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  • 401.
    Hansson, Carina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Jonsson, Hanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hur personer med knäartros upplever det dagliga livet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 402.
    Hansson, Erica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    Forselius, Jenny
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    Upplevelser av att utföra egenvård hos personer som har Diabetes typ 2: Beskrivande litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Diabetes typ 2 är en vanlig kronisk sjukdom som ökar över hela världenoch kan ge svåra komplikationer vid brist på egenvård. Med hjälp av goda levnadsvanoroch fysisk aktivitet kan sena komplikationer förebyggas.Syfte: Att beskriva personers upplevelser av att utföra egenvård vid diabetes typ 2.Metod: En beskrivande litteraturstudie som har baserats på 13 stycken vetenskapligaartiklar. Artiklarna hittades i databaserna PubMed och Cinahl och var av kvalitativansats och skulle besvara studiens syfte och frågeställning.Resultat: Kunskap, förståelse, motivation och stöd ansåg som viktiga faktorer vidutförandet av egenvårdsrutiner vid diabetes typ 2, dock ansåg många det vara svårt attupprätthålla dem. Med en större förståelse var det lättare att reglera sinablodsockervärden med hjälp av diet och fysisk aktivitet. Det är av stor betydelse hursjuksköterskan förmedlar sin information till patienten.Slutsats: För att kunna göra en livsstilsförändring gällande egenvårdsrutiner var detviktigt att acceptera sin sjukdom diabetes typ 2. Personer med diabetes typ 2 har behovav stöd och motivation från sjuksköterskan för att upprätthålla utförandet avegenvårdsrutiner. Kunskap var viktigt för att kunna hantera sin sjukdom och förebyggasena komplikationer. Det är viktig som sjuksköterska att vara lyhörd och visa individenrespekt samt låta hen vara självbestämmande.

  • 403.
    Hansson, Eva
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Livskvalitet efter hjärtstopp2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
  • 404.
    Hansson, Frida
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av att arbeta och hantera situationer med patienter i palliativ vård: En deskriptiv litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Palliative care means that the patient suffer from an incurable disease and is sometimes described as end-of-life care.

    The aim of the study was to describe the nurses experience in working with adult patients in need of palliative care, describe how nurses handle difficult situations that can arise while working with adult patients in the later stage of palliative care, as well as review selection method and the sample of the chosen articles.

    The method is a literature review with a descriptive design.

    The result showed that the nurses experienced a deeper relation with the patient than that of the normal nurse-patient relation. It is important with a good communication with the patient, something that the nurses strived towards. The feelings nurses expressed where a sense of powerlessness, frustration, pride and a sense of fulfilment. The largest experienced responsibility was that the patient should be allowed to die with dignity in a peaceful manner. The nurses’ ability to leave the work at the workplace was an important strategy for the nurses when it comes to their wellbeing. Meeting with the patients made the nurses contemplate over existential questions.

    The conclusions are that the chosen nursing theory matches the nurses’ experiences of palliative care and that the nurses practice their care based on the definition of palliative care and the four cornerstones of palliative care.

  • 405.
    Hansson, Hilda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Simonsson, Madeleine
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Behandlingsmetoder mot övervikt och fetma hos barn2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Overweight and obesity among children and adolescents is increasing. Diseases which earlier occurred exclusively among adults are now also observed among children. There is an urgent need for new treatments that can change this negative trend. The aim of this study was to describe existing treatments for obesity among children in the age of 6-12 and the effect of those treatments. This descriptive literature study is based on 17 research articles published between 2000 and 2007 from different parts in the world. The treatments found in the studies could be categorised as follows: treatment with only physical activity, multidisciplinary treatment, multidisciplinary treatment with family participation, behavioural program with support from parents and alternative medicine treatments. No significant pattern could be observed for the effects of the different treatments. Similar treatments showed different effects, which makes the data difficult to interpret. Good results among the studied treatments were however, often obtained using multidisciplinary programs. Moreover it was shown that support from parents had a positive effect. It is of major importance to adjust the treatment to each individual and to construct the program in such a way that the effect reside also after completion of the treatment.

  • 406.
    Hansson, Jennifer
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Haaranen, Jessica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Unga kvinnors erfarenhet av omvårdnaden vid Anorexia nervosa: En litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Anorexia nervosa är en ätstörning där personerna har en förvrängd kroppsuppfattning och en intensiv rädsla för att gå upp i vikt. Detta leder till att personen använder olika metoder för att få en så låg kroppsvikt som möjligt. Sjukdomen debuterar ofta i tonåren och påverkar främst kvinnor.

    Syfte: Att beskriva unga kvinnors (12-25år) erfarenheter av omvårdnaden med Anorexia nervosa samt granska de inkluderade artiklarnas datainsamlingsmetod.

    Metod: Designen för litteraturstudien var deskriptiv och tio kvalitativa vetenskapliga artiklar inkluderades i resultatet. För att hitta dessa användes databaserna Cinahl, Medline och Scopus.

    Huvudresultat: I föreliggande studie har det visat sig att en god vårdrelation bidrar till trygghet och motivation till att tillfriskna. Det finns både negativa och positiva aspekter med att vårdas i grupp. Patienterna kunde hitta stöd hos varandra men samtidigt uppstod det ofta konkurrens mellan dem. Att ha strikta restriktioner i behandlingen upplevdes som något positivt hos vissa medan det skapade frustration hos andra. Många patienter ansåg att för mycket fokus låg på den fysiska återhämtningen medans det psykologiska stödet saknades.

    Slutsats: Tillit, respekt och förtroende behövs för att upprätthålla en god vårdrelation. En individualisering av vården behövs för att öka förutsättningarna för en optimal omvårdnad. Då Anorexia nervosa i grunden är ett psykiskt problem bör hela personen behandlas annars är risken för återfall stor. Det är även viktigt med information och adekvata motiveringar till de strikta metoderna i behandlingen.

  • 407.
    Hansson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Granqvist-Westling, Christina
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Hjärt- och lungräddning eller inte - en etisk konflikt inom prehospital sjulvård2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The aim of this study was to describe exsisting research about the ethical conflicts, faced by paramedics surrounding the decision makeing in CPR and to determine the influence that prehospital CPR guidelines have on ethical issues regarding CPR. A litterature rewiew was conducted by analyzing thirteen scientific articles.The result showed that ethical conflicts appeared whithin paramedics decision, wheter to start or whithheld CPR in situations described by the litterature as patients that have a terminal illness or in elderly terminally ill patients. Sometimes paramedics violated the patients autonomi, when performing CPR despite the precense of a DNR wish from the patient and the patients family. The main reason that such situations occured was indistinct legalisation in prehospital CPR guidelines in USA and Canada.

    The opposite situation also occured,were the paramedics initiated CPR in order to honour the wishes from the patients relatives. Overall paramedics showed a will to respect the patients autonomi in the CPR question. Paramedics in the Northen America supported prehospital guidlines statues allowing them to withheld CPR,under cirumstances initiating CPR in terminally ill and elder terminally ill patients.

    Keywords : Ethics, Emergency medical services, CPR, CPR guidelines and Emergency medical technicians.

