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  • 451.
    Alvåg, Carina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Mediumskap i samtida svensk kontext relaterat till Jungs individuationsprocess: En kvalitativ studie om fyra yrkesverksamma medier2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstract

    Huvudsyftet med denna studie, om samtida mentalt mediumskap, var att presentera fyra svenska yrkesverksamma mediers upplevelser och förståelse av den egna medialiteten. Ett underordnat syfte var också att undersöka ifall Jungs teori om individuationsprocessen kan relateras till mediumskap.

        Kvalitativa semistrukturerade intervjuer genomfördes och det empiriska materialet analyserades i två steg: först induktivt genom interpretativ fenomenologisk analys (IPA), som resulterade i de fyra temana inre konflikt, terapeutiskt arbete, religion & livsplan samt medial kommunikation. Slutligen gjordes en deduktiv analys utifrån den tredje forskningsfrågan kring individuationsprocessen, som resulterade i paralleller mellan det av medierna beskrivna terapeutiska arbetet och individuationsprocessens kärna enligt Jungs teori.

        Den mediala kommunikationen beskrevs framför allt utifrån fysiska förnimmelser, sinnesintryck och perceptioner samt klarvetande. I diskussion mot tidigare forskning framträdde i respondenternas utsagor några särskilt distinkta aspekter: reinkarnationsidéen med en individuell livsplan för alla människor samt även föreställningen om en eventuell kollektiv utveckling av mänskligheten, vilken bär drag av Jungs teori om individuationsprocessen.

  • 452.
    Alyass, Laila
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Finns det belägg för socialt stöd i arbetsplatsen?: Studie om en myndighet i Mellansverige som har i uppgift att fatta individuella beslut.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ohälsa på arbetsplatsen utgör en stor riskfaktor beträffande folkhälsa. Jag har valt att undersöka hur anställda på en myndighet beskriver dess innebörd av socialt stöd och hurvida det är en viktig faktor för arbetslivet att kunna uppleva någon form av socialt stöd. Tidigare forskning har visat att bristande socialt stöd på arbetsplatsen ger en ökad risk för stress, vilket kan resultera i att arbetsglädje och välmående försämras. Med hjälp av socialt stöd från arbetskollegor skapas det arbetsglädje och ett ökat välmående. Syftet: med denna uppsats var att undersöka hurvida handläggare på en myndighet upplever soicalt stöd i arbetet. Detta för att kunna se om sociala stödet har samband med arbetshälsan och hur det påverkar arbetstagarnes vämående. Metod: I studien har en kvalitativ ansats använts, där 4 respondenter intervjuvades på en myndighet i ett län i Mellansverige. I studien har data analyserats och styrkats från en deskriptiv innehållsanalys, där intervjuerna transkriberades och kategoriserades för att kunna få fram resultatet. 

    Resultat: visade att samtliga respondenter upplevde att socialt stöd på arbetsplatsen är något positivt och kan även fungera som ett hjälpmedel främst vid stressiga perioder. Studien har även visat att socialt stöd från arbetskollegor skapar trygghet i arbetet. Detta genom att man vid svåra situationer får stöd från kollegor för att finna lösningar på problem som kan uppstå. Slutsatsen: visar att med ett gott arbetsteam skapas det en förutsättning för en bättre arbetshälsa med ökad välbefinnande även vid stressiga situationer. 

  • 453.
    Alén, Johan
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology.
    Rörelsehindrades upplevelser av ämnet idrott och hälsa i olika åldrar: skolans möjligheter att inkludera och påverka2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kursplanen i grundskolan för ämnet idrott och hälsa säger att ”Ämnets kärna är idrott, lek och allsidiga rörelser utformade så att alla oavsett fysiska eller andra förutsättningar ska kunna delta, erhålla upplevelser och erfarenheter samt utvecklas på sina egna villkor.” (Skolverkets hemsida, 2007). Syftet med detta arbete har varit att försöka undersöka hur två rörelsehindrade barn i olika åldrar upplever ämnet idrott och hälsa samt vilka faktorer som bidrar till eller försvårar ett intresse som främjar deras egen hälsa.

