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  • 401.
    Dahlkvist, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    The Garden/Patio in Residential Care Facilities for Older People: Characteristics and the Users Perspectives2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 402.
    Dahlkvist, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Health and Medicine, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Hartig, Terry
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala university, Uppsala, Sweden; Institute for Housing and Urban Research,Uppsala university, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Annika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Högberg, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Skovdahl, Kirsti
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Buskerud and Vestfold university, Norway.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Garden greenery and the health of older people in residential care facilities: A multi-level cross-sectional study2016In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 72, no 9, p. 2065-2076Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS:

    To test the relationship between greenery in gardens at residential facilities for older people and the self-perceived health of residents, mediated by experiences of being away and fascination when in the garden and the frequency of visitation there. To examine how these indirect effects vary with the number of physical barriers to visiting the garden.

    BACKGROUND:

    Many older people in residential facilities suffer from complex health problems. Access to a green outdoor environment may enable psychological distance, engage effortless attention, encourage more frequent visitation and promote resident health.

    DESIGN:

    A multi-level, cross-sectional, correlational design.

    METHODS:

    Questionnaires were administered June-August, 2011 to convenience samples of residents at 72 facilities for older people with complex healthcare needs. One to 10 eligible residents were sampled during self-motivated garden visits at each facility (n = 290). They reported on their garden experiences and health. Facility staff reported on objective garden characteristics and barriers to access. A serial mediation model was tested with multiple linear regression analysis.

    RESULTS:

    The total indirect effect of greenery on self-perceived health was positive and significant. Garden greenery appears to affect health by enhancing a sense of being away, affording possibilities to experience the outdoor environment as interesting and encouraging visitation. Among residents in homes with multiple barriers, only fascination mediated the relationship between greenery and self-perceived health.

    CONCLUSION:

    Ample greenery in outdoor space at residential facilities for older people appears to promote experiences of being away and fascination, more frequent visitation and better health.

  • 403.
    Dahlkvist, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science. Department of Health and Medicine, Örebro University.
    Nilsson, Annika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Skovdahl, Kirsti
    Örebro Universitet, Institutionen för Hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Is there a caring perspective in garden/patio design in elderly care?: a description and a comparison of residents' and staff members' perceptions of these outdoor spaces2014In: Journal of Housing for the Elderly, ISSN 0276-3893, E-ISSN 1540-353X, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 85-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aimed to describe characteristics of and design elements in gardens/patios at 87 residential living homes for older people and to describe and compare residents’ and staff members’ perceptions of these spaces. The result showed that many gardens/patios had several recommended design elements and at the same time obvious deficiencies. The residents (n=415) valued various aspects of the garden/patio more highly than the staff did (n=667). One conclusion is that managers responsible for residential living homes for older people should pay attention to and takes measures to ameliorate shortcomings and deficient elements in design and accessibility so that the garden/patio can be used as an important health promotion resource in the care of older people. Residents and staff can be seen as very important actors in such development work.

     

  • 404.
    Dahlström, Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap.
    Johansson, Ulrika
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap.
    Hemodialyspatienters följsamhet gällande kost- och vätskerestriktioner. En empirisk studie.2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 405.
    Danhard Rundquist, Lisa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av att i sin profession möta barn som far illa: En litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Child abuse leave marks into adulthood. Research shows that abused children take higher risks in their teens, report lower self-estimated health as adults, are overrepresented in several physical and psychological conditions, and also hold lower socioeconomic status. Child abuse includes all forms of physical, psychological and emotional abuse as well as neglect. It is the outermost responsibility of the Swedish state to protect all children under the age of 18. As a part of that responsibility some professions, including health care personnel, are legally liable to report to social services. However, figures indicate that health care personnel in comparison to other professions with duty of mandatory reporting are under-reporting. Aim: To describe nurses’ experiences of in their role as professionals meeting abused or neglected children. Method: A descriptive literature review of ten studies with a qualitative approach. Main results: Meeting abused or neglected children is often a very emotional experience and several nurses express a need of support. A feeling of being unprepared is common and an insecurity of when to report a case is shown among many nurses. More education on the subject is requested as well as guidelines and support from the employer. Conclusion: Nurses are in need of support regarding these issues. Specific education, guidelines and a better communication with the child protective services has all emerged as possible improvements that can be implemented.

  • 406.
    Daniels, Karen
    et al.
    Health Systems Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council, Cape Town, Tygerberg WC, South Africa; Health Policy and Systems Division, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Forinder, Ulla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Clarke, Marina
    Centre for Health Professions Education, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Snyman, Stefanus
    Centre for Health Professions Education, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Ringsberg, Karin C.
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Preschool children’s healthy lifestyles: South African parents’ and preschool staff perceptions2016In: Health Education Journal, ISSN 0017-8969, E-ISSN 1748-8176, Vol. 75, no 8, p. 897-910Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The worldwide growth of non-communicable diseases requires important lifestyle adaptations. The earlier a healthy lifestyle is adopted, the better. Enabling a healthy lifestyle for children during the preschool years ideally involves the cooperation of parents and teachers. Health promotion with parents and teachers is most effective if it takes into consideration their views and opinions, as well as context. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore perceptions of health and healthy lifestyle from the perspective of preschool children’s parents, and the staff caring for children attending preschools in three diverse settings. Design: Qualitative in-depth study. Setting: Preschools in Western Cape Province, South Africa. Method: Data were collected through six focus group discussions and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results: Parents and staff shared a holistic view of health, agreeing that children and their health were primarily the responsibility of the parents. Informants described their own health and that of children as affected by a variety of interconnected factors, including environmental, economic, social and individual influences. Conclusion: When tailoring a health-promoting education programme, it is important to consider the pre-existing knowledge the participants have and the context in which intervention will take place. There is also a need to structurally address social determinants of health that may be beyond the control of the individuals.

  • 407.
    Dannberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Kartläggning av Känslan av Sammanhang bland personal inom äldreomsorgen2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 408.
    Danneskog-Runnfors, Ida
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    God omvårdnad av äldre patienter - ur sjuksköterskors perspektiv2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to describe what nurses consider to be good care of elderly patients, and to describe what is important in good care. The method used was an empirical qualitative approach with a descriptive character. Seven nurses, whose experiences varied between 2 and 39 years, were interviewed. They all work at a hospital, but at three different departments. Two open questions were used for the interviews. The interviews were recorded on tape from where it was extruded to text by the author. The responses were then analyzed by being categorized into five different categories and eleven subcategories. The respondents agreed that time and personal care was the most important parts in care of elderly patients. However, the respondents also clamed that there are no differences between younger and older people with respect to good care. Respect, rehabilitation, and search for information about the patients earlier history are also very important aspects of good care.

  • 409.
    Dantoft, Thomas
    et al.
    Danish Research Centre for Chemical Sensitivities, Copenhagen University Hospital, Gentofte, Denmark; Department of Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark; Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Skovbjerg, Sine
    Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Andersson, Linus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Engkilde, Kaare
    Department of Dermato-Allergology, The National Allergy Research Center, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte, Denmark.
    Lind, Nina
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nordin, Steven
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hellgren, Lars I.
    Department of Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Gene expression profiling in MCS before and upon a controlled symptom eliciting n-butanol exposure: a pilot study2017In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 7, no 2, article id e01387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To investigate the pathophysiological pathways leading to symptoms elicitation in multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) by comparing gene expression in MCS participants and healthy controls before and after a chemical exposure optimised to cause symptoms among MCS participants.

