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  • 401.
    Kelson, Denean
    et al.
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg VA, USA.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg VA, USA.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Differences in trapezius muscle activation patterns in office workers with and without chronic neck-shoulder pain, as quantified through exposure variation analysis2018In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Sage Publications, 2018, Vol. 2, p. 962-966Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to quantify upper-trapezius muscle activation patterns using exposure variation analysis (EVA) in healthy computer workers and those with chronic neck-shoulder pain. Eight healthy and five chronic pain participants were asked to complete three computer-based tasks (TYPE, CLICK, and FORM) in two pacing conditions (self-paced and control-paced). EVA was used to quantify variation using five amplitude classes and five duration classes. Performance in each task was also quantified. Healthy workers and those with chronic pain did not differ in performance, and they both exhibited similarly low levels of muscle activation amplitude. Pain participants, however, were found to spend less time in lower duration classes across tasks and conditions. These results indicate that individuals with chronic neck-shoulder pain utilize movement strategies involving sustained durations of continuous muscle activation. This may be suggestive of decreased temporal variation in muscle activation patterns in those with chronic pain.

  • 402.
    Kelson, Denean
    et al.
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg VA.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg VA.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Trapezius Muscle Activity Variation during computer work performed by individuals with andwithout chronic neck shoulder pain2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 403.
    Keus van de Poll, Marijke
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Intervention and Implementation Research in Worker Health.
    Nybergh, L
    Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Intervention and Implementation Research in Worker Health.
    Lornudd, C
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics (LIME).
    Kwak, L
    Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Intervention and Implementation Research in Worker Health.
    Lohela Karlsson, M
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Science.
    Hagberg, J
    Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Intervention and Implementation Research in Worker Health.
    Torgén, M
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Science.
    Jensen, I
    Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Intervention and Implementation Research in Worker Health.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Intervention and Implementation Research in Worker Health.
    Preventing sickness absenteeism among employees with common mental disorders or stress-related symptoms at work: A cluster RCT conducted at the occupational health services2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 404.
    Keus van de Poll, Marijke
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Intervention and Implementation Research in Worker Health.
    Nybergh, L
    Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Intervention and Implementation Research in Worker Health.
    Lornudd, C
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics (LIME).
    Kwak, L
    Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Intervention and Implementation Research in Worker Health.
    Lohela Karlsson, M
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Science.
    Hagberg, J
    Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Intervention and Implementation Research in Worker Health.
    Torgén, M
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Science.
    Jensen, I
    Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Intervention and Implementation Research in Worker Health.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Intervention and Implementation Research in Worker Health.
    Preventing sickness absenteeism among employees with common mental disorders or stress-related symptoms at work: A cluster RCT conducted at the occupational health services2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 405.
    Kietrys, David
    et al.
    School of Health Related Professions, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey.
    Gerg, Michael
    Occupational Therapy Assistant Program, Harcum College; Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Temple University .
    Dropkin, Jonathan
    Department of Occupational Medicine, Epidemiology, and Prevention, Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine.
    Gold, Judith
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Public Health, Temple University.
    Mobile input device type, texting style and screen size influence upper extremity and trapezius muscle activity, and cervical posture while texting2015In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 50, p. 98-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study aim was to determine the effects of input device type, texting style, and screen size on upper extremity muscle activity and neck and wrist posture during a short texting task in college students. Users of a physical keypad produced greater thumb and wrist extensor muscle force than when texting with a touch screen; using a touch screen required greater wrist extension. Texting on either device produced greater finger flexor and wrist extensor muscle force and greater radial deviation when 1 hand/thumb was used, compared to both hands/thumbs. As touch screen size increased, more participants held the device on their lap, and there was a trend for greater muscle force in finger flexors, wrist extensors, and trapezius, and greater wrist extension, ulnar deviation, and cervical spine flexion. Future research can help inform whether the ergonomic stressors observed during texting are associated with the risk of musculoskeletal disorders.

  • 406.
    King, Debra
    et al.
    Flinders University, Australia.
    Svensson, Sven
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Wei, Zhang
    Flinders University, Australia.
    Not always a quick fix: the impact of employing temporary agency workers on retention in the Australian aged care workforce2017In: Journal of Industrial Relations, ISSN 0022-1856, E-ISSN 1472-9296, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 85-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of external labour such as temporary agency workers in the general workforcehas increased in recent decades, but comparatively little is known about their impactwithin the aged care workforce. This article analyses quantitative data from a census ofaged care facilities and a large-scale survey of their workforce regarding the use andimpact of temporary agency workers on internal workers. It demonstrates that employ-ing temporary agency workers helps address labour shortages generally and skill short-ages in particular. However, it has a negative impact on the job satisfaction of internalpersonal care workers – a predictor of an increase in intention to leave. In contrast,there was little impact on internal nurse satisfaction. The use of temporary agencyworkers could therefore create a paradox: increasing personal care worker numbersin the short term, but negatively impacting on their retention in the long term. Giventhe need for an expanded and sustainable aged care workforce, this finding has import-ant implications for organisations, policy and unions.

  • 407.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Recall of words heard in noise2008In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 1088-1098Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to explore if recall of words and recognition of sentences orally presented was affected by a background noise. A further aim was to investigate the role of working memory capacity in performance in these conditions. Thirty-two subjects performed a word recall and a sentence recognition test. They repeated each word to ensure that they had heard them. A reading span test measured their working memory capacity. Performance on the word recall task was impaired by the background noise. A high reading span score was associated with a smaller noise effect, especially on recall of the last part of the word list.

  • 408.
    Kjellberg, Katarina
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Nyman, Teresia
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden ; Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden; School of Technology and health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Palm, Peter
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rhén, Ida-Märta
    Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Kristina
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; School of Technology and health, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Ruth
    Swedish Work Environment Authority, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Balliu, Natalya
    Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Comparisons of six observational methods for risk assessment of repetitive work - results from a consensus assessment2015In: Proceedings 19th Triennial Congress of the IEA, Melbourne 9-14 August 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During last decades several risk assessment methods for physical ergonomics have been developed. In a literature review 30 observational methods for assessment of biomechanical exposures at work were evaluated (1). It was found that several methods are insufficiently tested in terms of validity and reliability. Comparisons between methods' resulting risk levels are rare. The Swedish Work Environment Authority has recently emphasized the demands on risk assessments of musculoskeletal disorders (2). Practitioners mostly use observational methods to assess biomechanical risks(1). Despite a recent study comparing eight methods evaluating risk factors associated with musculoskeletal disorders (3), there is a lack of knowledge and guidance on which methods are the most effective and valid.

    This study is part of a larger on-going project, the OBS-project, with the overall purpose to evaluate six observational methods for assessment of biomechanical exposures of repetitive work in respect of validity, reliability and usability. A further purpose is to provide information on which of the methods are best suited for practitioners in risk assessment of repetitive work. The specific aim of this sub-study was to investigate the agreement between six observational methods for risk assessment of repetitive work by comparing the risk levels as assessed by a group of experts.

  • 409.
    Kjellberg, Katarina
    et al.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Occupational and Environmental Health, Karolinska Institutet.
    Palm, Peter
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Josephson, Malin
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University.
    Development of an instrument for assessing workstyle in checkout cashier work (BAsIK)2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, p. 663-668Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Checkout cashier work consists of handling a large number of items during a work shift, which implies repetitive movements of the shoulders, arms and hands/wrists, and a high work rate. The work is associated with a high prevalence of disorders in the neck and upper extremity. The concept of workstyle explains how ergonomic and psychosocial factors interact in the development of work-related upper extremity disorders. The aim of the project was to develop an instrument for the occupational health services to be used in the efforts to prevent upper extremity disorders in checkout cashier work. The instrument is based on the workstyle concept and is intended to be used as a tool to identify high-risk workstyle and needs for interventions, such as training and education. The instrument, BAsIK, consists of four parts; a questionnaire about workstyle, an observation protocol for work technique, a checklist about the design of the checkout and a questionnaire about work organization. The instrument was developed by selecting workstyle items developed for office work and adapting them to checkout cashier work, discussions with researchers and ergonomists, focus-group interviews with cashiers, observations of video recordings of cashiers, and studies of existing guidelines and checklists.

  • 410.
    Korshøj, Mette
    et al.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Birk Jørgensen, Marie
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lagersted-Olsen, Julie
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Prolonged sitting at work is associated with a favorable time course of low-back pain among blue-collar workers: a prospective study in the DPhacto cohort2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 530-538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sitting at work is suggested to increase risk for low-back pain (LBP). Thus, an association between temporal patterns of sitting and time course of LBP, across 12 months, among 665 participants from the DPhacto cohort was conducted. We found that longer durations of total and temporal sitting periods at work were significantly associated with a favorable time course of LBP.

  • 411.
    Korshøj, Mette
    et al.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Lagersted-Olsen, Julie
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Birk Jørgensen, Marie
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Is there an association between temporal patterns of sitting and low-back pain?: A cross-sectional study2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Low back pain (LBP) is a major global health challenge. Sitting is a suggested risk factor for LBP among blue-collar workers. Previously, information on sitting time has been collected by self-reports, being imprecise and biased compared to objective measurements. Therefore, we aimed at investigating the association between objectively measured sitting time and LBP among blue-collar workers.

