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  • 401.
    Rolfö, Linda
    et al.
    Unit of Ergonomics, School of Technology and Health, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Unit of Ergonomics, School of Technology and Health, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jahncke, Helena
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Perceptions of performance and satisfaction after relocation to an activity-based office2018Inngår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 61, nr 5, s. 644-657Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many companies move from open-plan offices (OPO) to activity-based workplaces (ABWs). However, few studies examine the benefits and drawbacks following such a change. The aim of this study was to explore how physical conditions, office use, communication, privacy, territoriality, satisfaction and perceived performance change following a company's relocation from an OPO to an ABW. A mixed methods approach included pre- and post-relocation questionnaires and post-relocation focus groups, individual interviews and observations. The questionnaires enabled comparisons over time (n = 34) and broader analyses based on retrospective ratings of perceived change (n = 66). Results showed that satisfaction with auditory privacy, background noise, air quality, outdoor view and aesthetics increased significantly after relocation. Negative outcomes, such as lack of communication within teams, were perceived as being due to the high people-to-workstation ratio and lack of rules. Overall satisfaction with the physical work environment increased in the ABW compared to the OPO. Perceived performance did not change significantly. Practitioner Summary: Activity-based workplaces (ABWs) are commonly implemented although their effects on performance and well-being are unclear. This case study gives advice to stakeholders involved in office planning. Despite shortcomings with the people-to-workstation ratio and rules, employees showed improved satisfaction with auditory privacy and aesthetics in the ABW compared with the previous open-plan office.

  • 402.
    Röijezon, Ulrik
    et al.
    Department of Health Science, Luleå University of Technology.
    Ardel, Dag
    Department of Community Medicine & Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University.
    Rissén, Dag
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Centre for Research & Development, Uppsala University/Region of Gävleborg, Gävle, Sweden.
    Juul-Kristensen, Birgit
    Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark.
    Generalised Joint Hypermobility and musculoskeletal pain among professional classical orchestra musicians in Sweden: a pilot study2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The aims were to 1) investigate the presence of Generalised Joint Hypermobility (GJH) and musculoskeletal pain among musicians in professional Swedish symphony and opera orchestras, and 2) investigate associations between GJH and musculoskeletal pain.

    Methods: A Swedish version of the 5-part questionnaire [1] and the standardised Nordic questionnaire for musculoskeletal pain disorders [2] were included in an ongoing national survey on musculoskeletal health conditions among professional orchestra musicians in Sweden. The data of this report is collected from two orchestras. Seventy-eight musicians (80%) participated, aged 45 ±9.6 years with 41% women.

    Results: At present, 77 participants completed the 5-part questionnaire, of which 19.5% (28% of the women and 13% of the men) scored two or more on the 5-part questionnaire, which is the criteria for GJH. Pain prevalence during the last 12 months was highest for the neck (73.7%) and lowest for the left and right elbows (15.6% and 16.9%, respectively) (Table 1). Binary logistic regressions revealed that hypermobility was associated with increased risk for pain conditions at the neck (Odds Ratio 5.64, p=0.005) and the left and the right hand (Odds Ratio 1.80, p=0.019 and Odds Ratio 1.68, p=0.032, respectively) (Table 1).

    Discussion/Conclusion: Previous studies have reported various results regarding hypermobility and association with musculoskeletal pain conditions, including both increased and reduced risk [3- 5]. Our study shows increased risk of pain located to the neck and both hands among musicians with GJH, while no significant increased or decreased risks were seen for the other body parts. However, larger groups of musicians should confirm the influence of GJH on musculoskeletal pain, and whether it differs between men and women and between groups of instruments. The current preliminary results may indicate that GHJ among musicians should be identified and preventive strategies be recommended, e.g., regarding pauses, posture and physical exercises.

  • 403.
    Röijezon, Ulrik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, University of Umeå, Umeå, Sweden; Alfta Research Foundation, Alfta, Sweden.
    Björklund, Martin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Alfta Research Foundation, Alfta, Sweden.
    Bergenheim, Mikael
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Surgery, Central Hospital Karlstad, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Djupsjöbacka, Mats
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    A novel method for neck coordination exercise: a pilot study on persons with chronic non-specific neck pain2008Inngår i: Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, ISSN 1743-0003, E-ISSN 1743-0003, Vol. 5, artikkel-id 36Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Chronic neck pain is a common problem and is often associated with changes in sensorimotor functions, such as reduced proprioceptive acuity of the neck, altered coordination of the cervical muscles, and increased postural sway. In line with these findings there are studies supporting the efficacy of exercises targeting different aspects of sensorimotor function, for example training aimed at improving proprioception and muscle coordination. To further develop this type of exercises we have designed a novel device and method for neck coordination training. The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical applicability of the method and to obtain indications of preliminary effects on sensorimotor functions, symptoms and self-rated characteristics in non-specific chronic neck pain METHODS: The study was designed as an uncontrolled clinical trial including fourteen subjects with chronic non-specific neck pain. A new device was designed to allow for an open skills task with adjustable difficulty. With visual feedback, subjects had to control the movement of a metal ball on a flat surface with a rim strapped on the subjects' head. Eight training sessions were performed over a four week period. Skill acquisition was measured throughout the intervention period. After intervention subjects were interviewed about their experience of the exercise and pain and sensorimotor functions, including the fast and slow components of postural sway and jerkiness-, range-, position sense-, movement time- and velocity of cervical rotation, were measured. At six-month follow up, self-rated pain, health and functioning was collected. RESULTS: The subjects improved their skill to perform the exercise and were overall positive to the method. No residual negative side-effects due to the exercise were reported. After intervention the fast component of postural sway (p = 0.019) and jerkiness of cervical rotation (p = 0.032) were reduced. The follow up showed decreased disability (one out of three indices) and fear of movement, and increased general health (three out of eight dimensions). CONCLUSION: The results support the clinical applicability of the method. The improvements in sensorimotor functions may suggest transfer from the exercise to other, non-task specific motor functions and justifies a future randomized controlled trial.

  • 404.
    Röijezon, Ulrik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Alfta Research Foundation, Alfta, Sweden.
    Djupsjöbacka, Mats
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Björklund, Martin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Alfta Research Foundation, Alfta, Sweden.
    Häger-Ross, Charlotte
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Grip, Helena
    Department of Biomedical Engineering & Informatics, University Hospital of Umeå, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Biomedical Engineering and Informatics, University Hospital of Umeå, Umeå, Sweden .
    Liebermann, Dario G.
    Department of Physical Therapy, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Israel.
    Kinematics of fast cervical rotations in persons with chronic neck pain: a cross-sectional and reliability study2010Inngår i: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 11, artikkel-id 222Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Assessment of sensorimotor function is useful for classification and treatment evaluation of neck pain disorders. Several studies have investigated various aspects of cervical motor functions. Most of these have involved slow or self-paced movements, while few have investigated fast cervical movements. Moreover, the reliability of assessment of fast cervical axial rotation has, to our knowledge, not been evaluated before. Methods: Cervical kinematics was assessed during fast axial head rotations in 118 women with chronic nonspecific neck pain (NS) and compared to 49 healthy controls (CON). The relationship between cervical kinematics and symptoms, self-rated functioning and fear of movement was evaluated in the NS group. A sub-sample of 16 NS and 16 CON was re-tested after one week to assess the reliability of kinematic variables. Six cervical kinematic variables were calculated: peak speed, range of movement, conjunct movements and three variables related to the shape of the speed profile. Results: Together, peak speed and conjunct movements had a sensitivity of 76% and a specificity of 78% in discriminating between NS and CON, of which the major part could be attributed to peak speed (NS: 226 ± 88°/s and CON: 348 ± 92°/s, p < 0.01). Peak speed was slower in NS compared to healthy controls and even slower in NS with comorbidity of low-back pain. Associations were found between reduced peak speed and self-rated difficulties with running, performing head movements, car driving, sleeping and pain. Peak speed showed reasonably high reliability, while the reliability for conjunct movements was poor. Conclusions: Peak speed of fast cervical axial rotations is reduced in people with chronic neck pain, and even further reduced in subjects with concomitant low back pain. Fast cervical rotation test seems to be a reliable and valid tool for assessment of neck pain disorders on group level, while a rather large between subject variation and overlap between groups calls for caution in the interpretation of individual assessments.

  • 405.
    Samani, Afshin
    et al.
    Center for Sensory-Motor Interaction (SMI), Dept. of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg University.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Madeleine, Pascal
    Center for Sensory-Motor Interaction (SMI), Dept. of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg University.
    Cluster-based EVA: an alternative approach for quantification of exposure variation2013Inngår i: Eighth International Conference on Prevention of Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders; Abstracts, 2013, s. 219-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 406.
    Samani, Afshin
    et al.
    Center for Sensory Motor Interaction, Department of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg University.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Madeleine, Pascal
    Center for Sensory Motor Interaction, Department of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg University.
    Cluster-based exposure variation analysis2013Inngår i: BMC Medical Research Methodology, ISSN 1471-2288, E-ISSN 1471-2288, Vol. 13, s. 54-54Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Static posture, repetitive movements and lack of physical variation are known risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders, and thus needs to be properly assessed in occupational studies. The aims of this study were (i) to investigate the effectiveness of a conventional exposure variation analysis (EVA) in discriminating exposure time lines and (ii) to compare it with a new cluster-based method for analysis of exposure variation.