     

    För att få tag på intervjupersoner så vände jag mig till olika organisationer som RBU (riksförbundet för rörelsehindrade barn och ungdomar), SHIF (svenska handikappidrottsförbundet) och även olika sorters skolor. Det visade sig dock vara svårt att hitta personer som var villiga att ställa upp så därför fick mitt arbete stödja sig på bara två personer, en pojke som var nio år och en flicka som var nitton år.

     

    Som metod användes standardiserade intervjuer med två stycken rörelsehindrade personer i olika åldrar. Jag förklarade för intervjupersonerna vad för sorts arbete jag höll på med och att deras deltagande i arbetet skulle vara helt anonymt. Därefter informerades personerna i fråga om att jag skulle spela in intervjuerna och om detta var okej. Slutligen så bestämdes plats för intervjun, en plats som de själva fick välja för att känna sig trygga i miljön som de valt.

     

    Tidigare forskning som gjorts inom området visar på hur man kan få en lyckad undervisning med en rörelsehindrad i klassen och i detta arbete har den tidigare forskningen fungerat som analytiska verktyg som jag stödjer mig på i resultatet och diskussionen.

     

    Resultatet av detta arbete visar att det finns en skillnad i hur dessa två personer upplever ämnet idrott och hälsa. Skillnaden tycks dock ligga i hur planeringen av lektionerna är uppbyggda, och inte barnens ålder. Det som framkommer är att elever med rörelsehinder måste få chansen till att få vara med på idrottslektionerna som alla andra men även med ändringar som passar just deras idrottsbeteende.

     

  • 454.
    Amani, Peyman
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology.
    Bonuspoängsystem i högre utbildning: En studie om undervisningsrelaterat bonuspoängsystem2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I följande studie uppmärksammas arbetsformen och systemet bonuspoäng. Arbetsformen bygger på att elever tilldelas bonuspoäng vid korrekt utförande av vissa extra tilldelade arbetsuppgifter. Dessa extrapoäng tillgodoräknas till studentens förmån vid examination t.ex. vid en tentamen.

    Denna pedagogiska arbetsform är idag stark präglad och vanligt förekommande inom universitet och högskolor, vilket noteras i denna undersökning. Arbetsformen är särskilt framträdande inom vetenskapsområdet för teknik och naturvetenskap (främst inom ämnesområdena matematik och data). Detta framgår genom analys av 300 webbsidor. Vidare framgår att Uppsala Universitet och Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan är de lärosäten som i störst utsträckning utövar arbetsformen.

    Tidigare genomförd forskning, som förvisso är begränsad i sitt utbud, beskriver ofta att undervisningsmodellen har ett motiverande syfte, som skall motivera studenterna till en kontinuerlig arbetsinsats under en kurs. Vidare framgår av tidigare forskning att systemet uppfattas som positivt och fått bra gensvar bland de studerande. Dock har tidigare forskning sällan berört och undersökt arbetsformen utifrån de infallsvinklar förekommande i denna undersökning. Därmed är följande studie kompletterande mot tidigare forskning och fyller behovet av att undersöka och sammanställa en större utövargrupps förhållningssätt angående bonussystemets tillämpning. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka vilka åsikter, förhållningssätt och ståndpunkter pedagogerna som tillämpar bonuspoängsystemet i undervisningen har kring användandet av detta system. Undersökningen har möjliggjorts med hjälp av en enkätundersökning riktad till 98 internetregistrerade utövare, varav 34 respondenter (de flesta med cirka 5-10 års erfarenhet av systemutövande) valde att deltag.

