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  • 351.
    Palm, Peter
    et al.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Forsman, Mikael
    IMM Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Birk Jørgensen, Marie
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Madeleine, Pascal
    Department of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Whole workday measurements of arm elevation andassociations with neck shoulder pain among blue-collar workers in the DPHACTOcohort2017Inngår i: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 352.
    Palm, Peter
    et al.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University.
    Forsman, Mikael
    IMM Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    Upper arm elevation in blue‐collar work with and without exclusion of arm elevation during sitting2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 353.
    Palm, Peter
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Johansson, Elin
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet.
    Kjellberg, Katarina
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet.
    Josephson, Malin
    Department of Medical Sciences Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University.
    Differences in cashiers work technique regarding wrist movements when scanning groceries2012Inngår i: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, s. 5436-5438Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Checkout cashier work can be repetitive and hand-intensive. Differences in workstyle might explain why some cashiers develop symptoms and other do not. Work technique is one part of the workstyle concept. The aim of this study was to analyze if there were differences in work technique among cashiers in to what extent they use large or small wrist movements when scanning groceries. Wrist movements of 17 cashiers were video recorded. The results revealed large variation among the cashiers in if they use large or small wrist movements when handling the groceries. This indicated there is a potential for some cashiers to improve their work technique.

  • 354.
    Palm, Peter
    et al.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University Hospital.
    Josephson, Malin
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University Hospital.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Kjellberg, Katarina
    Unit of Occupational Medicine, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Reliability and criterion validity of an observation protocol for working technique assessments in cash register work2016Inngår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 59, nr 6, s. 829-839Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluated the intra- and inter-observer reliability and criterion validity of an observation protocol, developed in an iterative process involving practicing ergonomists, for assessment of working technique during cash register work for the purpose of preventing upper extremity symptoms. Two ergonomists independently assessed 17 15-min videos of cash register work on two occasions each, as a basis for examining reliability. Criterion validity was assessed by comparing these assessments with meticulous video-based analyses by researchers. Intra-observer reliability was acceptable (i.e. proportional agreement >0.7 and kappa>0.4) for 10/10 questions. Inter-observer reliability was acceptable for only 3/10 questions. An acceptable inter-observer reliability combined with an acceptable criterion validity was obtained only for one working technique aspect ‘Quality of movements’. Thus, major elements of the cashiers’ working technique could not be assessed with an acceptable accuracy from short periods of observations by one observer, such as often desired by practitioners.

  • 355.
    Palmerud, Gunnar
    et al.
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Neumann, Patrick
    Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada.
    Winkel, Jörgen
    Department of Sociology and Work Science, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mechanical exposure implications of rationalization: A comparison of two flow strategies in a Swedish manufacturing plant2012Inngår i: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 43, nr 6, s. 1110-1121Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this case study was to (1) investigate differences in mechanical exposure (i.e. mechanical forces arising in the body of the operator) between two production strategies: long-cycle parallelised flow assembly (OLD) and conventional serial flow assembly (NEW), and (2) estimate potential changes in job exposure as a consequence of waste reduction when rationalising a line system.

    Data on postures, movements and whole body exposure were collected during an ordinary working shift, by means of video recordings synchronised to direct technical measurements of six professional operators.

    The results revealed the machine paced NEW system to have slower movements with less time spent in movements of high velocity compared to the self-paced OLD system. No significant differences were found between time-median posture levels. ‘Disturbances’ in the NEW system offered lower mechanical risk exposures compared to direct assembly work. Modelling the removal of wasteful ‘disturbances’ revealed both an increase in risk-implying fast movements and decrease in recovery-implying periods at low velocity – effectively isolating a work intensification. This study helps expose the complex relationship between rationalizations and mechanical exposure for system operators

  • 356.
    Paquet, Victor
    et al.
    Department of Industrial & Systems Engineering, University at Buffalo, SUNY.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Ability of limited exposure sampling to describe exposure effects of ergonomics interventions2007Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 357.
    Pedersen, Malin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi.
    Första linjen-chefers upplevelser av att arbeta emot sexuella trakasserier ifrån patienter på sjukhus: En kvalitativ studie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sexuella trakasserier inom vårdbranschen är vanligt förekommande, och kan ha allvarliga konsekvenser för både individen och arbetsplatsen. Enligt tidigare studier är patienter en vanlig förövare för sexuella trakasserier, men trots det har arbetsgivaren ingen åtgärdsskyldighet utifrån Diskrimineringslagen. Däremot kan sexuella trakasserier ifrån patienter röra sig om en allvarlig arbetsmiljöfråga, vilket arbetsgivaren har yttersta ansvaret för. Det saknas generellt kunskap om sexuella trakasserier ifrån patienter, och i synnerhet kunskap i hur chefer på sjukhus upplever sitt arbete med att förebygga samt hanterar sexuella trakasserier ifrån sjukhus, vilket motiverar genomförandet av föreliggande studie. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka första linjen-chefers upplevelser av att arbeta emot sexuella trakasserier ifrån patienter mot vårdpersonal på sjukhus. Studien är en mixed-method studie med kvalitativ ansats, som består av två delstudier: policystudien och intervjustudien. Policystudien bestod av en kartläggning över policydokument om sexuella trakasserier ifrån patienter inom en specifik region. Endast en relevant policy fanns och denna analyserades med hjälp av en policyanalys av Carol Bacchi: WPR. Data till intervjustudien samlades in via intervjuer med tio första linjen-chefer på sjukhuset som hade den relevanta policyn. Intervjuerna analyserades med hjälp av en kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Resultatet av studien visar att den analyserade policyn i liten utsträckning handlar om sexuella trakasserier, och framställer patienter som inte har förtroende för en arbetsgrupp kännetecknad av mångfald som ett problem. Första linjen-chefer i föreliggande studie upplever en viss mättnad i hur mycket som fenomenet går att förebygga, och de tror att de flesta incidenter hanteras av vårdpersonalen själva.

  • 358.
    Picchiottino, Mathieu
    et al.
    CIAMS, Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, Orsay Cedex, France.
    Honore´, Margaux
    CIAMS, Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, Orsay Cedex, France.
    Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte
    Institute for Regional Health Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Gagey, Olivier
    CIAMS, Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, Orsay Cedex, France.
    Cottin, Francois
    CIAMS, Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, Orsay Cedex, France.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    The effect of a single spinal manipulation on cardiovascular autonomic activity and the relationship to pressure pain threshold: a randomized, cross-over, sham-controlled trial2020Inngår i: Chiropractic and Manual Therapies, ISSN 2045-709X, E-ISSN 2045-709X, Vol. 28, artikkel-id 7Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The autonomic nervous system interacts with the pain system. Knowledge on the effects of high velocity low amplitude spinal manipulations (SM) on autonomic activity and experimentally induced pain is limited. In particular, the effects of SM on autonomic activity and pain beyond the immediate post intervention period as well as the relationship between these two outcomes are understudied. Thus, new research is needed to provide further insight on this issue.

    Objectives

    The aim was to assess the effect of a single SM (i.e. SM vs. sham) on cardiovascular autonomic activity. Also, we assessed the relationship between cardiovascular autonomic activity and level of pain threshold after the interventions.

    Method

    We conducted a randomized, cross-over, sham-controlled trial on healthy first-year chiropractic students comprising two experimental sessions separated by 48 h. During each session, subjects received, in a random order, either a thoracic SM or a sham manipulation. Cardiovascular autonomic activity was assessed using heart rate and systolic blood pressure variabilities. Pain sensitivity was assessed using pressure pain threshold. Measurements were performed at baseline and repeated three times (every 12 min) during the post intervention period. Participants and outcome assessors were blinded. The effect of the SM was tested with linear mixed models. The relationship between autonomic outcomes and pressure pain threshold was tested with bivariate correlations.

    Results

    Fifty-one participants were included, forty-one were finally analyzed. We found no statistically significant difference between SM and sham in cardiovascular autonomic activity post intervention. Similarly, we found no post-intervention relationship between cardiovascular autonomic activity and pressure pain threshold.

    Conclusion

    Our results suggest that a single SM of the thoracic spine has no specific effect on cardiovascular autonomic activity. Also, we found no relationship between cardiovascular autonomic activity and pressure pain threshold after the SM. Further experimental research should consider the use of several markers of autonomic activity and a more comprehensive pain assessment.