    Methods

    The analysis is based on the DPHACTO cohort, and included 601 Danish blue-collar workers recruited from the cleaning, manufacturing and transport sector. Cross-sectional information on LBP intensity (range 0-10) was collected by questionnaire. Objective measurements of sitting were collected using two accelerometers (ActiGraph GT3X+) worn on the thigh and trunk during 1-5 workdays. Sitting time were split in occupational and leisure time and analyzed as the total duration, and divided in temporal patterns of uninterrupted long (> 30 min), moderate (> 5 – 30 min) and short (< 5 min) bouts by the exposure variation analysis method. Association between sitting and LBP intensity was analyzed using univariate ANOVA adjusted for age, sex, smoking, BMI, job seniority and occupational lifting and carrying activities. Additionally, total sitting were adjusted for physical activities (standing, walking, running, walking in stairs and biking) and sitting in opposite domain (occupational/leisure); and temporal pattern variables were mutually adjusted for other lengths of sitting bouts.

    Results

    No associations were seen between total sitting time and LBP; (occupational B=0.017, p=0.53; leisure B=0.008, p=0.76). No associations seen between long (occupational B=-0.002, p=0.97; leisure B=0.010, p=0.75), moderate (occupational B=0.025, p=0.50; leisure B=0.006, p=0.90), or short (occupational B=0.035, p=0.63; leisure B=-0.009, p=0.95) bouts of uninterrupted sitting and LBP.

    Conclusions and implications

    Objectively measured sitting time was not associated with LBP in blue-collar workers; pointing toward other factors being attributed to LBP. Thus, this finding needs to be investigated in prospective designs.

  • 412.
    Korshøj, Mette
    et al.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Aadahl, Mette
    Research Centre for Prevention and Health, The Capital Region of Denmark, Glostrup, Denmark; Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Birk Jørgensen, Marie
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Is objectively measured sitting at work associated with low-back pain?: a cross sectional study in the DPhacto cohort2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 96-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. Low back pain (LBP) is a substantial health challenge, due to the risk for long term sickness absence and early retirement. Several biomechanical exposures at work, including sitting, have been suggested to increase the risk for LBP. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which temporal patterns and total amount of objectively measured sitting is associated with LBP intensity, and whether selected modifiers influence these associations.

    Methods. This cross sectional study uses baseline data from the Danish PHysical ACTivity cohort with objective measurements of physical activities in the cleaning, transport and manufacturing sectors. Peak intensity of LBP was collected by questionnaire on a 0-10 scale and sitting was expressed in terms of total duration and temporal pattern, i.e. time spent in brief bursts (≤5 minutes), moderate periods (>5 – ≤20 minutes) and prolonged periods of sitting (>20 minutes); both during work and whole day (waking hours only). Associations were determined using linear regression in models accounting for moderation and confounding. Factors evaluated as moderators or confounders were assessed by questionnaire.

    Results. The population consisted of 704 participants. No significant associations were found between total duration or temporal patterns of sitting and LBP intensity, neither during work nor for the whole day. Body Mass Index significantly moderated the association between sitting and LBP; participants with a high and low BMI showing a negative and positive association, respectively.

    Conclusion. Sitting was not independently associated with peak LBP intensity, suggesting other exposures to be more powerful risk factors for LBP.

  • 413.
    Kwak, Lydia
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Lornudd, Caroline
    Karolinska institutet.
    Björklund, Christina
    Karolinska institutet.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Karolinska institutet.
    Nybergh, Lotta
    Karolinska institutet.
    Schäfer Elinder, Liselotte
    Karolinska institutet.
    Stigmar, Kjerstin
    Lunds universitet.
    Wåhlin, Charlotte
    Linköpings universitet.
    Jensen, Irene
    Karolinska institutet.
    Implementation of the Swedish Guideline for Prevention of Mental ill-health at the workplace: study protocol of a cluster randomized controlled trial, using multifaceted implementation strategies in schools2019In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 19, article id 1668Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Given today’s high prevalence of common mental disorders and related sick leave among teachers, an urgent need exists for a more systematic approach to the management of social and organizational risk factors within schools. In 2015, we launched the first Swedish occupational health guideline to support a structured prevention of these risks at the workplace. The existence of guidelines does however not guarantee their usage, as studies show that guidelines are often underused. Knowledge is therefore needed on effective implementation strategies that can facilitate the translation of guidelines into practice. The primary aim of the randomized waiting list-controlled trial described in this study protocol is to compare the effectiveness of a multifaceted implementation strategy versus a single implementation strategy for implementing the Guideline for the prevention of mental ill-health at the workplace within schools. The effectiveness will be compared regarding the extent to which the recommendations are implemented (implementation effectiveness) and with regard to social and organisational risk factors for mental ill-health, absenteeism and presenteeism (intervention effectiveness).

  • 414.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Healthy and effective leadership behaviour through a leadership development programme2017In: Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 28, no 13-14, p. 1617-1631Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analysed the influence on leadership behaviours acquired through a structured development programme. A total of 30 municipality workplaces around the west coast of Sweden participated in a leadership intervention using a case-control design. The oneyear programme included lectures, seminars, group and individual reflection, and for some participants, an intervention that included group development activities with subordinates. The intervention was based on the healthy and effective leadership (HEL) model. The model draws from common leadership behaviours in successful organisations. Among municipalities in western Sweden, does subordinate perception of their managers’ HEL behaviours differ between subordinates whose managers participated in one-year leadership development programs and subordinates whose managers were in a control group? The leadership development programme, both with and without a systematic group development process, had a significant positive relation with the change in the HEL behaviour index when controlled for age, gender and education compared with a control group from the same region and sector. Further research is suggested using longitudinal leadership behaviour intervention studies that focus on both subordinate health and organisational effectiveness.

  • 415.
    Larsson, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Ledarskapsbokslut: ett systematiskt reflektionsverktyg för utveckling av hälsofrämjande och effektiva chefer och specialister2012Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 416.
    Lennernäs Wiklund, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    Gard, Gunvor
    Hälsovetenskaper, Medicinska fakulteten Lunds Universitet .
    Lindberg, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Olofsson, Niclas
    Region Västernorrland FoU.
    Risberg, Anitha
    Institutionen för Hälsovetenskap, Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Willmer, Mikaela
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Hann du äta?: En enkät och intervjustudie av arbetsmåltidens förutsättningar och betydelse för hälsa och välbefinnande vid skift- och schemalagt arbete med nattarbete2018In: FALF KONFERENS 2018 Arbetet – problem eller potential för en hållbar livsmiljö?   10-12 juni 2018 Gävle: Program och abstracts / [ed] Per Lindberg, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2018, p. 129-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund

    Ohälsosamma matvanor och stress bidrar till sjukskrivningar och nedsatt arbetsförmåga genom övervikt, hjärtkärlsjukdom, diabetes typ 2 och psykisk ohälsa. Slimmade organisationer och flexibla arbetstider begränsar möjligheten att äta hälsosamt i samband med arbete. Särskilt utsatt är personal med skift- och schemalagt arbete. Att inte kunna på-verka när man äter under arbetspasset kan öka stress och irritation, med risk för sänkt prestations- och koncentrationsförmåga. Arbetsmiljöverkets föreskrifter om organisatorisk och social arbetsmiljö (AFS 2015:4) syftar till att främja en god arbetsmiljö och förebygga ohälsa på grund av organisatoriska och sociala förhållanden i arbetsmiljön. Det finns ingen lagstiftning angående matrastens längd eller utformningen av matrum. Arbetsgivaren har rätt att byta ut raster mot måltidsuppehåll, det senare innebär måltid om arbetssituationen medger det. Personal med ständig larmberedskap kan arbeta en hel natt utan möjlighet att äta. Detta är tveksamt med hänsyn till hälsa, säkerhet och arbetsförmåga.

    Syfte

    Studiens syfte är 1) att få en bättre förståelse av de faktorer som påverkar möjligheten och formerna för att äta i samband med natt- och skiftarbete och de val anställda gör utifrån de förutsättningar som finns 2) att öka förståelsen av hur arbetsmåltiden påverkas av organisatoriska och psykosociala förhållanden, och måltidens betydelse för återhämtning, välbefinnande och hälsa.

    Frågeställningar

    Hur gestaltas arbetsmåltider för personal med skift- och schemalagt arbete? Vilka strat-egier och handlingsutrymmen har personalen för att planera sina arbetsmåltider? Vi kommer särskilt att uppmärksamma vad personalen äter, under vilka omständigheter de äter samt vilken betydelse måltiden har för välbefinnande och gemenskap.

    Urval och metod

    Enkät riktas till anställda med dag-, skift- och schemalagt arbete inom industri och hemtjänst. Intervjuer genomförs med chefer inom dessa verksamheter.

    Resultat

    Studien startar våren 2018 med inledande intervjuer och test av enkät till målgrupper efter arbetsplatsbesök. Under konferensen kommer vi att kortfattat sammanfatta den forskning som finns inom ramen för våra frågeställningar samt att redovisa resultat från några intervjuer med chefer.

    Genom vårt deltagande vill vi bidra till att sätta arbetsmåltiden på agendan inom arbetsmiljöforskning och diskutera med andra forskare hur de ser på arbetsmåltiden ur ett arbetsmiljöperspektiv.