    Undersökningen visar fall där arbetsmetoden har tillämpats i mer än 20 år. Vidare utövas arbetsformen främst av män vars namn är förekommande i den svenska ”kalendariska namnsystemet”. Undersökningen visar att arbetsformen oftast tillämpas då pedagogen ”önskar” aktivera studenterna tidigt under en kurs samtidigt som pedagogen eftersträvar att uppmuntra till aktiv, kontinuerligt och fortlöpande arbetsgång. Dock anser pedagogen (systemutövaren) att systemet kan bidra till en större arbetsbörda samtidigt som det föreliggande negativa ”säkerhetsaspekter” i form av risker med fusk och plagiat och svårkontrollerbara uppgifter. Vidare visar studien tendenser till positiva uppfattningar om eventuella tillämpningsmöjligheter på lägre studienivåer (grund- och gymnasieskolan).

    Baserad på studiens erhållna resultat anses systemet involvera positiva egenskaper som gör denna till ett möjligt och kraftfull pedagogiskt verktyg.

  • 455.
    Amarawardhana, Kumudu Nanditilaka
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Modeling of energy utilization of tourism industry to predict the future energy demand to showcase Sri Lanka - The ‘Miracle of Asia’2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism industry in Sri Lanka shares a substantial amount of GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and predicts an immense expansion within a short time frame. Owing to its energy intensiveness and competitiveness, a scrutiny in the energy utilization and the related impact on the environment is crucial. Furthermore, trend towards ecotourism forces the requirement of foreseeing a green energy supply to meet the ever rising demand.   In this study, utilization of energy in the graded hotels in the country was modeled through LEAP (Long Range Energy Alternatives Planning System) software to predict the future energy demand. Monthly energy consumption data for three consecutive years for a sample of hotels covering classified and unclassified hotel establishments were used for modeling. Four scenarios were then analyzed based on the baseline scenario representing the country’s tourism industry profile of year 2010.  It is shown that the energy intensiveness of the tourism industry will be overwhelming unless the DSM (Demand Side Management) tools are properly amalgamated for mitigation. Further the results of the study revealed that the existing electricity generation plan does not accommodate fuel diversification and energy mix, and needs revisions to induct renewable sources for greening energy supply of the country. The study provides an insight in identifying socially acceptable policy scenarios in energy supply and use of the tourism industry.

  • 456.
    Amarsanaa, Bolor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Anjorin, Joshua
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Mobile Marketing: Study of ICA - Correlation between mobile marketing and customer loyalty2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

     

    Title: Mobile Marketing: Study of ICA – Correlation between mobile marketing and customer loyalty

    Level: Master Degree in Business Administration

    Authors: Bolor Amarsanaa and Joshua Anjorin

    Supervisor: Ernst Hollander

    Date: 2012 – January

    Aim:

    Having loyal customers is a key for successful organizations. There is increased complexity and competitiveness in the market place as regards to what companies need to do and how to do them in meeting the needs of customers. Is that why companies today are exploring the potentials of mobile phones to ultimately earn customers’ loyalty? However, there is not much research done in this area, especially in finding correlation between mobile marketing and customer loyalty. Thus, this research aims to examine correlation between mobile marketing and customer loyalty.

    Method:

    Data collection methods included literature reviews, a questionnaire and interviews. These were analysed by hypothesising, comparing with theories, and the use of descriptive analysis, correlation, and other methods presented as discussions, tables, and charts.

    Results & Conclusions:

    The theoretical and empirical research findings show that customer loyalty is positively related with mobile marketing. Use of mobile marketing such as mobile application, mobile web and SMS can perhaps enhance customer loyalty by meeting the demand of customers; increasing interaction and communication with customers; and increasing customer satisfaction. However, due to the research limitations and due to the fact that mobile marketing is a relatively new field of study, it needs some more time and more extensive research to make a general assumption about relationship between them and the strength of such relationship.

    Suggestions for future research:

    For further research, more extended research with broader samples is essential. It will be also crucial to investigate how much of an effect mobile marketing has on customer loyalty by scrutinizing company’s cost and profit measurements of mobile marketing besides opt-in and opt-out measurements of customers.