    Trial registration

    N° NCT03273868. Registered September 6, 2017

  • 359.
    Picchiottino, Mathieu
    et al.
    CIAMS, Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, Orsay Cedex, France.
    Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte
    Institute for Regional Health Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Gagey, Olivier
    CIAMS, Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, Orsay Cedex, France..
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    The acute effects of joint manipulative techniques on markers of autonomic nervous system activity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized sham-controlled trials2019Inngår i: Chiropractic and Manual Therapies, ISSN 2045-709X, E-ISSN 2045-709X, Vol. 27, artikkel-id 17Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundThe autonomic nervous system (ANS) interests many chiropractors and manual therapists, because joint manipulative techniques (JMT), e.g. high velocity low amplitude (HVLA) manipulations and mobilizations, appear to produce acute changes in ANS mediated physiology. The complexity of this issue justifies a systematic critical literature review.

    ObjectiveTo review the literature comparing the acute changes in markers of ANS activity between JMT applied on spinal or peripheral joints and a sham procedure in healthy or symptomatic subjects.

    MethodWe searched PsycINFO, PEDro, PubMed, Cochrane library, EMBASE, and Medline up to December 2017. We updated the search with PubMed, Cochrane library, EMBASE, and Medline including July 2018. Inclusion criteria were: randomized sham-controlled trials assessing the effect of JMT on markers of ANS activity; manually applied JMT, regardless of technique, applied on either healthy or symptomatic humans; outcome measurements recorded at baseline and repeated during and/or after interventions. Selection of articles and data extraction were performed independently by two reviewers. The quality of studies was assessed using the Cochrane ‘risk of bias’ tool and a technical check-list. Results were reported narratively with some meta-analyses. The Cochrane GRADE approach was used to assess the certainty of evidence.

    ResultsTwenty-nine of 2267 studies were included in the synthesis. Mobilizations (oscillatory technique) probably produce an immediate and short-term, bilateral increase in skin sympathetic nerve activity (reflected by an increase in skin conductance) regardless of the area treated (moderate-certainty evidence). It is uncertain whether the sympathetic arousal also explains an increase in respiratory rate (very low-certainty evidence). Our evaluation of the literature suggests that spinal sustained apophyseal glides (SNAGs) mobilization and HVLA manipulation of the spine may have no acute effect on the studied markers of ANS activity (very low- to low-certainty evidence).

    ConclusionSome types of mobilizations probably produce an immediate and short-term, statistically significant increase in skin sympathetic nerve activity when compared to a sham procedure, whereas spinal SNAGs and spinal HVLA techniques may have no acute effect on the studied markers of ANS activity. No region-specific results were noted. The literature suffers from several shortcomings, for which reason we strongly suggest further research.

  • 360.
    Pulido, Jean Alexander
    et al.
    Centro de Estudios de Ergonomía, Department of Industrial Engineering, School of Engineering, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá.
    Barrero, Lope Hugo
    Centro de Estudios de Ergonomía, Department of Industrial Engineering, School of Engineering, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Dennerlein, Jack
    Department of Physical Therapy, Movement, and Rehabilitation Sciences, Bouvé College of Health Sciences, Northeastern University, Boston.
    Correctness of self-reported task durations: a systematic review: a systematic review2018Inngår i: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 62, nr 1, s. 1-16Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Durations of tasks in a job is an essential interest in occupational epidemiology. Such durations are frequently measured using self-reports, which may, however, be associated with both bias and random errors. The present systematic literature review examines the correctness of self-reported durations of tasks, i.e. the extent to which they differ from more valid reference data due to either systematic or random error, and factors influencing this correctness, with particular emphasis on assessment of exposures of relevance to musculoskeletal disorders.

    Method: The search for relevant studies included the databases ISI web of Science, Medline, EBSCO HOST, Proquest and Psycnet.

    Results: Thirty-two articles were identified, 23 of which examined occupational tasks and nine non-occupational tasks. Agreement between self-reports and a more correct reference was reported for, in total, 182 tasks. Average proportional errors were, for most tasks, between -50% (i.e. underestimations) and +100%, with a dominance of overestimations; 22% of all results considered overestimations of 100% or more. For 15% of the 182 reported tasks, the mean difference between the self-reported and the reference duration value was less than 5%, and 20% of the 182 mean differences were between 5% and 20%. In general, respondents were able to correctly distinguish tasks of a longer duration from shorter tasks, even though the actual durations were not correct. A number of factors associated with the task per se appeared to influence agreement between self-reports and reference data, including:  type of task, true task duration, task pattern across time (continuous vs. discontinuous), and whether the addressed task is composed of subtasks. The musculoskeletal health status of the respondent did not have a clear effect on the ability to correctly report task durations. Studies differed in key design characteristics and detail of information reported, which hampers a formal aggregation of results.

    Discussion: The correctness of self-reported task durations is, at the best, moderate at the individual level, and this may present a significant problem when using self-reports in task-based assessment of individual job exposures. However, average self-reports at the group level appear reasonably correct, and may thus be a viable method in studies addressing, for instance, the relative occurrence of tasks in a production system. Due to the disparity of studies, definite conclusions on the quantitative effect on agreement of different modifiers are not justified, and we encourage future studies specifically devoted to understanding and controlling sources of bias in self-reported task durations. We also encourage studies developing decision support for when to apply or avoid self-reports to measure task durations, depending on study purpose and occupational setting.

  • 361.
    Pulido, Jean Alexander
    et al.
    Centro de Estudios de Ergonomía, Department of Industrial Engineering, School of Engineering, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, Colombia.
    Barrero, Lope Hugo
    Centro de Estudios de Ergonomía, Department of Industrial Engineering, School of Engineering, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, Colombia.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Dennerlein, Jack
    Department of Physical Therapy, Movement, and Rehabilitation Sciences, Bouvé College of Health Sciences, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA.
    Torres, Paola
    Academic Research, Sede Santa Bárbara, Javesalud-IPS, Bogotá, Colombia.
    Bernal, Luis Gabriel
    Academic Research, Sede Santa Bárbara, Javesalud-IPS, Bogotá, Colombia.
    Differences in the accuracy of self-reported task durations between workers with and without acute non-specific low-back pain2015Inngår i: Proceedings of the 19th Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, Melbourne 9-14 August 2015, 2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 362.
    Pulido, Jean Alexander
    et al.
    Department of Industrial Engineering, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá.
    Barrero, Lope
    Department of Industrial Engineering, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Dennerlein, Jack
    Bouvé College of Health Science, Northeastern University, Boston.
    Torres, Paola
    Javesalud, Health service provider, Bogota.
    Berna, Luis Gabriel
    Javesalud, Health service provider, Bogota.
    Low back pain affects self-reported task durations: results of an experimental study2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Self-reported task durations are frequently used as input when assessing exposures related to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), in spite of being associated with errors. This work aimed to estimate the extent to which low-back pain status, true task duration, biomechanical load and pace influence errors in self-reported task durations.

    Methods. 48 workers with—and 48 workers without— low-back pain, matched by gender, age group and job type, were recruited through a health service provider. T-tests con-firmed that matching was successful. Each worker performed three standardized tasks—i.e. shelving boxes, filing journals and typing texts—in a combination of the following conditions: one of three durations (60, 80 or 100 minutes); two paces in shelving (walking at 3 km/hr vs. 6 km/hr); and two loads in shelving (box weight 1.25 vs. 2.5 kg). Partici-pants were asked about the perceived duration of each task immediately after the work session while being aware of the total duration of the session. Posture and kinematics of the back (iLMM™) and heart rate (portable Polar®) were monitored throughout sessions.

    Results. Regression analyses indicated that task type, true task duration and low-back pain status affect errors in self-reported task durations. Workers with low-back pain overestimated the shelving task more than workers without pain, by 15 to 36 minutes, depending on the true duration of the task. This occurred at the expense of a larger underestimation of the other two tasks, and mainly the typing task.

    Discussion. Since errors in self-reported task duration appear to be significantly de-pendent on the worker’s musculoskeletal pain status, as well as factors in the job, we recommend that efforts be made to correct such errors by calibration modeling, or, at a minimum, that researchers be aware of this potential effect on exposure assessments and on epidemiological research that deals with work-related MSDs.