    Methods: For this purpose, we simulated a repeated cyclic exposure varying within each cycle between “low” and “high” exposure levels in a “near” or “far” range, and with  “low” or “high” velocities (exposure change rates). The duration of each cycle was also manipulated by selecting a “small” or “large” standard deviation of the cycle time. Theses parameters reflected three dimensions of exposure variation, i.e. range, frequency and temporal similarity. Each simulation trace included two realizations of 100 concatenated cycles with either low (r=0.1), medium (r=0.5) or high (r=0.9) correlation between the realizations. These traces were analyzed by conventional EVA, and a novel cluster-based EVA (C-EVA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied on the marginal distributions of 1) the EVA of each of the realizations (univariate approach), 2) a combination of the EVA of both realizations (multivariate approach) and 3) C-EVA. The least number of principal components describing more than 90% of variability in each case was selected and the projection of marginal distributions along the selected principal component was calculated. A linear classifier was then applied to these projections to discriminate between the simulated exposure patterns, and the accuracy of classified realizations was determined.

    Results: C-EVA classified exposures more correctly than uni 1 variate and multivariate EVA approaches; classification accuracy was 49%, 47% and 52% for EVA (univariate and multivariate), and C-EVA, respectively (p<0.001). All three methods performed poorly in discriminating exposure patterns differing with respect to the variability in cycle time duration.

    Conclusion: While C-EVA had a higher accuracy than conventional EVA, both failed to detect differences in temporal similarity. The data-driven optimality of data reduction and the capability of handling multiple exposure time lines in a single analysis are the advantages of the C-EVA.

  • 407.
    Samani, Afshin
    et al.
    Center for Sensory-Motor Interaction (SMI), Department of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Madeleine, Pascal
    Center for Sensory-Motor Interaction (SMI), Department of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Nonlinear metrics assessing motor variability in a standardized pipetting task: Between- and within-subject variance components2015Inngår i: Journal of Electromyography & Kinesiology, ISSN 1050-6411, E-ISSN 1873-5711, Vol. 25, nr 3, s. 557-564Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to estimate the between days test-retest reliability of nonlinear metrics used to quantify motor variability in a repetitive precision task. On three separate days, 14 healthy subjects performed pipetting as a general model of repetitive precision tasks. The task consisted of transferring liquid 20 times with a cycle time of 2.8 s from a pickup tube to eight target tubes placed on a table in front of the subjects. The motion of hand, arm and the pipet tip was tracked in 3D and the shoulder elevation and elbow flexion angle were obtained. Motor variability was assessed using nonlinear metrics based on information theory and recurrence quantification analysis. Between- and within- (between-days) subject variance components were computed using a one-way random effect model, and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated from the variance components as standardized measures of reliability. Most of the metrics displayed a considerable between-days variance component and therefore the ICC showed a slight to moderate reliability. The reported data on between- and within-subject variability can be used to design future studies using non-linear motor variability metrics on kinematics data.

  • 408.
    Samani, Afshin
    et al.
    Department of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg University.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Madeleine, Pascal
    Department of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg University.
    Variability in patterns of muscular activity during a fatiguing repetitive task2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Muscle fatigue develops at markedly different rates among individuals. The pattern of variation in muscle activity has been suggested as a determinant of the rate of fatigue development. This variation can occur between muscles or between compart-ments of a muscle. Thus, we investigated the pattern of muscular activity in shoulder and arm regions during a fatiguing repetitive work task.

    Methods. 21 healthy young women performed a repetitive pipetting task at 2.8 seconds/cycle. The session continued until the subject rate of perceived exertion reached 8 on Borg CR-10 scale. High density (HD) surface electromyogram (EMG) over upper trapezius, and bipolar EMG from extensor carpi radialis, flexor carpi radialis, biceps, triceps, deltoi-deus anterior, serratus anterior, upper and lower trapezius were collected to investigate intra- and inter-muscle variation patterns. EMG amplitude and mean power frequency (MPF) were obtained for all the recorded EMG signals. The barycenter of activity over the HD-EMG grid was also determined. Normalized mutual information (NMI) was determined for each pair of muscles. The extent of variability of the outcomes was also assessed.

    Results. As fatigue developed, EMG amplitude increased and the MPF decreased for all muscles except the MPF for upper trapezius and deltoideus. The activity of trapezius was higher on the lateral side of HD-EMG grid than on the medial side and the barycenter showed a lateral shift across time. NMI between the muscle pairs also increased with fatigue. The variability of the investigated outcomes was not associated with the time to the task ending.

    Discussion. Myo-electrical manifestations of muscle fatigue were observed but none of the outcomes had an association with the rate of fatigue development. Using multivariate approaches, synergistic pattern of muscular activity is yet to be investigated.

  • 409.
    Samani, Afshin
    et al.
    Department of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Madeleine, Pascal
    Department of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Variability in spatio-temporal pattern of trapezius activity and coordination of hand-arm muscles during a sustained repetitive dynamic task2017Inngår i: Experimental Brain Research, ISSN 0014-4819, E-ISSN 1432-1106, Vol. 235, nr 2, s. 389-400Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The spatio-temporal distribution of muscle activity has been suggested to be a determinant of fatigue development. Pursuing this hypothesis, we investigated the pattern of muscular activity in the shoulder and arm during a repetitive dynamic task performed until participants' rating of perceived exertion reached 8 on Borg's CR-10 scale. We collected high density surface electromyogram (HD-EMG) over the upper trapezius, as well as bipolar EMG from biceps brachii, triceps brachii, deltoideus anterior, serratus anterior, upper and lower trapezius from 21 healthy women. Root mean square (RMS) and mean power frequency (MNF) were calculated for all EMG signals. The barycenter of RMS values over the HD-EMG grid was also determined, as well as normalized mutual information (NMI) for each pair of muscles. Cycle-to-cycle variability of these metrics was also assessed. With time, EMG RMS increased for most of the muscles, and MNF decreased. Trapezius activity became higher on the lateral side than on the medial side of the HD-EMG grid and the barycenter moved in a lateral direction. NMI between muscle pairs increased with time while its variability decreased. The variability of the metrics during the initial 10% of task performance was not associated with the time to task termination. Our results suggest that the considerable variability in force and posture contained in the dynamic task per se masks any possible effects of differences between subjects in initial motor variability on the rate of fatigue development.

  • 410.
    Sandberg, Camilla
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Crenshaw, Albert G.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Elcadi, Guilherme H.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Christersson, Christina
    Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hlebowicz, Joanna
    Department of Cardiology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Thilén, Ulf
    Department of Cardiology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Johansson, Bengt
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Impaired Skeletal Muscle Endurance in Adults With Complex Congenital Heart Disease is Associated With Local Muscle Oxygenation Kinetics2018Inngår i: Circulation: Abstracts From the American Heart Association's 2018 Scientific Sessions, 2018, Vol. 138, s. A15914-, artikkel-id Suppl. 1Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Adults with complex congenital heart disease show reduced aerobic exercise capacity and impaired skeletal muscle function compared to healthy peers. Peripheral muscle factors are presumed to be important contributors, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Hypothesis: Muscle oxygenation is associated with reduced skeletal muscle endurance in adults with complex CHD. Methods: Sixty-four adults with complex congenital heart disease (mean age 36.9±14.8 years, females n=19) were recruited from centers specialized in congenital heart disease. Seventy-four age and gender matched healthy peers were recruited as controls. Muscle oxygen saturation was successfully determined on the anterior portion of the deltoid muscle using near-infrared spectroscopy for 57 patients and 71 controls. Measurements were made at baseline, during isotonic shoulder flexions (0-90°) to exhaustion and during 60 seconds of recovery. Results: The adults with complex CHD performed fewer shoulder flexions (38±15 vs. 69±40, p <0.001), had lower muscle oxygen saturation at rest (58±17% vs. 69±18%, p <0.001), a slower desaturation rate at exercise onset (-9.5±5.9%/sec vs. -15.1±6.5%/sec, p <0.001), and a slower resaturation rate post exercise (3.9±2.8%/sec vs. 5.4±3.6%/sec, p =0.008) compared to the controls. Conclusions: A distinct association was found between muscle oxygenation kinetics and early muscle fatigue for adults with complex CHD. Our findings may give insight to the underlying mechanisms for the reduced aerobic exercise capacity for these patients, and therefore provide implications for design of exercise training protocols in this population. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

  • 411.
    Sandfeld, Jesper
    et al.
    Institute of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen.
    Larsen, Lisbeth Højkjær
    Institute of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen.
    Crenshaw, Albert
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Jensen, Bente Rona
    Institute of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen.
    Muscle oxygenation, EMG, and cardiovascular responses for cabin attendants vs. controls2013Inngår i: Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 0095-6562, E-ISSN 1943-4448, Vol. 84, nr 5, s. 478-485Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: The goal was to investigate the effect of acute moderate hypobaric exposure on the physiological responses to sustained contractions (local) and light to moderate dynamic exercise (systemic) for cabin attendants (CAB) and a matched control group (CON).

    METHOD: There were 14 CAB and 13 CON who participated. The experimental protocol was designed as a 2 x 2 randomized crossover study for which subjects performed a forearm isometric test and a cycling test in normobaric (NORM) and hypobaric [HYPO; 574 mmHg approximately 8000 ft (2440 m) above sea level (ASL)] conditions. Oxygen saturation (StO2%) was measured in the extensor carpi radialis muscle at rest and during an isometric wrist extension (20% MVC). Heart rate (HR), ventilation (V(E)), and oxygen uptake (VO2) were measured at rest, during cycling exercise at intensities of 50 W and 100 W, and during recovery. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for hemoglobin concentrations.