    Contribution of the thesis:

    We hope that this research has scratched the surface to this new field of study and made an addition to existing theory. It also stirs up interests in the emerging research on mobile marketing’s untapped potentials.

    Key words:

    Mobile Marketing, Customer loyalty, mobile phone, customer satisfaction, communication with customers.

     

  • 457.
    Amaya, Jorge
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Pedalkraft system: Stödsystem för elproduktion i småskalighet2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is aimed at people who are interested in using the new environmentally friendlymethods of electricity generation or people who already use small wind turbines and solarpanels with the need for an additional energy source in small cabins or remote locations whereaccess to electricity networks is impossible. Aims of this work is first to build a system forgenerating electricity using a bicycle. Second is determining the amount of electrical energy aperson can generate with the system. Finally answer if this system could be used as a supportsystem for electricity generation in small scale.

    The first objective is to design a system using power control where the power generatedsupplied the loads. The mechanical part will be constructed as part of the energy source, thenwill be designed a control for controlling the power via electronic components, electrical loadssupplied by the system, will be simulated. To know the generated power to the control circuitwill install a meter and a serial communication device for communicating with a computer.

    It carries out a research on other systems and products in the Swedish market, to answer whetherthis system can be a backup system for electricity generation in small scale.

    The construction of a pedaling power system is achieved using a twelve volt direct currentmotor with permanent magnet as an energy source. System has the ability to show in an LCDdisplay and transmit through the serial ports, the value of the generated power. System canguide the power to the loads by using a microcontroller. Power generated by the system showedthat it is significant to be considered as an additional energy source, stand-alone or integratedwith other systems.

  • 458.
    Amborn, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Elgestad, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    JAK Medlemsbank och räntan: Ett räntefritt alternativ2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: JAK Members bank and the interest rate – An interest-free alternative.

    Level: Final assignment for Bachelor Degree in Business Administration.

    Author: Anna Amborn och Linda Elgestad.

    Supervisor: Maria Fregidou-Malama.

    Date: 2012-06-06.

    Aim: The study aims to investigate and analyze the JAK Members bank view of the economic system in general and the interest rate in particular, and examine if it is possible to borrow money without interest. We also highlight that there is a hidden interest rate in what we consume.

    Method: The method used is a qualitative method and the data was mainly gathered through three unstructured interviews with employees and involved people in the JAK Members bank. Materials for the theory section were collected from databases, articles and books.

    Result & Conclusions: The study suggests that JAK Members bank is what they claim to be, that is an interest-free bank. However, this depends on that the interest rate is defined as a work-free income i.e. an income that does not cover real costs. The study also shows that a loan in JAK Members bank will give a relatively high monthly fee which leads to a pretty high required income from the borrower.

    Suggestions for future research: The interest-free option is a relatively unexplored area which provides significant opportunities for further research. One of those unexplored areas is the interest share of the price of goods. To explore this area, we believe that it takes time because many companies seemed reluctant to disclose such information.

    Contribution of the thesis: The study has helped to gather information about JAK Members bank, their ideology and activities. It also helps to explain that there is an interest-free alternative to the conventional banks, and describes how this option works. The study thus provides an overall picture of the JAK Bank´s activities and highlights the disadvantages that interest rate brings.

    Keywords: Interest-free, JAK Members bank, interest rate, fees, loan costs, cooperatives.

  • 459.
    Ambrén, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies.
    Läroboken i bildämnet: en studie av hur en lärobok lever upp till kursplanens mål2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta examensarbete var att undersöka en specifik lärobok i bild utifrån den gällande kursplanen i bild. Tidigare forskning visar att bildlärare är de lärare som sällan eller aldrig använder sig av läroböcker i undervisningen. Tidigare forskning visar även att bildlärare anser att det finns så pass lite undervisningsmaterial inom bildämnet att de tvingas skapa eget undervisningsmaterial och de få undervisningsmaterial som faktiskt finns lever inte upp till den standarden läraren vill ha på undervisningen. För att undersöka detta djupare genomfördes en undersökning där en lärobok i bild valdes ut och därefter gjordes en kvalitativ innehållsanalys utifrån läroboken och den gällande kursplanen i bild. Resultatet visar att läroboken saknar vissa delar för att leva upp till kursplanens uppnåendemål, men visar även att läroboken har ett rikt innehåll.