  • 408.
    Hanyi, Yang
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Yu, Xu
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Registered nurses’ Work to Promote Mother’s Self-efficacy of Breastfeeding2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 409.
    Haraldsson, Elin
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Distriktssköterskors upplevelser av att arbeta med palliativa patienter i hemmet2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The aim of the study was to describe district nurses’ work with palliative patients in home care and their experience of the work. The study had a descriptive design and ten district nurses from five different health care centres in the Middle of Sweden participated in the study. Data were collected with semi-structured interviews and analysed with qualitative content analysis. The results are presented from the categories, which formed two themes. The theme “To balance between the prevailing situation and to plan the end – to lie ahead. emerged from the categories To see the patient’s life situation and to perform nursing interventions, To structure the work, To support and have contact with relatives, To experience developmental and educational needs and To be professional in one’s approach and describes the district nurses’ experience of caring for palliative patients. The district nurses’ efforts at the patients home were intensified as the disease progressed, the contact with the relatives and other caregivers were described as good. The theme “To experience stimulation and strain” emerged from the categories To be professional in one’s approach and To experience and handle one’s own feelings and describes the district nurses’ feelings about caring for palliative patients. The district nurses experienced their work as important and valuable; however it was also experienced as trying with several palliative patients at the same time and extra tough when the patients where younger.

  • 410.
    Hardy, Jennifer
    et al.
    Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Nursing and Human Movement, Australian Catholic University.
    Lindqvist, Ragny
    Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap.
    Dahlberg, Ola
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för medicinsk vetenskap.
    The current status of nursing informatics in undergraduate nursing programs: Comparative case studies between Sweden and Australia1997In: Nursing informatics: The impact of nursing knowledge on health care informatics / [ed] Gerdin U, Tallberg M & Wainwright P, Amsterdam: IOS Press , 1997, p. 132-136Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 411.
    Hardy, Jenny
    et al.
    Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Nursing and Human Movement, Australian Catholic University, Australia.
    Lindqvist, Ragny
    Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap.
    Dahlberg, Ola
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för medicinsk vetenskap.
    The current status of nursing informatics in undergraduate nursing programs: comparative case studies between Sweden and Australia1997In: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, ISSN 0926-9630, E-ISSN 1879-8365, Vol. 46, p. 132-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last ten years, the inclusion of education in health information systems has assumed an important role in graduate programs for health professionals. More recently, attention has focused on undergraduate programs. Throughout the world schools of nursing, organisations and associations are addressing the issue of educational offerings in nursing informatics. This paper reports on the status of nursing informatics at undergraduate level. Nurse academics from Gavle and Lund in Sweden, and from Melbourne and Sydney in Australia, took part in a survey of the respective nursing courses. The purpose of the study was to identify and describe examples of types of nursing informatics courses in Australia and Sweden A convenient sample of academics were approached and interviewed The results of the survey illustrate, in the schools surveyed, the slow emergence of nursing informatics into nursing curricula.

  • 412.
    Hedberg, Ida
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ullberg, Emma
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Personer med typ 2 diabetes upplevelser av mötet med sjuksköterskan: Litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstrakt

    Bakgrund: Diabetes typ 2 är en folksjukdom som innebär en nedsatt produktion av insulin samt insulinresistens. Diabetes typ 2 drabbar idag personer i nästan alla åldrar. En orsak till att drabbas kan vara en ohälsosam livsstil. Att sjuksköterskan arbetar utifrån ett personcentrerat förhållningssätt ökar patientdelaktigheten samt motivationen till en förändrad livsstil hos personer med diabetes typ 2.

    Syfte: Att beskriva personer med typ 2 diabetes upplevelser av mötet med sjuksköterskan samt beskriva hur undersökningsgrupperna i artiklarna ser ut.

    Frågeställning: Hur upplever personer med diabetes typ 2 mötet med sjuksköterskan? Metodologisk frågeställning: Hur beskrivs undersökningsgrupperna i artiklarna?

    Metod: En beskrivande litteraturstudie. Tio vetenskapliga studier har granskats och sammanställts, varav åtta studier av kvalitativ ansats samt två mixade studier.

    Huvudresultat:

    Att se personen ur ett helhetsperspektiv ansågs vara en viktig aspekt för att skapa en god relation mellan sjuksköterska och patient. Kommunikation och bemötande som anpassas efter individens förutsättningar upplever personer med typ 2 diabetes ger en känsla av delaktighet och förståelse för den fortsatta vården.

    Slutsats:

    Relationen mellan sjuksköterska och patient med diabetes typ 2 upplevdes tillfredställande då sjuksköterskan använde sig av ett holistiskt synsätt med fokus på personcentrerad vård. Brister mellan patient och sjuksköterska upplevdes där kommunikation, stöd och rådgivning felade samt ignorerades. De personer som upplevde dessa brister hos sjuksköterskan hade sämre förutsättningar att klara egenvården och levde med en rädsla för eventuella komplikationer.

  • 413.
    Hedberg, Sofie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Bergström, Malin
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av arbetsmiljöns betydelse för patientsäkerheten: En deskriptiv litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 414.
    Hedberg, Viktoria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Linderstam, Catherine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Beskriva och jämföra den psykosociala arbetsmiljön hos ambulanspersonal i en region i mellan Sverige: Utifrån Distriktssköterskans profession2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The psychosocial work environment is important for the individual. Creating workplaces with a satisfactory working environment is both difficult and challenging, but with knowledge and trained staff good working environments can be created and health promotion for the staff.

    Aim: To describe and compare how ambulance staff estimated their psychosocial work environment and whether there was a difference in estimation between men and women within an operation area in a healthcare region.

    Method: A descriptive and comparative study with quantitative approach.

    Main results: The result showed that factors such as work demands, control at work, role expectations, predictability, social interactions, leadership, communication, organization culture/climate, group work and skills at work, centrality of work, interactions between work and private life/stress were factors that included the affected psychosocial work environment. There were no significant differences between men and women in the described areas of work level, social and organizational level and individual level.   

    Conclusion: The district nurse´s preventive work can provide workplaces with health promotion knowledge regarding the psychosocial work environment. Attention and maintaining factors in the workplace that make it a good healthy workplace is important. The feeling of feeling a context is important for both individual and group.      

     

     

  • 415.
    Hedblom, Kristoffer
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sund, Frida
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Många resurser - ändå ensam: Hur nyutexaminerade sjuksköterskor i Sverige upplever och hanterar påfrestningar under första året i yrket: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att beskriva vilka påfrestningar sjuksköterskor i Sverige upplever under första året i yrket, samt hur de hanterar dessa påfrestningar. En intervjustudie med kvalitativ ansats genomfördes med åtta nyutexaminerade sjuksköterskor från två sjukhus i Mellansverige. Data analyserades med hjälp av manifest och latent kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Huvudresultatet påvisade att sjuksköterskorna upplevde många olika påfrestningar under första året som sjuksköterska. De var oförberedda på många aspekter av arbetet, de kände ofta en tidsbrist och de var rädda för att ta plats. Känslan av att vara oförberedd var den största påfrestningen. Kollegornas stöd var den viktigaste faktorn för att hantera detta, men även annat stöd både på och utanför arbetsplatsen spelade stor roll. Sjuksköterskorna arbetade även mycket med att själva acceptera och anpassa sig till den nya situationen, och de använde även metoder för att ta kontroll och fokusera på det värdefulla i arbetet. Sjuksköterskornas upplevelser kunde sammanfattas under temat Många resurser – ändå ensam. De strategier sjuksköterskorna använde för att hantera påfrestningarna kan sorteras in under komponenterna Begriplighet, Hanterbarhet och Meningsfullhet i Aaron Antonovskys teori om Känsla av Sammanhang. Som slutsats konstateras att såväl sjuksköterskeutbildningen som arbetsplatserna kan utvecklas för att bättre tillgodose de behovsjuksköterskor har under första året i yrket.