  • 417.
    Lewis, Charlotte
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Belastning, genus och hälsa i arbetslivet2013Report (Refereed)
  • 418.
    Lidegaard, Mark
    et al.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    Fritz Lerche, Anders
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    Kold Munch, Pernille
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    Greby Schmidt, Kathrine
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    Lund Rasmussen, Charlotte
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    Nørregaard Rasmussen, Charlotte Diana
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Straker, Leon
    School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    Can childcare work be designed to promote moderate and vigorous physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and health? Study protocol for the Goldilocks-childcare randomised controlled trial2020In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Despite extensive efforts, issues like obesity and poor physical capacity remain challenges for a healthy work life in several occupations. The Goldilocks work principle offers a new approach, encouraging design of productive work to promote physical capacity and health. This paper presents the protocol for the Goldilocks-childcare study, a randomised controlled intervention trial aiming to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing the Goldilocks work principle in childcare. The primary aim of the intervention is to increase time in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) by having the childcare workers act as active role models for children in daily playful physical activities, and thereby improve cardiorespiratory fitness and health of the workers.

    Methods/ design: The study is a cluster-randomised trial with a usual-practice wait-list control group. The 10-week intervention consists of two phases. In the first, the childcare workers will participate in two participatory workshops aiming, a) to develop playful physical activities (‘Goldilocks-games’) for children in which childcare workers participate as active role models at MVPA intensity, and b) to develop action plans for implementation of the Goldilocks-games in daily work routines. In the second phase, childcare institutions will implement the Goldilocks-games. The primary outcome is working time spent in MVPA, and secondary outcomes are cardiorespiratory fitness, sleeping heart rate, perceived need for recovery, and productivity. Primary outcome and process evaluation will be based on direct measurements of physical activity and heart rate, determination of cardiorespiratory fitness, and questionnaires.

    Discussion: If proven effective, the Goldilocks work principle has a large potential for promoting sustainable health and working lives of childcare workers.

  • 419.
    Liebl, Andreas
    et al.
    Fraunhofer Institute for Building Physics, Stuttgart, Germany.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Review of research on the effects of noise on cognitive performance 2014-20172017In: 12th ICBEN Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem, Zurich, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A literature review was conducted covering the years 2014 to 2017 with a focus on the methods used to study the effects of noise on cognitive performance. Sound or noise and cognitive performance as well as several synonymous or related terms were used in the search string. The search resulted in a total of 1114 posts which were reduced by keeping only those publications that were work-related. This resulted in 82 articles. After a practical screen of the abstracts 47 publications still remained relevant. Several studies aimed to investigate the effects of office noise and addressed either only main effects of noise and/or interaction effects with other parameters, such as ventilation parameters or odors. Some studies extended the focus to the effects of noise in different office types. In this context noise abatement measures, like sound masking, were also tested. Furthermore, some studies dealt with the positive effects of sound by means of its restorative potential. Besides the more applied research work, several basic research studies were found dealing with the irrelevant sound effect and tests of different tasks and outcome measures of cognitive performance, such as mathematics, reading, word processing and writing.

  • 420.
    Lind, Nina
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Söderholm, Anna
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Palmquist, Eva
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Andersson, Linus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Millqvist, Eva
    Asthma and Allergy Research Group, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nordin, Steven
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Comorbidity and Multimorbidity of Asthma and Allergy and Intolerance to Chemicals and Certain Buildings2017In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1076-2752, E-ISSN 1536-5948, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 80-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: We tested the hypothesis of high comorbidity between asthma/allergy and chemical intolerance (CI) and between asthma/allergy and building intolerance (BI), and high multimorbidity between asthma/allergy, CI, and BI.

    Methods: Population-based questionnaire data were used from 530 participants with asthma/allergy (allergic asthma, nonallergic asthma, allergic rhinitis, and/or atopic dermatitis), 414 with self-reported and 112 with physician-diagnosed CI, and 165 with self-reported and 47 with physician-diagnosed BI. Separate reference groups were formed for each of the five case groups.

    Results: Adjusted odds ratios varied from 4.6 to 13.1 for comorbidity, and from 6.6 to 46.4 for multimorbidity.

    Conclusion: The large comorbidity and multimorbidity between asthma/allergy, CI, and BI evokes the question as to whether there are similarities in underlying mechanisms between these conditions.

  • 421.
    Lindberg, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Arbetsmiljöarbete i omvandling - positivt tillskott eller kejsarens nya kläder?2014Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Trots mångårigt riskeliminerande arbetsmiljöarbete drabbas 20 % i Sverige årligen av arbetsrelaterade fysiska och/eller psykiska besvär. Många orkar idag inte arbeta fram till pensionsåldern. Den demografiska utvecklingen medför dock att vi kommer att behöva arbeta längre än i dag. Det traditionella arbetsmiljöarbetets risktänkande har lärt oss hur arbetet inte skall vara. Risktänkande är en nödvändig kunskap för att förhindra ohälsa men otillräckligt i ett omstrukturerat arbetsliv där nyckelfaktorerna för framåtskridande är motivation, samarbete och kreativitet. Undvikandet av exponering för negativa förhållanden leder heller inte alltid till en positiv situation då positiva tillstånd ofta är något kvalitativt annorlunda – inte bara det omvända. För att nå ett hälsomässigt hållbart arbetsliv är det troligt att det behövs insatser från flera olika håll och av olika typ. Under särskilt det senaste decenniet, har ett främjande perspektiv utökat arbetsmiljödiskursen. ”Främjande faktorer” i arbetet antas främja både individens fysiska och psykiska hälsa och företagets konkurrenskraft och lönsamhet och därmed ge ”friska” företag/verksamheter. Vilka faktorer som verkar hälsofrämjande, liksom hur en organisation skall arbeta för att främja hälsan hos anställda och samtidigt gynna en affärsmässigt sund verksamhet, är dock ännu i sin linda. Med utgångspunkt från det s.k. GodA-projektet kommer detta att diskuteras.

  • 422.
    Lindberg, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    FALF KONFERENS 2018 Arbetet – problem eller potential för en hållbar livsmiljö?   10-12 juni 2018 Gävle: Program och abstracts2018Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 423.
    Lindberg, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    God arbetsmiljö och friska arbetsplatser2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 424.
    Lindberg, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hälsa och hälsofrämjande i arbetslivet2011In: Perspektiv på kvinnors hälsa i arbetslivet / [ed] Hélène Sandmark, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2011, p. 33-63Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 425.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Strömberg, Annika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    The birth, rise and success (or fall?) of an intervention project: GodA – a project set up to test a model of the prerequisites for a healthy workplace2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conditions in today’s working life make new approaches necessary in order to limit negative health effects of working life and to enhance wellbeing and health at work. Despite rather progressive legislation, a century of labour inspections, and the efforts of thousands of occupational health personnel, still around 20% of the Swedish workforce report to have had work-related disorders other than accidents during the last year (1). Even if this "elimination approach" partly has succeeded it´s obvious that it is insufficient or inadequate for a working life where key issues for progress are motivation, cooperation and creativity (2). In order to achieve a sustainable working life, not the least to coop with issues related to the ageing population in the developed countries, it is likely that strategies and actions from different and new angles are needed.

    Healthy workplace has been defined as an organization that maximizes the integration of worker goals for wellbeing and company objectives for profitability and productivity(3). It is noteworthy that the notion healthy workplace is not a substitute for good work environment it is a consequence. Different models, e.g. the PATH-model by Grawitch et al.(4) shows a synthesis of earlier research in a number of different disciplines and frames how a healthy workplace with wellbeing for the individual and organizational improvements can be achieved. Five general categories of healthy workplace practices were identified in the literature: work-life balance, employee growth and development, health and safety, recognition, and employee involvement. Previous research also suggests that the link between these practices and employee and organizational outcomes is contingent on the effectiveness of communication within the organization and the alignment of workplace practices with the organizational context.

    The GodA-project aims at investigating if work place strategies in line with the PATH-model lead to better health and wellbeing among the employees as well as organizational improvements.

    The GodA project is a 2 year follow up study with a survey feedback design in three companies with both blue- and white collar workers within the energy sector. One of the companies serves as "intervention company", the other two as controls. The project started out with a pre-project, by means of focus groups and individual interviews, in 2012 in order to find out how employees and managers in the three companies describe the concept of a healthy work environment, what they consider to create well-being at work, and how they perceive their own work environment:

    What factors are important for well-being at work? presented by T. Karlsson

    In 2013 a baseline questionnaire where was sent out including items a) based on the results from the pre-study, and b) well-established questions and indices on health and work environment. The results from the survey have been reported back to the companies, which now are processing their results. Research question to be presented and discussed at the symposium:

    Is there a balance between factors of importance for wellbeing at work and the extent to which they are present at the workplace? presented by P. Lindberg.

    Is there a correlation between psychosocial work climate indicators and work-related well-

    The PATH-model emphasizes internal communication as critical in establishing a healthy workplace. As the baseline results show that the communication is not very well developed, this is the primary target for our intervention. We will demonstrate a method for how the survey data are presented back to the intervention company and how they are going to work with the results to improve their work environment, and at the same time enhance communication skills.