  • 460.
    Ameen, Arman
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Efficient Cooling with multiple impinging jets: Obtaining boundary condition and verification for a CFD model2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Saving energy and optimizing industrial processes are major priorities for companies around the world. In this study the cooling process (with air) of large rollers are examined. The result of these examinations are used to create a computational fluid dynamic model. These examination consists of geometry, volume flows, velocities, velocity profiles, temperature and pressure. A complication in the measurements occurred due to the nonsymmetrical installation of the nozzles in the cooling setup. The results highlights how this nonsymmetrical installation affects the cooling. Multiple methods were used to carry out this work, and some additional side project were implemented. The results in this thesis is not enough to create a CFD model and further work have to be carried out in the future.

  • 461.
    Ameen, Arman
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Energianalys och energieffektivisering av en förskola: Söderskolan (Slottets förskola) i Gävle, simulering utförd genom IDA ICE 4.612014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bostad- och servicesektorn står för 38 % av Sveriges totala energianvändning. Av det här står bostäder och lokaler för 90 % av energianvändningen och nästan 60 % av det går till att värma upp byggnaderna och till varmvatten. Därför är det viktig att börja titta på den här sektorn och se om det finns möjlighet att spara på energianvändningen. I den här studien har en kartläggning gjorts av en gammal skolbyggnad för att kunna skapa ett underlag för energieffektiviseringsåtgärder. Genom att använda simuleringsprogrammet IDA ICE 4.61 har man skapat en basmodell av byggnaden som då används som simuleringsbas. Basmodellen har jämförts med fjärrvärmekostnader för att kunna verifieras. Därefter har man lagt in energieffektiviserar och tittat på vilka besparingar man har kommit fram till. Resultatet av den här studien visade att i den här byggnaden så är den mest effektiva åtgärden isolering av taket till vinden.

  • 462.
    Ameen, Arman
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Reducing energy usage in multi-family housing2019In: 2019 9th International Conference on Future Environment and Energy 9–11 January 2019, Osaka, Japan, Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2019, Vol. 257, article id 012030Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy usage in residential sector have been around 22% of the total energy use in the world and increasing due to the population growth and higher living standards. The energy sources for this are made up primarily of non-renewable energy resources which generates a large amount of global greenhouse gases. A lot of countries have implemented various regulations and rules to reduce the energy usage in buildings and promoting the use of renewable energy technologies. This paper presents a parametric study of a typical multi-family building in its pre-design stage. The climate location used is Sweden (Gothenburg) and Japan (Osaka). The aim of the study is to compare various configurations and to examine how they affect the energy use. The most interesting configurations are the use of heat pump and solar cells. Other configurations that are examined are infiltration levels, pressure coefficients, wind impact, ventilation with heat recovery, ventilation scheduling, building orientation and finally changing U-values in the building material. Results of this study show that the energy saving, by utilizing a heat pump and solar panels, can reduce the total energy use by 34.9% for Gothenburg and 32% for Osaka. The results also show that the difference in total energy use between the two cities reduce substantially (3% difference) when utilizing a heat pump in combination with solar panels.