  • 363.
    Radovanovic, Sasa
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Day, Scott Jason
    Johansson, Håkan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    The impact of whole-hand vibration exposure on the sense of angular position about the wrist joint2006Inngår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 79, nr 2, s. 153-160Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this research is to determine the impact of whole-hand vibration on the capacity of subjects to identify previously presented positions of the hand in both wrist flexion and extension. METHODS: In each movement direction, targets of 15 or 30 degrees were presented with an imposed passive movement from the start position. During the second imposed movement, subjects were required to identify when the target position had been reached. For the vibration condition, 15 s of whole-hand vibration exposure was repeated immediately prior to each target position trial. Proprioceptive capacity was assessed by comparing the identified angular position with the reference position-angular distance expressed in terms of absolute error (AE), constant error (CE), and variable error (VE). RESULTS: For three of the four target positions (15 and 30 degrees flexion and 15 degrees extension), the absolute, constant, and VEs of target identification were insensitive to vibration, whereas for the 30 degrees extension target, both the absolute and CE were significantly different before and after the vibration application, showing the subjects overshooting previously presented target position. All three error measures were larger for the long targets than the short targets. CONCLUSIONS: Short-duration exposure to whole-hand vibration is insufficient to compromise post-vibration position sense in the wrist joint, except near the end range of joint movement in wrist extension. Complement contribution of different proprioceptive receptors (muscle, joint, and skin receptors) seems to be crucial for accuracy to reproduce passive movements, since the capacity of any individual class of receptor to deliver information about movement and position of the limbs is limited.

  • 364.
    Rashid, Mamunur
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Women on sick leave for long-term musculoskeletal pain: Factors associated with work ability, well-being and return to work2019Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Taking sick leave (SL) for long-term musculoskeletal pain (MSP), predominantly in the neck, shoulders and back, is common among women in Sweden. Long-term MSP affects their daily life and causes impaired work ability and long-term SL. Therefore, it is necessary to work from a multidimensional perspective to generate knowledge about factors that may obstruct or promote work ability and well-being in the return-to-work (RTW) process among women on SL for MSP. The aim of the thesis was to identify factors of importance for work ability, well-being and RTW among women on SL for long-term neck/shoulder and/or back pain.

          Methods: Study I is a narrative systematic review. An extensive systematic search was performed through the databases Medline, CINAHL and PsycINFO, from their inception until February 2016. The inclusion criteria for the articles were: study population of men and women aged 18-65 years, work absence ≥ 2 weeks, and neck/shoulder or back pain. The outcome variable was RTW. An additional search through reference lists and citations of the included articles was performed in Scopus. A total of 10 studies were selected for the methodological quality assessment and synthesis of the results. Data were synthesized through analysis of the content according to similarities of factors. For Study II-IV, a postal survey was sent to 600 women in central and northern Sweden who were receiving time-loss benefits during the spring of 2016. The inclusion criteria were women aged 18-65 years, ≥ 50% SL from service, SL ≥ 1 month due to neck/shoulder and/or back pain (≥ 3 months), and understanding the Swedish language. The exclusion criteria were rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, stroke, cancer, Parkinson, bipolar disease, schizophrenia, and pregnancy. A follow-up survey was sent out in spring 2017 to the 208 women who answered the survey at baseline; 141 responded. Study II was cross-sectional; a multiple linear regression was conducted to determine the association between the factors and work ability and well-being, respectively. Study III had  a prospective design with a 1-year follow-up. A multiple logistic regression was conducted to determine whether work ability and well-being predicted RTW. To assess the discriminative ability of the Work Ability Index (WAI) and Life Satisfaction questionnaire (LiSat-11) regarding women who did RTW and those who did not RTW (NRTW), Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were used. Study IV also had a prospective design with a 1-year follow-up. Cluster analysis was performed to identify potential predictors, and a multiple logistic regression model was used to identify significant predictors of RTW.

          Results: Study I suggested that recovery beliefs, health-related factors and work capacity may be important areas to target in interventions for women and men with long-term neck or back pain. The review also showed that there is a lack of high-quality studies. Study II showed that believing one would return to the same work within 6 months, pain intensity and job strain were associated with work ability among women on SL for long-term neck/shoulder and/or back pain. Self-efficacy and depression were associated with well-being. The findings from Study III indicated that work ability was important for RTW in this group of women. The WAI adequately discriminated between RTW and NRTW. The LiSat-11 did not predict RTW or discriminate between RTW and NRTW. The results from Study IV indicated that coping through increasing behavioral activities, believing one would return to the same work within 6 months, and social support outside work predicted RTW in this group of women.

          Conclusions: The results from the empirical studies on women only were partly in agreement with results found in the narrative systematic review on men and women. In light of this, future studies may benefit from investigating prognostic factors for RTW among men and women separately. Factors that emerged in the empirical studies would need to be tested in a weighted model to identify whether any of them mediate or moderate the outcome variable RTW.

  • 365.
    Rashid, Mamunur
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Heiden, Marina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Nilsson, Annika
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för vårdvetenskap, Med-Vårdvetenskap.
    Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för vårdvetenskap, Med-Vårdvetenskap.
    Do work ability and well-being matter for return to work?: Cut-off points for Work Ability Index and Life Satisfaction questionnaire among women with long-term musculoskeletal painManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To determine whether work ability and well-being predict return to work (RTW) among women with long-term neck/shoulder and/or back pain at a 1-year follow-up, and to assess the ability of the Work Ability Index (WAI) and Life Satisfaction questionnaire (LiSat-11) to discriminate between those who did RTW and those who did not RTW. 

    Methods: A survey was sent to 600 women receiving time-loss benefits from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency. In total, 208 women responded at baseline, and 141 at a 1-year follow-up. To identify whether work ability and well-being predicted RTW, multiple logistic regression analyses were performed with and without adjustment for type of work and pain intensity. To assess the discriminative ability of the WAI and LiSat-11 for women who did RTW and those who did not RTW, Receiver Operating Characteristic curves were fitted.  

    Results: Work ability predicted RTW, and the results remained significant after adjusting for type of work and pain intensity (OR 1.12, 95% CI: 1.04-1.22). Well-being was not significant. The WAI at baseline adequately discriminated between RTW and no RTW after one year (AUC 0.78, 95% CI 0.70-0.86), but the LiSat-11 did not.

    Conclusions: Our results indicate that work ability is an important factor for RTW among women on SL for long-term neck/shoulder and/or back pain. The WAI has adequate discriminatory ability in this population, but the LiSat-11 has not.  

     

    Keywords: Life satisfaction, Musculoskeletal pain, Sickness absence, Work status

  • 366.
    Rashid, Mamunur
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap, Medicin- och vårdvetenskap.
    Heiden, Marina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Nilsson, Annika
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap, Medicin- och vårdvetenskap. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Factors related to work ability and well-being among women on sick leave due to long-term pain in the neck/shoulders and/or back: a cross-sectional study2018Inngår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 18, nr 1, artikkel-id 672Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Musculoskeletal pain is one of the leading causes of sick leave, especially among women, in Western countries. The aim of the present study was to identify factors associated with work ability and well-being, respectively, among women on sick leave due to long-term pain in the neck/shoulders and/or back.

    METHODS:

    A cross-sectional study with a correlational design was conducted on women who were sick-listed due to long-term pain in the neck/shoulders and/or back. A total of 208 participants responded to a survey comprising eight instruments: Multidimensional Pain Inventory scale, General Self-Efficacy scale, Sense of Coherence scale, Coping Strategies Questionnaire, Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Work Ability Index and Life Satisfaction questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with work ability and well-being, respectively.

    RESULTS:

    Women who more strongly believed they would return to the same work had greater work ability (β = 0.39, p < 0.001), whereas women with higher pain intensity (β = - 0.30, p < 0.001) and higher job strain (β = - 0.12, p < 0.05) had lower work ability. Women with higher self-efficacy rated greater well-being (β = 0.14, p < 0.05). As the women's scores for depression increased, their well-being decreased by 48%, which was statistically significant (p < 0.001). The regression models for work ability and well-being were significant (p < 0.001), and their adjusted R- square values were 48% and 59%, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    The study suggests that the factors beliefs to be back at the same work, pain intensity and job strain are predictive of work ability. Moreover, the factors self-efficacy and depression seem to be predictive of well-being. The findings highlight factors that should be considered by health care professionals and policy-makers to guide attempts to reduce sick leave.

  • 367.
    Rashid, Mamunur
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för vårdvetenskap, Med-Vårdvetenskap.
    Heiden, Marina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Nilsson, Annika
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för vårdvetenskap, Med-Vårdvetenskap.
    Predictors of return to work among women with long-term neck/shoulder and/or back pain: a 1-year prospective studyManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to identify predictors of return to work (RTW) among women on sick leave due to long-term neck/shoulder and/or back pain.