    RESULTS: Local response: There was a significant effect of HYPO for both CAB and CON with a decrease in StO2% of 6.5% both at rest and during contraction. Systemic response: there was no general effect of HYPO on HR, VE, or VO2. No differences were found between groups in either the local or systemic response or in the blood parameters.

    CONCLUSION: This study shows an effect of moderate hypobaric exposure on local muscle oxygenation during rest and sustained contraction. Whether this has an impact on fatigue development during work among cabin attendants is discussed.

  • 412.
    Sandh, Marie
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Är tillit till kollegor på arbetsplatsen associerat med mental hälsa?2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Tillit till andra individer förklarar variation i mental hälsa. På senare år har intresset ökat för tillit i ett inomorganisatoriskt sammanhang då arbete tillsammans förutsätter att man kan lita på sina kollegor, både för att uppnå organisationens mål men även sina egna. Tillit ses som en viktig komponent för de anställdas välmående då tillit främjar hälsa och motverkar mental ohälsa.

    Tillit kan definieras som viljan att vara sårbar inför andra individers agerande vilket ger en osäkerhet för andra individers handlande. Risken och osäkerheten som tillit innebär blir större vid mötet av en främling än vid mötet av en nära. Risken och osäkerheten som tillit medför utgör ett hinder för att ha stöd i relationer och därför kan låg tillit leda till ångest och depression. Det finns vissa likheter mellan tillit och socialt stöd och det tycks som om socialt stöd främjar tillit samtidigt som det främjar mental hälsa, därför kan det vara så att det är socialt stöd, och inte tillit, som förklarar variationen i mental hälsa i en organisatoriskt kontext.

    Syfte: Syftet med föreliggande uppsats var att studera om tillit mellan kollegor är associerat med mental hälsa i en organisatorisk kontext.

    Metod: Kvantitativ metod med en enkätundersökning med 117 deltagare varav 86 deltog, en svarsfrekvens på 73, 5%. Logistisk regressionsanalys genomfördes för att svara på frågan om tillit till kollegor är associerat med mental hälsa bland kontorshandläggare oberoende av socialt stöd. Signifikansnivån sattes till 0.05.

    Resultat: Resultatet visar stark tillit till kollegor innebär en lägre risk att utveckla ångest. Resultatet visade att tillit bland kontorshandläggare är signifikant associerat med mental hälsa.

    Slutsats: Tillit tycks dock vara en viktig variabel då tillit påverkar mental hälsa oberoende av socialt stöd. Tillit är signifikant associerat med mental hälsa trots att socialt stöd är med som en oberoende variabel i analysen.

  • 413.
    Sandlund, Jonas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Surgery and Perioperative Sciences, Division of Sports Medicine, University of Umeå, Alfta, Sweden; Alfta Research Foundation, Alfta, Sweden.
    Röijezon, Ulrik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, University of Umeå, Umeå, Sweden; Alfta Research Foundation, Alfta, Swede.
    Björklund, Martin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Alfta Research Foundation, Alfta, Swede.
    Djupsjöbacka, Mats
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Acuity of goal-directed arm movements to visible targets in chronic neck pain2008Inngår i: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 40, nr 5, s. 366-374Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate end-point acuity in goal-directed arm movements in subjects with chronic neck pain, while taking the trade-off between speed and accuracy into account, and to evaluate associations between reduced acuity and self-rated characteristics. DESIGN: Single-blinded, controlled, comparative group study. SUBJECTS: Forty-five subjects with chronic non-traumatic, non-specific neck pain (n = 24) and whiplash-associated disorders (n = 21). Healthy subjects served as controls (n = 22). The groups were age- and sex-matched. METHODS: Subjects performed fast and accurate pointing movements to a visual target. Group differences in end-point variability, controlled for peak velocity, were evaluated. Associations between end-point variability and self-rated symptoms, functioning, self-efficacy and kinesiophobia were analysed. RESULTS: End-point acuity, controlled for peak velocity, was reduced for both neck-pain groups. Similar spatial error patterns across all groups indicated no direction-specific reduction. For both neck-pain groups, associations were found between end-point acuity and neck movement deficits, physical functioning and, in whiplash, also balance and pain. CONCLUSION: Acuity of goal-directed arm movements can be reduced in chronic neck pain. Associations between acuity and self-rated characteristics support the clinical validity of the results and indicate that impaired neck function contributes to reduced end-point acuity. The results can be of importance for characterization and rehabilitation of neck disorders.

  • 414.
    Sandlund, Jonas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Heiden, Marina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Differences in motor variability among individuals performing a standardized short-cycle manual task2017Inngår i: Human Movement Science, ISSN 0167-9457, E-ISSN 1872-7646, Vol. 51, s. 17-26Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Motor variability (MV) has been suggested to be a determinant of the risk for developing musculoskeletal disorders in repetitive work. In this study we examined whether individuals consistently differed in the extent of motor variability when performing a standardized short-cycle manual task. On three separate days, arm kinematics was recorded in 14 healthy subjects performing a pipetting task, transferring liquid from a pick-up tube to eight target tubes with a cycle time of 2.8 s. Cycle-to-cycle standard deviations (SD) of a large selection of shoulder and elbow kinematic variables, were processed using principal component analysis (PCA). Thereafter, between-subjects and between-days (within-subject) variance components were calculated using a random effects model for each of four extracted principal components. The results showed that MV differed consistently between subjects (95% confidence intervals of the between-subjects variances did not include zero) and that subjects differed consistently in MV between days. Thus, our results support the notion that MV may be a consistent personal trait, even though further research is needed to verify whether individuals rank consistently in MV even across tasks. If so, MV may be a candidate determinant of the risk of developing fatigue and musculoskeletal disorders in repetitive occupational work.

  • 415.
    Sandlund, Jonas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department for Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Umeå University.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Consistency of individual motor variability patterns in repetitive precision work2015Inngår i: Physiotherapy, ISSN 0031-9406, E-ISSN 1873-1465, Vol. 101, nr Suppl. 1, s. e1334-e1335Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    A longstanding hypothesis in physical therapy and occupational research is that workers repeating a task very stereotypically will be more prone to develop musculoskeletal disorders than workers that manage to vary postures and loads. Increased movement variability (MV), presumably, modify tissue loads, distribute stresses more equally, and thus reduce the cumulative load on any particular tissue. A handful of studies of MV have indicated less overuse injuries and faster recovery from musculoskeletal pain disorders. Even when repeating strictly controlled tasks individuals may differ in motor consistency, some showing higher levels of MV than others. However, whether the extent of MV is indeed a consistent individual trait across different tasks and different days is not known.

    Purpose:

    To investigate whether individual profiles of MV is stabile between days, the consistency of MV patterns from kinematic recordings, repeated across three days, was studied when performing repetitive upper-extremity precision work.

    Methods:

    A laboratory-based simulation of precision work; a 'pipetting' task paradigm, was developed in which liquid was repeatedly transferred from one tube to another, with a cycle time of 2.8s. Fourteen healthy female subjects, aged 20-45 years, right-handed and with experience in pipetting participated on 3 different days under identical conditions. Kinematic data were obtained using an electromagnetic motion capture system (FASTRAK). MV in shoulder elevation, elbow flexion and shoulder-elbow coordination were operationalized using cycle-to-cycle standard deviations across 20 pipetting cycles of kinematics parameters including joint range of motion, average and peak velocities, time to peak velocities, average angle and phase. Multivariate analysis was conducted using principal component analysis (PCA) (SIMCA+P, 12.0) to analyze relationships among variables and individual patterns in the data matrix of the recordings from day1. Thereafter, in order to confirm the observed structure of inter-individual MV patterns, classification of the data from day2 and day3 was performed using the parameters of the model from day1.

    Results:

    Four PCA components (Eigenvalues>1) accounted for 80 percent of the total variance in the model for day1. In the subsequent prediction model where data from day2 and 3 were projected into the model of day1, all subject observations except one could be predicted with 95% confidence (Hotelling T2). And individual data scores from all three days were clustered in relative proximity to each other, indicating consistency in MV between days.

    Conclusion(s):

    The findings indicate, even in this small and homogenous sample of young healthy females, that there may indeed be consistent individual traits in motor variability. A next step would be to answer whether these traits remain consistent if work factors such as work pace or precision are altered, and whether individual profiles of MV are associated with physiological responses related to risk for developing musculoskeletal disorders.

    Implications:

    Consistency of individual MV patterns substantiate previous notions that some people appear prone to repeat themselves while others tend to vary their motor behavior when performing the same task. Assessment of MV by physical therapists in research and practice could be valuable to further explore and address the relation of MV and musculoskeletal health.

  • 416.
    Sato, Tatiana
    et al.
    Physical Therapy Department, Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar), Brazil.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Kristiansen, Jesper
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    The association between multisite musculoskeletal pain and cardiac autonomic modulation during work, leisure and sleep - a cross-sectional study2018Inngår i: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 19, nr 1, artikkel-id 405Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    The prevention and rehabilitation of multisite musculoskeletal pain would benefit from studies aiming to understand its underlying mechanism. Autonomic imbalance is a suggested mechanism for multisite pain, but hardly been studied during normal daily living. Therefore, the aim of the study is to investigate the association between multisite musculoskeletal pain and cardiac autonomic modulation during work, leisure and sleep.