  • 416.
    Hedenborg Högqvist, Elin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Westerlund, Frida
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Följsamhet i läkemedelsordination vid hypertoni: med koppling till Orems egenvårdteori – en deskriptiv litteraturstudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Hypertoni är ett stort och utbrett hälsoproblem världen över. Det krävs följsamhet i läkemedelsbehandlingen för att minska risk för hjärt- och kärlsjukdomar, stroke samt renala sjukdomar. Omvårdnadsteoretikern Orem har sin teoretiska grund i egenvården. Enligt Orem är relationen mellan sjuksköterskan och patienten avgörande om sjuksköterskan skall kunna hjälpa patienten. Syfte: Syftet är att med utgångspunkt från Orems egenvårdsteori sammanställa aktuell forskning rörande faktorer som förbättrar följsamhet till läkemedelsbehandling hos patienter med hypertoni. Metod: En litteraturstudie gjordes. Sökorden som användes var patient compliance, medication adherence, hypertension och antihypertension agents. 15 artiklar inkluderas, samtliga analyserades med innehållsanalys. Resultat: Huvudresultatet visade att nyckeln till god läkemedelsföljsamhet är kunskap, information och socioekonomisk trygghet. Regelbundna samtal och hälsokontroller gav patienten tid att ta upp frågor om läkemedlet vilket främjar följsamheten. Socioekonomiska aspekter spelade dock roll för hur ordinationerna följdes. Låginkomsttagare och lågutbildade personer hade generellt en sämre följsamhet än de som hade det bättre ställt. De som hade sämre följsamhet angav glömska som den primära orsaken. Många var oroliga för biverkningar som kunde inträffa vilket ofta berodde på otillräcklig kunskap om läkemedlet. Slutsats: Information om läkemedlet och behandlingen är oerhört viktigt för ett gott resultat, att se till att patienten är införstådd men eventuella komplikationer och biverkningar som kan inträffa.

  • 417.
    Hedenström, Hanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Hedin, Malin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Upplevelser av att vara förälder till ett överviktigt barn - Hinder och strategier: En litteraturstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To describe parents' experiences of having an overweight child, as well as to describe the experienced obstacles faced and strategies used to achieve a healthier life style. The purpose is also to examine the quality of the examined articles' in regards to their data gathering methods. Method: This was a descriptive literature study. Fifteen academic articles were chosen based on the study's purpose and then reviewed and compiled. Findings: The parents experienced strong concern for their overweight children's health. Several parents felt it difficult to talk with their children about weight. The largest concerns amongst parents were related to their child's mental health. The parents that contacted the school or health care practitioners in order to ask for help regarding their child’s weight issues felt that they were not taken seriously and felt blamed for their child's weight issues. However, there were also positive experiences in which the child received individualized physical and mental support. The parents experienced obstacles such as; financial issues, lack of time, lack of interest in physical activities, and a lack of knowledge in regards to a healthy life style. Conclusion: Parents of overweight children often experienced concern and guilt. They found it difficult to support their child in living healthy. Because of this, the parents were often in need of support as well as education, individualized counseling and help to encourage a healthier life style for their child.

  • 418.
    Hedlund, Emily
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Jansson, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Personer med fetmas upplevelse av livskvalitet: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: During the period of 1980 to 2014, the global prevalence of obesity has more than doubled. The societal development is seen to have a negative influence on obesity since the consumption of caloric food has increased while the degree of physical activity has decreased. Obesity is classified as an endemic disease and can cause sequelae such as coronary-artery disease, type 2 diabetes and cancer.

     

    Aim: The aim of the literature study was to describe obese adults' experience of quality of life and to examine the articles' quality with focus on their data collection method.

     

    Method: A literature study with a descriptive design comprised of 12 articles, ten of which has a quantitative design and two whom have a qualitative design.

     

    Main results: Obesity is a condition which is seen to negatively impact quality of life. A prevalence increase in psychiatric illness in the form of anxiety and depression has also been observed. Persons with obesity experienced discrimination and stigmatization more often than normal weight individuals, and discrimination negatively impacted their psychiatric well-being, quality of life and life satisfaction. They also experienced restrictions in their daily lives and a negative impact on their social relationships, including less support from their surroundings and social isolation.

     

    Conclusions: Research shows that the quality of life is negatively affected in obese persons. They experience discrimination, stigmatization and impacted social relationships more often, and are affected in greater occurrence by anxiety and depression than those with normal weight. Through respectful treatment, understanding and consideration the risk of discrimination and stigmatization can be diminished, and their autonomy and trust for the healthcare service be strengthened.

  • 419.
    Hedlund, Emily
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    Lindgren, Carolin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    Samband mellan arbetsrelaterad livskvalitet, psykologisk empowerment och akademisk examen hos intensivvårdssjuksköterskor.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Det råder brist på intensivvårdssjuksköterskor i Sverige. Personalbrist, stress och arbetsbelastning kan påverka intensivvårdssjuksköterskornas arbetsrelaterade livskvalitet och känsla av psykologisk empowerment negativt. Detta kan leda till bland annat utbrändhet och depression. Långvarig stress kan leda till att sjuksköterskor väljer att lämna sitt arbete.

    Syfte: Att beskriva hur intensivvårdssjuksköterskor skattar arbetsrelaterad livskvalitet och psykologisk empowerment, samt att undersöka om det finns ett samband mellan intensivvårdssjuksköterskors arbetsrelaterade livskvalitet, psykologiska empowerment och akademiska examen.

    Metod: Studien var en enkätstudie med en kvantitativ ansats, och använde sig av ett bekvämlighetsurval gällande val av de fyra inkluderade sjukhusen. Undersökningsgruppen bestod av totalt 51 deltagare. Två validerade enkäter, Van Laar och Eastons enkät om Work Related Quality of Life (WRQoL) och Spreitzers skala för psykologisk empowerment, användes och kompletterades med bakgrundsfrågor om bland annat. kön, ålder och högsta akademiska examen. Enkäten om arbetsrelaterad livskvalitet översattes från engelska till svenska i en tvåstegsprocess. Studiens data analyserades med korrelationsanalyser och multipel linjär regression.

    Huvudresultat: Inget signifikant samband fanns mellan akademisk examen och WRQoL eller psykologisk empowerment. Däremot sågs ett positivt samband mellan psykologisk empowerment och WRQoL. Studiedeltagarna skattade lägst på delskalorna gällande stress (WRQoL) och självbestämmande (psykologisk empowerment), och högst gällande generellt välmående (WRQoL) och kompetens (psykologisk empowerment).

    Slutsats: Genom att stärka arbetsrelaterade livskvalitet och psykologisk empowerment hos intensivvårdssjuksköterskor kan eventuellt upplevelsen av deras arbetssituation och arbetsmiljö förbättras, vilket i förlängningen kan leda till att fler väljer att stanna i yrket.

    Nyckelord: Arbetsmiljö, arbetsrelaterad livskvalitet, intensivvårdssjuksköterska, omvårdnad, Psykologisk Empowerment.