    Methods: The study was a prospective survey with a 1-year follow-up. Data on predictors and outcome were collected using a self-administrated questionnaire containing eight instruments – Coping Strategies Questionnaire, General Self-Efficacy scale, Sense of Coherence, Multidimensional Pain Inventory, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire, Work Ability Index, and Life Satisfaction questionnaire, as well as a set of background questions. A total of 208 women, aged 23-63 years, were included at baseline, and 141 responded at the 1-year follow-up. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of RTW.

    Results: Of the 141 women, 94 had RTW and 47 had not at the 1-year follow-up. Women who engaged in more coping by increasing behavioral activities, such as leisure activities, reading and socialization, (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.02-1.22) and those who more strongly believed they would return to the same work within 6 months (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.12-1.38) had an increased probability of RTW. Getting more social support outside work (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.26-0.90) decreased the odds of RTW at the 1-year follow-up.

    Conclusions: The findings suggested that behavioral activities, belief in returning to the same work and social support were predictors of RTW at the 1-year follow-up. Healthcare professionals should consider these predictors in efforts to prevent prolonged sick leave and to promote RTW among women with long-term neck/shoulder and/or back pain.

     

     

    Key terms: Follow-up study, musculoskeletal pain, prognostic factors, sickness absence, return to work.

     

  • 368.
    Rashid, Mamunur
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap, Medicin- och vårdvetenskap. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Heiden, Marina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Nilsson, Annika
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap, Medicin- och vårdvetenskap. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Work ability, well-being and return-to-work among women in Gävleborg on sick leave due to long-term pain in the neck/shoulders and/or back2018Inngår i: FALF KONFERENS 2018 Arbetet – problem eller potential för en hållbar livsmiljö?   10-12 juni 2018 Gävle: Program och abstracts / [ed] Per Lindberg, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2018, s. 68-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Sickness absence due to long-term musculoskeletal pain (MSP) is a common phenom-enon in Sweden as well as in other European countries. Sick leave due to MSP (i.e. pain in the neck/shoulders and/or back) is higher among women than among men; therefore, women can be considered as a vulnerable group.

    Aim

    The overall aim is to identify factors of importance for work ability, well-being and return to work among women of working age who are on sick leave due to long-term pain in the neck/shoulders and/or back. The project includes three empirical studies.

    Methods

    The project was a result of a joint collaboration between the University of Gävle and the Swedish Social Insurance Agency in Gävleborg. Initially, a postal survey was sent to 600 women in Gävleborg who were receiving time-loss benefits during spring 2016. The inclusion criteria were: women aged 18-65 years, ≥ 50% sick leave from service, sick leave ≥ 1 month due to pain in the neck/shoulders and/or back (≥ 3 months) and understanding the Swedish language. The exclusion criteria were: rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, stroke, cancer, Parkinson, bipolar disease, schizophrenia and preg-nancy. After 12 months, a follow-up survey was sent to the 208 women who answered the survey at baseline, and 141 responded.

    Results

    Study-I aimed to identify factors associated with work ability and well-being among women on sick leave. The results showed that beliefs to be back at the same work, pain intensity and job strain correlated with work ability. Self-efficacy and depression correlated with well-being. Study-II aimed to compare work ability and well-being over time, among women who returned to work (RTW) versus women who remained on sick leave in one year. The findings indicated that out of 141 women, 94 did RTW and 47 remained on sick leave. The group that RTW improved in work ability as well as well-being over time, whereas the group that remained on sick leave tended to decline over time in well-being. Study-III aims to identify predictors of RTW among women on sick leave. The analysis is under way. This project highlights factors that should be considered by health care professionals and policy-makers to guide attempts to reduce sick leave in this vulnerable group.

  • 369.
    Rashid, Mamunur
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap, Medicin- och vårdvetenskap. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Annika
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap, Medicin- och vårdvetenskap. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Heiden, Marina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Factors associated with return-to-work among people on work absence due to long-term neck or back pain: a narrative systematic review2017Inngår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, nr 6, artikkel-id e014939Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:

    The purpose of this narrative systematic review was to summarise prognostic factors for return to work (RTW) among people with long-term neck/shoulder or back pain.

    METHODS:

    A systematic literature search was performed through three databases (Medline, CINAHL and PsycINFO) for studies published until February 2016. Only observational studies of people on work absence (≥2 weeks) due to neck/shoulder or back pain were included. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using guidelines for assessing quality in prognostic studies on the basis of Framework of Potential Biases. Factors found in the included studies were grouped into categories based on similarities and then labelled according to the aspects covered by the factors in the category.

    RESULTS:

    Nine longitudinal prospective cohort studies and one retrospective study fulfilled the inclusion criteria. From these, five categories of factors were extracted. Our findings indicate that recovery beliefs, health-related factors and work capacity are important for RTW among people with long-term neck or back pain. We did not find support for workplace factors and behaviour being predictive of RTW.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Our findings suggest that recovery beliefs, perceived health and work capacity may be important targets of intervention for people with long-term neck or back pain. However, more high-quality prospective studies are needed to confirm the results and improve our understanding of what is needed to facilitate RTW in this population.

  • 370.
    Rasmussen, Charlotte
    et al.
    National research centre for the working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hellström, Fredrik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Symposia: Musculoskeletal pain as an outcome - how can we get better insight into the time course of musculoskeletal pain?2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 371.
    Rezagholi, Mahmoud
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Nationalekonomi.
    Deriving cost-efficient strategies for observational assessments of postural loads2014Inngår i: Occupational Medicine & Health Affairs, ISSN 1463-502X, E-ISSN 2329-6879, Vol. 2, artikkel-id 174Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies aimed at optimizing resource allocation between different sampling stages are characterized by both simplicity and incompleteness in optimization and economic analysis. The aim of this study was therefore to completely resolve the allocation problem for a fourstage measurement strategy devoted to observational assessment of work-related postural loads with the precision of the mean estimate considered as ‘output’. The derived demand functions for inputs to the four stages were used to derive functions for the minimized cost and the maximized precision of the measurement strategy. The application of the theoretical results to a working posture assessment study led to increased cost efficiency of the measurement strategy investigated in the study. Under the additional constraint that the optimal values must be integers, optimization of this measurement strategy would result in either a 12% reduction in cost or a 7% increase in precision.

  • 372.
    Rezagholi, Mahmoud
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Economic Decisions on Proposed Work Environmental Studies: a Theory for Cost and Value of Information2016Inngår i: Science Journal of Public Health, ISSN 2328-7950, Vol. 4, nr 1, s. 11-19Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment studies of occupational exposures are retrospectively evaluated based on their achieved statistical efficiency and/or their imposed costs. However, any decision on the performance of such studies strongly requires an economic evaluation in advance. The economic evaluation of proposed work environmental studies needs, in turn, access to information on the socio-economic impacts of occupational exposures. The present article aims to help policy makers in their decisions on proposed work environmental studies by introducing a cost-value approach to the information to be produced during the studies. The cost-value approach is not exposed to subjective judgements, as in the approach of “willingness to pay”, nor to consideration of invaluable statistical efficiency as “output”, as in exposure assessment studies. The work environmental study investigated in this article contained three different groups of occupational exposures that caused sickness absences and impairments at work in a Swedish company, Sandvik Materials Technology. The results show that the suggested study would be acceptable to the policy makers in the company, as its estimated value was strictly greater than its estimated costs.

  • 373.
    Rezagholi, Mahmoud
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Bantekas, Apostolos
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Nationalekonomi.
    Making Economic Social Decisions for Improving Occupational Health: A Predictive Cost-Benefit Analysis2015Inngår i: Occupational Medicine & Health Affairs, ISSN 1463-502X, E-ISSN 2329-6879, Vol. 3, nr 6, artikkel-id 225Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The few studies attempting to estimate costs of work-related disorders suffer from poor applied methodologies. Further, as the costs are often limited to the company, decisions about investment in improving the work environment are made at the company level. However, economic decisions on changing work environments and improving occupational health need to be made at the societal level. In an economic social decision, all direct and indirect costs imposed on society by work-related disorders are considered, regardless of who pays which cost. This study introduces and demonstrates a methodology appropriate for economic decisions at the societal level for preventing work-related disorders and promoting occupational health in the workplace. The methodology uses the concept of human capital in assessing productivity loss associated with the disorders. The empirical results show that Swedish society could have gained up to 442 855 537 SEK by preventing work-related disorders at the Swedish company Sandvik Materials Technology during 2014, 87% of which would have been captured by the company.