    METHODS:

    This study is based on data from the "Danish Physical activity cohort with objective measurements" among 568 blue-collar workers. Pain intensity scales were dichotomized according to the median of each scale, and the number of pain sites was calculated. No site was regarded as the pain-free, one site was considered as single-site musculoskeletal pain and pain in two or more sites was regarded as multisite musculoskeletal pain. Heart rate variability (HRV) was measured by an electrocardiogram system (ActiHeart) and physical activity using accelerometers (Actigraph). Crude and adjusted linear mixed models were applied to investigate the association between groups and cardiac autonomic regulation during work, leisure and sleep.

    RESULTS:

    There was no significant difference between groups and no significant interaction between groups and domains in the crude or adjusted models for any HRV index. Significant differences between domains were found in the crude and adjusted model for all indices, except SDNN; sleep time showed higher values than leisure and work time, except for LF and LF/HF, which were higher during work.

    CONCLUSION:

    This cross-sectional study showed that multisite musculoskeletal pain is not associated with imbalanced cardiac autonomic regulation during work, leisure and sleep time.

  • 417.
    Sato, Tatiana
    et al.
    Physical Therapy Department, Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar), Brazil.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Kristiansen, Jesper
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Skotte, Jørgen
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Different autonomic responses to occupational and leisure time physical activities among blue-collar workers2018Inngår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 91, nr 3, s. 293-304Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE:

    The differential effect of occupational and leisure time physical activity on cardiovascular health is termed the physical activity health paradox. Cardiac autonomic modulation could bring insights about the underlying mechanism behind this differential effect. The aim was to compare heart rate variability (HRV) during different activities (sitting, standing and moving) at work and leisure among blue-collar workers.

    METHODS:

    One hundred thirty-eight workers from the NOMAD cohort were included. Data from physical activity and HRV were obtained for 3-4 days using tri-axial accelerometers (Actigraph GT3X+) and a heart rate monitor (Actiheart). HRV indices were determined during sitting, standing and moving both at work and leisure. Linear mixed-models with two fixed factors (activities and domains) were applied to investigate differences in HRV indices adjusting for individual and occupational factors.

    RESULTS:

    The results showed significant effects of domain (p < 0.01), physical activity type (p < 0.01) and interaction between domain and activity type (p < 0.01) on HRV indices. Mean heart rate (IBI) and parasympathetic measures of HRV (RMSSD and HF) were lower for sitting (p < 0.01) and higher for moving (p < 0.01) during work compared with leisure, while no difference between domains was found for standing (p > 0.05). Sympathovagal balance (LF/HF) was higher during work for sitting and moving (p < 0.01), but showed no difference for standing (p = 0.62).

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Differences in cardiac autonomic modulation between work and leisure were found, indicating sympathetic predominance during work and parasympathetic predominance during leisure for sitting. Autonomic responses can be part of the mechanism that explains the differential effect of occupational and leisure time physical activity on health.

  • 418.
    Sato, Tatiana
    et al.
    Physical Therapy Department, Federal University of São Carlos, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Kristiansen, Jesper
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Skotte, Jørgen
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Different autonomic responses to occupational and leisure time physical activity among blue-collar workers2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: There is a well-established relationship between high physical activity at leisure time and decreased mortality risk. On the other hand, high physical demands at work seem to increase this risk. However, the underlying mechanism behind this effect remains unknown. Heart rate variability (HRV) measurements may bring some insight into the mechanism. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether HRV differs between work and leisure time among blue-collar workers.

    Methods: This study was based on data from the cross-sectional NOMAD study among blue-collar workers from seven workplaces in Denmark. One hundred thirty-eight blue-collar workers, which had at least 7 recording hours during work and leisure time were included in the analysis. Data from physical activity and HRV were obtained for four days using tri-axial accelerometers (Actigraph GT3X+) and heart rate monitor (Actiheart), respectively. Parametric (paired t test) and nonparametric (Wilcoxon signed-ranks test) tests for pairwise comparisons were applied to compare mean HRV indices in time and frequency domains between work and leisure time.

    Results: The mean age of the workers was 45.2 years, 51% were females, 42% were smokers, 18% reported lifetime occurrence of hypertension and 45% reported to perform lifting and carrying for more than half of the work time. A significant higher overall HRV was found during leisure time compared to work. Leisure time showed higher parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) measures of HRV (p<.05), while sympathetic nervous system (SNS) related indices (p<.05) were reduced in comparison to work.

    Conclusions: Leisure time showed high HRV and PNS indices and work time showed high SNS-related indices. The higher SNS modulation during work can be related to a greater risk of developing heart diseases among blue-collar workers.

  • 419.
    Schomburg, Eike D.
    et al.
    Zentrum Physiologie und Pathophysiologie, Universität Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.
    Steffens, Heinz
    Zentrum Physiologie und Pathophysiologie, Universität Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.
    Maznychenko, Andrey V.
    Department of Movement Physiology, Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology, National Academy of Sciences, Kiev, Ukraine.
    Pilyavskii, Alexander I.
    Department of Movement Physiology, Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology, National Academy of Sciences, Kiev, Ukraine.
    Hellström, Fredrik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Kostyukov, Alexander I.
    Department of Movement Physiology, Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology, National Academy of Sciences, Kiev, Ukraine.
    Maisky, Vladimir A.
    Department of Movement Physiology, Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology, National Academy of Sciences, Kiev, Ukraine.
    Acute muscle inflammation enhances the monosynaptic reflexes and c-fos expression in the feline spinal cord2007Inngår i: European Journal of Pain, ISSN 1090-3801, E-ISSN 1532-2149, Vol. 11, nr 5, s. 579-586Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this research was to study the changes of the motor reflex activity (monosynaptic reflex (MSR) of the flexor and extensor muscles) and Fos immunoreactivity in lumbo-sacral spinal cord after acute induced myositis of m. gastrocnemius-soleus (GS). The experiments were carried out on ischaemic decerebrated, spinalized in C1 cats. After infiltration of the GS muscle with carrageenan (2%) MSRs of flexors and extensors showed a significant increase in amplitude +127+/-24.5% and +155+/-28.5%, respectively, p<0.05. The exposed effect was initiated within 30 min and achieved a maximum 2.8h after the intramuscular injections of carrageenan. After analysis of dynamics of the MSRs, animals were perfused and c-fos expression in the spinal segments L6-S1 was evaluated. In comparison to sham-operated animals, the number of Fos-immunoreactive (Fos-ir) cells was noticeably increased in the lumbar cord of cats with carrageenan-induced myositis. The labeled cells were concentrated in the ipsilateral laminae I/II, neck of the dorsal horn (V/VI) and intermediate zone (VII), however, clear predominance of their concentration was found in the deep laminae. The effect of muscle inflammation was also expressed as a significant decline in the number of NADPH-d-reactive cells (p<0.05) in ipsilateral laminae I/II of L6/L7. The results show that the input from acutely inflamed muscles may induce an increase of the reflex responsiveness of flexors and extensors which is not mediated via the gamma-spindle-loop and which coincides with a significant increase in c-fos expression in the deep laminae of the lumbar spinal cord.

  • 420.
    Seth, Monika
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Muskuloskeletala besvär och skador samt upplevd hälsa hos insatssoldater i Försvarsmakten.: Förekomst och jämförelse mellan 2002 och 20122016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Tidigare studier har påvisat att exponeringen av fysiskbelastning inom soldatyrket har ökat genom åren. Det finns samband mellan hög belastningen och förekomst av muskuloskeletala besvär och skador (MSBS).

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att undersöka förekomsten av muskuloskeletala besvär och skador i två insatsgrupper inom Försvarsmakten med tio års mellanrum (Insats 2002 och Insats 2012) samt undersöka om det föreligger skillnad mellan grupperna. Dessutom syftar studien till att undersöka hur soldater som har MSBS upplever sin hälsa.

    Material och metod: Tvärsnittsstudie med 896 soldater ur två internationella insatser med tio års mellanrum (Insats 2002 n= 573 och Insats 2012 n = 323). Datainsamlingen utfördes med en enkät före insats avseende MSBS samt upplevd hälsa.

    Resultat: Tidigare erfarna och aktuella MSBS rapporterades i högre grad hos Insats 2012 jämfört med Insats 2002. Båda grupperna skattade den upplevda hälsan högt. De som rapporterade pågående MSBS i Insats 2012 upplever sin kroppsliga hälsa signifikant lägre (p<0,001) än de som inte har MSBS.

    Konklusion: Det förelåg anmärkningsvärt hög förekomst av MSBS i Insats 2012. Det är av största vikt att fortsätta kartlägga arbetskraven, arbetsförmågan och besvärsförekomst så att preventiva och reaktiva åtgärder kan vidtas.

  • 421.
    Sjödin, Fredrik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggvetenskap - tillämpad psykologi. Umeå universitet, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Noise in the preschool: health and preventive measures2012Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is based on noise recordings and health evaluations carried out at preschools in the northern part of Sweden. Sound level recordings were made on individuals and by use of stationary devices in dining rooms and play halls. Health evaluations were based on ratings by use of questionnaires and by analyses of cortisol.

    The average equivalent individual noise exposure was 71 dB(A). The average equivalent noise levels in the dining room and playing halls were 64 dB(A). The hearing loss of the employees was significantly higher for the frequencies tested than in an unexposed control group. Symptoms of tinnitus were reported among 31% of the employees. Noise annoyance was rated as somewhat to very annoying, and the voices of the children were the most annoying noise source. The dB(A) level and fluctuations of the noise exposure were significantly correlated with the number of children per department. Stress and energy output were pronounced among the employees. About 30% of the staff experienced strong burnout syndromes. Mental recovery was low as indicated by noise fatigue and high levels of stress after work. Increased cortisol levels during work were associated with higher number of children present at the department.