  • 420.
    Hedlund, Jörgen
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Zimmerman, Julia
    Hur föräldrar hanterar förlusten av ett barn: En litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 421.
    Hedlund, Madeleine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Malin, Andersson
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ambulanssjuksköterskors upplevelse av psykiskt påfrestande situationer i arbetet och stödet efter dessa från arbetsplatsen: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Ambulanssjukvården har sedan 1800-talet förändrats, från att vara ett rent transportmedel är i dagsläget ambulanserna utrustade med högteknologisk utrustning och sjuksköterskeutbildad personal. Ambulanssjuksköterskor utsätts ofta för situationer som kan upplevas psykiskt påfrestande. Dessa situationer kan, om de inte bearbetas, leda till sämre mental hälsa med risk för sjukskrivningar och förtidspensionering.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att beskriva ambulanssjuksköterskors upplevelser av stöd på arbetsplatsen efter psykiskt påfrestande situationer i arbetet.

    Metod: Denna studie har en kvalitativ ansats med en beskrivande design.

    Resultat: Ambulanssjuksköterskor upplever olika situationer som psykiskt påfrestande. Upplevelsen relateras ofta till den egna livssituationen och tidigare erfarenheter. Stödåtgärder finns tillgängliga från arbetsplatsen efter psykiskt påfrestande situationer, men ambulanssjuksköterskorna upplever att ansvaret ofta ligger på individen att söka stöd. Brister upplevs även i stödhanteringen och önskemål finns om förbättringar.

    Slutsats: Stöd finns på arbetsplatsen men upplevs både vara tillräckligt samtidigt som det upplevs vara i behov av utveckling.

  • 422.
    Hedlund, Åke
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Krång Persson, Maria
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Patienternas upplevelse av prehospital vård vid Kronisk obstruktiv lungsjukdom (KOL): Kvalitativ intervjustudie2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    The aim was to investigate how Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) patients experience the approach and medical care provided by ambulance workers during transportations and domestic emergencies. The investigation was carried out as a qualitative interview study. The heart and lung-disease association in Dalarna was contacted in order to supply respondents to the study. Overall five women and three men were interviewed, based on the criteria that they would all be diagnosed with COPD and that they had, during the past three years, been in contact with a nurse within the ambulance health care in the county council of Dalarna. The interviews were semi structured with open questions. All participants got to tell about their experiences and how they were received, approached and treated by ambulance workers when having domestic emergencies or during ambulance transportations. Data were parsed on the basis of a qualitative analysis. The result is presented in five main categories and thirteen subcategories which describes the participant’s experiences with approaches and treatments. The people investigated felt very secure during treatments given to them in their urgent state of illness caused by COPD. It came to light that participants experienced a composed and pleasant approach from the nurse within the ambulance healthcare in Dalarna.

    Keywords: Attitude, take care of, experience, COPD

  • 423.
    Hedman, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Liljeholm, Josefine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Personers upplevelser och hantering av att leva med utmattningssyndrom: En litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Mental illness is seen as a definition of many terms. In recent years, mental health problems has been increasing among the Swedish population. One disease that increased significantly and contributed to illness is burnout professional. Burnout professional mainly affects people who work with, or are responsible for other people and has ultimately proven to contribute to physical and mental illness. The result of the mental and physical illness can be a contributing factor to the long-term sick leave that has increased in today's society.

    Aim: The aim of this study is to describe people's experiences and strategies of living with burnout professional and to describe the study sample in the included articles.

    Method: The present study is a descriptive literature review based on 12 scientific articles with qualitative approach. The basis for the study was retrieved through searches of databases Cinahl and PsycINFO.

    Main Results: The results showed a repeating pattern of people with burnout professional experiencing physical and psychological trouble. These troubles are related to bodily signals and symptoms that affect people's health and contribute to negative emotional experiences where the self-image and sociability suffer. During the recovery people felt joy and motivation again. Several coping strategies are described as useful in the treatment of burnout professional. All studies reported participants, the sex of the participants, the majority of the studies reported age and profession.

    Conclusion: By people with burnout professional describing their own stories about their experiences and the management of burnout professional, could the aim of this study be answered. The experiences meant physical symptoms and signals and emotional experiences, but also positive experiences like joy. There are different coping strategies that can be used in the management of burnout professional. Through further research of experiences and management of burnout professional, it can gain a better understanding of how people feel and their illness. Through this, care and treatment can be improved.

  • 424.
    Hedman, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Uppsala universitet.
    Autonomy and participation in municipal care: managers and supervisors' descriptionsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 425.
    Hedman, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Uppsala universitet.
    Including relatives to promote autonomy and participation for older people: municipal care managers descriptionsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 426.
    Hedman, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Inst. för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Uppsala universitet.
    Pöder, Ulrika
    Inst. för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Uppsala universitet.
    Mamhidir, Anna-Greta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Inst. för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Uppsala universitet.
    Nilsson, Annika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Inst. för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Uppsala universitet.
    Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Inst. för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Uppsala universitet.
    Häggström, Elisabet
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Inst. för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Uppsala universitet.
    Life memories and the ability to act: the meaning of autonomy and participation for older people when living with chronic illness2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 824-833Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a lack of knowledge about how older people living with chronic illness describe the meaning of autonomy and participation, indicating a risk for reduced autonomy and participation in their everyday life. The purpose of this study was to describe the meaning of autonomy and participation among older people living with chronic illness in accordance with their lived experience. The design was descriptive with a phenomenological approach guided by Giorgi's descriptive phenomenological psychological method. Purposive sampling was used, and 16 older people living with chronic illness who lived in an ordinary home participated in individual interviews. The findings showed that the meaning of autonomy and participation among the older people emerged when it was challenged and evoked emotional considerations of the lived experience of having a chronic illness. It involved living a life apart, yet still being someone who is able, trustworthy and given responsibility – still being seen and acknowledged. The meaning of autonomy and participation was derived through life memories and used by the older people in everyday life for adjustment or adaption to the present life and the future. Our conclusion is that autonomy and participation were considered in relation to older people's life memories in the past, in their present situation and also their future wishes. Ability or disability is of less importance than the meaning of everyday life among older people. We suggest using fewer labels for limitations in everyday life when caring for older people and more use of the phrase ‘ability to act’ in different ways, based on older people's descriptions of the meaning of autonomy and participation.

  • 427.
    Hedqvist, Marie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Fogelberg, Anna
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Kvinnors upplevelser av att leva med gynekologisk cancer: - en litteraturstudie2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 points / 22,5 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte var att utifrån en litteraturstudie beskriva kvinnors upplevelser av att leva med en opererad eller behandlad gynekologisk cancer. Databaserna Academic Search Elite och MedLine via PubMed användes. Tjugo artiklar inkluderades i studien. Resultatet kunde utifrån artiklarna grupperas i huvudkategorierna sexualitet, aspekter på livskvalitet samt information och kommunikation. Kvinnorna fick problem med sin sexualitet efter operation och behandling. De fick fysiska defekter som beskrevs var problem med att bli våt vid sexuell upphetsning, torr vagina, smärta vid samlag, svårare att uppnå orgasm och mindre känsel i underlivet. Många kvinnor upplevde stor trötthet och kände mindre sexuell lust. Sjuksköterskor spelade en stor och viktig roll i patienternas känslomässiga hantering av sjukdomen. Kvinnorna var i behov av att prata med någon om känslor eftersom de kände sig nervösa, ängsliga, oroliga, rädda, sorgsna och hade känslan av att inte ha kontroll. De som var med i stödgrupp upplevde att de fick känslomässigt stöd genom att lyssna, prata, jämföra och utbyta kunskaper med varandra och det fick dem att känna sig mindre oroliga, rädda, osäkra, ensamma. Kvinnorna önskade få mer information om olika effekter och biverkningar efter sjukdom och behandling och vilka effekter cancern kunde ha på sexualiteten samt hjälpande mediciner. De ville även förstå om problemen var normala. Ge och upprepa information var viktigt och tiden för när den skulle ges. Brist på information medförde stora svårigheter i hantering av sjukdom och behandling.

  • 428.
    Hedström, Katarina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Gunnarsson, Angelica
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Mäns och kvinnors skattning av oro och nedstämdhet, före och efter ett års hjärtrehabilitering: En empirisk kvasiexperimentell studie2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 points / 22,5 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur patienter som haft en hjärtinfarkt och/eller genomgått en kranskärlsoperation skattar sin oro och nedstämdhet före och efter ett års hjärtrehabilitering samt om det fanns skillnader mellan mäns och kvinnors skattningar.

    Enkäter innehållande patienters självskattning av oro och nedstämdhet före och efter hjärtrehabilitering, Hospital Anxiety and depression scale (HAD), samlades in från Hälsoinvest i Högbo. Författarna till denna studie valde att samla in enkäter från 1996- 2001.

    För att få delta i hjärtrehabiliteringen måste patienterna vara i arbetsför ålder och haft hjärtinfarkt och/eller genomgått kranskärlsoperation samt vara icke rökare. HAD- formuläret innehöll sju frågor rörande oro och sju frågor rörande nedstämdhet. Undersökningsgruppen bestod av 115 personer: 34 kvinnor och 81 män. Medelåldern på deltagarna var 52,4 år (range = 33-61 år). Huvudresultatet visade att deltagarna signifikant hade minskat graden av oro och nedstämdhet över tid. Det fanns inga signifikanta skillnader mellan mäns och kvinnors skattningar av oro och nedstämdhet före eller efter hjärtrehabilitering. Kvinnor respektive män minskade signifikant sin grad av oro och nedstämdhet över tid. Denna studie indikerar att hjärtrehabilitering behövs för att minska patienters oro och nedstämdhet i samband med kranskärlssjukdom.

  • 429.
    Heed, Cecilia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Skoglund, Kerstin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Patientutvärdering av akutflödet i primärvården - en enkätstudie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: The health guarantee provides a statutory right to a doctor's contact within seven days for primary care. At a national level, both previous research and reports have identified deficiencies in maintaining the healthcare guarantee. Three region-driven health centers in central Sweden have jointly started an acute flow work in accordance with the Lean model. This is expected to contribute to increased availability and shorter waiting times. How patients experience healthcare through primary care receiving the Lean model is still unexplored. Purpose: To describe how patients seeking emergency care in a region in central Sweden estimate their experience of the visit. Furthermore, the purpose was to find out if there was a connection between information and experience immediately after the visit and if there was a connection between communication with healthcare staff, lack of communication and feeling after the visit. Method: Cross-sectional study with quantitative approach. A validated and reliability test questionnaire, PEQ (Patient Experience Questionnaire) was used. The collected information was processed and analyzed using the SPSS statistics program. Surveys were distributed during a two-week period to patients over 18 years who understood the Swedish language and visited the acute flow. Main result: The result showed that 73 per cent of patients visited the acute flow and who participated in the study appreciated their experiences as positive. The patients experienced that they received good information, treatment and felt cared for. Significant connection between communication lacking communication, information and experience has been strengthened. Conclusion: Patients who visited the acute flow, where care is conducted according to the Lean model, appreciated their experiences as positive.

  • 430.
    Hellberg, Mathilda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nord, Mikaela
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Föräldrars och syskons erfarenheter och upplevelser när ett barn i familjen har diagnosen cancer.: En litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: About one child a day in Sweden get diagnosed with cancer. Cancer is an illness that’s affecting the cells, the cells that are affected is growing too fast and splits uncontrollably to form a tumor. When a child is seriously ill both parents and siblings was affected mentally and physically. The nurse has the responsibility for the treatment of the patient and the patients family, and should see them as an entirety.

     

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the experiences of the parents and siblings when a child in the family has cancer. Also the aim was to explain the research methods in the articles chosen for this study.

     

    Method: The method was a literature research describing 14 scientific articles.  

     

    Main Results: In the result it is explained how the family is emotionally, physically and mentally influenced when a child in the family is diagnosed with cancer. By the course of time the parents started to revaluate the –most important things in their lives and felt more hope for the future. The siblings described the situation as to lose their family and felt the need for support. But eventually the family felt closer to each other.

     

    Conclusion: When a child is diagnosed with cancer the whole family gets influenced by it both physically and mentally. To support the parents the nurse could let them be a part of the treatment, let them think over the feelings that may develop and to be there both mentally and physically. The nurse can also be supportive for the siblings of the cancer diagnosed child by creating a routine to help them participate in the treatment and make an environment that feels safe so they can express their feelings.

  • 431.
    hellström-hyson, eva
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap.
    Att ta ansvar eller att vara åskådare: en studie av två handledningsmodeller2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 432.
    Hellström-Hyson, Eva
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Mårtensson, Gunilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science. Uppsala universitet.
    Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science. Uppsala universitet.
    To take responsibility or to be an onlooker: Nursing students' experiences of two models of supervision2012In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 105-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: The present study aimed at describing how nursing students engaged in their clinical practice experienced two models of supervision: supervision on student wards and traditional supervision. BACKGROUND: Supervision for nursing students in clinical practice can be organized in different ways. In the present study, parts of nursing students' clinical practice were carried out on student wards in existing hospital departments. The purpose was to give students the opportunity to assume greater responsibility for their clinical education and to apply the nursing process more independently through peer learning. METHOD: A descriptive design with a qualitative approach was used. Interviews were carried out with eight nursing students in their final semester of a 3-year degree program in nursing. The data were analyzed using content analysis. FINDINGS: Two themes were revealed in the data analysis: When supervised on the student wards, nursing students experienced assuming responsibility and finding one's professional role, while during traditional supervision, they experienced being an onlooker and having difficulties assuming responsibility. CONCLUSIONS: Supervision on a student ward was found to give nursing students a feeling of acknowledgment and more opportunities to develop independence, continuity, cooperation and confidence.

  • 433.
    Hellzén, Jenny
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Backman, Linda
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Äldre personer och sömn: En litteraturstudie2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this literature review was to describe circumstances that affect the sleep in elderly people and to determine which non-pharmacological treatments that can be used to relive sleep disorder. Elderly in the review were people over 60 years, but there where no agelimitations in the selection of the studies. To answer the questions at issue a literature review was done in the following databases, Medline (Pubmed), Academic search elite and Science Direct on the basis of the inclusion criteria’s. There were 12 empirical studies that were included and reviewed. The result showed that circumstances for sleep disorder were to be old and to be depressed. External circumstances that affects the sleep: were noise, light, uncomfortable temperature in the room and an unknown environment. The internal circumstances were incontinence, reduced mobility, impaired cognitive capacity, medication and pain. Preventing circumstances were daytime activity and a satisfying social life. Alleviating circumstance on sleep disturbance was self selected music. Warm and neutral socks did not relive sleep problems in the elderly people with sleep problems, but relived on-set time in the elderly people without sleep problems.