  • 463.
    Ameen, Arman
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Larsson, Ulf
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Karimipanah, Taghi
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Experimental Investigation of Ventilation Performance of Different Air Distribution Systems in an Office Environment: Heating Mode2019In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 10, article id 1835Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A vital requirement for all-air ventilation systems are their functionality to operate both in cooling and heating mode. This article experimentally investigates two newly designed air distribution systems, corner impinging jet (CIJV) and hybrid displacement ventilation (HDV) in comparison against a mixing type air distribution system. These three different systems are examined and compared to one another to evaluate their performance based on local thermal comfort and ventilation effectiveness when operating in heating mode. The evaluated test room is an office environment with two workstations. One of the office walls, which has three windows, faces a cold climate chamber. The results show that CIJV and HDV perform similar to a mixing ventilation in terms of ventilation effectiveness close to the workstations. As for local thermal comfort evaluation, the results show a small advantage for CIJV in the occupied zone. Comparing C2-CIJV to C2-CMV the average draught rate (DR) in the occupied zone is 0.3% for C2-CIJV and 5.3% for C2-CMV with the highest difference reaching as high as 10% at the height of 1.7 m. The results indicate that these systems can perform as well as mixing ventilation when used in offices that require moderate heating. The results also show that downdraught from the windows greatly impacts on the overall airflow and temperature pattern in the room.

  • 464.
    Ameen, Arman
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Larsson, Ulf
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Karimipanah, Taghi
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Experimental investigation of ventilation performance of different air distribution systems in an office environment – cooling mode2019In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 7, article id 1354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of a newly designed corner impinging jet air distribution method with an equilateral triangle cross section was evaluated experimentally and compared to that of two more traditional methods (mixing and displacement ventilation). At nine evenly chosen positions with four standard vertical points, air velocity, turbulence intensity, temperature, and tracer gas decay measurements were conducted for all systems. The results show that the new method behaves as a displacement ventilation system, with high air change effectiveness and stratified flow pattern and temperature field. Both local air change effectiveness and air exchange effectiveness of the corner impinging jet showed high quality and promising results, which is a good indicator of ventilation effectiveness. The results also indicate that there is a possibility to slightly lower the airflow rates for the new air distribution system, while still meeting the requirements for thermal comfort and indoor air quality, thereby reducing fan energy usage. The draught rate was also lower for corner impinging jet compared to the other tested air distribution methods. The findings of this research show that the corner impinging jet method can be used for office ventilation.

  • 465.
    Ameen, Arman
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Choonya, Gasper
    Cehlin, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Experimental Evaluation of the Ventilation Effectiveness of Corner Stratum Ventilation in an Office Environment2019In: Buildings, ISSN 2075-5309, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 9, no 7, article id 169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental study was conducted in a room resembling an office in a laboratory environment. The study involved investigating the ability of corner-placed stratum ventilation in order to evaluate the ventilation’s effectiveness and local thermal comfort. At fixed positions, the air temperature, air velocity, turbulence intensity, and tracer gas decay measurements were carried out. The results show that corner-placed stratum ventilation behaves very similar to a mixing ventilation system when considering air change effectiveness. The performance of the system was better at lower supply air flow rates for heat removal effectiveness. For the heating cases, the draught rates were all very low, with the maximum measured value of 12%. However, for the cooling cases, the maximum draught rate was 20% and occurred at ankle level in the middle of the room.

  • 466.
    Ameen, Havar
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Sabra, Zakaria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Moderna processutvecklingsverktyg för organisationer2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna C-uppsats ämnar att studera prioriteringar hos användare i ett system för processutveckling, med syftet att skapa underlag för en omarbetad implementation. I vissa organisationer handlar det om att öka utnyttjandegraden av investerade resurser, och en sådan plattform ger en bättre kontroll över vilka delar i ett system som påverkas av processförändringar. Underlaget för den konkreta implementation bestod till stor del av resultaten från en enkätstudie, där slutanvändare av ett existerande prototypsystem fick dela med sig av sina synpunkter. Resultatet från studien kombinerades också med relevanta vetenskapliga artiklar och litteraturstudier för att skapa underlag för modellen för den nya plattformen. En stor faktor som påvisades utifrån studien är behovet av tillgänglighet. Detta innefattar bl.a. tydligare relationer mellan entiteter, koncis presentation av data och snabbare informationsåtkomst. Modellen som skapats representerar ett system där fokus på ett dynamiskt och responsivt gränssnitt i kombination med tillgänglighet och logiska arbetsflöden utgör plattformen.