  • 374.
    Rezagholi, Mahmoud
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Nationalekonomi.
    Bantekas, Apostolos
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för utbildning och ekonomi, Avdelningen för ekonomi, Nationalekonomi.
    Optimizing the fraction of expensive direct measurements in an exposure assessment study2014Inngår i: International Journal of Statistics in Medical Research, ISSN 1929-6029, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 44-54Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When designing studies to assess occupational and environmental exposures, one persistent decision problem is the selection between two technical methods, where one is expensive but efficient and the other is cheap but inefficient. While a few studies have attempted to determine the relatively more cost-efficient design between two technical methods, no successful study has optimized the fraction of the expensive efficient technical method in a combined technique intended for long-run exposure assessment studies. The purpose of this study was therefore to optimize the fraction of the expensive efficient measurements by resolving a precision-requiring cost minimization problem. For an indefinite total number of measurements, the total cost of a working posture assessment study was minimized by performing only direct measurements. However, for a definite total number of measurements, the use of combined techniques in assessing the posture could be optimal, depending on the constraints placed on the precision and on the research budget.

  • 375.
    Rezagholi, Mahmoud
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Cost-Efficient Design of Occupational Exposure Assessment Strategies: A Review2010Inngår i: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 54, nr 8, s. 858-868Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When designing a strategy for collecting occupational exposure data, both economic and statistical performance criteria should be considered. However, very few studies have addressed the trade-off between the cost of obtaining data and the precision/accuracy of the exposure estimate as a research issue. To highlight the need of providing cost-efficient designs for assessing exposure variables in occupational research, the present review explains and critically evaluates the concepts and analytical tools used in available cost efficiency studies. Nine studies were identified through a systematic search using two algorithms in the databases PubMed and ScienceDirect. Two main approaches could be identified in these studies: comparisons of the cost efficiency associated with different measurement designs, and optimizations of resource allocation on the basis of functions describing cost and statistical efficiency. In either case, the reviewed studies use simplified analytical tools and insufficient economic analyses. More research is needed to understand whether these drawbacks jeopardize the guidance on cost-efficient exposure assessment provided by the studies, as well as to support theoretical results by empirical data from occupational life.

  • 376.
    Richter, Hans
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Neck pain brought into focus2014Inngår i: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 47, nr 3, s. 413-418Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A time honored dictum states that the eyes "lead the body", i.e. that the body typically adjust its position to compensate for an impoverished retinal image (e. g., as due to optical blur, and/or inappropriately sized visual target). But only moderate or low level of evidence exists in support of this view. Inconclusive evidence does not, however, equal negative evidence. The accommodation/vergence system does exhibit signs of overload in contemporary working life, including eye discomfort, transient myopia, altered pattern of eye-lens oscillations, and associated phoria. Accommodation/vergence overload, caused by non-ergonomic near work, may also emerge as quickly as within one regular workday. Long-term musculoskeletal consequences of high accommodation/vergence demands have nevertheless not yet been studied in any detail. A research agenda which aims to provide multi-scientific evidence for eye-neck/shoulder interactions with public health implications and which also, in addition, study the eye-neck/shoulder mechanisms and elucidates the operating characteristics, should consequently be highly warranted. This new knowledge would be useful for physiotherapists, ergonomists and opticians, who in their profession treat patients experiencing vision-and musculoskeletal disorders. If both visual and the musculoskeletal aspects are given full and equal weight in the design and evaluation of work places, it is predicted to lead to an improved quality of life for the individual worker, and an enhanced productivity for the employer.

  • 377.
    Richter, Hans
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Domkin, Dmitry
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Elcadi, Guilherme H.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap, Idrottsvetenskap.
    Anderson, H. W.
    Skogforsk, the forestry research institute of Sweden, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Högberg, Hans
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap, Medicin- och vårdvetenskap.
    Englund, Martin
    Skogforsk, the forestry research institute of Sweden, Uppsala, Sweden.
    A comparison of mental and visual loads resulting from semi-automated and conventional forest harvesting: An experimental machine simulation study2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is concerned with a new method for partly automating forestry harvesting work. Work-related injuries and constant demands for a higher productivity are two of the many arguments for why forestry work must be improved. Forestry work places great mental demands on the driver because they must continuously evaluate and act on relevant parts in a heavy visual information flow. Against this background the purpose of the present study was to extend the knowledge of functional linkages between visual and mental fatigue, performance, and prefrontal cortex activity, during semi-automated and conventional forestry harvesting work. Eleven healthy participants, range 21–51 years old, with a minimum of 1-year work experience, carried out the task of loading logs along a standardized path in a machine simulator during two counterbalanced 45-min periods: (i) conventional forest harvesting, and; (ii) semi-automated forest harvesting. Equal emphasizes was put on accuracy and speed. During manual forest harvesting the driver controlled the crane arm, used to load logs into the load space of the forest vehicle (“forwarder”), by manually operating the joysticks and so guide the crane to the location of the log and then back to the load space. During semi-automatic forest harvesting the driver moved the crane with the press of a button to a pre-programmed location near the log and then, after another button press, to a pre-programmed location within the load space. The following joystick usage parameters were considered for the statistical analysis: Sequential work cycle number, work phase (1-loading in basket, 2-movement to log, 3-picking up log, 4-movement to load space), number of simultaneously used controls across samples of one phase, number of direction changes of joystick movements per phase. Mental load was assessed by quantification of oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2) concentration changes over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) via non-invasive functional near infrared spectrometry (fFNIRS: PortaLite mini, Artinis Medical Systems, Zetten, the Netherlands). The frequency and duration of horizontal amplitudes of eye/head/neck angles was assessed continuously with 8 SmartEye cameras and used as a measure of visual load. NASA-TLX and Borg CRS was used to assess perceived mental and physical fatigue. Linear Mixed Model will be used to test and to analyze the effect of the duration of work, joystick usage, work type (manual or semi-automated) and perceived mental and physical effort on the outcome of oxygenated hemoglobin concentration. This study contributes with new knowledge of the consequences of the current increase in automation. The 4th industrial revolution can have tremendous implications on how we perceive and organize work in the future, but little is still known about the impact on human body and brain.

  • 378.
    Richter, Hans
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Domkin, Dmitry
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Elcadi, Guilherme H.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Andersson, Helena
    Skogforsk, the forestry research institute of Sweden, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Högberg, Hans
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap, Medicin- och vårdvetenskap.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Englund, Martin
    Skogforsk, the forestry research institute of Sweden, Uppsala, Sweden.
    A comparsion of mental and visual loads resulting from semi-automated and conventional forest harvesting: An experimental machine simulation study2018Inngår i: FALF Konferens 2018: Arbetet - problem eller potential för en hållbar livsmiljö?: Program och Abstracts / [ed] Per Lindberg, Gävle: Gävle Universtiy Press , 2018, s. 96-Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is concerned with a new method for partly automating forestry harvesting work. Work-related injuries and constant demands for a higher productivity are two of the many arguments for why forestry work must be improved. Forestry work places great mental demands on the driver because they must continuously evaluate and act on relevant parts in a heavy visual information flow. Against this background the purpose of the present study was to extend the knowledge of functional linkages between visual and mental fatigue, performance, and prefrontal cortex activity, during semi-automated and conventional forestry harvesting work. Eleven healthy participants, range 21–51 years old, with a minimum of 1-year work experience, carried out the task of loading logs along a standardized path in a machine simulator during two counterbalanced 45-min periods: (i) conventional forest harvesting, and; (ii) semi-automated forest harvesting. Equal emphasizes was put on accuracy and speed. During manual forest harvesting the driver controlled the crane arm, used to load logs into the load space of the forest vehicle (“forwarder”), by manually operating the joysticks and so guide the crane to the location of the log and then back to the load space. During semi-automatic forest harvesting the driver moved the crane with the press of a button to a pre-programmed location near the log and then, after another button press, to a pre-programmed location within the load space. The following joystick usage parameters were considered for the statistical analysis: Sequential work cycle number, work phase (1-loading in basket, 2-movement to log, 3-picking up log, 4-movement to load space), number of simultaneously used controls across samples of one phase, number of direction changes of joystick movements per phase. Mental load was assessed by quantification of oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2) concentration changes over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) via non-invasive functional near infrared spectrometry (fFNIRS: PortaLite mini, Artinis Medical Systems, Zetten, the Netherlands). The frequency and duration of horizontal amplitudes of eye/head/neck angles was assessed continuously with 8 SmartEye cameras and used as a measure of visual load. NASA-TLX and Borg CRS was used to assess perceived mental and physical fatigue. Linear Mixed Model will be used to test and to analyze the effect of the duration of work, joystick usage, work type (manual or semi-automated) and perceived mental and physical effort on the outcome of oxygenated hemoglobin concentration. This study contributes with new knowledge of the consequences of the current increase in automation. The 4th industrial revolution can have tremendous implications on how we perceive and organize work in the future, but little is still known about the impact on human body and brain.

  • 379.
    Richter, Hans
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Elcadi, Guilherme H.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap, Idrottsvetenskap.
    Brautaset, R.
    School of Optometry, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Marsh, John E.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöpsykologi. School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, United Kingdom.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Prefrontal cortex activity evoked by convergence load under conflicting stimulus-to-accommodation and stimulus-to-vergence eye-movements measured by NIRS: Prefrontal cortex oxygenation and visual fatigue2018Inngår i: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5161, E-ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 12, artikkel-id 298Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To extend our knowledge of the functional linkages between visual fatigueand regional cerebral prefrontal cortex (PFC) oxygenation, we measured time related hemodynamic changes over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) duringconvergence load under conflicting stimulus-to-accommodation and stimulus-tovergence eye movements with and without concurrent mental load.

    Methods: Twenty healthy participants with a median age of 28 years (range:18–44 years) fixated upon a vertical bar presented separately to the left andright eyes, using polarized filters, during four counterbalanced 10-min periods:(i) no accommodation/vergence conflict (Control, Ctrl); (ii) added convergenceload and accommodation/vergence conflict (Conv); (iii) added cognitive load only(Cog) and; (iv) a combination of added cognitive and convergence load andaccommodation/vergence conflict (Cc). Viewing distance was 65 cm. Non-invasivemeasurements of hemodynamic activity over the dlPFC were quantified by functionalnear-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). During the two-convergence load conditions, thehorizontal disparity of the two bars varied dynamically from no disparity to a disparityset 20% below the individual threshold for diplopia. Cognitive load was induced by then-back-2 test which required the subject to memorize and recall the changing colorsof the horizontal bars and decide when a given color was the same as that occurring two colors previously. fNIRS data were averaged over 10-s windows centered at 0, 2,4, 6, 8, and 10 min of each task, subtracted from a 20-s baseline window immediatelypreceding the visual task, and then represented as changes in oxygenated hemoglobin(ΔHbO2); deoxygenated hemoglobin (ΔHHb) and total hemoglobin (ΔtHb).

    Results: Linear mixed model analyses showed that hemodynamic activity wassystematically influenced by time (p < 0.001). The group-averaged time-related levelof change across the viewing conditions did not differ when compared with one another(p > 0.05). Larger convergence eye-movement responses under conflicting stimulus-to accommodation,and stimulus-to-vergence over time, increased ΔHbO2 and ΔtHb onlyin condition Cc and after 8 min of task time (p < 0.10 for min-6 and min-8: p < 0.05 for min-10).

    Discussion: Collectively, our data suggest that HbO2, HHb, and tHb, recorded over the dlPFC with fNIRS, can be used to assay the degree to which supervisory oculomotorcontrol processes are activated during visually deficient near work.

  • 380.
    Richter, Hans
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Long, Jennifer
    School of Optometry and Vision Science, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, AUSTRALIA.
    The pitfalls of the traditional office ergonomics model in the current mobile work environment:  Is visual ergonomic health literacy the remedy?2019Inngår i: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 63, nr 3, s. 447-456Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile technology has revolutionised how we work. It is now relatively easy to work anywhere and anytime, but this has placed the onus on mobile (or flexible) workers to set up their own work environment for comfort and ease of use. Vision is an important driver of posture, and hence visual ergonomics principles are integral for setting up digital devices. If mobile workers do not have visual ergonomics knowledge, or are unable to apply visual ergonomics knowledge to appropriately set up their work environment, then they are at risk of developing visual-related occupational health issues due to exposure to adverse physical work environments.

    To address this potential health care issue, we propose the introduction of Visual Ergonomics Health Literacy. This would provide mobile workers (including school children) with the knowledge and skills to set up their work environment for comfort and ease of use, wherever they work. It is important to address this issue now before we have a widespread epidemic of discomfort and injury from not applying sound visual ergonomics principles to work environments.

  • 381.
    Richter, Hans O
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Accommodative/vergence performance following low-levels sustained oculomotor load2007Inngår i: 30th European Conference on Visual Perception: Perception 36 Suppl., 2007, s. 30-Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 382.
    Richter, Hans O
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Neck shoulder activation induced by deficient visual quality2007Inngår i: 39th Annual Congress of the Nordic Ergonomics Society, 2007Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 383.
    Richter, Hans O.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Bänziger, Tanja
    Abdi, S.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Low-level sustained accommodative/vergence loads, eyestrain and trapezius muscle activity2008Inngår i: Perception, ISSN 0301-0066, E-ISSN 1468-4233, Vol. 37, nr Suppl., s. 24-24Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 384.
    Richter, Hans O.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Bänziger, Tanja
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Abdi, S.
    The Bernadotte Laboratories, St. Erik’s Eye Hospital, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Stabilization of gaze: A relationship between ciliary muscle contraction and trapezius muscle activity2010Inngår i: Vision Research, ISSN 0042-6989, E-ISSN 1878-5646, Vol. 50, nr 23, s. 2559-2569Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In an experimental study four levels of oculomotor load were induced binocularly. Trapezius muscle activity was measured with bipolar surface electromyography and normalized to a submaximal contraction. Twenty-eight subjects with a mean age of 29 (range 19–42, std 8) viewed a high-contrast fixationt arget for four 5-min periods through: (i) 3.5 dioptre (D) lenses; (ii) 0 D lenses; (iii) individuallya djusted prism D lenses (1–2 D base out); and (iv) +3.5 D lenses. The target was placed close to thei ndividual’s age-appropriate near point of accommodation in conditions (i–iii) and at 3 m in condition( iv). Each subject’s ability to compensate for the added blur was extracted via infrared photorefraction measurements. A bitwise linear regression model was fitted on group level with eye-lens refraction on the x-axis and normalized trapezius muscle EMG (%RVE) on the y -axis. The model had a constant level of trapezius muscle activity – where subjects had not compensated for the incurred defocus by a change in eye-lens accommodation – and a slope, where the subjects had compensated. The slope coefficient was significantly positive in the D (i) and the +D blur conditions (iv). During no blur (ii) and prism blur (iii) there were no signs of relationships. Nor was there any sign of relationship between the convergence response and trapezius muscle EMG in any of the experimental conditions. The results appear directly attributable to an engagement of the eye-lens accommodative system and most likely reflect sensorimotor processing along its reflex arc for the purpose of achieving stabilization of gaze

  • 385.
    Richter, Hans O.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Bänziger, Tanja
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Eye-lens accommodation load and static trapezius muscle activity2011Inngår i: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 111, nr 1, s. 29-36Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate if sustained periods of oculomotor load impacts on neck/scapular area muscle activity. The static trapezius muscle activity was assessed from bipolar surface electromyography, normalized to a submaximal contraction. Twenty-eight subjects with a mean age of 29 (range 19–42, SD 8) viewed a high-contrast fixation target for two 5-min periods through: (1) -3.5 dioptre (D) lenses; and (2) 0 D lenses. The target was placed 5 D away from the individual’s near point of accommodation. Each subject’s ability to compensate for the added blur was extracted via infrared photorefraction measurements. Subjects whose accommodative response was higher in the -D blur condition (1) showed relatively more static bilateral trapezius muscle activity level. During no blur (2) there were no signs of relationships. The results indicate that sustained eye-lens accommodation at near, during ergonomically unfavourable viewing conditions, could possibly represent a risk factor for trapezius muscle myalgia.

  • 386.
    Richter, Hans O
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Crenshaw, Albert
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Accommodation – vergence performance after low levels of oculomotor load2007Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, nr 3, s. 60-67Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives This experimental pilot study assessed the effects of sustained low-level accommodative vergence loads on oculomotor performance, eyestrain, and musculoskeletal functioning.

    Methods A high-contrast fixation-point stimulus [light-emitting diode (LED)] was introduced into the optical axis of the viewing eye or into the midline in case of binocular viewing. The participants (N=6) were asked to compensate for the blur incurred by adjusting the strength of their eye lens. The participants performed in the following three standardized sequential viewing tasks: (i) resting with eyes open in darkness, (ii) accommodating alternately on a near versus a far LED illuminated sequentially (near–far response), and (iii) sustained fixation upon a LED at near. After the third task, the first and second tasks were repeated once.

    Results The main effects of the third task were to decrease the overall rate of binocular accommodative relaxation time (diopters/s) in the repetition of the second task trial. The baseline shifts in individual response times also correlated with changes in the response amplitudes under the binocular stimulus conditions, which required contraction of the ciliary muscle.

    Conclusions The results taken as a whole validate a technique of essential interest to applied vision research.

  • 387.
    Richter, Hans O
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Knez, Igor
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Superior low-wavelength contrast sensitivity in asthenopics during voluntary efforts to accommodation2006Inngår i: 29th European Conference on Visual Perception: Perception 35. Suppl, 2006, s. 131-131Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this work was to characterise short-(S)-wavelength-sensitive-cone mediated contrast sensitivity (CS) across twenty symptom-free subjects and eight asthenopics, all with normal-unaided-or-corrected visual acuity with no sign of oculomotor dysfunction. Threshold contrast sensitivity was assessed by the von Békésy tracking method from a viewing distance of 2.4 m (0.40 D). Three counterbalanced tasks required central fixation of black-and-white square-wave gratings (1, 5, 10, 14, and 17 cycles deg-1) presented through a low-pass (400 - 450 nm) tinted blue lens: through (i) a 0.0 D lens, (ii) a -1.50 D lens, (iii) a +1.50 D lens while attempting volitional accommodation to minimise blur. Baseline increases in eye-strain, which approached high levels at the end of the experiment, did not differentiate between the two groups of volunteers. Compared with symptom-free subjects, asthenopics exhibited larger magnitudes CS performance in the intermediate spatial frequencies during experimental conditions requiring voluntary increases in accommodation. The residual filtered light may encompass reference wavelengths habitually used by the asthenopics in retinal alignment as an adaptive strategy to spare accommodation from eye-strain. Alternatively, asthenopics, owing to inherent retinal factors, may 'drive' their accommodative system harder than symptom-free subjects.[Supported by the Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research Grant 2005-0488 to HR.]

  • 388.
    Richter, Hans O.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för psykologi.
    Knez, Igor
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Superior short-wavelength contrast sensitivity in asthenopics during reflexive readjustments of ocular accommodation2007Inngår i: Ophthalmic & physiological optics, ISSN 0275-5408, E-ISSN 1475-1313, Vol. 27, nr 4, s. 361-372Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this work was to characterize contrast sensitivity (CS) under short-wavelength illumination in 20 symptom-free subjects and eight asthenopics: all had normal unaided or corrected visual acuity and no sign of oculomotor disease. Threshold CS was assessed using the von Bekesy tracking method from a viewing distance of 2.4 m (0.40 D). Three counterbalanced tasks required central fixation of black-and-white square-wave gratings (1, 5, 10, 14 and 17 c/deg) presented through a low-pass filter blue lens and (1) a +1.50 D lens; (2) a -1.50 D lens and (3) a 0 D lens, while attempting accommodation to minimize blur. Baseline increases in eye strain, which approached high levels at the end of the experiment, did not differentiate between the two groups of volunteers. All the subjects made evident appropriate accommodation during the low blur condition (0 D); the CS curve exhibited the expected characteristics. When the minus lens was placed before the eyes of the observers the distant square-wave gratings were still seen clearly, the eyes presumably had accommodated by an amount equal to the power of the negative lens. Compared with symptom-free subjects, asthenopics exhibited greater CS at the intermediate spatial frequencies both during the low blur and the minus blur conditions. Asthenopics may exhibit an individualized sensory tendency to react more strongly to shorter wavelengths of light and may therefore reflexively 'drive' their accommodative system harder than symptom-free subjects. This would explain the presence of their asthenopia in the first place. Blue light may, in addition, induce more arousal and higher alertness in this category of participants. This would boost the oculomotor aspects of their performance. These findings add to the current understanding of individual variability in the level of oculomotor loads following strenuous near work.

  • 389.
    Richter, Hans O.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Röijezon, Ulrik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Björklund, Martin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Djupsjöbacka, Mats
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Long-term adaptation to neck/shoulder pain and perceptual performance in a hand laterality motor imagery test2010Inngår i: Perception, ISSN 0301-0066, E-ISSN 1468-4233, Vol. 39, nr 1, s. 119-130Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of neck/shoulder pain on the performance in a hand laterality motor imagery test was studied. Responses to the Cooper and Shepard (1975, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 104 48 ^ 56) hand laterality test were explored in twenty-four individuals with chronic non-specific neck pain and twenty-one subjects with chronic neck pain of traumatic origin (whiplash-associated disorder). Twenty-two controls were also included in the study. Digitalised right- or left-hand stimuli were presented at five different stimulus angles (08, 458 laterally, 908 laterally, 1358 laterally, and 1808). The experimental task was to decide the laterality as fast and accurately as possible. The performance, both reaction time (RT) and accuracy, of the two experimental groups was contrasted with that of the control group. The main results revealed that the subjects afflicted with whiplash injury on the average exhibited a faster response pattern than symptom-free healthy controls. Despite their  usculoskeletal deficits and experience of pain these volunteers also exhibited a preserved speed ^ accuracy tradeoff. Longer duration of time with symptoms of neck pain was, moreover, associated with progressively faster RTs. These results point to perceptual learning and may reflect different stages of adaptation to neck pain.

  • 390.
    Richter, Hans O.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi, Ämnesavdelningen för folkhälsovetenskap. Department of Optometry and Optical Science, Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia.
    Wennberg, Patrik
    Department of Optometry and Optical Science, Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia.
    Raudsepp, Jaanus
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    The effects of inverting prisms on the horizontal-vertical illusion: a systematic effect of downward gaze2007Inngår i: Experimental Brain Research, ISSN 0014-4819, E-ISSN 1432-1106, Vol. 183, nr 1, s. 9-15Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this work is to compare the relative contributions from the extraocular and sensory systems on the magnitude of the horizontal-vertical illusion (HVI). The visual HVI refers to the general tendency to overestimate vertical extensions of small-scale lines on a picture plane relative to the horizontal by 4-16% depending on the method of measurement. The HVI line stimuli consisted of luminous vertical and horizontal lines forming "L-profiles" located in the frontoparallel plane at a 45 cm viewing distance, collinearly with a binocular gaze. The home position of gaze was aligned to the center of the screen with the ear-eye angle concordant with the environmental horizontal. Illusion strength was quantified when subjects fixated the HVI line stimuli in four quadrants of the visual field. The HVI was also viewed through prism lenses that inverted the retinal images by 180 degrees , thereby dissociating the sensory "up-down" direction from the oculomotor up-down frame of reference. The results revealed a systematically lower magnitude of the HVI in the bottom visual field regardless of whether subjects fixated the HVI with the distorting prisms or without. Taken together, these results suggest that the HVI is sensitive to small-angle gaze shifts. In agreement with several recent findings, these results are interpreted as implying that the brain imposes an enhanced analytic structure on the ascending sensory information during downward gaze.

  • 391.
    Richter, Hans
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Sundin, Sofia
    Long, Jennifer
    School of Optometry and Vision Science, UNSW Sydney, Australia; Jennifer Long Visual Ergonomics, Katoomba, NSW, Australia.
    Visually deficient working conditions and reduced work performance in office workers: Is it mediated by visual well-being and health?2019Inngår i: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 72, s. 128-136Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The main purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether visual well-being and health act as a mediating factor between perceived visual ergonomic working conditions and self-rated visual performance among office workers who perform administrative tasks and computer-based work at the Swedish Tax Agency.

    Methods: A questionnaire was sent to 94 office workers addressing: 1) perceived visual quality of the visual display units; 2) prevalence of eye symptoms; and 3) self-rated visual performance. Eighty-six persons (54 women (63 %), 31 men (36 %), and 1 of unspecified sex) answered the questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis investigated the association between visual ergonomic working conditions and visual performance, with and without visual well-being and health as a mediator.

    Results: The group mean of the Indexed survey questions indicated reasonably good quality visual ergonomic working conditions, a relative absence of eye symptoms, and acceptable self-rated visual performance. Results from multiple regression analysis showed a significant association between perceived visual ergonomic working conditions and self-rated visual performance (r2 = 0.30, β = 0.327, p < 0.01). When visual well-being and health was used as a mediator, the association between perceived visual ergonomic working conditions and self-rated visual performance remained the same (r2 = 0.32, β = 0.315, p < 0.01).