  • 434.
    Hellzén, Ove
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Kristiansen, Lisbeth
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Asplund, Kenneth
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    En studie i kvantitetssäkring av omvårdnad – En möjlig metod att fokusera kvaliteten?2003In: Incitament : för en hälso- & sjukvård i förvandling, ISSN 1103-503X, Vol. 12, no 7, p. 638-640Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 435.
    Hellzén, Ove
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Kristiansen, Lisbeth
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Norbergh, Karl Gustaf
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Nurses' attitudes towards older residents with long-term schizophrenia.2003In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 43, no 6, p. 616-622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: to investigate whether the carers’ approach could be explained as referring to the clinical picture or the fact that the patient had a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Background: In institutional care, a symptom-oriented approach is a frequently used but seldom-discussed method for treating people with severe mental illness. Design/method: An exploratory study of the staff’s view of a caring approach for a fictitious elderly long-term schizophrenic resident was conducted. All the carers working in the field of psychiatry at seven different units in one municipality in northern Sweden were an integral part of the study. The units were divided into two groups and classified as ‘dwelling’ and ‘support’. The ‘dwelling group’ was characterised by carers working at traditional group dwellings, the ‘support group’ by carers working in small teams and visiting people with long-term mental illness in their homes. Answers were received from 62 women and 23 men, of whom 14 were RNs and 69 were ENs. Measurements: A questionnaire was used; it was developed from a case description of a 68-year-old woman with typical symptoms of severe cognitive decline with problematic behaviour and a diagnosis of long-term schizophrenia. Findings: The main finding in this study is that carers with long experience become less sensitive in their relationship with the resident than less experienced carers. There appears to be a tendency for long work experience to have a negative effect on the carers’ attitude towards the resident. Conclusions: The carers could be interpreted as being caught in a moral dilemma between ends and means. On the one hand, the ‘conformist mode’, with the acceptance of ends and means, and, on the other hand, the ‘innovation mode’, with acceptance of ends but with few legitimate means to achieve them.

  • 436.
    Hellzén, Ove
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Kristiansen, Lisbeth
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Norbergh, Karl-Gustaf
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Being an outsider: nurses' statements about a vignette of an elderly resident with a schizophrenia diagnosis and dementia behaviour.2004In: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, ISSN 1351-0126, E-ISSN 1365-2850, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 213-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an exploratory study of nurses' approach to elderly people with a diagnosis of long-term schizophrenia, the aim was to investigate nurses' views of the care of an elderly fictitious person with long-term schizophrenia. All the nurses in one municipality in northern Sweden working at seven different units were investigated. A vignette, which was based on a case description in a previous study of an 84-year-old woman with severe dementia and problematic behaviour, was used after a minor alteration. In this study, the woman's age in the case description was changed from 84 to 68 years and the diagnosis was changed from severe dementia to long-term schizophrenia; otherwise, the description was the same as in the original case. The main finding was the nurses' inability to see the resident as anything other than what the 'label', the diagnosis, said. The nurses are interpreted as being caught in a dilemma of loyalty - on the one hand, the loyalty to the organization with its traditional goals and means and, on the other hand, the loyalty to the resident with her wishes in the forefront of their minds.

  • 437.
    Hellzén, Ove
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Kristiansen, Lisbeth
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Norbergh, Karl-Gustaf
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Living in a group dwelling: how do residents spend their time in a psychiatric group dwelling?2004In: International Journal of Nursing Studies, ISSN 0020-7489, E-ISSN 1873-491X, Vol. 41, no 6, p. 651-659Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate how residents at psychiatric group dwellings spend their time. The study consisted of two parts: questionnaires and an observation survey. It included all the staff at two municipal psychiatric group dwellings where the residents were primarily diagnosed as having long-term schizophrenia. This study indicated that, even if the dwellings had a creative climate, there was a negative process in terms of nurses' well-being with a high level of depersonalisation. The residents who displayed a predominant picture of negative symptoms were left alone for 84% of the day, and 29.5% of this could be explained by their illness. The remainder of the residents' time alone remains unexplained. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd

  • 438.
    Helzenius, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Strandberg, Lina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Äldres sexualitet - hinder och möjligheter i vårdgivarens främjande arbete.: En deskriptiv litteraturstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe how elderly’s sexuality can be expressed and to describe factors that affect older people's sexuality. The aim was also to describe the opportunities and barriers to health care providers to promote older people's sexuality and to describe the articles quality based on the methodological aspect of selection. A literature review with a descriptive approach was conducted on four qualitative and ten quantitative articles. The included articles were published between 2003 and 2013. Databases used for article search was PubMed, Cinahl and PsychInfo with the following keywords: Sexuality, Nurses, Aged, Geriatrics, Attitude Of Health Personnel, Residential Facilities, Quality Of Life, Older Adults. The Main results showed that elderly’s sexuality manifested itself in many different ways. The intimacy was to some extent more important than the actual intercourse. In general, poor health, diagnosed diseases, medical treatments and advanced aged had a negative impact on older people's sexuality. A clear policy with guidelines, education and guidance for staff were alternative ways to promote older people's sexuality. Caregiver’s uncertainty and negative attitude about the management and treatment of older people's sexuality was barriers to promoting older people's sexuality. Finally, inadequate or completely lack of guidance on the subject elderly and sexuality was barriers to promoting elderlies sexuality. Older people's sexuality is expressed highly individual and influenced by individual circumstances and situation. Few studies have been conducted on the subject elderly and sexuality, which is why further research in the area is necessary for further evidence. For proper care to be able to be performed more training and research is required in the subject elderly and sexuality.

  • 439.
    Henriksen, Evelina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Holm, Jonna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Likheter och skillnader i kvinnor och mäns symtombild vid hjärtinfarkt: En beskrivande litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cardiovascular disease is a common cause of death in the world and in Sweden. Myocardial infarction is caused by atherosclerosis, which in turn leads to hypoxia in the heart muscles. The symptoms are individual and symptoms such as chest pain, nausea and respiratory effects may occur. The existence of suffering from cardiovascular disease differ between men and women.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe and compare women's and men's symptoms of myocardial infarction and to review the study groups in the selected studies.

    Method: A descriptive literature. 13 quantitative articles were selected to the present literaturestudy.

    Main Results: Chest pain was the most common symptom in both men and women with myocardial infarction. Women described more frequent back pain, pain localized to the shoulder blades and neck pain. Men reported more pain in the right side of the chest and arm. Nausea, dyspnea and weakness proved to be more common in women, while men presented more sweating. Distinct differences were found in the number of reported symptoms associated with a myocardial infarction, women reported more symptoms than men.

    Conclusion: The litteraturstudy revealed both similarities and differences in men's and women's symptoms of myocardial infarction, symptoms were variable and individual. For the nurse to meet individual patient care needs requires knowledge of myocardial infarctions varying symptoms. This is important in order to act properly and in an early stage to prevent complications and permanent damage in patients who suffer from myocardial infarction. More research in this area would empower the nurse and contribute to better care for patients who suffer from myocardial infarction.