    After our presentation we invite the audience to discuss both the GodA-study and more general methodological issues when conducting intervention-studies, e.g:

    - When is a company ready (mature) to take part in research activities?

    - What are the pitfalls in workplace intervention studies?

    - To what degree can the researchers interact at the workplace and still be objective?

    - What is the value of focusing on the items that the employees responded to in the survey?

    References

    1. Swedish Work Environment Authority. Work -related disorders 2010 - Arbetsmiljöstatistisk Rapport 2010:4. Stockholm: Swedish Work Environment Authority. & Statistics Sweden 2010.

    2. Aronsson G, Gustafsson K, Hakanen J. On the development of a positive work-life psychology. In: Christensen M, editor. Validation and test of central concepts in positive work and organizatinal psychology The second report from the Nordic project 'Positive factors at work'. TemaNord 2009:564. Copenhagen: Nordic Council of Ministers; 2009. p. 93-4.

    3. Sauter S, Lim S, Murphy L. Organizational health: A new paradigm for occupational stress research at NIOSH. Japanese Journal of Occupational Mental Health. 1996;4:248-54.

    4. Grawitch MJ, Gottschalk M, Munz DC. The path to a healthy workplace: A critical review linking healthy workplace practices, employee well-being, and organizational improvements. Consulting Psychology Journal. 2006;58(3):129-47.

  • 426.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet.
    Berntsson, Erik
    Stockholms universitet.
    Härenstam, Annika
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Pousette, Anders
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Sverke, Magnus
    Stockholms universitet.
    Westlander, Gunnela
    Stockholms universitet.
    Workshop: Interventionsforskning: GodA - God arbetsmiljö och Friska företag2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 427.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Section for Personal Injury Prevention, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Josephson, Malin
    Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Division of Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre of Public Health, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Vingård, Eva
    Section for Personal Injury Prevention, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Comparisons between five self-administered instruments predicting sick leaves in a 4-year follow-up2009In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 82, no 2, p. 227-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore and compare the ability of five instruments for self-rating to predict future sick leave rates. METHODS: In three Swedish municipalities 2,252 employees completed a baseline questionnaire and were followed up for 4 years. Five health-oriented instruments for self-rating were used as potential predictors of the two outcome measures no sick leave at all, and one or more spells of long-term sick leave >/=28 days. Positive and negative predictive values as well as Cox proportional hazard ratios (denoted as RRs) adjusted for age and work type were calculated. RESULTS: The instruments showed no statistical difference in predicting future sick leave for either of the sexes. For no sick leave RRs ranged between 1.27 and 1.52 (women), 1.35 and 1.61 (men); for long-term sick leave RRs ranged between 1.78 and 2.39 (women), 2.87 and 5.53 (men). However, the best prediction of long-term sick leave for men, RR 5.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.37-9.08, was significantly higher than the best prediction for women, RR 2.39, 95% CI 1.97-2.90. CONCLUSION: Prediction of long-term sick leave was better than that of no sick leave, and better among men than among women. There was a tendency for somewhat better prediction of future sick leave by multiple-question instruments, but single-question instruments can very well be used in predicting future sick leaves, and crude analyses stratified by sex can be used for screening purposes.

  • 428.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    The process of work environmental changes in manufacturing companies2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    For survival reasons, the process of change is ever-present in companies. If well conducted it can create commitment, new knowledge and skills as well as meet workers need for development. To succeed it is crucial to understand how changes come about.

     

    Objectives

    The aim of this study was to investigate how changes, especially improvements of work environment issues, within manufacturing companies are initiated, processed and implemented.

     

    Methods

    Twelve managers in charge of work environment issues, representing twelve randomly selected small, medium and large manufacturing companies within the wood-, paper-, metal-, and steel sectors in central Sweden were interviewed. The semi-structured interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed.

     

    Results

     The managers described work environmental changes as a continuous process of development, central for the company’s competitiveness. Economic incentives were the prime driving force for change. The organisational structure was considered as a key factor for initiating and implementing changes, and it was described how hierarchical structures had been transformed into more self-managing structures where the individuals, as well as the group, now had extended responsibilities.

     As internal driving forces for change the managers described how many ideas came from the employees, and that informal communication was a key concept in order to take advantage of the employees’ ideas and creativity. External driving forces were rather customer requirements like quality- and environmental certifications than legislative requirements.

    Common obstacles during the process of change were issues of economy, poor communication, employee resistance and inactive management.  

    The managers regarded the evaluation of implemented changes, in general, as poor and mainly concentrated on obvious economical issues. Reasons for this were time constraints, and that customer matters always were prioritized over internal processes.

     

    Conclusions

    In order for consultants, authorities or researchers to address change and development at companies it is necessary to understand how these organisations perceive, think and act regarding these matters. The present study suggests that possible gateways can be economy, employee health, leadership, employee involvement and participation, and evaluation routines.

  • 429.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Nordlöf, Hasse
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Engström, Veronica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science.
    Vingård, Eva
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Factors at work promoting mental health and wellbeing - a systematic litterature review2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    There is strong evidence that work itself, despite its risks, reduces the risk of depression and improves mental health (Waddell & Burton, 2006; van der Noordt, IJzelenberg, Droomers, & Proper, 2014). Mental health, like mental illness, is a vaguely defined concept. Mental health is a non-contextual concept which can be defined as absence of mental illness and with the opportunity to develop and flourish with high levels of emotional, psychological and social well-being (Keyes, 2005). The concept of wellbeing at work is inclusive. It relates to the physical environment, work-related risks, organization of work and tasks, relationships with colleagues, personal health and work ability and even family-related stress (Suomaa Leo, Yrjänheikki Erkki, Savolainen Heikki, & Hannu, 2011). It can also be seen as an important determinant of productivity at the individual, corporate and community levels (Schulte & Vainio, 2010).

    "Healthy factors" for mental health in the workplace are factors and circumstances at work that may have a preventive and/or promotional effect on mental health and wellbeing of the workers. These factors can serve as resources (buffers) against negative consequences of various risks at work, but they may also be factors that, by themselves, create positive health benefits for the individual and the workplace.

    The large numbers of work-related mental unhealthy in the western world (not the least in Sweden), call for actions in improving working conditions, but which are the important determinants of positive mental health and wellbeing at work to be influenced?  A review of indicators for healthy workplaces has recently been performed (Lindberg & Vingård, 2012), but we have not found any comprehensive review explicitly concerning positive mental health at work. Hence, the aim of this study was to review current knowledge concerning determinants for mental health and wellbeing at work.

    Method

    Two comprehensive literature searches were conducted in nine scientific databases, EBSCO (includes Academic Search Elite, Cinahl, PsycINFO och PsycARTICLES), Emerald, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science, for relevant articles written in English, German or the Scandinavian languages. The first search, covering 2000-2014, was done for a Swedish government report (Lindberg & Karlsson, 2015). The second search, covering 2014 - June 2016, updated the previous data for the purpose of a scientific publication. Exclusion of articles was made stepwise by title, abstract and full text. The quality of included articles was assessed by acknowledged guidelines (STROBE Statement) and done separately by two researchers. The combined results are being analysed and will be presented in Montreal.

    Search terms were: work OR workplace OR "healthy workplace" OR "healthy work" OR "healthy work* environment" OR "good work* environment" AND "depressive disorder" OR depression OR "behavioral symptoms" OR "anxiety disorders" OR "stress, psychological" OR "common mental disorders" OR "mental health" OR "sustainable mental health” OR "mental wellbeing" OR "mental well-being" OR "job wellbeing" OR "job well-being" OR "positive mental health" OR "good mental health" OR "positive mental wellbeing" OR "positive mental well-being" AND prevention OR promotion.

    Results

    According to preliminary analyses 5378 unique publications were found, of these 30 review-, cohort-, cross sectional-, and qualitative studies are included.

    In the included studies 25 individual or categories of related factors promoting positive mental health and wellbeing at work were identified. Below is a list of the twelve most frequently researched factors listed in order of descending frequency.

    • Style of  leadership
    • Empowerment; Autonomy; Control at work; Participation
    • Possibilities for own development
    • Positive work climate
    • Social  support from supervisor
    • Communication supervisor-employee
    • Clear goals
    • Appreciation from supervisors, colleagues, customers
    • Work time control; Enough time
    • Effort-reward balance
    • Intellectually stimulating
    • Job security

     As seen above the most frequently investigated factor was the impact of leadership on mental health. It was found that “good leadership”, i.e. fair, supportive and empowering, gave positive health changes and increased well-being, that increased quality of a staff-oriented leadership reduced sickness absence in the company and that transformational leadership increased psychological wellbeing and job satisfaction among workers.

    Conclusion

    Independent of study design leadership was the most scrutinized factor. Apart from possibly being a research trend (?), this may be interpreted as an understanding of both its explicit influence on the well-being of the employees, and its implicit influence by having the authority to facilitate communication, empowerment, control, support, respect, work content, feedback, etc.

    Practical implications

    Working conditions arise in the interaction between the individual and the organization, but creating working conditions that promote mental health cannot be put on the individual. It must be organized in the workplace for the employees in that special context, whereby the leadership seems to be paramount for the promotion of mental health and wellbeing at work.