    Discussion: It was surprising to discover that self-rated visual performance  was independent of visual health and well-being. Possible explanations include exposure factors not included in the current study, such as dry air and sensory irritation in eyes, psychosocial stress, time spent performing near work activities or time exposed to visually deficient working conditions. The strong connection between satisfaction with visual ergonomics work conditions and productivity found in this study has implications for workplace profitability and staff satisfaction. If productivity of office workers is improved by better visual ergonomics work conditions, then managers within workplaces may be able to improve work outcomes by optimizing the physical work environment.

  • 392.
    Richter, Hans
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Trapezius muscle activity increases during near work activity regardless of accommodation/vergence demand level2015Inngår i: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 115, nr 7, s. 1501-1512Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    To investigate if trapezius muscle activity increases over time during visually demanding near work.

    Methods

    The vision task consisted of sustained focusing on a contrast-varying black and white Gabor grating. Sixty-six participants with a median age of 38 (range 19–47) fixated the grating from a distance of 65 cm (1.5 D) during four counterbalanced 7-min periods: binocularly through −3.5 D lenses, and monocularly through −3.5 D, 0 D and +3.5 D. Accommodation, heart rate variability and trapezius muscle activity were recorded in parallel.

    Results

    General estimating equation analyses showed that trapezius muscle activity increased significantly over time in all four lens conditions. A concurrent effect of accommodation response on trapezius muscle activity was observed with the minus lenses irrespective of whether incongruence between accommodation and convergence was present or not.

    Conclusions

    Trapezius muscle activity increased significantly over time during the near work task. The increase in muscle activity over time may be caused by an increased need of mental effort and visual attention to maintain performance during the visual tasks to counteract mental fatigue.

  • 393.
    Richter, J M
    et al.
    Department of Neuroscience, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
    Slijper, H P
    Department of Neuroscience, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Over, E A B
    Department of Neuroscience, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
    Frens, M A
    Department of Neuroscience, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
    The ability of computer activity recordings to estimate mechanical exposures during office work2008Inngår i: Proceedings of the International Conference on Ambulatory Monitoring of Physical Activity and Movement. Rotterdam, 2008Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 394.
    Richter, Janneke
    et al.
    Department of Neuroscience, Erasmus MC Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Slijper, Harm
    Department of Neuroscience, Erasmus MC Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
    Frens, Maarten
    Department of Neuroscience, Erasmus MC Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
    Differences in muscle load between computer and non-computer work among office workers2010Inngår i: Proceedings of the Premus 2010 conference, 2010, s. 272-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 395.
    Richter, Janneke
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap. Department of Neuroscience Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Slijper, Harm P.
    Department of Neuroscience Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Over, Eelco A. B.
    Department of Neuroscience Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Frens, Maarten
    Department of Neuroscience Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Differences in muscle load between computer and non-computer work among office workers2009Inngår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 52, nr 12, s. 1540-1555Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction of more non-computer tasks has been suggested to increase exposure variation and thus reduce musculoskeletal complaints (MSC) in computer-intensive office work. This study investigated whether muscle activity did, indeed, differ between computer and non-computer activities. Whole-day logs of input device use in 30 office workers were used to identify computer and non-computer activities, using a range of classification thresholds (NCTs). Exposure during these activities was assessed by bilateral electromyography recordings from the upper trapezius and lower arm. Contrasts in muscle activity between computer and noncomputer activities were distinct but small, even at the individualized, optimal NCT. Using an average groupbased NCT resulted in less contrast, also if stratified by subgroups (job function, MSC). Computer activity logs should be used cautiously as proxies of biomechanical exposure. Conventional non-computer tasks may have a limited potential to increase exposure variation in computer-intensive office work.

  • 396. Bestill onlineKjøp publikasjonen >>
    Rissén, Dag
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Centrum för forskning och utveckling, Uppsala universitet/Landstinget Gävleborg.
    Psykosocial arbetsmiljö och (o)hälsa: ett biopsykosocialt stressperspektiv2014Inngår i: Hälsa, livsmiljö och arbetsliv: ur ett socialt arbete-perspektiv / [ed] Fereshteh Ahmadi & Sam Larsson, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2014, s. 17-42Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 397.
    Rissén, Dag
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Centre for Research & Development, Uppsala University/Region of Gävleborg, Gävle, Sweden.
    Fjellman-Wiklund, Annchristine
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University.
    Röijezon, Ulrik
    Department of Health Science, Luleå University of Technology.
    Prevalence, intensity, and playing related consequences of musculoskeletal pain, and associations with mood among professional orchestra musicians: a pilot study2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Prevalence, intensity, and playing related consequences of musculoskeletal pain, and associations with mood among professional orchestra musicians – a pilot study

    Aim: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the 7-day prevalence, intensity, and consequences of musculoskeletal pain in the upper part of the body among professional musicians. Additional aims were to examine subjective mood and associations between mood and pain.

    Methods: This study is part of an ongoing national survey on musculoskeletal health conditions among professional musicians in Swedish symphony and opera orchestras. The data of this report is collected from two orchestras. Seventy-eight musicians (80%) participated, aged 45 ±9.6 years and 41% women. Results: Eighty percent of the musicians reported pain during the last 7 days. Pain was most frequent in the neck (59%) and the right shoulder (36%). The intensity of pain (11-point scale) was highest in the neck (mean 2.7, SD 1.8) and in the right hand (mean 2.7, SD 1.9). Playing related consequences were particularly related to pain in the left (71%) and right (54%) hands, and pain located to the left upper extremity did relatively more often affect playing performance compared to right side pain. Mood ratings showed that the musicians to a higher degree experienced “positive mood” (stimulated, concentrated, happy) compared to “negative mood” (stressed, exhausted, tense, nervous/anxious). Significant positive correlations were found between neck pain and stressed (rho=0.501, p=.000); neck pain and exhausted (rho=0.318, p=0.033); neck pain and tense (rho=0.314, p=0.034); and neck pain and nervous/anxious (rho=0.346, p=0.019). Significant correlations were not found between mood and pain in any other body region, except for a positive correlation between right shoulder and exhausted (rho=0.384, p=0.048).

    Conclusion: These preliminary results show a high 7-day prevalence of pain among professional musicians, especially in the neck. Left upper extremity and left and right hand pain needs special clinical attention due to high impact on playing performance. The results concerning associations between perceived “negative mood” and neck pain are supported by earlier findings (1,2) but need further exploration.

  • 398.
    Rolfer, Bengt
    et al.
    Rolfer media & kommunikation.
    Mathiassen, Svend ErikHögskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.Vingård, EvaArbets- och miljömedicin, Uppsala universitet.
    Forskning i fara?: Forskarna själva om dagens svenska arbetsmiljöforskning2012Collection/Antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 399.
    Rolfer, Bengt
    et al.
    Rolfer media & kommunikation.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Vingård, Eva
    Arbets- och miljömedicin, Uppsala universitet.
    Vart är Sveriges arbetsmiljöforskning på väg?2012Inngår i: Forskning i fara?: Forskarna själva om dagens svenska arbetsmiljöforskning / [ed] Bengt Rolfer, Svend Erik Mathiassen, Eva Vingård, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2012Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 400.
    Rolfö, L.
    et al.
    Department of Ergonomics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Jahncke, Helena
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Järvholm, L. S.
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Öhrn, M.
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Babapour, M.
    Department of Industrial and Materials Science, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Predictors of Preference for the Activity-based Flexible Office2019Inngår i: Human Systems Engineering and Design: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Human Systems Engineering and Design (IHSED2018) / [ed] Tareq Ahram, Waldemar Karwowski, and Redha Taiar, Cham: Springer, 2019, s. 547-553Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Activity-based Flexible Offices (A-FOs) are implemented with varying degree of success. Employees relocate from cell or open-plan offices, from different organizational backgrounds, varying design and implementation processes, and have different types of work tasks. This study aims at investigating whether preference for the A-FO correlate with these preconditions. The results from Chi-square tests and Spearman’s non-parametric correlation of post-relocation questionnaires distributed to 11 A-FO sites, showed that a high preference for the A-FO correlated strongest with an A-FO preference prior to relocation, being a former open-plan office occupier and with frequent performance of innovation. Low preference for the A-FO correlated with frequent performance of concentration demanding tasks. Working with tasks with high confidentiality did not predict the preference ratings.

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