  • 440.
    Henriksson, Camilla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Wall, Susanne
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Närstående till hemodialyspatienter: litteraturens beskrivning av deras situation och det stöd de efterfrågar2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kronisk njursjukdom med livsuppehållande hemodialysbehandling medförde förändrade levnadsvillkor för patienter och närstående. Närvaro av närstående var en faktor som positivt påverkade patienten och utan närståendes stöd krävdes större insatser från sjukvården. Till närstående räknas anhöriga, men även andra som har nära relationer med patienten, som till exempel vänner eller grannar. Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att undersöka hur litteraturen beskriver situationen för närstående till hemodialyspatienter och vilken typ av stöd de efterfrågade, samt att beskriva inkluderade studiers urvalsgrupper. Det är en beskrivande litteraturstudie där 10 kvalitativa artiklar från databasen CINAHL inkluderades. Studiens resultat utmynnade i två huvudkategorier och åtta underkategorier. Situationen för de närstående präglades av oro, rädslor och osäkerhet kopplade till den sjukes hälsotillstånd och hemodialysbehandlingarna som orsakade stora begränsningar. Livssituationen påverkade många av de närståendes relationer, där den vårdande rollen och den sociala isoleringen hade framträdande platser. Resultatet visade att de närstående hade behov av att samtala om existentiella frågor, främst om döden, vilket gav en uppfattning om allvaret i de närståendes livssituation. Det var tydligt att stödet från sjukvården till de närstående upplevdes som mer betydelsefullt än stödet från övrig omgivning. De närstående hade svårigheter att uttrycka önskemål om stöd och efterfrågade initiativ till samtal från sjukvården.

  • 441.
    Henriksson, Susanne
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Källgren, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans möjligheter att identifiera tecken på depression hos tonåringar med typ 1 diabetes och hur dessa tonåringar kan stödjas: En litteraturstudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To describe according to the literature how the nurse can identify signs of depression in adolescents with type 1 diabetes and how the nurse can support them. Method: A literature study with descriptive design based on 15 scientific articles searched in the databases CINAHL, PubMed and by ancestry approach.

    Main results: Signs of depression in adolescents with type 1 diabetes are high HbA1c, low frequency of blood glucose monitoring and lower quality of life. The nurse can use standardized questionnaires to identify signs of depression in adolescents with type 1 diabetes, for example CDI, CES-D, YSR, WHO-5 and VAS. Adolescents with type 1 diabetes wish supportive measures such as tailored, structured education programs, fun activities and follow-up by text messaging. The nurse can use group interventions, internet-based self-care programs and ask adolescents to write about their diabetes, because this has positive effects on the adolescent’s well-being. Health care providers report several obstacles in the management of depression in patients with diabetes, among other things inadequate training and lack of time.

    Conclusion: It is important with training for nurses in the field of adolescents, type 1 diabetes and depression. More research is needed to meet the combination of type 1 diabetes and depression in adolescents. 

  • 442.
    Herrero, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Engberg, Emelie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Effekter av patientutbildning på livskvalité och egenvård hos patienter med hjärtsvikt - en litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Heart failure is a serious and common disease and one of the most common causes of hospitalization. Heart failure contributes to a deteriorating health and quality of life. Self-care measures will contribute a large and significant role in promoting the health of the patient and to prevent worsening of the condition. The shortcomings in self-care of the patient depend largely on the lack of knowledge in heart failure and the self-care process.

    Aim: To describe the effects of patient education on self-care and quality of life in patients with heart failure, the aim was also to describe the data collection methods of the included articles.

    Method: A descriptive literature study of 12 scientific articles from the database PubMed has been included in order to respond to aim and questions. The articles results and methods have been analyzed and compiled under 6 categories.

    Result: Patient education has been shown to have positive effects both in terms of self-care and quality of life. Improvements could be seen regarding medication management, compliance in medication and other self-care measures so as to comply with salt and fluid restriction. The majority of patients were also more positive about lifestyle changes. When it came to quality of life, improvements could be seen in the physical, mental and social well-being. It could, in one study, be linked to the patients experiences of a greater control

    over their situation. The data collection method that was the most prevalent in the included articles were surveys and questionnaires.  

    Conclusion:Patient education has been shown to have positive effects on quality of life and self-care. Different types of actions can affect quality of life and self-care in different ways. Knowledge of heart failure increases with patient education, which can affect attitude and motivation in patients with heart failure, it means better conditions for medication and self-care actions leading to a better health and an improved quality of life.

  • 443.
    Hessén, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Anestesisjuksköterskors upplevelser kring svåra arbetsrelaterade händelser2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Healthcare staff working within emergency care must often handle extreme and emotional situations. Most of the certified registered nurse anesthetists (CRNAs) will some time during their professionally active lives confront with events that are difficult to handle and for some these events will lead to more or less serious traumatic distress and in certain cases develop post traumatic stress disorder symptoms. Many studies demonstrate that staff working in similar stress related environment runs larger risk in order to get stress related symptoms. The aim with the study was to describe the experiences around difficult work related events among CRNAs. The study was implemented as a descriptive study with qualitative run-up via a questionnaire with open questions relevant for the study's aim. Seven CRNAs participated in the study and the result was processed with a qualitative method for content analysis. The result showed that the majority of the participants experienced bothersome events at work but most of them managed not to develop future harmful experiences from these events. The participants could clearly describe their experiences around difficult events and also provide what type of processing that fits best for them. This study gives an increased understanding how CRNAs experience difficult work related events.

  • 444.
    Hildén, Isabel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Helin, Malin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Personer med HIVs upplevelser av bemötandet i mötet med sjukvårdspersonal: En litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 445.
    Hill, Elin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Pihlman, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Närstående till personer som vårdas palliativt – deras behov av stöd under vårdtiden samt hur personalens bemötande påverkar dem: En beskrivande litteraturstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to describe how health care professionals’ standard of conduct affects next of kin to people in palliative care and describe what support next of kin were in need of during time of care. A further aim was to examine the included articles´ design. The literature study was of a descriptive design and included 13 articles that were searched in PubMed, Academic Search Elite and by manual search. Main results showed that next of kin were present around the clock which limited their freedom. Contributing support could alleviate the care burden and facilitate next of kin. Support from health care professionals was described as both weak and satisfying. Information was lacking and was sometimes conflicting and inadequate. Relevant information could reduce care burden, feelings of fear, uncertainty and loneliness and also facilitate the retention of control. Participation and involvement in care and decision-making was highly supportive and a way to maintain control. Next of kin easily lost control when professional support was not available or missing entirely, when the information was incomplete and resources were inadequate. It was important that the staff took the time, saw to the next of kin, spoke directly to them and confirmed them. The conclusion were that next of kin has a need for support during the time of care through participation, information and control A positive and supporting response from health care professionals can strengthen next of kin.

  • 446.
    Hillgren, Malin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nisukangas, Thina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelse av att utföra omvårdnad av patienter med blodsmitta: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Earlier research describes patients with blood-bourne pathogens experiences from the healthcare system. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe how registered nurses experience taking care of patients with blood-bourne pathogens. Method: This study had a descriptive design with a qualitative method. Eight interviews where performed and analyzed with manifest content analyze. Three categories “Comfort in their profession”, “Support from the organization”and “Fear of being contaminated”, and five subcategories “Support from hygiene guidelines”, “ Thoughtfulness”, “The own responsibility”, “Feelings of fear and concern”and “To meet preconceptions”, emerged. Result: The result described how nurses, while taking care of patients with blood-bourne pathogens, always worked extra safely and more careful, than with patients without any known blood-bourne pathogens. Nurses described the importance of safe communication. The nurses described feelings of fear and concern over being contaminated with a blood-bourne pathogen and therefore they followed the hygiene guidelines and did not expose themselves to any risks. Conclusion: The conclusion is that more research is needed to determine how nurses behave towards these patients. This can be done through observations, so these patients don’t need to be uncomfortable in the healthcare system. SBAR is a technique for safe communication that the authors to this study think can be to great use. 