  • 467.
    Amein, Agata
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences.
    Pedagogiska möjligheter med dramapedagogik: Fortbildning inom drama - en väg till ökad förståelse2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 468.
    Amein, Aram
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Eriksson, Pontus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Ledarens kommunikationsstilar: Vilken påverkan har ledarens användning av kommunikationsstilar på de anställdas bild av ledarens prestation?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Titel: Ledarens kommunikationsstilar: Vilken påverkan har ledarens användning av specifika kommunikationsstilar på de anställdas bild av ledarens prestation?

     

    Nivå: C–Uppsats i ämnet företagsekonomi

    Författare: Pontus Eriksson & Aram Amein

    Handledare: Per–Arne Wikström

    Datum: 2013-08

     

    Syfte: Syftet är att undersöka vilken påverkan ledarens användning av sex specifika kommunikationsstilar har på de anställdas bild av ledarens prestation. Vi ämnar öka förståelsen för dessa kommunikationsstilars betydelse för upplevd ledarprestation.

     

     

    Metod: Arbetet har utgått från en kvalitativ forskningsmetod. Informationen som samlats in utgör grunden för analysen och slutsatsen. Empirin är insamlad i form av tolv personliga intervjuer, med anställda på medelstora företag som har daglig kontakt med sin ledare. Med grund i problemformuleringen har valen gjorts i den teoretiska referensramen. Vetenskaplig forskning och litteratur som ansetts relevant har valts ut med bakgrund mot syftet.

     

    Resultat och slutsats: Denna studie har visat att en ledares kommunikationsstil påverkar de anställdas bild av dennes prestation. Det har också visats att en viss kombination av specifika kommunikationsstilar skapar en viss bild av ledarens prestation. Ledare som har kunskap för detta område skapar sig större förutsättningar för att effektivt kommunicera med sina anställda. Vi tycker att tillämpning av detta område i ledarskapsutbildningar tillför ytterligare dimensioner i lärandet om ledarskapskommunikation.

    Förslag till fortsatt forskning: Vidare forskning på detta område skulle kunna genomföras genom att utföra deltagande observationer på företag och styra ledarens val av kommunikationsstilar. Jämförelse skulle göras genom intervjuer med de anställda ett flertal gånger under denna period för att sedan sammanställa resultatet.

     

    Uppsatsens bidrag: Identifierat vad specifika kommunikationsstilar har för påverkan på de anställdas bild av ledarens prestation.

  • 469.
    Amein, T
    et al.
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Göteborg University.
    Olsson, C H B
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Göteborg University.
    Wikstrom, M
    Findus R & D AB, Bjuv, Sweden.
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Göteborg University.
    First report in Sweden of downy mildew on parsley caused by Plasmopara petroselini2006In: Plant Disease, ISSN 0191-2917, E-ISSN 1943-7692, Vol. 90, no 1, p. 111-111Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 470.
    Amein, Tahsein
    et al.
    Dept Cell & Mol Biol, Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    Univ Studi Molise, Dipartimento Sci Anim Vegetali & Ambiente, Italy .
    Wikstroem, Mariann
    Jordbruksverket Växtskyddscentralen Alnarp, Sweden .
    Koch, Eckhard
    JKI, Inst Biol Control, Darmstadt, Germany .
    Schmitt, Annegret
    JKI, Inst Biol Control, Darmstadt, Germany .
    Stephan, Dietrich
    JKI, Inst Biol Control, Darmstadt, Germany .
    Jahn, Marga
    JKI, Inst Strategies & Technol Assessment Plant Protec, Kleinmachnow, Germany .
    Tinivella, Federico
    Univ Turin, Italy .
    Gullino, M. Lodovica
    Univ Turin, Italy .
    Forsberg, Gustaf
    Seedgard AB, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Werner, Sigrid
    Hild Samen GmbH, Marbach Am Neckar, Germany.
    van der Wolf, Jan
    Plant Res Int, Netherlands.
    Groot, Steven Pc
    Plant Res Int, