomen för vissa förblir obotlig. En person som insjuknar i en obotlig cancersjukdom får en förändrad livskvalitet och upplevelsen av sjukdomen varierar beroende på sjukdomsstadiet. Syfte: Syftet med den här litteraturstudie var att beskriva hur vuxna personer upplevde att det var att leva med en obotlig cancersjukdom och hur det påverkade deras livskvalitet. Metod: En beskrivande litteraturstudie som grundar resultatet på elva vetenskapliga artiklar framtagna via databasen MedLine via PubMed. Resultat: Resultatet visar att cancerdrabbade personer upplever förändringar i det psykiska och fysiska måendet, vilket ledde till att de socialt isolerade sig på grund av problemen och symtomen sjukdomen medför. Stöd från anhöriga samt sjukvården var betydelsefullt och viktigt. Livskvaliteten påverkades negativt hos majoriteten av personerna med en obotlig cancersjukdom. Slutsats: Personers upplever förändringar och påverkan på livskvaliteten olika under sjukdomens olika stadier och därför är det viktigt att rätt individanpassad vård bedrivs.

  • 398.
    Hamrebjörk, Frida
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Fagerberg, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Erfarenheter av att vara närstående till personer med Huntingtons sjukdom: en beskrivande litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Huntington’s disease (HD) is a genetic neurological disease. It affects the brains nerve cells. Symptoms include involuntary spasms, inability to swallow and difficulty putting together sentences. In the latter stages of the disease patients become completely dependent on help with everyday chores like getting out of bed, using the bathroom and showering. It’s very common for close family and relatives to become carers to the patients. Purpose: The aim of the study was to research the effects HD has on immediate family and carers of an HD patient, furthermore to describe the included scientific articles study group. Method: The study is a descriptive literature study based on 11 scientific articles. The databases used for research are: PubMed and Cinahl Results: Related parties that were partners to people with HD adapted themselves to the new conditions and considered, fairly quickly if they wanted to become a caregiver or if they wanted a divorce. Children of parents with HD had no choice and had to take a lot of adult responsibilities at home. With the progression of the disease, caring became heavier and relatives put their own lives "on hold". Concerns for the future were handled by denying or preparing. Understanding and the support was received from people in similar situations. Healthcare today know little about the disease and related parties' needs, which damaged confidence.

    Conclusion: Related parties and family caregivers experienced a big change in life when the disease got worse. They worried and were stressed about the future and their relationship to the patient changed with time. They often met ignorance about the disease. Adapted information and support along the way was something related parties desired, but rarely experienced. All time and emotions were spent, taking care of and worry about the sick. The fear of the children carrying the gene were constantly recurring.

  • 399.
    Hamrèn, Julia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Heijel, Therese
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelse av kommunikation med närstående i palliativ vård - en kvalitativ intervjustudie.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studier visade att närstående upplevde kommunikation från sjuksköterskan som viktigt stöd i palliativ vård. Närstående beskrev dock i flera studier att kommunikationen från sjuksköterskan ofta var bristfällig och otillräcklig. Syftet med föreliggande intervjustudie var att få djupare förståelse för samt beskriva sjuksköterskors upplevelse av kommunikation med närstående i palliativa vård. Studiens metod hade en beskrivande design med kvalitativ ansats. Deltagare rekryterades från två olika vårdavdelningar, på ett sjukhus i Mellansverige. Undersökningsgruppen bestod av sju sjuksköterskor som valdes genom ett kriterieurval. Data samlades in via semistrukturerade intervjuer och analyserades genom en manifest kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Resultatet visade att sjuksköterskorna upplevde kommunikationen med närstående som viktig. De upplevde en skiftande kommunikation, för det mesta fungerade den bra men ibland fungerade den inte alls. Sjuksköterskorna menade att behovet av kommunikation var stort. Det upplevdes viktigt att läsa av närståendes individuella behov och samtidigt respektera deras integritet. Ärlighet, närhet, tid och förståelse beskrevs som viktiga komponenter för god kommunikation med närstående. Sjuksköterskorna upplevde att kommunikation vid språkförbristningar, via tolk och med barn kunde bli en utmaning. Trots svår och utmanande kommunikation var det enligt sjuksköterskorna viktigt att alltid göra sitt bästa. Slutsats, närstående är unika individer och kommunikationen beskrivs därför som individuell. Kärnan till bra kommunikation är att möta närstående där de befinner sig, kommunikation ska vila på en stabil grund. Kommunikationen med närstående kan vara svår och utmanande, det är viktigt att inte backa utan istället ta ett steg framåt och våga kommunicera.

  • 400.
    Hansen, Julia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Löfqvist, Martina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Barn och ungdomars upplevelser av att vara inneliggande på sjukhus2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Every year approximately 10 000 children and adolescents are given care at the hospital. The majority of children under the age of 18 are treated at special pediatric units. The aim and the primary goal with child care in Sweden is to promote the development and well- being of all children by identifying problems in its health, development and social environment, and addressing these problems to prevent ill health. Aim: The aim of the present literature study was to describe how children and adolescents experiences hospitalization and also to describe the articles choice of research groups. Mehtod: A literature study with a descriptive design. The present study is based on ten scientific articles that describe children's experiences of being in the hospital. The article searches were made via Cinahl and Medline via PubMed, where only english language was used as a restriction. The authors have reviewed the articles multiple times as well as reviewed and compared the articles' research groups. Main result: Children were found to have different experiences of being in a hospital. The majority of the children experienced hospitalization more positive when there were good communication, a good environment where there was an opportunity for activities, good relationships with healthcare staff and also space for relatives to attend. To get a better understanding of their illness or hospital stay, the children expressed that they wanted to participate in the care and they did not like when the healthcare staff spoke over their heads. The presence of family and close relatives made the children feel more confident, also good relationships with healthcare professionals made the children feel less lonely.Conclusion: Children's experiences are affected by several factors. Previous research shows that parents feel fear and concern about having their children hospitalized. It is important for the nurse and other healthcare professionals to know this in order to meet both children and their close relatives in a way that supports the whole family's experiences.

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