    An essential finding of the thesis was that noise and noise sources may impair the pedagogic work, thereby increasing the work load of employees. It is concluded that noise exposure in the preschool, isolated or in combination with other stressors, plays a fundamental role in the building up of acute as well as long term stress. An intervention study implementing six acoustical and seven organizational measures was tested, aimed to improve the noise situation in the departments. Acoustical measures improved the noise situation as well as the rated noise experiences better than the organizational measures.

  • 422.
    Sjödin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöpsykologi.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöpsykologi.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Landström, Ulf
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöpsykologi.
    Lindberg, Lennart
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöpsykologi.
    Measures against preschool noise and its adverse effects on the personnel: an intervention study2014Inngår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 87, nr 1, s. 95-110Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to analyze the exposure effects of different types of noise measures carried out at preschools. The project was carried out as an intervention study. The investigation included 89 employees at 17 preschools in the northern part of Sweden. Individual noise recordings and recordings in dining rooms and play halls were made at two departments in each preschool. The adverse effects on the employees were analyzed with validated questionnaires and saliva cortisol samples. Evaluations were made before and 1 year after the first measurement. Between the two measurements, measures were taken to improve the sound environments at the preschools. The effects of the measures varied a lot, with respect to both the sound environments and health. Regarding acoustical measures, significant changes were seen for some of the variables analyzed. For most of the tested effects, the changes, however, were very small and non-significant. The effects of organizational measures on the objective and subjective noise values were in overall less pronounced. Acoustical measures improved the subjectively rated sound environment more than organizational measures. This may be due to the high work effort needed to implement organizational measures. Even though the sound level was not lower, the personnel experienced improvements of the sound environment.

  • 423.
    Sjödin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggvetenskap - tillämpad psykologi.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggvetenskap - tillämpad psykologi.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Sweden Mid University, Department of public health.
    Landström, Ulf
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggvetenskap - tillämpad psykologi.
    Lindberg, Lennart
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggvetenskap - tillämpad psykologi.
    Noise and stress effects on preschool personnel2012Inngår i: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 14, nr 59, s. 166-78Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to analyze the presence of stress-related health problems among preschool employees and the way in which these reactions are related to noise and other work parameters. The investigation included 101 employees at 17 preschools in Umeå County, located in northern Sweden. Individual noise recordings and recordings in dining rooms and play halls were made at two departments from each preschool. The adverse effects on the employees were analyzed by use of different validated questionnaires and by saliva cortisol samples. Stress and energy output were pronounced among the employees, and about 30% of the staff experienced strong burnout syndromes. Mental recovery after work was low, indicated by remaining high levels of stress after work. The burnout symptoms were associated with reduced sleep quality and morning sleepiness. Cortisol levels supported the conclusion about pronounced daily stress levels of the preschool employees.

  • 424.
    Sjödin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggvetenskap - tillämpad psykologi.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggvetenskap - tillämpad psykologi.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Sweden Mid University, Department of public health.
    Landström, Ulf
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggvetenskap - tillämpad psykologi.
    Lindberg, Lennart
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggvetenskap - tillämpad psykologi.
    Noise exposure and auditory effects on preschool personnel2012Inngår i: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 14, nr 57, s. 72-82Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Hearing impairments and tinnitus are being reported in an increasing extent from employees in the preschool. The investigation included 101 employees at 17 preschools in Umeå county, Sweden. Individual noise recordings and stationary recordings in dining rooms and play halls were conducted at two departments per preschool. The effects of noise exposures were carried out through audiometric screenings and by use of questionnaires. The average individual noise exposure was close to 71 dB(A), with individual differences but small differences between the preschools. The noise levels in the dining room and playing halls were about 64 dB(A), with small differences between the investigated types of rooms and preschools. The hearing loss of the employees was significantly higher for the frequencies tested when compared with an unexposed control group in Sweden. Symptoms of tinnitus were reported among about 31% of the employees. Annoyance was rated as somewhat to very annoying. The voices of the children were the most annoying noise source. The dB(A) level and fluctuation of the noise exposure were significantly correlated to the number of children per department. The preschool sound environment is complex and our findings indicate that the sound environment is hazardous regarding auditory disorders. The fluctuation of the noise is of special interest for further research.

  • 425.
    Sjödin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggvetenskap - tillämpad psykologi.
    Landström, Ulf
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggvetenskap - tillämpad psykologi.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggvetenskap - tillämpad psykologi.
    Lindberg, Lennart
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggvetenskap - tillämpad psykologi.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Sweden Mid University, Department of public health.
    Minimizing speech contribution using different microphone noise dosimeter positions2012Inngår i: Proceedings of BNAM 2012 / [ed] Peter Juhl, 2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Use of noise dosimeter recordings in low sound level environments is often problematic due to the voicecontribution from the carrier. The aim of the study was to find a microphone position with low speechcontribution while still providing an accurate sound level recording. An experiment with differentmicrophone positions was conducted in a low sound reverberation room. Two types of noise dosimeterswere used (Brüel & Kjaer 4445 and Larson Davis Spark 706-Atex). In repeated measurements the carrierwas instructed to read a text chapter during 60 seconds and at a speech of level about 60 dB(A), acquiredby practice, with different background noise and noise levels. White noise and preschool noise was usedat sound levels 50, 60, 70 and 80 dB(A). The voice contribution to the background noise level was thenmeasured. Three microphone positions were tested; on the shoulder, above the ear and on the back of thehead. The position with the microphone placed behind the head of the carrier had the lowest speechcontribution, less than 2 dB(A) to the background noise at 70 dB(A). This compared to positions rightabove the ear 6 dB(A and on the shoulder 12 dB(A).

  • 426.
    Sjödin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggvetenskap - tillämpad psykologi.
    Landström, Ulf
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggvetenskap - tillämpad psykologi.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggvetenskap - tillämpad psykologi.
    Lindberg, Lennart
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Byggvetenskap - tillämpad psykologi.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Sweden Mid University, Department of public health.
    Tinnitus, noise and health effects in preschool environments2012Inngår i: Proceedings of BNAM 2012 / [ed] Peter Juhl, 2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The study included 93 employees at 17 preschools in the county of Umeå located in northern part ofSweden. Personal daily noise dosimeter recordings were made at five representative work days.Stationary noise recordings were made during the same days at two departments of each preschool, in theplaying halls and in the dining rooms. Besides audiometric tests, the employees rated their experiences ofthe noise, hearing and tinnitus as well as well as different health effects, on validated questionnaires.Tinnitus was reported among 31 per cent of the participants. The study group was dichotomized intoemployees with or without tinnitus. Employees with tinnitus reported higher prevalence of subjectivehearing loss, higher experiences of elevated sound levels at work, anxiety of the noise at work, chestpressure/pain, burn out symptoms, depression and reduced sleep quality. Significant differences wereseen for shoulder tension/pain. No group differences were seen for the objective personal or stationarynoise measures or the number of children present at the department. The results of the study are discussedin terms of underlying causes and the way in which the symptom interfere with experiences and healtheffects of the employees.

  • 427.
    Sjölander, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Southern Lapland Research Department, Postgatan 7, SE-912 32 Vilhelmina, Sweden.
    Daerga, Laila
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Southern Lapland Research Department, Vilhelmina, Sweden.
    Edin-Liljegren, Anette
    Southern Lapland Research Department, Vilhelmina, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, L.
    Division of Psychiatry, Department of Clinical Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Musculoskeletal symptoms and perceived work strain among reindeer herders in Sweden2008Inngår i: Occupational Medicine, ISSN 0962-7480, E-ISSN 1471-8405, Vol. 58, nr 8, s. 572-579Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background There is a shortage of knowledge on the extent of musculoskeletal symptoms in reindeer husbandry.

    Aims To investigate the prevalence and relative risk for musculoskeletal symptoms and perceived psychosocial work strain among reindeer herders.

    Methods The prevalence of self-reported musculoskeletal symptoms during the last week and last year, respectively, were obtained from male reindeer herders (n574) of northern Sweden. Prevalence ratios (PRs) were calculated using two reference groups—women of reindeer-herding families (n5 53) and men in blue-collar occupations (n 5 194). Comparisons were made of perceived job strain between the study and reference groups. Associations between job strain factors and the occurrence of musculoskeletal symptoms from different body regions were analysed with regression statistics.

    Results The PRs for musculoskeletal symptoms from the hand/wrist (PR 3.48, 95% CI 1.86–6.50) and lower back (PR 1.44, 95% CI 1.06–1.95) were significantly higher among the reindeer herders in comparison with men working with other blue-collar occupations. The reindeer herders reported significantly higher work demands and decision latitude compared with both reference groups (P , 0.05). Significant associations were observed between demands and prevalence of symptoms from the lower back (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.01–2.01) and from at least one body region (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.07–2.32).

    Conclusions The relative risk for musculoskeletal symptoms, particularly from the hands/wrists and lower back, was high among reindeer herders. It is suggested that musculoskeletal symptoms constitute a considerable health problem in modern reindeer husbandry, which calls for implementation of preventive measures addressing psychosocial, physical and socio-economic risk factors.

  • 428.
    Sjölander, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Southern Lapland Research Department, Vilhelmina, Sweden.
    Hassler, Sven
    Southern Lapland Research Department, Vilhelmina, Sweden; Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Janlert, Urban
    epartment of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Stroke and acute myocardial infarction in the Swedish Sami population: incidence and mortality in relation to income and level of education2008Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 36, nr 1, s. 84-91Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Gender differences in cardiovascular diseases (CVD) among the Sami have been reported previously. The aim of the present study was to investigate the incidence of and mortality from stroke, subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the Swedish Sami population between 1985 and 2002, and to analyse the potential impact of income and level of education on the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

    Methods: A Sami cohort of 15,914 persons (4,465 reindeer herding and 11,449 non-herding Sami) were followed from 1985 to 2002 with respect to incidence and mortality rates of AMI, stroke and SAH. Incidence and mortality ratios were calculated using a demographically matched non-Sami control population (DMC) as the standard (71,550 persons).

    Results: There was no elevated risk for developing AMI among the Sami compared with the DMC. However, the mortality ratio of AMI was significantly higher for Sami women. Higher incidence rates of stroke and SAH for both Sami men and women was observed, but no differences in mortality rates. Apart from the reindeer herding men who demonstrated lower levels of income and education, the income and education levels among Sami were similar to the DMC.

    Conclusions: High mortality rates from AMI rather than stroke explain the excess mortality for CVD previously shown among Sami women. The results suggest that the differences in incidence of stroke between herding and non-herding Sami men, and between Sami women and non-Sami women, are caused by behavioural and psychosocial risk factors rather than by traditional socioeconomic ones.

  • 429.
    Sjölander, Per
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Southern Lapland Research Department, Vilhelmina, Sweden.
    Michaelson, Peter
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Surgery and Perioperative Sciences, Division of Sports Medicine, University of Umeå, Sweden; Department of Health Science, Physiotherapy Unit, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Jaric, Slobodan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Human Performance Laboratory, University of Delaware, DE, USA.
    Djupsjöbacka, Mats
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Sensorimotor disturbances in chronic neck pain: range of motion, peak velocity, smoothness of movement, and repositioning acuity2008Inngår i: Manual Therapy, ISSN 1356-689X, E-ISSN 1532-2769, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 122-131Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate sensorimotor functions in patients with chronic neck pain with objective and quantitative methods. A group of 16 patients with chronic idiopathic neck pain of insidious onset or whiplash associated disorders (WAD) was compared to an equally sized group of healthy subjects. Kinematics were investigated during voluntary head rotations by measuring range of motion, variability of range of motion (ROM-Variability), peak velocity, and smoothness of movement (jerk index). Repositioning acuity after cervical rotations was evaluated by analysing constant and variable error (VE). In comparison to the healthy subjects, the patients showed significantly larger jerk index, ROM-Variability and VE. No statistically significant differences were found between insidious neck pain and WAD. It is concluded that jerky and irregular cervical movements and poor position sense acuity are characteristic sensorimotor symptoms in chronic neck pain. The observed individuality in sensorimotor disturbances emphasizes the importance of developing specific rehabilitation programs for specific dysfunctions, and of using objective and quantitative methods for evaluation of rehabilitation.

  • 430.
    Slijper, Harm
    et al.
    Department of Neuroscience, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Over, E.
    Department of Neuroscience, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Richter, Janneke
    Department of Neuroscience, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Frens, Maarten
    Department of Neuroscience, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Measuring computer use behavior: patterns of variability, within and across days and between different users2008Inngår i: Proceedings of Measuring Behavior 2008; 6th International Conference on Methods and Techniques in Behavioral Research / [ed] A.J. Spink, M.R. Ballintijn, N.D. Bogers, F. Grieco, L.W.S. Loijens, L.P.J.J. Noldus, G. Smit, and P.H. Zimmerman, Wageningen: Noldus , 2008, s. 111-112Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 431.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    et al.
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, USA.
    Barbieri, Dechristian
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Oliveira, Ana Beatriz
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Sit-stand desks with reminder prompts and semi-automated position changes2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 432.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Cantu, Hiram
    Department of Kinesiology and Physical Education, McGill University.
    Cote, Julie
    Department of Kinesiology and Physical Education, McGill University.
    Fatigue-induced increase in movement variability does not come at a cost of worse performance in a repetitive pointing task2015Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Neuromuscular strategies employed in multijoint movements during repetitive motion-induced fatigue are still unclear, and movement variability may present a novel way to understand the compensatory control mechanisms that occur during fatigue. The aim of this study was to assess changes in shoulder and elbow joint kinematic variabilities and shoulder-elbow coordination variability associated with neck-shoulder fatigue, and whether these changes affected the spatio-temporal aspects of task performance. Nineteen healthy young adults continuously performed a repetitive pointing task between two targets placed in front of them at shoulder height at 1 Hz until fatigue (Borg CR10 rating of 8). Shoulder and elbow kinematics were recorded and used to compute shoulder abduction-adduction and elbow flexion-extension joint angles, and fingertip trajectories were used to compute the movement time and 3D spatial coordinates of the endpoint in each repetitive pointing movement cycle. Cycle-to-cycle movement variability of the shoulder and elbow joint angles from 15 consecutive forward pointing movements and cycle-to-cycle variability of continuous relative phase between the shoulder and elbow joint angles were compared between the first (baseline) and last (fatigue-terminal) minutes of performance. Shoulder kinematic variability and shoulder-elbow coordination variability were found to significantly increase with fatigue (by 60% and 30% of their respective baseline values). However, movement timing errors and spatial variability of the endpoint were found to be unchanged with fatigue. Results suggest that fatigue-related increase in shoulder variability may have been compensated by changes in shoulder-elbow coordination with an overall task performance objective and associated hierarchical control mechanisms.

  • 433.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Motor variability in occupational health and performance2012Inngår i: Clinical Biomechanics, ISSN 0268-0033, E-ISSN 1879-1271, Vol. 27, nr 10, s. 979-993Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Several recent reviews have reported that 'repetitive movements' is a risk factor for occupational musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) in the neck, shoulder and arm regions. More variation in biomechanical exposure is often suggested as an effective intervention in such settings. Since increasing variation using extrinsic methods like job rotation may not always be possible in an industrial context, the intrinsic variability of the motor system may offer an alternative opportunity to increase variation. Motor variability (MV) refers to the natural variation in postures, movements and muscle activity observed to different extents in all tasks. The current review discusses relevant MV research appearing in motor control, sports sciences and occupational biomechanics literature to answer whether MV is important to consider in an occupational context, and if yes, whether it can be manipulated by training the worker or changing the working conditions so as to increase biomechanical variation without jeopardizing production

  • 434.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Motor variability – an important issue in occupational life2012Inngår i: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, nr Suppl. 1, s. 2527-2534Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Several recent reviews have reported that ‘repetitive movements’ is a risk factor for occupational musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) in the neck, shoulder and arm regions. More variation in biomechanical exposure is often suggested as an effective intervention in such settings. While increasing variation using extrinsic methods like job rotation may not always be possible in an industrial context, the intrinsic variability of the motor system may offer an alternative opportunity to increase variation. Motor variability (MV) refers to the natural variation in postures, movements and muscle activity observed to different extents in all tasks. The current review explores the state of the art in MV research from motor control, sports and occupational biomechanics literature to answer whether MV is important to consider in an occupational context, and if yes, whether this literature stimulates further studies to test if MV can be manipulated as a deliberate intervention for increasing biomechanical variation without jeopardizing production.

  • 435.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    The consistency across days of motor variability in repetitive pipetting2013Inngår i: Eighth International Conference on Prevention of Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders; Abstracts, 2013, s. 56-57Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 436.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    The effect of combining physical and cognitive loads on motor variability in a standardised repetitive precision task2015Inngår i: Proceedings of the 19th Triennial Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, Melbourne 9-14 August, 2015 / [ed] Gitte Lindgaard & Dave Moore, 2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 437.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    et al.
    Grado Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Barbieri, Dechristian
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos.
    Oliveira, Ana Beatriz
    Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of São Carlos.
    Do sit-stand workstations increase variation in upper arm postures while performing computer-intensive office work?2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 438.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hallman, David M.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Samani, Afshin
    SMI, Department of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Madeleine, Pascal
    SMI, Department of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Effects of concurrent physical and cognitive demands on muscle activity and heart rate variability in a repetitive upper-extremity precision task2016Inngår i: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 116, nr 1, s. 227-239Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Most previous studies of concurrent physical and cognitive demands have addressed tasks of limited relevance to occupational work, and with dissociated physical and cognitive task components. This study investigated effects on muscle activity and heart rate variability of executing a repetitive occupational task with an added cognitive demand integral to correct task performance.

    Methods Thirty-five healthy females performed 7.5 min of standardized repetitive pipetting work in a baseline condition and a concurrent cognitive condition involving a complex instruction for correct performance. Average levels and variabilities of electromyographic activities in the upper trapezius and extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscles were compared between these two conditions. Heart rate and heart rate variability were also assessed to measure autonomic nervous system activation. Subjects also rated perceived fatigue in the neck–shoulder region, as well as exertion.

    Results Concurrent cognitive demands increased trapezius muscle activity from 8.2 % of maximum voluntary exertion (MVE) in baseline to 9.0 % MVE (p = 0.0005), but did not significantly affect ECR muscle activity, heart rate, heart rate variability, perceived fatigue or exertion.

    Conclusion Trapezius muscle activity increased by about 10 %, without any accompanying cardiovascular response to indicate increased sympathetic activation. We suggest this slight increase in trapezius muscle activity to be due to changed muscle activation patterns within or among shoulder muscles. The results suggest that it may be possible to introduce modest cognitive demands necessary for correct performance in repetitive precision work without any major physiological effects, at least in the short term.

  • 439.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    et al.
    Grado Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Huysmans, Maaike
    Department of Public & Occupational Health; EMGO Institute for Health & Care Research, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam.
    Between-subjects and between-days variance in occupational sitting time among seasoned users of sit-stand workstations2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 440.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Samani, Afshin
    Department of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg University.
    Madeleine, Pascal
    Department of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg University.
    Effects of concurrent physical and cognitive demands on arm movement kinematics in a repetitive upper-extremity precision task2015Inngår i: Human Movement Science, ISSN 0167-9457, E-ISSN 1872-7646, Vol. 42, s. 89-99Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of concurrent physical and cognitive demands on arm motor control is poorly understood. This exploratory study compared movement kinematics in a repetitive high-precision pipetting task with and without additional concurrent cognitive demands in the form of instructions necessary to locate the correct target tube. Thirty-five healthy female subjects performed a standardized pipetting task, transferring liquid repeatedly from one pick-up tube to different target tubes. In the reference condition, lights indicated the target tube in each movement cycle, while the target tube had to be deciphered from a row and column number on a computer screen in the condition with additional cognitive demands. Kinematics of the dominant arm was assessed using the central tendency and variability of the pipette-tip end-point trajectory and joint kinematics properties of the shoulder and elbow. Movements slowed down (lower velocities and higher area under the movement curves) and end point trajectory variability increased in the condition with additional cognitive demands, but there were no changes in the kinematics properties such as joint range of motion, times of acceleration and deceleration (as indicated by the time to peak velocity), average angles, or phase relationships between angle and angular velocity of shoulder or elbow movements between the two conditions. Further, there were also no differences in the size or structure of variability of the shoulder and elbow joint angles, suggesting that subjects could maintain the motor repertoire unaltered in the presence of these specific additional cognitive demands. Further studies should address motor control at other levels of concurrent cognitive demands, and with motor tasks that are less automated than the pipetting task used in the present study, so as to gain an increased understanding of the effect of concurrent cognitive demands for other activities of relevance to daily life.

  • 441.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Samani, Afshin
    Center for Sensory-Motor Interaction (SMI), Department of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Madeleine, Pascal
    Center for Sensory-Motor Interaction (SMI), Department of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg University, Denmark.
    The combined influence of task accuracy and pace on motor variability in a standardised repetitive precision task2015Inngår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 58, nr 8, s. 1388-1397Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Thirty-five healthy women, experienced in pipetting, each performed four pipetting sessions at different pace and accuracy levels relevant to occupational tasks. The size and structure of motor variability of shoulder and elbow joint angles were quantified using cycle-to-cycle standard deviations of several kinematics properties, and indices based on sample entropy and recurrence quantification analysis. Decreasing accuracy demands increased both the size and structure of motor variability. However, when simultaneously lowering the accuracy demand and increasing pace, motor variability decreased to values comparable to those found when pace alone was increased without changing accuracy. Thus, motor variability showed some speed-accuracy trade-off, but the pace effect dominated the accuracy effect. Hence, this trade-off was different from that described for end-point performance by Fitts’ law. The combined effect of accuracy and pace and the resultant decrease in motor variability are important to consider when designing sustainable work systems comprising repetitive precision tasks.

  • 442.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Rudolfsson, Thomas
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Between- and within-subject variance of motor variability metrics in females performing repetitive upper-extremity precision work2015Inngår i: Journal of Electromyography & Kinesiology, ISSN 1050-6411, E-ISSN 1873-5711, Vol. 25, nr 1, s. 121-129Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Kinematic motor variability is extensively studied in occupational, clinical and sports biomechanics, but the consistency of most motor variability metrics have never been reported. In this study, fourteen subjects performed a repetitive pipetting task on three separate days. Movements of hand, arm and pipette tip were recorded in 3D and used to compute shoulder elevation, elbow flexion and shoulder-arm coordination angles, as well as pipette-tip endpoint precision. Cycle-to-cycle motor variability was quantified using linear dispersion measures of standard kinematics properties such as peak velocity, range of motion, and inter-segmental relative phase. Between- and within-subject consistencies of these variability metrics were quantified by variance components estimated using a nested random effects model. For most metrics, the variance between subjects was larger than that between days and cycles. Entering the variance components in statistical power equations showed that for most metrics, a total of 80-100 subjects will be required to detect a 20% difference between two groups with sufficient power, while this difference can typically be detected  in repeated-measures (paired) designs using 25 subjects. The reported between- and within-subject variance components can be used as a data base to facilitate efficient designs of future studies of kinematic motor variability.

  • 443.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Samani, Afshin
    Center for Sensorimotor Interaction, Department of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg University.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Madeleine, Pascal
    Center for Sensorimotor Interaction, Department of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg University.
    The size and structure of arm movement variability decreased with work pace in a standardised repetitive precision task2015Inngår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 58, nr 1, s. 128-139Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased movement variability has been suggested to reduce the risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders caused by repetitive work. This study investigated the effects of work pace on arm movement variability in a standardized repetitive pipetting task performed by 35 healthy women. During pipetting at slow and fast paces differing by 15%, movements of arm, hand and pipette were tracked in 3D, and used to derive shoulder and elbow joint angles. The size of cycle-to-cycle motor variability was quantified using standard deviations of several kinematics properties, while the structure of variability was quantified using indices of sample entropy and recurrence quantification analysis. When pace increased, both the size and structure of motor variability in the shoulder and elbow decreased. These results suggest that motor variability drops when repetitive movements are performed at increased paces, which may in the long run lead to undesirable outcomes such as muscle fatigue or over-use.

  • 444.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Sandlund, Jonas
    Umeå University, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Motor variability traits among individuals performing repetitive precision work2014Inngår i: Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Human Factors in Organizational Design and Management (ODAM), and 46th Annual Nordic Ergonomics Society Conference (NES): Selected and peer reviewed papers / [ed] Ole Broberg et al., Santa Monica, CA: The IEA Press , 2014, s. 987-989Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Motor variability (MV) refers to the intrinsic variability naturally present in the motor control system. Occurring even in the simplest movements, it is usually manifested as a difference in joint movements, joint coordination and/or muscle activities between successive repeats of a task which are identical in performance. Contrary to the traditional view that MV is detrimental to performance, it is now widely accepted that MV may actually have an important functional role in skill acquisition, and that skilled performance may, actually, be associated with increased MV. Further, MV is related to pain and fatigue, and may play a decisive role in rehabilitation (reviewed in Srinivasan & Mathiassen 2012). Hypothetically, individuals with a larger MV would be better protected against overuse injuries, and recover faster after disorders affecting motor performance. However, whether the extent of MV is, indeed, a consistent individual trait across different tasks is not known.    

    The purpose of this study was to let individuals perform a laboratory-based simulation of repetitive upper-extremity precision work and determine:

    (i)             Whether it is possible to systematically classify individuals according to the size of their MV in repetitive work;

    (ii)            Whether classification of individuals in one working condition on one day persists even when some work-factors are slightly changed, and between different days when they perform the same work.

    Repetitive pipetting with a cycle time of 2.8s was performed in the laboratory by a group of 14 healthy female subjects, aged 20-45 years, right-handed and experienced in pipetting, on 3 different days under identical protocol and experimental conditions. Work factors such as work-pace, precision and cognitive load (on top of the pipetting work) were manipulated within each day. Kinematic data were obtained using electromagnetic motion capture systems (FASTRAK).

    MV in shoulder elevation, elbow flexion and shoulder-elbow coordination were operationalized using cycle-to-cycle standard deviations of motor parameters such as peak velocities, time lag of peak velocities, phase angle and inter-segmental phase angle. The resulting traits in individuals and the consistency of those traits across tasks and days will be presented.

  • 445.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Sinden, Kathryn
    Department of Kinesiology and Physical Education, McGill University, Montréal.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Coté, Julie
    Department of Kinesiology and Physical Education, McGill University, Montréal.
    Gender differences in muscle activity responses to a fatiguing short-cycle repetitive task2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. More women suffer from musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in the neck-shoulder and hand-arm regions than men, even when they are performing similar jobs. Fatigue is a known predictor of MSDs, and gender differences in fatigue responses could help explain the difference in MSD occurrence. This study aimed to assess the extent to which genders differ in fatigability by examining muscle-activity responses when perform-ing a low-force, repetitive arm-task leading to muscle fatigue in the neck-shoulder region.

    Methods. 108 healthy individuals (55 males, 53 females) repeatedly touched two targets placed at shoulder height in front of them. The targets were placed at 30% and 100% of arm’s length and touched at a rate established by a 1Hz metronome until the subjects reported a perceived exertion of 8 on the Borg CR-10 scale for the neck-shoulder region. Bipolar surface EMG was recorded from the upper trapezius, anterior deltoid, biceps and triceps. Task duration and EMG amplitude (average and cycle-to-cycle variability) during the first minute (baseline) and last minute (fatigue-terminal) were compared between men and women.

    Results. There were no gender differences in task duration, EMG variability at baseline, or change in average EMG amplitude with fatigue. Change in EMG variability from baseline to fatigue-terminal was lower for women than men in the upper trapezius (7.2% vs. 30.6% increase, p=0.02), and higher for women than men in the biceps (11.8% increase vs. 23.2% decrease, p=0.0006).

    Discussion.This is the first study to report gender differences in muscle-activity responses to a fatiguing, dynamic manual task relevant to working life based on a comprehensive sample of healthy individuals. Despite no differences in task duration, there may be gen-der differences in the physiological mechanisms behind fatigue adaptations: while women may use compensatory mechanisms mainly involving the elbow, men may use more shoulder-driven strategies. These gender differences in muscle-activity responses may contribute to explaining why women suffer more from neck-shoulder MSDs than men.

  • 446.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Grado Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, United States.
    Sinden, Kathryn
    McGill University, Montreal, Canada; CRIR Research Centre, Jewish Rehabilitation Hospital, Laval, Canada.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Côté, Julie
    McGill University, Montreal, Canada; CRIR Research Centre, Jewish Rehabilitation Hospital, Laval, Canada.
    Gender differences in muscle activity responses and fatigability to a short-cycle repetitive task2016Inngår i: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 116, nr 11-12, s. 2357-2365Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Epidemiological research has identified women to be more susceptible to developing neck-shoulder musculoskeletal disorders when performing low-force, repetitive work tasks. Whether this is attributable to gender differences in fatigability and motor control is currently unclear. This study investigated the extent to which women differ from men in fatigability and motor control while performing a short-cycle repetitive task.

    Methods: 113 healthy young adults (58 women, 55 men) performed a standardized repetitive pointing task. The task was terminated when the subject's perceived exertion reached 8 on the Borg scale. Time to task termination, and changes in means and cycle-to-cycle variabilities of surface electromyography signals from start to end of the task were compared between women and men, for the upper trapezius, anterior deltoid, biceps and triceps muscles.

    Results: Women and men terminated the task after 6.5 (SD 3.75) and 7 (SD 4) min on average (p>0.05). All 4 muscles showed an increase of 25-35% in average muscle activity with fatigue (no significant sex differences). However, men exhibited a higher increase than women in trapezius muscle variability with fatigue (31% vs. 7%; p<0.05), and a decrease in biceps muscle variability where women had an increase (-23% vs. 12%; p<0.05).

    Conclusions: Our results suggest that women and men may not differ in the ability to perform repetitive tasks at low-to-moderate force levels. However, differences in motor control strategies employed in task performance may explain gender differences in susceptibility to developing musculoskeletal disorders when performing repetitive work for prolonged periods in occupational life.

  • 447.
    Steele, Hannah Steele
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Sambandet mellan transaktionellt– och transformellt ledarskap, hälsa och produktivitet: En kvantitativ enkätstudie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund:I takt med att konkurrensen på arbetsmarknaden ökat, har även ohälsa och sjukfrånvaron bland medarbetare blivit högre. The Full Range Leadership Model består av ledarskapsstilarna transaktionellt och transformellt ledarskap. Forskning har visat att chefers ledarskapsbeteende har ett samband med medarbetarnas hälsa vilket gör det viktigt att kartlägga betydelsen av olika ledarskapsbeteenden för att bibehålla och öka medarbetarnas hälsa.Arbetsmiljön är en viktig aspekt att ta hänsyn till vid produktionsbortfall eftersom upplevda arbetsmiljöproblem kan påverka medarbetarnas prestation negativt. Sambandet mellan transaktionellt- och transformellt ledarskap och produktionsbortfall på grund av arbetsmiljöproblem är ännu inte kartlagt.

    Syfte:Syftet med studien var att undersöka sambandet mellan transaktionellt och transformellt ledarskap och hälsa samt produktionsbortfall på grund av arbetsmiljöproblem. 

    Metod:Designen var en tvärsnittsstudie och datainsamlingen skedde via en elektronisk enkät. Totalt besvarade 101 individer enkäten. För att mäta hälsa användes en fråga om allmän hälsa ur SF36. Produktionsbortfall på grund av arbetsmiljöproblem mättes med två frågor. Ledarskapsstil mättes med en modifierad version av Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. Initialt gjordes en korrelationsanalys med Pearson produktmomentskoefficent för att se vilka oberoende och bakomliggande variabler som hade ett linjärt samband med hälsa respektive produktionsbortfall på grund av arbetsmiljöproblem.En linjär multipel regressionsanalys användes för att besvara första frågeställningen. 

    Resultat:Transformellt ledarskap hade ett samband med hälsa (b= 0,34, p = 0.02)men inte transaktionellt ledarskap. Transformellt ledarskap var den enda variabeln som hade ett linjärt samband med produktionsbortfall på grund av arbetsmiljöproblem. Däremot var den inte statistiskt signifikant när alfanivån sänktes till 0,05. 

    Slutsats:Resultatet indikerar på att en ledare bör praktisera ett transformellt ledarskap för att främja medarbetarnas hälsa. 

  • 448.
    Stevens, Matthew
    et al.
    The National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Crowley, Patrick
    The National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Lund Rasmussen, Charlotte
    National research centre for the working environment, Denmark.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbetshälsovetenskap och psykologi, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mortensen, Ole
    Section of Social Medicine, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nygård, Clas-Håkan
    Unit of Health Sciences, Faculty of Social Science, Tampere University, Finland.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    The National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Denmark.
    Accelerometer-measured physical activity at work and need for recovery: A compositional analysis of cross-sectional data2020Inngår i: Annals of Work Exposures and Health, ISSN 2398-7308, Vol. 64, nr 2, s. 138-151Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    Previous research has shown strong associations between occupational physical activity (OPA) and need for recovery (NFR). However this research has only utilized self-reported measures of OPA which may be biased. Thus, there is a need for investigating if the previously documented association between self-reported OPA and NFR can be found when using technical measures of OPA. There is also the need to investigate whether older workers are particularly susceptible to increased NFR, since age-related declines in physical capacity mean that it is likely these workers will have a higher NFR for a given physical activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between technically measured OPA and NFR, and whether this relationship is modified by age.

    Methods

    This study utilized data from the Danish Physical Activity Cohort with Objective Measurements cohort—comprising Danish workers (n = 840) from the cleaning, manufacturing, and transportation sectors. OPA was measured by accelerometers attached to the thigh and upper back for at least one work day and classified into four physical behaviour categories (sedentary, standing, light, or moderate/vigorous). NFR was measured using a shortened version of the Danish NFR scale. Analysis was conducted using linear regression and isotemporal substitution analyses for compositional data.

    Results

    The overall association between OPA and NFR was statistically significant in the unadjusted model (P < 0.001), but not when adjusted for age, sex, occupation, and shift work (P = 0.166). Isotemporal substitution showed small but significant reductions in NFR when increasing sedentary time relative to other behaviours (adjusted: ΔNFR = −0.010 [−0.019; −0.001]). There were no significant interactions between age and OPA (P = 0.409).

    Conclusions

    This study found significant associations between OPA and NFR, but the effect sizes were small. Reallocating 30 min to sedentary behaviours from other behaviours was associated with a reduced NFR, but the effect size may not be practically relevant. Moreover, no clear modifying effects of age were identified.

  • 449.
    Straker, Leon
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth.
    Abbott, Rebecca
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Heiden, Marina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Toomingas, Allan
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Sit-stand desks and sedentary behavior in Swedish call centre workers2012Inngår i: Be active 2012, 2012, s. S94-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Adults spend approximately 8 to 9 hours of the day in sedentary behavior and much of this is gathered at work. The rising level of occupational sedentary behavior is both a public health and occupational health concern due to the emerging evidence regarding the deleterious effect that sedentary behavior has on health, independent of physical activity. In the occupational setting, sit-stand desks have been purported to offer a means of reducing sedentariness. This study aimed to investigate whether or not use of sit-stand desks and awareness of the importance of postural variation and breaks are associated with the pattern of sedentary behavior in call centre workers.

    Method: The data came from a cross-sectional observation study of fifteen Swedish call centres, carried out in 2002–2003. Ten operators were randomly selected from each of the call centres and invited to participate. Inclinometers recorded ‘seated’ or ‘standing/walking’ episodes of the operators over a full work shift. Differences in sedentary behavior based on desk type (categorized as ‘sit-stand’ or ‘sit’) and awareness of the importance of posture variation and breaking up seated computer work within those using a sit-stand desk were assessed by non-parametric analyses.

    Results: Four operators declined to participate and 15 operators had inclinometer recordings that were not of sufficient quality. Of the remaining 131 operators, 90 (68.7%) worked at a sit-stand desk. Working at a sit-stand desk, as opposed to a sit desk, was associated with a modest reduction in the time seated (78.5 vs 83.8%, p = 0.010), and less time taken to accumulate 5 minutes of standing/walking (36.2 vs 46.3 minutes, p = 0.022), but no significant difference to sitting episode length or the number of switches between sitting and standing/walking per hour. Ergonomics awareness had no significant association with any sedentary behavior pattern variable among those using a sit-stand desk.

    Conclusion: Use of sit-stand desks was associated with better sedentary behavior in call centre workers, however ergonomics awareness did not enhance the effect. The growing number of people in occupations dominated by sedentary work and the clear evidence of the importance of sedentary behavior as a key lifestyle risk factor support the need to develop effective interventions. Sit-stand desks may be an important remedy in this endeavor, particularly in office settings, while ergonomics awareness may be able to contribute to further changes in sedentary behavior if improved and supported by the work organization.

  • 450.
    Straker, Leon
    et al.
    School of Physiotherapy, Curtin University, Perth.
    Abbott, Rebecca
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Heiden, Marina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Toomingas, Allan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Sit-stand desks, ergonomics awareness and sedentariness in Swedish call centres2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
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