  • 430.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Nordlöf, Hasse
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Engström, Veronica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Vingård, Eva
    Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Factors at work promoting mental health and wellbeing at work – a systematic literature review2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    There is strong evidence that work itself, despite its risks, reduces the risk of depression and improves mental health (Waddell & Burton, 2006; van der Noordt, IJzelenberg, Droomers, & Proper, 2014). Mental health, like mental illness, is a vaguely defined concept. Mental health is a non-contextual concept, which can be defined as absence of mental illness and with the opportunity to develop and flourish with high levels of emotional, psychological and social well-being (Keyes, 2005). The concept of wellbeing at work is inclusive. It relates to the physical environment, work-related risks, organization of work and tasks, relationships with colleagues, personal health and work ability and even family-related stress (Suomaa, Yrjänheikki, Savolainen, & Jokiluoma, 2011). It can also be seen as an important determinant of productivity at the individual, corporate and community levels (Schulte & Vainio, 2010).

    "Healthy factors" for mental health in the workplace are factors and circumstances at work that may have a preventive and/or promotional effect on mental health and wellbeing of the workers. These factors can serve as resources (buffers) against negative consequences of various risks at work. They may also be factors that, by themselves, create positive health benefits for the individual and the workplace.

    The large numbers of work-related mental unhealthy in the western world (not the least in Sweden), call for actions in improving working conditions, but which are the important determinants of positive mental health and wellbeing at work to be influenced?  A review of indicators for healthy workplaces has recently been performed (Lindberg & Vingård, 2012), but we have not found any comprehensive review explicitly concerning mental health at work. Hence, the aim of this study was to review current knowledge concerning determinants for mental health and wellbeing at work.

    Method

    Two comprehensive literature searches were conducted in nine scientific databases, EBSCO (includes Academic Search Elite, Cinahl, PsycINFO och PsycARTICLES), Emerald, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science, for relevant articles written in English, German or the Scandinavian languages. The first search, covering 2000-2014, was done for a Swedish government report. The second search, covering 2014- June 2016, updated the previous data for the purpose of a scientific publication. Exclusion of articles was made stepwise by title, abstract and full text. The quality of included articles was assessed by acknowledged guidelines (STROBE Statement) and done separately by two researchers. The combined results are being analysed and will be presented in Montreal.

    Search terms were: work OR workplace OR "healthy workplace" OR "healthy work" OR "healthy work* environment" OR "good work* environment" AND "depressive disorder" OR depression OR "behavioral symptoms" OR "anxiety disorders" OR "stress, psychological" OR "common mental disorders" OR "mental health" OR "sustainable mental health” OR "mental wellbeing" OR "mental well-being" OR "job wellbeing" OR "job well-being" OR "positive mental health" OR "good mental health" OR "positive mental wellbeing" OR "positive mental well-being" AND prevention OR promotion.

    Results

    5378 unique publications were found, of these 30 review-, cohort-, cross sectional-, and qualitative studies are included (preliminary data).

    We found 25 individual or “group of related factors” promoting positive mental health and wellbeing at work. Below is a list of the twelve most frequently investigated factors arranged in order of descending frequency.

    • Style of leadership
    • Empowerment; Autonomy; Control at work;      Participation
    • Possibilities for own development
    • Positive work climate
    • Social support from supervisor
    • Communication supervisor-employee
    • Clear goals
    • Appreciation from supervisors, colleagues,      customers
    • Work time control; Enough time
    • Effort-reward balance
    • Intellectually stimulating
    • Job security

    As seen above the most frequently investigated factor was the impact of leadership on mental health. It was found that “good leadership”, i.e. fair, supportive and empowering, gave positive health changes and increased well-being, that increased quality of a staff-oriented leadership reduced sickness absence in the company and that transformational leadership increased psychological wellbeing and job satisfaction among workers.

    Conclusion

    Independent of study design leadership was the most investigated factor. Apart from possibly being a research trend, this can be interpreted as an insight into both its explicit influence on the well-being of the employees, and its implicit influence by having the authority to facilitate communication, empowerment, control, support, respect, work content, feedback, etc.

    Working conditions arise in the interaction between the individual and the organization, but creating working conditions that promote mental health cannot be put on the individual. It must be organized in the workplace for the employees in that special context, whereby the leadership seems to be paramount for the promotion of mental health and wellbeing at work.

  • 431.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Strömberg, Annika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Can a systematic participative method for procesing workplace survey data enhance organizational communication skills?2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    The concept healthy workplace has been defined as an organization that maximizes the integration of worker goals for wellbeing and company objectives for profitability and productivity (Sauter, Lim, & Murphy, 1996). The PATH-model (Grawitch, Gottschalk, & Munz, 2006) shows a synthesis of earlier research in a number of different disciplines and frames how a healthy workplace with wellbeing for the individual along with organizational improvements can be achieved. The model suggests five general categories of healthy workplace practices: work-life balance, employee growth and development, health and safety, recognition, and employee involvement. In order for these workplace practices to have an influence on the employees and the organizational outcomes the effectiveness of communication within the organization is crucial as is the alignment of workplace practices with the organizational context. Effective organizational communication in this context means that the management communicates what the organization offers the employees in order to enable good performance and wellbeing at work as well as that the employees state their needs in order to do a good job. The ongoing GodA-project (a Swedish acronym for good work environments and healthy workplaces) aims at investigating if workplace strategies in line with the PATH-model add to better health and wellbeing among the employees as well as organizational improvements. The present study is part of the GodA-project and aims at exploring to which extent the specific “GodA-method” for processing workplace survey data influences organizational communication skills. 

    Methods

    The GodA study is a 2-year follow up study with a survey feedback design in three companies with both blue- and white collar workers. One of the companies serves as “intervention-company”, the other two as controls. The project started in 2012 with a pre-project by means of focus groups and individual interviews in order to find out how employees and managers in the three companies describe the concept of a healthy work environment and what contributes to their well-being at work. In 2013 a baseline questionnaire was sent out including items, a) based on the combined results of the pre-study and a comprehensive literature review (Lindberg & Vingård, 2012) , and b) well-established questions on health and work environment. The results from the survey were reported back to the companies, which have been processing their respective results. In spring 2015 another survey wave was administered. Parallel, data concerning the company’s key indicators and internal development have been collected.

     Baseline results in the GodA-study showed that the employees considered communication as a very important factor for their well-being at work. However, they also reported that the internal communication was not at all at desired level. Considering that the PATH-model emphasizes internal communication as critical in establishing a healthy workplace, the intervention was designed to enhance communication skills. The “GodA-method”, to process the survey feedback was developed in collaboration with the “intervention-company”. In short, the baseline results concerning health, and physical- and psychosocial factors at the workplace, as reported by respective working group, are split into nine themes. Each theme is designed small enough to be processed during the groups’ monthly staff meetings. At the meetings the employees discuss today’s theme, first without then together with their supervisor and decide upon one measurable action to be taken to improve their work environment. To begin each discussion without the supervisor was a chosen strategy in order to empower the employees and in an implicit way train communication skills. The intervention has been followed by process evaluation forms for the supervisors as well as group interviews with employees and supervisors, respectively.   

    Results

    Nine working groups, each with 7-13 employees, were studied. The individual groups performed heterogeneous. The degree to which the various groups actively took actions for improvements seemed to be associated with the closest supervisor’s understanding of the importance of respective themes and his/her capability to conduct group discussions.

    Communication was measured by a 5-item index showing the discrepancy between experienced and desirable communication level, where an index score of -0,5 to 0 (no discrepancy) was considered as good and a score below -.5 was considered undesirable. Preliminary results show that in groups (=5) performing 3-5 meetings the communication index in average deteriorated from -0.89 to -1.41, whereas groups (=4) performing 8-9 meetings the index improved or remained at a rather high level, in average from -0.92 to -0.71. Further analyses and results will be presented at the conference.

    Conclusion

    The results give support to the hypothesis that systematic and continuous training focusing on a mutual theme is a feasible method for improving communication skills.

    Practical implications

    Healthy workplaces are not created overnight. The GodA-method for processing employee surveys seems to be a useful way to systematically work with continuous improvements of the workplace. However, training of supervisors for group discussions seems necessary.

  • 432.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Strömberg, Annika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Can a systematic participative method for processing workplace survey data enhance organizational communication skills?2016In: Scientific programme: Book of Abstracts, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    The PATH-model (1) frames how a healthy workplace with wellbeing for the individual along with organizational improvements can be achieved, suggesting five healthy workplace practices. In order for these practices to have the desired influence, the effectiveness of communication within the organization is crucial. The ongoing GodA-project (an acronym for good work environments and healthy workplaces) is set up to investigate different aspects of the PATH-model. The present sub-study aims at exploring to which extent the specific “GodA-method” for processing workplace survey data influences organizational communication skills. 

    Methods

    The GodA study is a 2-year follow up study with a survey feedback design in three companies with both blue- and white collar workers. In one of the companies the “GodA-method” for processing survey feedbacks was developed and tested. Baseline results concerning workplace factors were split into nine themes, small enough to be processed during respective working groups’ monthly staff meetings. At the meetings the employees discussed today’s theme, first without, then together with their supervisor and decided on one action for improvements. This strategy was chosen in order to empower the employees and implicitly train their communication skills. The intervention was followed by process evaluations.   