    The first hypothesis was that unexposed and symptom-free MCS participants have similar gene expression patterns to controls and a second hypothesis that MCS participants can be separated from controls based on differential gene expression upon a controlled n-butanol exposure.

    Design Participants were exposed to 3.7 ppm n-butanol while seated in a windowed exposure chamber for 60 min. A total of 26 genes involved in biochemical pathways found in the literature have been proposed to play a role in the pathogenesis of MCS and other functional somatic syndromes were selected. Expression levels were compared between MCS and controls before, within 15 min after being exposed to and 4 hours after the exposure.

    Settings Participants suffering from MCS and healthy controls were recruited through advertisement at public places and in a local newspaper.

    Participants 36 participants who considered themselves sensitive were prescreened for eligibility. 18 sensitive persons fulfilling the criteria for MCS were enrolled together with 18 healthy controls.

    Outcome measures 17 genes showed sufficient transcriptional level for analysis. Group comparisons were conducted for each gene at the 3 times points and for the computed area under the curve (AUC) expression levels.

    Results MCS participants and controls displayed similar gene expression levels both at baseline and after the exposure and the computed AUC values were likewise comparable between the 2 groups. The intragroup variation in expression levels among MCS participants was noticeably greater than the controls.

    Conclusions MCS participants and controls have similar gene expression levels at baseline and it was not possible to separate MCS participants from controls based on gene expression measured after the exposure

  • 410.
    Darnemo, Marlene
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjöö, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av att ha sex- och samlevnadsundervisning på högstadiet - En intervjustudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande studie var att beskriva sjuksköterskor inom skolhälsovårdens uppfattningar av att ha sex- och samlevnadsundervisning för ungdomar på högstadiet.

    Metoden var kvalitativ intervjustudie av deskriptiv design och analyserades med kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Undersökningsgruppen var sex sjuksköterskor inom skolhälsovården i en kommun i mellansverige. Huvudresultatet visade att samtliga sjuksköterskor beskrev att deras undervisning i klass inte existerar utan att det är pedagogernas ansvar att undervisa i ämnet sex- och samlevnad. Sjuksköterskorna beskrev att de istället har ett omfattande hälsosamtal med ungdomar i årskurs åtta där fokus ligger på psykisk ohälsa, känslor och kroppsuppfattning. För att nå fram till ungdomarna i fråga ansåg sjuksköterskorna att ett förtroende bör skapas och att ungdomars självkänsla sätts i fokus samtidigt som god undervisning inom ämnet bidrar till ett stärkande av ungdomars relationer. Samtliga sjuksköterskor påvisade tidsbrist inom yrket och att sex- och samlevnadsfrågor bortprioriteras. Samtidigt upplevde majoriteten brist på kunskap inom ämnet och att en kontinuerlig kunskapsutveckling är ett behov. Slutsatsen var att sjuksköterskorna som deltog i studien ansåg att de inte deltog i sex- och samlevnadsundervisning i den utsträckning som de önskar. Detta på grund av tidsbrist och stort antal elever per sjuksköterska. 

  • 411.
    Daun, Olivia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Hur gymnasieelever med Asperger syndrom upplever Aspergerstudio och skolgång2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 412.
    Dawson, Marie-France
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Den goda arbetsmiljön: En kvalitativ intervjustudie med förskolepersonal2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Mycket av den tidigare arbetsmiljöforskningen har fokuserat på faktorer som bidrar till ohälsa inom förskolan och mindre ansträngningar har inriktas på att försöka erhålla kunskaper om vad som bidrar till hälsa. Den här studien kommer därför att fokusera på den salutogena arbetsmiljön inom förskolan.  Syfte: Var att undersöka förskolepersonals uppfattningar om och erfarenheter av begreppet god arbetsmiljö i förskolan. Metod: Fyra förskolelärare och fem barnskötare från en fristående förskola och två kommunala förskolor i Stockholms län deltog. Semistrukturerande intervjuer användes som datainsamlingsmetod. Intervjuerna analyserades med hjälp av fenomenografisk metod och fem beskrivningskategorier samt fjorton underteman skapades. Etiska överväganden beaktades under hela studien.  Resultat: Studiens fem beskrivningskategorier var ett bra ledarskap, god ergonomi, goda miljöer på förskolan, positivt arbetsklimat och hinna vara en bra pedagog. Slutsats: Förskolan har en möjlighet att skapa god arbetsmiljö gällande faktorer som förskolepersonalen själva kan påverka personligen eller inom arbetslaget som till exempel delaktighet och trivsel inom arbetslaget. Det som hindrade förskolan till att skapa god arbetsmiljö var faktorer där enbart chefer, ledningen och politiker kan påverka som icke närvarande chefer och tidsbrist.

  • 413.
    Deikan, Zahra
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Stathakis, Laura
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Erfarenheten och upplevelsen av att vara mamma och sjuk i bröstcancer: En beskrivande litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common malignant disease among women in Sweden. Research has shown that the children of women with breast cancer are affected by the mother's disease due to the fact that the relationship between mother and child is special. The mother is traditionally responsible for the care of the children and when she falls ill the children experience anxiety about the future and their well-being is affected. The responsibility of the nurse is to promote health and prevent illness. The nurse should work from a holistic perspective ensuring that family and relatives are involved in order for all to cope better with the new situation.

    Aim of the study: The purpose of this literature review is to describe the experience of mothers between 19-65 years old with breast cancer while having 0-30-year old children. Furthermore, the purpose is also to describe the methodological aspect of data collection for the included articles of the study.

    Method: A descriptive literature review. Systematic searches on well-known databases using search terms was applied. Subject headings were used. 11 articles were included in the study. The data analysis was done gradually and the data was examined both individually and within the group before consensus was reached and the data categorized under themes.

    Findings: This study shows that the experience of breast cancer for mothers between 19-65 years old having children of 0-30 years is influenced by the fact that they are mothers. Results showed that mothers tried to maintain normality and to not let the breast cancer diagnosis affect their families, specifically their children, more than necessary. Mothers prioritized their children's needs before their own needs. The results showed that this is because of the mother´s conception of the children as being the woman’s and mother’s responsibility. The included articles in this study collected their data through different types of interview techniques and questionnaires. 

    Conclusion: In order to provide good care for the mother affected by breast cancer and her family, it is important for the nurse to highlight not only the patient as a woman, but also as a mother and thus considering her entire lifeworld.

  • 414.
    Delin, Rebecca
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Hammarlund, Matilda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Riskfaktorer för att utveckla posttraumatiskt stressyndrom hos ungdomar: En deskriptiv litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Posttraumatic stress disorder should be considered as a public health disease where diagnosing and treatment require attention. Adolescents who have survived life-threatening events tend to relive these traumatic events and avoid to deal with the emotions that occur, which can lead to mental disorders.

    Aim

    Identify which risk factors there is to develop posttraumatic stress disorder among adolescents and examine which data collection methods the included articles have chosen.

    Method

    Descriptive design has been used in this literature study including 13 articles collected from the databases PsycInfo and PubMed and has been categorized by similarities and differences. The articles data collection methods has been presented from the methodological aspect.