  • 447.
    Hillgren, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Forsling, Pernilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Självskadebeteende hos ungdomar i åldrarna 13-18 år, en litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att beskriva självskadebeteende hos ungdomar i åldrarna 13-18 år, samt vad sjuksköterskan kan uppmärksamma för att bemöta ungdomarna på ett professionellt tillvägagångssätt. Syftet var även att granska kvalitén av datainsamlingsmetoden hos de inkluderade artiklarna. Metoden var en deskriptiv litteraturstudie med artiklar publicerade mellan år 2009 och 2014. Resultatet till föreliggande studie baserades på 15 artiklar, både kvalitativa och kvantitativa. Artiklarna söktes i databaserna PubMed och Cinahl. Huvudresultatet belyste att självskadebeteende inte är något nytt fenomen. Studier visade att självskadebeteende kunde uppstå utan någon specifik bakomliggande orsak men vanligt förkommande orsaker till beteendet kunde vara historia av trauma eller psykiska problem. Dessa bakomliggande faktorer måste uppmärksammas av sjuksköterskan. Att vårda en individ med självskadebeteende bör ske i en anda av tro, hopp och kärlek. Det var viktigt att sjuksköterskan såg hela individen och att bemötandet skedde på ett respektfullt, personligt och medmänskligt sätt. Datainsamlingsmetoden beskrevs tydligt i majoriteten av artiklarna. Slutsatsen Självskadebeteende är ett komplext och vanligt förkommande problem bland ungdomar i dagens samhälle. Vanligt förekommande bakomliggande faktorer till självskadebeteende kunde vara psykiska, fysiska och sexuella övergrepp. Att sjuksköterskan fick ökad förståelse till självskadebeteendet med fokus på bakomliggande orsaker samt vad sjuksköterskan kunde uppmärksamma för signaler var av stor vikt. Att bemöta ungdomar med självskadebeteende innebar att sjuksköterskan borde ha ett professionellt medmänskligt bemötande samt utgå från ett holistiskt synsätt. 

  • 448.
    Hoffman, Evelina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Johansson, Anna-Josephine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Faktorer som kan ha betydelse för sjuksköterskans triagebedömning: En litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Several Swedish hospitals developed triage scales in the 1990s to prioritize and sort patients in emergency rooms. One of the reasons was that the number of patients increased and resources of available doctors were limited. Aim: To describe the factors that may be important for the nurse’ triage assessment in emergency departments and to describe the data collection methods the chosen articles have used.Method: A literature study with descriptive design based on 12 scientific articles with both qualitative and quantitative approach. The search for articles have occurred in the databases Cinahl, PubMed and Google Scholar.Results: The high workload and lack of staff were factors that were relevant to the nursing profession. Some nurses felt that the high workload could lead to fewer correct priorities, it is difficult to prioritize a patient when the nurse is stressed. Less experienced nurses changed their decisions in the triage and took more time at the triage assessment. Training and simulation training was important in the triage process so the nurses could develop skills, make decisions and gather more accurate information in the assessment. Triage Nurses could be interrupted by patients asking how long it takes before they are assessed. This was a source of stress and dissatisfaction and affect concentration. Seven articles have used interviews, four have used observations and five have used other methods of data collection.Conclusion: A major reason for fewer correct triage priorities are high workload and stress. Nurse's concentration is affected by patients who discontinue during the triage process and the lack of staff means that the patient flow through the emergency department adversely affected.

  • 449.
    Holland, Emmeline
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Norén, Malin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Faktorer som visat samband med sjuksköterskans grad av följsamhet till basala hygienrutiner på vårdavdelningar med kirurgisk eftervård: Litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Vårdrelaterad infektion (VRI) är ett infektionstillstånd som patienten har ådragit sig till följd av vård under inläggning eller vid besök på sjukhus alternativt i öppenvården. VRI sprids från smittkälla till person genom vidröring av smittade personer och orena ytor . Även sjuksköterskor riskeras att bli smittade och utveckla VRI genom bristfällig handhygien då de utövar sitt arbete.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att beskriva i vilken grad sjuksköterskor på vårdavdelningar med kirurgisk eftervård tillämpar basala hygienrutiner och vilka faktorer som har samband med tillämpningen av basala hygienrutiner. Ytterligare ett syfte var att beskriva vilken urvalsmetod som använts i de valda artiklarna.

    Metod: Litteraturstudie med deskriptiv design. Författarna har granskat befintlig, redan publicerad forskning inom området vårdrelaterade infektioner och hygien. Därefter har författarna presenterat sitt resultat i löptext och tabeller med stöd av vetenskaplig litteratur.

    Huvudresultat: Flertalet sjuksköterskor hade kännedom om basala hygienrutiner och många utförde någon form av handhygien i varierande grad. Brist på följsamhet visade sig ha samband med faktorer som okunskap, upplevd tidsbrist, bristande resurser och handtvättens uttorkande effekt på huden.

    Slutsats: Sjuksköterskor tillämpar handhygien i varierande grad, dock finns utrymme för förbättringar. Mer kunskap och utbildning krävs bland sjuksköterskor för att förändra deras attityd, öka graden av följsamhet till hygienrutiner och minska risken för uppkomst och spridning av VRI.

  • 450.
    Holmberg, Christina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Jämförelse mellan vårdpersonalens smärtskattning av den äldres smärta och den äldres egen smärtskattning2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Enligt flera studier finns det inte någon skillnad i prevalens av smärta mellan personer med nedsatt kognitiv förmåga och äldre som själv kan skatta smärta.

    Syfte: Var att undersöka hur vårdpersonalen vid särskilt boende skattade smärta hos äldre med och utan kognitiv nedsättning och hur den äldre själv skattade sin smärta samt vad som kännetecknade smärta hos den äldre.

    Metod: En beskrivande och jämförande design med kvantitativ ansats. Smärtan bedömdes av sjuksköterskor och vårdpersonal med hjälp av VAS-skalan (Proxy-VAS). Under interventionstiden skattades alla äldre med Doloplus-2 av vårdpersonalen därefter skattade de äldre som själv kunde bedöma sin smärta med VAS-skalan.

    Resultat: Resultaten visar att vårdpersonalen har en tendens att skatta de äldre med mer smärta än vad de äldre själv anser att de har (61.3%). Med proxyVAS har vårdpersonalen skattat att 83.8% av de äldre hade symtom på smärta och 73.3% med Doloplus-2. Det fanns ingen signifikans utifrån den kognitiva förmågan hos de äldre som hade symtom på smärta. Vårdpersonalen såg symtom på smärta i omvårdnadssituationer som t.ex. vid toalettbesök eller vid påklädning(64.5%). Vanligast var att individen själv påtalade att denne hade ont (69.1%) eller att det såg ut som om de äldre hade ont vid rörelser (64.5%).

    Slutsatser: Det är svårt att smärtskatta andra människor, speciellt personer med demens. Användning av smärtskattningsinstrument ökar chansen att hitta individer med oupptäckt smärta.

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