    Results

    Nine working groups, each with 7-13 employees, were studied. The degree to which the various groups actively took actions for improvements seemed to be associated with the closest supervisor’s understanding of the importance of respective themes and his/her capability to conduct group discussions.

    Communication was measured by a 5-item index showing the discrepancy between experienced and desirable communication level, where -0,5 – 0 was considered as good. In groups (=5) performing 3-5 meetings the communication index in average deteriorated from -0.89 to -1.41, whereas groups (=4) performing 8-9 meetings the index improved or remained at a rather high level, in average from -0.92 to -0.71.

    Conclusion

    The results give support to the idea that systematic and continuous training focusing on a mutual theme is a feasible method for improving communication skills. Training of supervisors for group discussions seems necessary.

  • 433.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Strömberg, Annika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Can a systematic participative method for processing workplace survey data enhance organizational communication skills?: Experiences from the GodA-project for healthy workplaces2015In: Proceedings 19th Triennial Congress of the IEA, Melbourne 9-14 August 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conditions in today’s working life make new approaches necessary in order to limit negative health effects of work and to enhance wellbeing and health at work. Despite rather progressive legislation, a century of labour inspections, and the efforts of thousands of occupational health personnel, still 24 % of the working population in Sweden report to have had work-related disorders during the last twelve months (Swedish Work Environment Authority and Statistics Sweden, 2014). Even if the “elimination approach” partly has succeeded in reducing detrimental factors at work, it is obvious that this is insufficient or inadequate for a working life where key issues for progress are motivation, cooperation and creativity (Aronsson, Gustafsson, & Hakanen, 2009). In order to achieve a sustainable working life, not the least to coop with issues related to the ageing population, it is likely that strategies and actions from different and new angles are needed.

    The concept healthy workplace has been defined as an organization that maximizes the integration of worker goals for wellbeing and company objectives for profitability and productivity (Sauter, Lim, & Murphy, 1996). The PATH-model (Grawitch, Gottschalk, & Munz, 2006) shows a synthesis of earlier research in a number of different disciplines and frames how a healthy workplace with wellbeing for the individual along with organizational improvements can be achieved. The model suggests five general categories of healthy workplace practices: work-life balance, employee growth and development, health and safety, recognition, and employee involvement. In order for these workplace practices to have an influence on the employeesand the organizational outcomes the effectiveness of communication within the organization is crucial as isthe alignment of workplace practices with the organizational context. Effective organizational communication in this context means that the management communicates what the organisation offers the employees in order to enable good performance and wellbeing at work as wellas that the employeesstate their needs in order to do a good job.The ongoing GodA-project (a Swedish acronym for good work environments and healthy workplaces) aims at investigating if workplace strategies in line with the PATH-model (Grawitch et al., 2006) lead to better health and wellbeing among the employees as well as organizational improvements. The present study is part of the GodA-project and aims at exploring to which extent the specific “GodA-method” for processing of workplace survey data influences organizational communications skills.

  • 434.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Strömberg, Annika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University.
    GodA-metoden och dess inflytande på kommunikationsförmågan på arbetet2015In: Book of Abstracts: FALF 2015 : Conference10-12 June 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Trots en progressiv arbetsmiljölagstiftning, 10 år av arbetsmiljöinspektioner och ansträngningar från tusentals arbetsmiljöaktörer rapportera 24% av den arbetande befolkningen i Sverige att de haft arbetsrelaterade besvär under senaste året. Även om eliminationsstrategin delvis varit framgångrik är den otillräcklig eller inadek-vat i dagens arbetsliv där nyckelfaktorer för framgång är motivation, samarbete och kreativitet. För att nå ett hållbart arbetsliv är det troligt att det behövs strategier och åtgärder från andra och nya utgångspunkter. Begreppet ”frisk arbetsplats” har definierats som en organisation/företag som maximerar integrationen av ar-betstagarnas mål med företagets mål. PATH-modellen visar genom en syntes av forskning från olika discipliner hur en frisk arbetsplats kan uppnås. För att, enligt modellen, nå verksamhetseffekter av olika personalfrämjande åtgärder är det nödvändigt med en väl utvecklad kommunikation mellan anställda och ledning. Det pågående GodA-projektet syftar till att undersöka om arbetsplatstrategier i linje med PATH-modellen le-der till bättre hälsa och välbefinnande bland de anställda så väl som organisatoriska förbättringar. Föreliggande delstudie undersöker i vilken grad den s.k. ”GodA-metoden” för bearbetning av medarbetarundersökningar kan påverka kommunikationsförmågan i företaget.

  • 435.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Vingård, Eva
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Determinanter för psykisk hälsa och välbefinnande på arbetet – en litteraturöversikt.2015In: Book of Abstracts: FALF 2015 : Conference10-12 June 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det har konstaterats att det generellt är fördelaktigt för hälsan att vara i arbete och att det finns stark evidens att arbete, trots sina risker, reducerar risken att drabbas av depression liksom förbättrar generell psykisk hälsa. Psykisk hälsa är ett icke-kontextuellt begrepp vilket kan definieras som ett tillstånd då individen är fri från psykisk ohälsa, utvecklas och mår bra (flourish) med höga nivåer av emotionellt, psykologiskt och socialt välbefinnande. Begreppet välbefinnande i arbetet är allomfattande, det relaterar till den fysiska miljön, arbetsrelaterade risker, organisering av arbete och arbetsuppgifter, relationer med kollegor, personlig hälsa och arbetsförmåga och även familjerelaterade påfrestningar. Det kan dessutom ses som en viktig determinant av produktivitet på individ-, företags- och samhällsnivå.

    “Friskfaktorer” för psykisk hälsa på arbetet är faktorer och omständigheter på arbetet som kan ha en preventiv och främjande effekt på arbetstagarna psykiska hälsa och välbefinnande. Dessa faktorer kan vara inverterade riskfaktorer och fungera som buffrare mot negativa konsekvenser av riskfaktorer. De kan också vara faktorer som av sig själva ger positiva hälsovinster för individ och arbetsplats. En kunskapsöversikt över indikatorer för en god arbetsmiljö har nyligen gjorts, men till vår kännedom saknas en översikt som berör psykisk hälsa på arbetet. Således, var syftet med föreliggande studie att fastställa kunskapsläget vad gäller determinanter för psykisk hälsa och välbefinnande på arbetet.

  • 436.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Vingård, Eva
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Determinants for positive mental health and wellbeing at work – a literature review2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    There is strong evidence that work itself, despite its risks, reduces the risk of depression and improves mental health. Mental health is a non-contextual concept which can be defined as the absence of mental illness, and with the opportunity to develop and flourish. The concept of wellbeing at work is inclusive, relating to the physical environment, work-related risks, organization of work and tasks, relationships with colleagues, personal health and work ability and even family-related stress. The large numbers of work-related mental unhealthy call for actions in improving working conditions, but which are the important determinants to be influenced?  Hence, the aim of this study was to review current knowledge concerning determinants for mental health and wellbeing at work.

    Methods

    A comprehensive literature search was conducted in nine scientific databases for articles published 2000 and forward. The exclusion by titles were made by one of the researcher, the further selection was made by two researchers independently.

    Results

    Of the 4262 found unique publications 27 were included encompassing 7 reviews,

    12 cohort-, 5 cross-sectional-, and 3 qualitative studies.

    Results

    Of the 4262 found unique publications 27 were included encompassing 7 reviews, 12 cohort-, 5 cross-sectional-, and 3 qualitative studies.The most frequently investigated determinants for mental health and wellbeing at work were, in descending order:

    • Style of leadership: transformative, transactional, positive, employee oriented, ethical, supportive as well as managers own wellbeing
    • Empowerment; Autonomy; Control at work; Participation
    • Possibilities for own development
    • Positive work climate- Social support from supervisor
    • Communication supervisor-employee
    • Clear goals
    • Appreciation from supervisors, colleagues, customers
    • Work time control; Enough time
    • Effort-reward balance
    • Intellectually stimulating
    • Job security

    Conclusion

    Independent of study design leadership is the most investigated factor, which can be interpreted as a sign of its influence on the mental health of the employees. Beside the explicit influence of leadership styles on the employees’ mental health, several studies show an implicit influence, e.g. (enabling) support at work, skilled communication, empowerment, control, treated with respect and intellectual stimulation.Working conditions arise in the interaction between the individual and the organization, not least psychosocial conditions. Prevention and establishment of good working conditions cannot be put on the individual; it must be organized in the workplace for the employees in that special context.

  • 437.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Vingård, Eva
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Determinants for positive mental health and wellbeing at work – a literature review2015In: The Proceedings of the 19th Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association - Melbourne, 9-14 August, 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In general it can be stated that it is beneficial for your health to be employed. There is strong evidence that work itself, despite its risks, reduces the risk of depression and improves mental health(Waddell & Burton, 2006; van der Noordt, IJzelenberg, Droomers, & Proper, 2014).Mental health, like mental illness, is avaguely defined concept.Mental healthis a non-contextual concept which canbedefined asthe absence ofmental illness, and with the opportunity to developand flourish with high levels ofemotional,psychological and socialwell-being(Keyes, 2005).The concept ofwellbeingat workis inclusive.Itrelates tothe physical environment,work-relatedrisks, organization of work andtasks, relationships with colleagues,personalhealth and work ability and evenfamily-relatedstress(Suomaa, Yrjänheikki, Savolainen, & Jokiluoma, 2011). It canalso be seenas an importantdeterminantofproductivityat the individual, corporate and community levels(Schulte & Vainio, 2010).

    "Healthy factors" for mental health in the workplace are factors and circumstances at work that may have a preventive and/or promotional effect on mental health and wellbeing of the workers. These factors can be reversed risk factors and serve as a resource (buffer) against negative consequences of various risks at work. They may also be factors that, by themselves, create positive health benefits for the individual and the workplace. The large numbers of work-related mental unhealthy call for action in improving working conditions, but which are the important determinants of positive mental health and wellbeing at work to be influenced? A review of indicators for healthy workplaces has recently been performed (Lindberg & Vingård, 2012), but we have not found any comprehensive review concerning mental health at work. Hence, the aim of this study was to review current knowledge concerning determinants for mental health and wellbeing at work.

  • 438.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Leijon, O.
    Josephson, M.
    Factors at work acting as buffers against neck/shoulder and low back disorders2010In: Proceedings of the Premus 2010 conference (Seventh International Conference on Prevention of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders), Angers, France, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 439.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Leijon, O.
    Josephson, M.
    Factors at work acting as buffers against neck/shoulder and low back disorders2009In: 29th International Congress of Occupational Health (ICOH), 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 440.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Vingård, Eva
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Indicators of healthy work environments – a systematic review2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    The interest in medical science has until now mainly focused on pathogenesis, how and why certain individuals become diseased. Despite legislation in the field of work environment, a century of labour inspections, and the efforts of thousands of occupational health consultants still 21% of the Swedish women and 15% of the Swedish men report to have had work-related disorders during the last twelve months. A different, and additional, way of approaching the problem of work related morbidity is to look at and learn from what constitutes healthy work environments and what might be key indicators of such sustainable work environments.

     

    Aim

    The purpose of this study was to systematically review the scientific literature and search for indicators of healthy work environments. Healthy work environments were defined as work environments that on both short and long term do not cause work-related morbidity.

     

    Method

    Eight major national and international databases for scientific publication were searched for research addressing indicators of healthy work environments using different combinations of keywords like healthy, good, work, workplace, work force, worksite, organization, work environment, business, indicator, and predictor. The search was limited to years 1990 – 2011, humans, and the languages English, Danish, German, Norwegian, and Swedish.

     

    Results

    Altogether 19 768 publications were found. After excluding duplicates, non-relevant publications, or publications that did not comply with the inclusion criteria 22 peer-reviewed publications remained. Only one study explicitly addressing indicators of healthy work environments was found, suggesting that the presence of stress management programs in an organization might serve as indicator of a ‘good place to work’. Such organizations were more likely also to offer programs that encouraged employee well-being, safety and skill development than those without stress management programs. The other 21, mostly explorative, studies either investigated employee´s views on what constitute a healthy workplace, or were guidelines for how to create such workplaces. The nine most pronounced factors considered as important for a healthy workplace emerging from these studies were:  collaboration/teamwork; growth and development; recognition; employee involvement; positive, accessible and fair leader; autonomy/empowerment; appropriate staffing; skilled communication; and safe physical work. 

     

    Conclusions

    This systematic review demonstrates a lack of consensus about the concept of a healthy work environment/workplace/work organization as well as a shortage of studies concerning healthy work places, especially longitudinal ones. The factors considered important for a healthy workplace needs further investigation in order to draw any confirmative conclusions.

  • 441.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Vingård, Eva
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Indicators of healthy work environments - a systematic review2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, no Suppl. 1, p. 3032-3038Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to systematically review the scientific literature and search for indicators of healthy work environments. A number of major national and international databases for scientific publication were searched for research addressing indicators of healthy work environments. Altogether 19,768 publications were found. After excluding duplicates, non-relevant publications, or publications that did not comply with the inclusion criteria 24 peer-reviewed publications remained to be included in this systematic review. Only one study explicitly addressing indicators of healthy work environments was found. That study suggested that the presence of stress management programs in an organization might serve as indicator of a 'good place to work', as these organizations were more likely to offer programs that encouraged employee well-being, safety and skill development than those without stress management programs. The other 23 studies either investigated employee's views of what constitute a healthy workplace or were guidelines for how to create such a workplace. Summarizing, the nine most pronounced factors considered as important for a healthy workplace that emerged from these studies were, in descending order: collaboration/teamwork: growth and development of the individual; recognition; employee involvement; positive, accessible and fair leader; autonomy and empowerment; appropriate staffing; skilled communication; and safe physical work.

  • 442.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Vingård, Eva
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Indicators of healthy work environments: a systematic review2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 443.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Vingård, Eva
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Kunskapsöversikt: den goda arbetsmiljön och dess indikatorer2012Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Present review attempts to define the concept of a good work environment, how it has been operationalized in the scientific literature, and what can be indicators of a good work environment. A good work environment can be defined as something more than a neutral working environment, as a work environment that has positive, beneficial effects on the individual. A similar concept that goes somewhat further is "healthy workplace", defined as a workplace with a work environment that has beneficial effects on both individuals and business. This report advocates that the concept of healthy workplace is introduced as a concept in the Swedish work environment discourse.

     

    The systematic literature review undertaken as part of this survey, reveals a number of factors considered to characterize a good work environment. The most frequently mentioned factors are: positive, accessible and fair leader; skilled communication; cooperation/teamwork; positive, social climate; participation/involvement; autonomy/empowerment; role clarity, with clear expectations and goals; recognition; development and growth at work; moderate work pace and workload; administrative and/or personal support at work; good physical working environment; and good relationships with stakeholders. Any comprehensive indicators of a good work environment could not be identified.

     

    This report notes that the state of knowledge regarding good healthy workplaces is incomplete, but not unstable. The behavioral sciences, in particular positive psychology, occupy a leading position in research and development of the area, while biomechanical and physiological research concerning beneficial physical loads at work is almost non-existent. There is a great need for continued research on various aspects of a good work environment, especially the development of assessment instruments including indicators of good work environments, methods for implementation, as well as testing of more complex models of healthy workplace. However, there are good reasons already today to take this input for a better work environment in earnest as a complement to traditional risk elimination.

  • 444.
    Lindberg, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Vingård, Eva
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    The good work environment and its indicators.2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite legislation in the field of work environment, both on national and international level, a century of labour inspections, and the efforts of thousands of occupational health consultants still 23% of the women and 17% of the men in Sweden report that they during the past twelve months have had work-related disorders making it difficult to perform their work or carry out everyday housework. Of these, about one-third has been on sick leave because of the disorders. Further, the average retirement age in Sweden was 64 years, instead of 65, in 2009. This has been explained by decreased work ability in particular among blue collar workers. The figures suggest that the endeavours do not reach all the way.  In addition, an increased dependency ratio in Sweden because of demographic changes has raised voices for a higher retirement age. In order to achieve a sustainable working life, it is likely that strategies and actions from different and new angles are needed.

     

     

    Instead of the traditional pathogenic focus, a different and additional way of approaching the problem of work related morbidity is to look at and learn from what characterizes organisations with a low rate of long term sick listed. Though a few studies and reports have dealt with this, there has been no systematic approach to summarize present knowledge of what constitutes healthy work environments and what might be key indicators of such work environments. Knowledge of such indicators may serve as tools to operationalize the ambition to achieve safe work places.         

     

    Present review was commissioned by the Swedish Work Environment Authority and attempts to define the concept of a good work environment, how it has been operationalized in the scientific literature, and what can be indicators of a good work environment. A good work environment can be defined as something more than a neutral work environment. It can be defined as a work environment that has positive, beneficial effects on the individual.

     A systematic literature review was undertaken as part of the present survey. The aim was to systematically review the scientific literature on how good or healthy work environment is described and search for indicators of healthy work environments.  Major national and international databases for scientific publication were searched. No comprehensive indicators of a good work environment could be identified. However, the review revealed a number of factors considered to characterize a good work environment. The most frequently mentioned factors were: positive, accessible and fair leader; skilled communication; cooperation/teamwork; positive, social climate; participation/involvement; autonomy/empowerment; role clarity, with clear expectations and goals; recognition; development and growth at work; moderate work pace and workload; administrative and/or personal support at work; good physical work environment; and good relationships with stakeholders.

    A similar concept as good work environment, but more often mentioned in the international literature is "healthy workplace". Healthy workplace is defined as a workplace with a work environment that has beneficial effects on both individuals and businesses. It is noteworthy that the notion healthy workplace is not a substitute for good work environment it is a consequence. Different models, e.g. the PATH-model by Grawitch et al. shows a synthesis of earlier research in a number of different disciplines and frames how a healthy workplace with wellbeing for the individual an organizational improvements can be achieved. The concept healthy workplace, with its dual view, is more pronounced about the causal effect of a god work environment than the pure notion “good work environment”. The concept has newly also been introduced in a couple of official Swedish documents. Because of this the present report advocates that the concept of healthy workplace is introduced as a concept in the Swedish work environment discourse.

    This study notes that the state of knowledge regarding good work environments and healthy workplaces is incomplete, but not unstable. The behavioral sciences, in particular positive psychology, occupy a leading position in research and development of the area, while biomechanical and physiological research concerning beneficial physical loads at work is almost non-existent. There is a great need for continued research on various aspects of a good work environment. It would be beneficial to come to some kind of consensus about the concept of good and healthy work environment/workplace/work organization; to develop assessment instruments, including indicators of good work environments, and methods for implementation; as well as longitudinal testing of more complex models of healthy workplace. However, there are good reasons already today to take this input for a better work environment seriously as a complement, not replacement of traditional risk elimination.

  • 445.
    Liv, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Umeå universitet, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Efficient strategies for collecting posture data using observation and direct measurement2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Relationships between occupational physical exposures and risks of contracting musculoskeletal disorders are still not well understood; exposure-response relationships are scarce in the musculoskeletal epidemiology literature, and many epidemiological studies, including intervention studies, fail to reach conclusive results. Insufficient exposure assessment has been pointed out as a possible explanation for this deficiency. One important aspect of assessing exposure is the selected measurement strategy; this includes issues related to the necessary number of data required to give sufficient information, and to allocation of measurement efforts, both over time and between subjects in order to achieve precise and accurate exposure estimates. These issues have been discussed mainly in the occupational hygiene literature considering chemical exposures, while the corresponding literature on biomechanical exposure is sparse. The overall aim of the present thesis was to increase knowledge on the relationship between data collection design and the resulting precision and accuracy of biomechanical exposure assessments, represented in this thesis by upper arm postures during work, data which have been shown to be relevant to disorder risk.

    Four papers are included in the thesis. In papers I and II, non-parametric bootstrapping was used to investigate the statistical efficiency of different strategies for distributing upper arm elevation measurements between and within working days into different numbers of measurement periods of differing durations. Paper I compared the different measurement strategies with respect to the eventual precision of estimated mean exposure level. The results showed that it was more efficient to use a higher number of shorter measurement periods spread across a working day than to use a smaller number for longer uninterrupted measurement periods, in particular if the total sample covered only a small part of the working day. Paper II evaluated sampling strategies for the purpose of determining posture variance components with respect to the accuracy and precision of the eventual variance component estimators. The paper showed that variance component estimators may be both biased and imprecise when based on sampling from small parts of working days, and that errors were larger with continuous sampling periods. The results suggest that larger posture samples than are conventionally used in ergonomics research and practice may be needed to achieve trustworthy estimates of variance components.

    Papers III and IV focused on method development. Paper III examined procedures for estimating statistical power when testing for a group difference in postures assessed by observation. Power determination was based either on a traditional analytical power analysis or on parametric bootstrapping, both of which accounted for methodological variance introduced by the observers to the exposure data. The study showed that repeated observations of the same video recordings may be an efficient way of increasing the power in an observation-based study, and that observations can be distributed between several observers without loss in power, provided that all observers contribute data to both of the compared groups, and that the statistical analysis model acknowledges observer variability. Paper IV discussed calibration of an inferior exposure assessment method against a superior “golden standard” method, with a particular emphasis on calibration of observed posture data against postures determined by inclinometry. The paper developed equations for bias correction of results obtained using the inferior instrument through calibration, as well as for determining the additional uncertainty of the eventual exposure value introduced through calibration.

    In conclusion, the results of the present thesis emphasize the importance of carefully selecting a measurement strategy on the basis of statistically well informed decisions. It is common in the literature that postural exposure is assessed from one continuous measurement collected over only a small part of a working day. In paper I, this was shown to be highly inefficient compared to spreading out the corresponding sample time across the entire working day, and the inefficiency was also obvious when assessing variance components, as shown in paper II. The thesis also shows how a well thought-out strategy for observation-based exposure assessment can reduce the effects of measurement error, both for random methodological variance (paper III) and systematic observation errors (bias) (paper IV).

  • 446.
    Liv, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    The effect of sampling strategy on the accuracy and precision of variance component estimates2010In: Proceedings of the Premus 2010 conference, 2010, p. 207-207Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 447.
    Liv, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Sundberg, J
    Svendsen, S W
    Expected and empirical efficiency of different measurement allocation strategies for estimating upper arm elevation among car mechanics2007In: Sixth International Scientific Conference on Prevention of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders: PREMUS, Boston, USA, 2007, p. 119-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 448.
    Liv, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Svendsen, Susanne Wulff
    Dansih Ramazzini Centre, Herning Hospital, Denmark.
    Accuracy and precision of variance components in occupational posture recordings: a simulation study of different data collection strategies2012In: BMC Medical Research Methodology, ISSN 1471-2288, E-ISSN 1471-2288, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 58-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Information on exposure variability, expressed as exposure variance components, is of vital use in occupational epidemiology, including informed risk control and efficient study design. While accurate and precise estimates of the variance components are desirable in such cases, very little research has been devoted to understanding the performance of data sampling strategies designed specifically to determine the size and structure of exposure variability. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy and precision of estimators of betweensubjects, between-days and within-day variance components obtained by sampling strategies differing with respect to number of subjects, total sampling time per subject, number of days per subject and the size of individual sampling periods.

    Methods. Minute-by-minute values of average elevation, percentage time above 90degrees and percentage time below 15degrees were calculated in a data set consisting of measurements of right upper arm elevation during four full shifts from each of 23 car mechanics. Based on this parent data, bootstrapping was used to simulate sampling with 80 different combinations of the number of subjects (10, 20), total sampling time per subject (60, 120, 240, 480 minutes), number of days per subject (2, 4), and size of sampling periods (blocks) within days (1, 15, 60, 240 minutes). Accuracy (absence of bias) and precision (prediction intervals) of the variance component estimators were assessed for each simulated sampling strategy.

    Results. Sampling in small blocks within days resulted in essentially unbiased variance components. For a specific total sampling time per subject, and in particular if this time was small, increasing the block size resulted in an increasing bias, primarily of the between-days and the within-days variance components. Prediction intervals were in general wide, and even more so at larger block sizes. Distributing sampling time across more days gave in general more precise variance component estimates, but also reduced accuracy in some cases.

    Conclusions. Variance components estimated from small samples of exposure data within working days may be both inaccurate and imprecise, in particular if sampling is laid out in large consecutive time blocks. In order to estimate variance components with a satisfying accuracy and precision, for instance for arriving at trustworthy power calculations in a planned intervention study, larger samples of data will be required than for estimating an exposure mean value with a corresponding certainty

  • 449.
    Liv, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Svendsen, Susanne Wulff
    Danish Ramazzini Center, Department of Occupational Medicine, Herning Hospital, Denmark.
    Theoretical and empirical efficiency of sampling strategies for estimating upper arm elevation2011In: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 55, p. 436-449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    To investigate the statistical efficiency of strategies for sampling upper arm elevation data, which differed with respect to sample sizes and sample allocations within and across measurement days. The study was also designed to compare standard theoretical predictions of sampling efficiency, which rely on several assumptions about the data structure, with “true” efficiency as determined by bootstrap simulations.

    Methods

    Sixty-five sampling strategies were investigated using a data set containing minute-by-minute values of average right upper arm elevation, percentage of time with the arm elevated less than 15°, and percentage of time with an arm elevated more than 90° in a population of 23 house painters, 23 car mechanics and 26 machinists, all followed for four full working days. Total sample times per subject between 30 and 240 minutes were subdivided into continuous time blocks between 1 and 240 minutes long, allocated to one or four days per subject. Within day(s), blocks were distributed using either a random or fixed-interval principle. Sampling efficiency was expressed in terms of the variance of estimated mean exposure values of 20 subjects, and assessed using standard theoretical models assuming independence between variables and homoscedasticity. Theoretical performance was compared to empirical efficiencies obtained by a nonparametric bootstrapping procedure.

    Results

    We found the assumptions of independence and homoscedasticity in the theoretical model to be violated, most notably expressed through an autocorrelation between measurement units within working days. The empirical variance of the mean exposure estimates decreased, i.e. sampling efficiency increased, for sampling strategies where measurements were distributed widely across time. Thus, the most efficient allocation strategy was to organize a sample into one-minute blocks collected at fixed time intervals across four days. Theoretical estimates of efficiency generally agreed with empirical variances if the sample was allocated into small blocks, while for larger block sizes the empirical, “true” variance was considerably larger than predicted by theory. Theory overestimated efficiency in particular for strategies with short total sample times per subject.

    Conclusions This study demonstrates that when exposure data are autocorrelated within days – which we argue is the major reason why theory overestimates sampling performance – sampling efficiency can be improved by distributing the sample widely across the day or across days, preferably using a fixed-interval strategy. While this guidance is particularly valid when small proportions of working days are assessed, we generally recommend collecting more data than suggested by theory if a certain precision of the resulting exposure estimate is needed. More data per se give a better precision, and sampling larger proportion(s) of the working day(s) also alleviate the negative effects of possible autocorrelation in data

  • 450.
    Liv, Per
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Wahlström, Jens
    Hedlund, P
    Between- and within-observer variability in two methods for posture observations2009In: Proceedings of the IEA2009 conference, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
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