    Main results

    To be exposed to violence and traumatic events as physical injury or see someone suffer/die, be a girl, older adolescent, exposed to daily stress, broken family and have less social support were some risk factors for developing posttraumatic stress disorder. Ten of thirteen articles had a quantitative approach and used questionnaire to get responses for which risk factors there was. One article had a quantitative approach but did not use a questionnaire and two articles had qualitative approach and used interview as data collection method.

    Conclusion

    In this literature study different risk factors were identified underlying to develop PTSD among adolescents. The most common risk factors in almost all of the studies were to be exposed to violence, experience traumatic events, be a girl, have less social support from family and school, lose a family member and daily stress. As a nurse it is important to keep this in mind so the care for the adolescents are as good as possible and that coping is used in the right way.

  • 415.
    Demont, Amir Valentin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sörhuus, Marit
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors inställning till eutanasi: En litteraturstudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The aim of this literature review was to describe nurse’s attitudes towards euthanasia.

    The method used was a descriptive design. Of the 220 hits, 14 was chosen by CINAHL and PubMed (MedLine) and then analyzed. Both qualitative and quantitative aspects were included.

    The results showed that euthanasia is a complex issue where many ethical and moral aspects come in to play. The nurses felt that euthanasia was ethically acceptable for safeguarding patient autonomy, but also when patients’ suffered from incurable disease and severe pain therefore requested euthanasia. Arguments against euthanasia where directed towards the nurse’s role as lifesaver and preserver of life, the risk of misuse and religious beliefs. The study showed that younger nurses and those with lower formal education where more prone to the use of euthanasia than elderly nurses and those with higher education. Attitudes toward euthanasia differed depending on what type of ward the nurses worked in, for example at intensive care units, palliative care or pediatrics. Those who work in pediatric wards or with palliative care are those who more often oppose the use of euthanasia. Nurses who described themselves as religious often argued against the use of euthanasia and its legislation. In countries where euthanasia is legal there is an ongoing debate about nurses’ role in euthanasia and in its decision processing.

    The conclusion is that questions regarding euthanasia are important to investigate, not only by exploring the public’s attitudes but also by exploring the reflections of professionals. The debates will continue regarding euthanasia.

     Keywords: Euthanasia, nurses’ attitudes, palliative care, end of life decisions

  • 416.
    Dempsey, Patrick G
    et al.
    Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety, Center for Safety Research, Hopkinton, MA, United States .
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety, Center for Safety Research, Hopkinton, MA, United States .
    On the evolution of task-based analysis of manual materials handling, and its applicability in contemporary ergonomics2006In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 33-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The industrial revolution significantly changed the way work was organized and analyzed by the introduction and widespread implementation of the division of labor philosophy. This philosophy has continued to dominate work design, and has evolved beyond the factory to include many facets of service industries, and even professional occupations. The analysis of manual work, particularly materials handling tasks, remains an active domain of ergonomics research and practice. Many of the task-analytic tools used for workplace analysis are rooted in the philosophy of dividing work into elements, analyzing the individual elements, and synthesizing the results into conclusions about the entire job, including the risk of contracting musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). The authors discuss the notion that the nature of modern work, which is characterized by multiple tasks in a complex time pattern, and the complex nature of MSDs, which are influenced by biomechanical as well as psychological, political, and economic factors, may limit the effectiveness of classical task analytic techniques in preventing MSDs.

  • 417.
    Dempsey, Patrick G.
    et al.
    Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety, Massachusetts, USA.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Jackson, Jennie A.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    O'Brien, Niall V
    Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety, Hopkinton MA, USA.
    Influence of three principles of pacing on the temporal organisation of work during cyclic assembly and disassembly tasks2010In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 53, no 11, p. 1347-1358Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study was conducted to investigate the influence of different approaches to arranging the pace and temporal organisation of repetitive assembly and disassembly tasks on both average performance and its variability and to compare assembly and disassembly times derived with psychophysical methods to a more traditional methods-time measurement (MTM) approach. The conditions studied were a traditional assembly line arrangement, where assemblies were started at a pace of 110 MTM (repeated on two occasions), a batch condition, where subjects were required to complete 36 assemblies within the total amount of time allowed at 110, MTM and a psychophysical condition, where subjects were allowed to choose their pace (repeated on two occasions). Overall, the results suggest that the mean time spent working in each cycle (the 'on-time') remained fairly constant across conditions, while the idle 'off-time' in between on-times was shorter and of less varied duration in the more autonomous batch and psychophysical conditions. During the second psychophysical (self-paced) condition, subjects completed a significantly higher number of assemblies than during the 110 MTM line condition. The higher pace was achieved through reduction in mean off-times and the potential implications for musculoskeletal risk are discussed. Statement of Relevance: Higher levels of autonomy over work pace, which intuitively would be beneficial from an ergonomics standpoint, actually led to subjects selecting to organise work such that off-times (idle times) were reduced. In contrast, active 'on' times were not affected much by autonomy. These results point to a reason that piecework would be associated with increased risk for musculoskeletal disorders.

  • 418.
    Deniz, Nathalie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Ethnicity and Cardiovascular Disease in theMiddle East2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to compare between ethnicities if there is a difference in survival and treatment when it comes to cardiovascular diseases in the Middle East. To find out if there is a difference 28 articles was selected for inclusion, both qualitative and quantitative studies. Searches were made in the databases Medline, PubMed, Google and Google Scholar.The results showed that it is possible that there are differences in mortality and morbidity between ethnicities affected by cardiovascular disease. These may be due to differences in abdominal obesity, insulin resistance in diabetes and other risks such as C-reactive protein in the blood plasma which is normally excreted in inflammation in the body and also adiponectin, which is a hormone found in fat tissue whose secretion is diminished in people who have diabetes. But studies saying that a difference does exist are too few and the need for more and larger studies is needed. It may also be that not all ethnicities are as benefited from current treatments available against cardiovascular diseases for example beta-blockers. The conclusion of this study is that more research in this area is needed as well as more comprehensive studies regarding public health in the Middle East.

  • 419.
    Devik A., Siri
    et al.
    Centre of Care Research Mid-Norway, Steinkjer, Norway; Faculty of Nursing and Health Sciences, Nord University, Namsos, Norway.
    Olsen, Rose M.
    Faculty of Nursing and Health Sciences, Nord University, Namsos, Norway.
    Fiskvik, Inger Lise
    Centre for Development of Institutional and Home care Services in Nord-Trøndelag, Stjørdal, Norway.
    Halbostad, Terje
    Namsos Hospital, Hospital Pharmacy, Namsos, Norway.
    Lassen, Tone
    Apotek 1, Malvik, Norway.
    Kuzina, Natalia
    Department of Laboratory Medicine Children's and women's Health, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Centre of Care Research Mid-Norway, Steinkjer, Norway.
    Varations in drug-related problems detected by multidisciplinary teams in Norwegian nursing homes and home nursing care2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, ISSN 0281-3432, E-ISSN 1502-7724, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 291-299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE:

    Traditionally, nursing homes have been associated with suboptimal drug therapy and drug-related problems (DRPs). In contrast, less is known about drug safety in homecare. The aim of this study was to describe and compare DRPs in older persons across two care settings: nursing homes and home nursing care.

    DESIGN:

    Cross-sectional study using descriptive and inferential statistics.

    SETTING:

    Nursing homes (n = 5) and home nursing care units (n = 8) across nine municipalities in the middle of Norway.

    PARTICIPANTS:

    Multidisciplinary medication reviews for 61 nursing home residents and 93 patients receiving home nursing care performed over the 2013-2014 period, were mapped and examined (N = 154).

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

    DRPs classified by a Norwegian Classification Tool.

    RESULTS:

    In all, 740 DRPs were detected in the total sample, 227 in nursing homes and 513 in home nursing care. DRPs were significantly higher among patients receiving home-based care (Mean =5.5) compared to patients in nursing homes (Mean =3.7, p = 0.002). Among the problem categories, the need for additional drug was most frequent in nursing homes (p = 0.001), while documentation discrepancies reached the highest numbers in patients receiving home nursing care (p = 0.000). Additionally, patients in home nursing care had more problems concerning adverse reactions (p = 0.060); however, this was not statistically significant. Differences in DRP categories leading to changes in the patients' medication lists were also discovered.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    The frequency of unclear documentation and adverse reactions found in the homecare setting is alarming. This is an important issue given the trend in aged care towards caring people in their own homes. Further research is warranted to explore how different care settings may influence the safety of pharmacotherapy for older persons.

    Key Points

    Drug related problems are a significant cause of concern among patients receiving home nursing care as well as for patients living in nursing homes. The findings of this study showed that:

    • Significantly more DRPs were detected among patients receiving home nursing care than patients living in nursing homes.
    • While patients living in nursing homes were often undermedicated, documentation discrepancies were more frequent in home nursing care.
    • DRP categories leading to changes on the medication lists differed between the settings.
  • 420.
    Dgedge, Martinho
    et al.
    Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, Maputo, Mozambique..
    Novoa, Ana
    Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, Maputo, Mozambique.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, Maputo, Mozambique.
    Sacarlal, Jahit
    Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, Maputo, Mozambique.
    Black, James
    Epidemiologista, Direcc¸a˜ o Provincial de Sau´ de, Manica, Mozambique..
    Michaud, Catherine
    Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies, Cambridge MA, USA..
    Cliff, Julie
    Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, Maputo, Mozambique.
    The burden of disease in Maputo City, Mozambique: registered and autopsied deaths in 19942001In: Bulletin of the World Health Organization, ISSN 0042-9686, E-ISSN 1564-0604, Vol. 79, no 6, p. 546-552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To classify the causes of death in Maputo City, Mozambique, using the methods of the Global Burden of Disease study, in order to provide information for health policy-makers and to obtain a baseline for future studies in Maputo City and provincial capitals.

    Methods:  Data were taken from the Maputo City death register and autopsy records for 1994.

    Findings: A total of 9011 deaths were recorded in the death register, representing a coverage of approximately 86%. Of these, 8114 deaths (92%) were classified by cause. Communicable, maternal, perinatal, and nutritional disorders accounted for 5319 deaths; noncommunicable diseases for 1834; and injuries for 961. The 10 leading causes of registered deaths were perinatal disorders (1643 deaths); malaria (928); diarrhoeal diseases (814); tuberculosis (456); lower respiratory infections (416); road-traffic accidents (371); anaemia (269); cerebrovascular diseases (269); homicide (188); and bacterial meningitis (178).

    Conclusions: Infectious diseases of all types, injuries, and cerebrovascular disease ranked as leading causes of death, according to both the autopsy records and the city death register. AIDS-related deaths were underreported. With HIV infection increasing rapidly, AIDS will add to the already high burden of infectious diseases and premature mortality in Maputo City. The results of the study indicate that cause of death is a useful outcome indicator for disease control programmes

  • 421.
    Ding, Mingxia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Zhu, Huifang
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Nursing students’ self-regulated learning ability: A descriptive literature review2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 422.
    Diraoui, Fatima
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Sääf, Lotten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Sjuksköterskans erfarenheter av att vårda patienter i livets slutskede: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Every year between 90 000 and 100 000 people dies in Sweden, the majority of these were cared in palliative care. The palliative care primarily focus on relief of symptoms and improvement of patient's quality of life.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe nurse’s experiences of caring for patients in the final stages of life and to describe the data collection method that was used in the included articles.

    Method: A descriptive literature study. The study was based on 14 qualitative articles found through searches in the databases PubMed and Cinahl.

    Main Results: Nurses experiences of showing respect for both patients and their relatives contributed to a better relation and trust. Nurses experienced that the palliative caring could be mentally burdened, but through support from colleagues the burden could be reduced. The demands from relatives could create a feeling of stress. Nurses on surgical and oncological ward experienced a lack of knowledge when it came to palliative care and communication. According to the nurses, communication between nurses and doctors didn't work well and were a source of stress. Data collection method in the included articles were interviews and focusgroup interviews.

    Conclusions: Nurses described a lack of knowledge within the palliative care and difficulties communicating with patients and their relatives. Education within palliative care and communication could contribute to nurses feeling more confident and allow them to grow in their role and improve the collaboration with doctors.

  • 423.
    Djupsjöbacka, Mats
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Röiijezon, Ulrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Häger-Ross, Charlotte
    Ortopedkliniken, Norrlands universitetssjukhus, Umeå.
    Björklund, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Sensomotorisk funktion hos personer med nackbesvär2010In: Fysioterapi, ISSN 1653-5804, no 6-7, p. 38-45Article, review/survey (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nackbesvär är vanligt förekommande och utgör en betydande orsak till ohälsa och inskränkt arbetsförmåga. Vanligen går det inte att klarlägga organisk orsak till långvariga nackbesvär men mycket tyder på att de oftast är ett komplext tillstånd där både biologiska och psykosociala faktorer är av betydelse. Forskning har visat på samband mellan långvariga nackbesvär och störningar i olika sensomotoriska funktioner och att graden av funktionspåverkan ofta är kopplad till graden av upplevda besvär. Undersökning av sensomotorisk funktion kan därför vara en viktig del i bedömningen av denna patientgrupp. Forskning har även visat att det finns evidens för positiva effekter av sensomotorisk träning vid nackbesvär på kort sikt, medan kunskap om långtidseffekter saknas. Vid träning av sensomotorisk funktion är det viktigt att beakta grundläggande kunskap inom motorisk inlärning för att öka möjligheterna till bestående träningseffekter och att dessa överförs till vardagliga situationer.

  • 424.
    Dolk, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Jonsson, Lisa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Sjuksköterskors attityd till inducerad abort: En litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Sweden women has the right to abortion until pregnancy week 18, as long

    as there’s no risk for her life. Abortion after pregnancy week 18 require a permit from The

    National Board of Health and Welfare (Socialstyrelsen). The law regarding abortion varies a

    lot around the world. Approximately 45 million abortions are performed annually around the

    world. It’s estimated that half of them are performed illegally.

    Aim: To describe nurse's attitude towards induced abortion and to describe the survey group

    in the included articles.

    Method: A literature review with a descriptive design. The articles were searched in the

    database PubMed and Cinahl and resulted in 14 articles that was included in the study.

    Main results: It occurred both negative and positive attitude among nurses towards induced

    abortion. Negative attitude were shown through the nurses conception of life, religious belief

    as well as repeated abortions. In some cases this was shown through discrimination of the

    patients. Positive attitude was shown through the nurses conviction of women's right to

    abortion. An equal and non-judgemental care was emphasized. The nurses had different

    methods to cope with the situation and perform an adequate job with regard for the patient's

    best.

    Conclusion: Nurses attitudes may affect women’s experience of health care in a positive or

    negative direction. Knowledge of the occurring attitudes among staff involved in induced

    abortion give nurses an opportunity to reflect on their own attitude.

  • 425.
    Domkin, Dmitry
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Forsman, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Richter, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Ciliary muscle contraction force and trapezius muscle activity during manual tracking of a moving visual target2016In: Journal of Electromyography & Kinesiology, ISSN 1050-6411, E-ISSN 1873-5711, Vol. 28, p. 193-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have shown an association of visual demands during near work and increased activity of the trapezius muscle. Those studies were conducted under stationary postural conditions with fixed gaze and artificial visual load. The present study investigated the relationship between ciliary muscle contraction force and trapezius muscle activity across individuals during performance of a natural dynamic motor task under free gaze conditions. Participants (N = 11) tracked a moving visual target with a digital pen on a computer screen. Tracking performance, eye refraction and trapezius muscle activity were continuously measured. Ciliary muscle contraction force was computed from eye accommodative response. There was a significant Pearson correlation between ciliary muscle contraction force and trapezius muscle activity on the tracking side (0.78, p < 0.01) and passive side (0.64, p < 0.05). The study supports the hypothesis that high visual demands, leading to an increased ciliary muscle contraction during continuous eye–hand coordination, may increase trapezius muscle tension and thus contribute to the development of musculoskeletal complaints in the neck–shoulder area. Further experimental studies are required to clarify whether the relationship is valid within each individual or may represent a general personal trait, when individuals with higher eye accommodative response tend to have higher trapezius muscle activity.

  • 426.
    Domkin, Dmitry
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute.
    Richter, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Relationship between eye-lens accomodative response and trapezius muscle activity during manual tracking of a visual target2014In: 11th International Symposium on Human Factors in Organisational Design and Management (ODAM 2014)and 46th Annual Nordic Ergonomics Society, Technical University of Denmark , 2014, p. 1073-1074Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 427.
    Domkin, Dmitry
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Richter, Hans O.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Effect of ciliary-muscle contraction force on trapezius muscle activity during computer mouse work2019In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 119, no 2, p. 389-397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aimed to identify whether or not an increase in ciliary-muscle contraction force, when the eye-lens is adjusted for viewing at a near distance, result in an increase in trapezius muscle activity, while performing a natural work task. Twelve participants, ranging in age from 21 to 32 years, performed a computer-mouse work task during free gaze conditions. A moving visual target was tracked with a computer mouse on a screen placed at two different distances from the eyes, 25 cm and 50 cm. Tracking performance, eye accommodation, and bilateral trapezius muscle activity were measured continuously. Ciliary-muscle contraction force was computed according to a formula which takes into account the age-dependent, non-linear relationship between contraction force of the ciliary muscle and the produced level of eye accommodation. Generalized Estimating Equations analyses were performed. On the dominant hand side and for the nearest screen distance, there was a significant effect of ciliary-muscle contraction force on the trapezius muscle activity (p<0.001). No other effects were significant (p>0.05). The results support the hypothesis that high visual demands, during computer mouse work, increase ciliary muscle contraction force and contribute to a raise of the sustained level of trapezius muscle activity. The current study specifically clarifies the validity of the relationship between ciliary-muscle contraction force and trapezius muscle activity and demonstrates that this relationship is not due to a general personal trait. We conclude that a high level of ciliary muscle contraction force can contribute to a development of musculoskeletal complaints in the neck-shoulder area.

  • 428.
    Domkin, Dmitry
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Buildning science - applied psychology.
    Richter, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF.
    Performance and fatigue perception during strenuous near work in persons with different levels of working memory capacity2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 429.
    Dragon, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Nilsson, Ulrika
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Sjuksköterskors kunskap om smärta och smärtbehandling: En enkätstudie2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge regarding pain and pain treatment is an essential part within nursing that a nurse is responsible for. Earlier studies have shown that lack of that kind of knowledge often results in inadequate treatment for pain. The purpose with the study was to describe nurses’ knowledge regarding pain and pain treatment at a medical unit in a hospital in central Sweden, and to see if there was a distinction in knowledge related to professional experience. Data was collected through a questionnaire with questions referring to pain (6 questions) and pain treatment (6 questions). The questionnaire was given to 108 nurses at a medical unit in a hospital in central Sweden. Fifty-two responded the inquiry; whence 50 were woman and two were men. The main result indicated that the majority of the nurses had propitious knowledge regarding pain and pain treatment, since the mean-score of the questions regarding knowledge were 8,1 (67,6 %) out of 12. Forty-nine nurses reported non-pharmacologic methods to alleviate pain such as TENS, acupuncture and massage. There was no significant distinction in knowledge between nurses whom had been working 1-12 years (25 nurses), and those who had been working 13-39 (26 nurses) years. The majority of the nurses experienced they did not have enough knowledge about pain and pain treatment to be able to give adequate pain relief.

  • 430.
    Dragon, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Persson, Margareta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Upplevelser i vardagen hos personer med demenssjukdom och som bor i ordinärt boende.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Several people are living with dementia disease and the numbers are expected to rise as the population ages. The aim of the study was that by people with dementia disease and their narratives describe the experiences of living in ordinary housing and deal with daily life. The study has been carried out through unstructured interviews with nine people with dementia disease who are over 65 years old and living in ordinary housing. Data were processed by qualitative manifest content analysis. The results are presented in six categories dealing with limitations in daily life, altered self, feeling of dissatisfaction, the feeling of contentedness, social relationships and strategies.The older persons experienced limitations and were dependence on others because of their dementiadisease. Bitterness to have suffered illness was the main source of the feeling of dissatisfaction. Contentedness was perceived by feeling safe and be able to perform for them meaningful tasks. Social relations were important, but sometimes influenced by the feeling of not being good enough. Everyday living in ordinary housing meant different pursuits and handled by using different strategies and a certain acceptance. The conclusion of the study shows that people with dementia disease perceive their life situation and everyday living satisfying and manageable in ordinary housing with appropriate support and assistance.

  • 431.
    Drangeus, Jessica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Trädgårdsterapi och trädgårdsrelaterade aktiviteter inom kriminalvård: Perspektiv på utformning, erfarenheter och effekter2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte var att undersöka hur olika trädgårdsrelaterade program inom kriminalvård kan vara utformade och hur dessa program påverkar de intagna. Studien är designad som en litteraturstudie kompletterad med intervjuer och erfarenhetsberättelser från intagna och personal på fängelser. I resultatet framkom att trädgårdsterapi och trädgårdsrelaterade aktiviteter inom kriminalvård kan vara utformade i rehabiliterande syfte, som yrkes- eller utbildningsinriktade program, arbete eller som alternativ till annan sysselsättning. Erfarenheter från personal och intagna samt forskning visar i denna studie att trädgårdsterapi och trädgårdsrelaterade aktiviteter inom kriminalvård kan gynna de intagna. Hälsoeffekter som framkom var bland annat bättre samarbetsförmåga, ökad socialisering och minskad stress. Forskningen inom detta område är dock ännu i sin linda och kompletterande studier behövs för att kunna fastställa evidens inom området.

  • 432.
    Dropkin, Jonathan
    et al.
    Department of Department of Occupational Medicine, Epidemiology, and Prevention, Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine, USA.
    Moline, Jacqueline
    Department of Occupational Medicine, Epidemiology, and Prevention, Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine, USA.
    Kim, Hyun
    Department of Occupational Medicine, Epidemiology, and Prevention, Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine, USA.
    Gold, Judith
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Blended work as a bridge between traditional workplace employment and retirement: a conceptual review2016In: Work, Aging and Retirement, ISSN 2054-4642, E-ISSN 2054-4650, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 373-383Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Because of population aging, the consensus among policy makers is that employment in older workers must increase. However, methods for attaining this are uncertain. Blended work, which consists of working anywhere and any-time with information and communication technology, may help achieve this goal. The article focuses on 4 top-ics related to older workers and blended work: the benefits, risks, individual- and organizational-level barriers, and organizational and government interventions and policies designed to remove these risks and barriers. Legislation to protect against age discrimination and disability associated with age is also reviewed. The objectives are to dis-cuss the literature on blended work and the older worker and highlight some consequences the Age Discrimination in Employment Act and American with Disabilities Act may have on blended work. Delaying retirement through blended work could promote older workers’ health and well-being, but risks and barriers at individual- and organi-zational-levels are not inconsequential. At the individual level, these include social isolation, and managements’ loss of control over employees at the organizational level. Potential interventions include developing blended work as an employee benefit to replace long distance travel. Federal policies include providing subsidies to state and local gov-ernments to reduce costs of upgrading broadband fiber-optic cables. Specific subgroups of workers are more likely to benefit from blended work. Older white collar professionals with good technological and computer skills and who can work independently are one subgroup that might fit a blended worker personality.

  • 433.
    Ed, Kristina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Faller, Stina
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Vårdpersonalens skattning av strukturell empowerment och arbetstillfredsställelse samt reliabilitetstestning av instrumentet CWEQ.   2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tidigare studier har visat att bristen på strukturell empowerment på vårdavdelning ofta leder till försämrad personalhälsa, sämre arbetsmiljö och mindre samarbete med kollegor samt högre grad av utmattningssymtom. Syftet med studien var att beskriva vårdpersonalens upplevelse av strukturell empowerment vid en akut kirurg- och ortopedavdelning, samt att undersöka om det finns några skillnader mellan sjuksköterskors och undersköterskors skattning av strukturell empowerment. Ytterligare ett syfte var att beskriva vårdpersonalens upplevelse av arbetstillfredsställelse samt att reliabilitetstesta ett instrument som mäter strukturell empowerment. Data gällande strukturell empowerment samlades in med instrumentet Condition of Work Effectiveness Questionnaire (CWEQ och CWEQ II) och data gällande arbetstillfredsställelse samlades in med en studiespecifik fråga. Femtioen enkäter delades ut, 43 personer svarade vid första mätningen och 39 personer vid andra mätningen. Huvudresultatet visade att personalens upplevelse av strukturell empowerment var medelmåttig. Sjuksköterskor skattade strukturell empowerment statistiskt signifikant högre jämfört med undersköterskor. Åttioen procent (n 35 av 43) av personalen upplevde arbetstillfredsställelse som bra eller mycket bra. Instrumentets reliabilitet, test-retest var r 0,40-0,86 och Cronbach Alpha 0,57-0,91. Slutsatserna är att personalen upplevde medelmåttig strukturell empowerment och att psykometriska data, test-retest och Cronbach Alpha, för den Svenska versionen av CWEQ och CWEQ II är i stort acceptabla.

  • 434.
    Edeborg, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Westh, Helen
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Sjuksköterskans omvårdnad av för tidigt födda barn: Så kan föräldrarna involveras i vården av sitt barn2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this literature review was primarily to describe how the nurse can involve the parents in the care for their premature baby, and secondly to describe the aim, design, method, population and quality of the reviewed studies. Searches have been made in different databases in order to find articles where the search words ”neonatal care”, ”neonatalvård”, ”premature infants” and ”nurse” were included. The literature review was based on 12 scientific articles. The results of the study were divided into six categories; The nursing staff’s relation to the parents, Support group, “Home-early program”, Decision-making, A work in progress and A safe and efficient method. It is the nurse’s task to create a trusting relationship to the parents. The parents’ relationship to the child is a determining factor in its development. Some of the studies described how support groups can be used to help families with premature children. The studies showed that parents want to be involved in making decisions about their baby, but they also find it frightening. There are a lot of ways for the nurse to involve parents in the care for their premature baby. It is very important that the parents get sufficient information, which will enable them to be active when decisions are made about their baby.

  • 435.
    Edholm, Johannes
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Fa, Denise
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av tvångsvårdsåtgärder på patienter med psykisk ohälsa – en litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to describe nurses' experiences of performing compulsory measures of patients with mental illness and review the selected articles sample method. 

                                                                                                                             Method: The present literature study has a descriptive design that includes articles of both qualitative and quantitative approach; the literature review includes a total of twelve articles.

      Result: The results showed that nurses' experiences of performing compulsory treatment measures include a wide range of emotions that involve, among other things, a conflict of emotions in conjunction with the exclusion of the patient's autonomy. Results showed differing experiences of nurses existing idea of ​​compulsory measures favored the patient in question or not. The majority of nurses felt that the execution of coercive measures was used too casually as well as to undermine the therapeutic alliance with the patient. Nurses’ common view was that there was need for the opportunity to vent action procedure.  

    Conclusion: The results showed that the majority of nurses felt that compulsory measures implied negative experiences. A recurring verdict associated with compulsory measures was a contradiction of emotions in nurses due to the ethical dilemma that arose. Common experiences were identified, that compulsory measures was used too lightly. Alternative measures should have more room to be implemented in clinical practice. It should also develop a forum for ventilation for the nurses that are in contact with the coercion, an opportunity for discussion and improvement of the procedure.

  • 436.
    Edin, Caroline
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Mälby, Sara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Faktorer på akutmottagningen som är av betydelse för patientens tillfredställelse av vården: - en litteraturstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To describe the factors of patient satisfaction in the emergency department. Method: A literature review with descriptive design. The data was based on 13 articles searched in the PubMed database.Result: In total, seven factors of patient satisfaction of care were identified in the emergency department. The factors were the patient's background, health professional response, information, communication, the triage process, waiting time and the environment. The result showed that the main factor that had an impact on patient satisfaction in the emergency department was waiting time, the uncertainty surrounding this and the impact of the triageprocess. Conclusion: The factors shown to be important in itself, and more importantly, in combination with each other. If patients were dissatisfied with one factor it often affected the satisfaction of the other factors during the visit to the emergency department. The waiting time suggest being the most significant factor for patient satisfaction and the triage system affected how long the patients actually waited in the emergency department. Research exists on what factors that are significant for patients in the emergency department. Yet patients continued to be unsatisfied and unaware in the emergency department. Further research is needed about the relationship between the factors that are important for patient satisfaction in the emergency department and specific the triage system's impact on waiting times and patient satisfaction. Also research on the triage system as a functioning system, as association showed to waiting times.

  • 437.
    Edkvist, Ingela
    Dalarnas forskningsråd.
    Anhörig 300 i Dalarna: hur gick det?2002Report (Other academic)
  • 438.
    Edkvist, Ingela
    Socialstyrelsen.
    Mellan anhörigskap och släktskap: anhöriga till personer med psykiska funktionshinder berättar2001Report (Other academic)
  • 439.
    Edkvist, Ingela
    Dalarnas forskningsråd.
    Omsorgsarbetets otydliga tillhörighet2004In: Att vara i omsorgens mitt / [ed] Renita Sörensdotter & Inga Michaeli, Hedemora: Gidlunds förlag , 2004, p. 19-28Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Omsorg är ett diffust och svårfångat begrepp som berör många människor.Inom den kommunala omsorgen arbetar människor med att utföra omsorg på olikanivåer. Politiker, tjänstemän, undersköterskor och vårdbiträden ger omsorgutifrån olika förutsättningar och med olika kunskaper. Omsorg är även enteoretisk kunskap som lärs ut på vård- och omsorgsutbildningar på gymnasier ochhögskolor. Eftersom omsorg är så mångfacetterat och svårt att ringa in behövsen ständigt pågående diskussion om vad omsorg är och hur den ska utföras. Dennadiskussion behöver föras utifrån olika perspektiv på många olika nivåer isamhället.Att vara i omsorgens mitt belyser omsorg utifrån olika perspektiv medtyngdpunkt på hur omsorg formuleras och utformas i det senmoderna samhället.Omsorgens plats i marknadsekonomin, dess koppling till moral, omsorgens kopplingtill kvinnlighet, omsorg i konsten samt gerotranscendens som en väg till godomsorg lyfts fram i de fem essäerna. Berättelse, bild och dikt belyser omsorgpå olika sätt och inom olika sammanhang. Den röda tråden i antologin består avatt omsorgens olika innebörder och villkor diskuteras. Boken innehåller fem essäer.

  • 440.
    Edkvist, Ingela
    Dalarnas forskningsråd.
    Stöd till äldres anhöriga från kommuner och frivilligorganisationer: En kartläggning i Dalarna2000Report (Other academic)
  • 441.
    Edkvist, Ingela
    et al.
    Dalarnas forskningsråd.
    Dahlberg, Lena
    Dalarnas Forskinngsråd.
    "Så säger man inte till doktorn!": Patienters och anhörigas möte med landstinget2003In: Expansion och omprövning: Fyrtio år med Landstinget Dalarna / [ed] Isakcson, Maths; Nilsson, Staffan; Götlind, Anna & Borgert, Leif, Falun: Landstinget Dalarna , 2003, p. 91-106Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 442.
    Edling, Cecilia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Första linjens chefers erfarenheter av arbetet med den psykosociala arbetsmiljön: - en kvalitativ studie i en universitetsmiljö2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Author: Cecilia Edling

    Title: First line managers’ experiences of work with the psychosocial work environment - a qualitative study in a university environment.

    Course: Master thesis of the main area work and health

    University: University of Gävle, Sweden

    Aim: Explore and describe experiences first line managers at universities and colleges have of working with the psychosocial work environment. Background: Problems with the psychosocial work environment are growing and is a diffuse area that can be difficult to know how to handle. First line managers have an important role by being a link between higher managers and subordinate employees, but it can also be a complex and difficult role.

    Metod: Qualitative method with qualitative content analysis. Result: Experiences are that conflicts are difficult to handle and that clarity in the role is affected by the organization of responsibility. The psychosocial work environment is perceived as difficult to work with and structural factors create stress for employees and difficulties for managers to handle.

    Conclusion: Many of the experiences, and which first line managers experience affects their work with the psychosocial work environment, are specific for universities and colleges.

    Keywords: psychosocial work environment, first line managers, university and college

  • 443.
    Edström, Katrin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    Att delta i en hälsofrämjande intervention på arbetsplatsen: En intervjuundersökning2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction The Swedish Work Environment Authority has developed a new guideline that gives employees a great responsibility to promote a good working environment and prevent ill health among their employees. The reason that these guidelines have been developed is that illness among employees at work in Sweden has increased.

    Background At a workplace in a medium sized city in Sweden a group of employees was offered to participate in a health promotion intervention. The goal of the intervention was to give the employees the best conditions for prosperous health and a chance to improve their lifestyle, if they had a need for it. With the help from a coach, the employees worked in groups and individually in areas such as stress, nutrition, physical activity, ergonomics and mental health, and it was the individual´s needs and interests that guided the entire process.

    The aim of the study was to examine what the participants experienced when participating in a workplace intervention with focus on health promotion.

    The method used in the study was a semi-structured interview with four participants, both men and women aged twenty five to sixty three, which were subsequently analyzed through a qualitative content analysis.

    The result showed that the workplace as an arena was of great importance for the individuals. It was perceived as positive that the intervention took place during work hours, otherwise it would have been doubtful that the participants would have participated. It was important for the individuals to discuss the process they went through with their colleagues. However, all participants experienced a sense of shame and did not want to share their inner thoughts with their colleagues. It turned out to be difficult to formulate their individual goals, their focus was instead on what others expected from them.

    The conclusion was that fear of failure among the participants was the reason why they did not want to share their individual goals with their colleagues. In order to continue to feel motivated for a change in life style, the support from the coach and colleagues was necessary.

  • 444.
    Edvinsson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Flexibelt arbete: Utveckling och validering av ett kvantitativt frågeformulär2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a Swedish questionnaire assessing conditions of actual work flexibility and its determinants. Data was collected by qualitative Think aloud- interviews with three persons, and through discussions with a reference group. The results from the interviews and discussions showed that corrections were needed for some of the concepts, questions, design and number of items. Next, a cross-sectional study was performed by sending the adjusted questionnaire to three companies in Sweden (N = 266), which was answered by 92 employees. The results supported the adjustments and the questionnaires’ content validity and face validity (> 95 % of the employees agreed). Three Principal component analyses showed comprehensible factors for the three main areas of questions: determinants of actual flexibility, technology use, and work-non-work balance, indicating structural validity of the questionnaire. Furthermore, hypothesis testing showed as expected that the most index variables of actual work flexibility could significantly separate the groups with varying extents of regulated work, indicating construct validity. To conclude, this Master thesis has revealed several question domains valid for inclusion in future surveys regarding actual work flexibility and associations with health and wellbeing at work.

  • 445.
    Edäng, Zarah
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Åström, Emma
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors attityder och erfarenheter till att vårda personer med missbruksproblematik inom slutenvården: En litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Narkotikamissbruk medför hälsoproblem och sjuksköterskan möter människor med missbruksproblematik inom alla vårdinrättningar. Bristande kunskap, fördomar och negativa attityder är något som förekommer mot dessa människor ute i samhället och kan påverka sjuksköterskans professionella förhållningssätt i vården av personer med missbruksproblematik. Rätten till en god omvårdnad skall inte tas bort på grund av ett missbruk.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att beskriva sjuksköterskors attityder och erfarenheter till att vårda personer med missbruksproblematik inom slutenvården samt att beskriva de inkluderade artiklarnas datainsamlingsmetod.

    Metod: En beskrivande litteraturstudie där databaserna Cinahl och PsycINFO användes för att hitta vetenskapliga artiklar. 14 kvantitativa och kvalitativa artiklar inkluderades i studien och granskades och sammanställdes av författarna.

    Resultat: Resultatet i studien visade att sjuksköterskan i vården av personer med missbruksproblematik kan ha negativa attityder till denna patientgrupp. De negativa attityderna kan orsakas av samhällets stigmatisering mot missbruk, det oförutsägbara beteendet samt hotfulla situationer som kan uppstå i arbetssituationen. Attityderna sågs vara bättre hos de sjuksköterskor som hade längre erfarenhet och mer kunskap inom missbruksproblematik. Vid granskning av metodologiska aspekten framkom att alla de inkluderade artiklarna hade beskrivit datainsamlingsmetoden, dock med varierande noggrannhet. Majoriteten av de granskade artiklarna använde frågeformulär som datainsamlingsmetod.

    Slutsats: Vården av personer med missbruksproblematik skall ske på samma villkor som till andra patientgrupper. För att förbättra attityder och fördomar mot dessa personer krävs utbildning och kunskap.

  • 446.
    Efverström, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Två aktuella böcker problematiserar den moraliska kampen mot dopning inom idrotten: Recension av böckerna The War on Drugs in Sport av Vanessa McDermott och Testing for Athlete Citizenship av Kathryn E. Henne2016In: Idrottsforum.org/Nordic sport science forum, ISSN 1652-7224, Vol. 16 marsArticle, book review (Other academic)
  • 447.
    Efverström, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science. Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, Stockholm.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, Stockholm.
    Hoff, David
    Lunds universitet.
    Anti-doping and legitimacy: An international survey of elite athletes’ perceptions2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although there are a number of studies on policy making concerning doping and anti-doping in elite sports, the athletes’ perspective has largely been neglected. The present study contributes to bridging this gap. Since forming and developing the anti-doping policy utterly depends on how legitimate the practitioners believe this policy to be, the specific aim for this paper is to study how elite athletes at the broad international arena perceive the legitimacy of anti-doping policy and practices. An on-line questionnaire, designed to capture elite athletes’ perceptions, was answered by 261 respondents from 51 different countries and four international sports federations. Respondents were elite athletes belonging to the International Registered Testing Pool of each federation. The respondents were generally supportive towards anti-doping policy. Over 80% agreed that different anti-doping activities, from doping controls and the whereabouts system to storing of test samples and biological passports, are essential parts of the work against doping in sports. Support for anti-doping policy is also shown when 80% of the athletes agreed that anti-doping work should develop in a way that there is the same level of, or more, anti-doping activities compared to the current. The principle of anti-doping is, in this study, shown to be legitimate. However, at the level of practices, four areas were perceived as challenging. Regarding practical procedures, 34% experienced difficulties filing whereabouts information and 73% felt worried that they won’t be available for testing at the right place and right time in correlation to the whereabouts information they had provided. Concerning the athletes’ personal life and privacy, 50% of female athletes and 30% of males stated that they feel somewhat or very uncomfortable regarding their privacy when providing a urine sample. Furthermore, in regard to the whereabouts system, 47% of the respondents stated that they feel monitored. The efficacy and equality of anti-doping work is put under question by 58% who believed that users of forbidden substances/methods escape detection and 44% who did not believe that the whereabouts system is working properly in all countries. 70% of the respondents did not believe that all athletes applying for a therapeutic use exemption are treated in the same way. Regarding the athletes influence and participation in the policy work, 85% believe that athletes should be more involved. These four areas can be seen as unintended consequences of the work and reveal a weak point for the legitimacy of anti-doping when the athletes not fully perceive procedural justice. In conclusion, legitimacy for anti-doping policy in general is strong while a questioning of the legitimacy in the execution of the rules is discerned. If anti-doping authorities wish to maintain and increase the legitimacy of the anti-doping efforts, a thorough understanding for and consideration of the athletes’ perceptions is beneficial.

  • 448.
    Efverström, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science. Swedish School of Sports and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Ahmadi, Nader
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Hoff, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science. School of Social Work, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Anti-doping and legitimacy: an international survey of elite athletes’ perceptions2016In: International Journal of Sport Policy, ISSN 1940-6940, E-ISSN 1940-6959, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 491-514Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anti-doping work is a comprehensive enterprise that entails control and governance of elite athletes’ everyday lives. However, in policy-making regarding doping and anti-doping in elite sports, the athletes’ perspective has not been considered adequately. Focusing on elite athletes’ perceptions of anti-doping as both principle and praxis, the study aimed to analyse how these perceptions can be understood from a legitimacy perspective. A survey study involving 261 elite athletes from 51 different countries and four international sports federations was conducted. The results showed that the athletes did not question the legitimacy of the rules, but had concerns about the legitimacy of the way the rules and principles are enforced in practice, specifically with regard to matters of privacy, lack of efficiency and equal conditions as well as athletes’ involvement in the anti-doping work. The article describes how athletes’ perceptions of the legitimacy of anti-doping work constitute the basis for their willingness to follow regulations as well as a precondition for the work’s functionality and stability. In light of this finding, the article calls for the empowerment of athletes in anti-doping work.

  • 449.
    Efverström, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science. Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, Stockholm.
    Bäckström, Åsa
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Hoff, David
    School of Social Work, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Contexts and conditions for a level playing field: Elite athletes’ perspectives on anti-doping in practice2016In: Performance Enhancement & Health, ISSN 2211-2669, E-ISSN 2211-2669, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 77-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The implementation of global anti-doping regulations was intended to provide a level playing field for all athletes entering sports competitions. However, studies have shown that the worldwide harmonization of rules has not been entirely efficacious. For instance, great variation has been found in how anti-doping organizations implement anti-doping regulations, and it has also been shown that athletes distrust the equivalence of the worldwide rules as regards their effects. The purpose of the present article is to examine how elite athletes from different contexts experience anti-doping procedures and to analyse the legitimacy of anti-doping practice. In order to capture a variety of voices and perspectives, 13 elite athletes from five different continents and three international sports federations were interviewed. The analysis shows that when global anti-doping policy is implemented in different contexts and under different conditions, inequities and structural injustices emerge concerning infrastructure, knowledge and support at the individual athlete level. These consequences may have implications for the legitimacy of anti-doping work, because the existence of procedural justice may be called into question. We therefore suggest that anti-doping policy-making should be based on taking into account these different conditions and being aware of the perspectives that underpin regulations intended to be applied global.

  • 450.
    Egal, Ebtisam
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Utlandsföddas erfarenheter av arbetslöshet och hälsa: en intervjustudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to explore foreigners’ experiences of unemployment and health. Research indicates that unemployment can lead to reduced health and it also shows that people born abroad have a greater risk of health problems compared with those born in Sweden. A qualitative method was employed in this empirical study. Interviews were conducted to collect data. The selection was three women and three men who had lived in Sweden for less than ten years. They had not worked for at least six months, which made them long-term unemployed. The results illustrated that they experienced that their mental health had been affected and they experienced stress, anxiety and fatigue. They worried that unemployment could lead to mental and physical ill health. They perceived that support was an important factor in dealing with unemployment and informants' family and friends were a great support for them. Authorities were not supportive socially or psychologically, but they were a financial support that foreigners could turn to when they needed help. The obstacles that foreigners face in their job search are language and lack of skills and they feel that these obstacles highly affect their chances of getting a job. The conclusion of this study was that foreigners’ mental health has been affected negatively by the unemployment but not their physical health. But they were worried that both their mental and physical health would worsen if they don’t get a job in the near future. More qualitative research is required to understand the experiences of foreigners’ situations while unemployed.

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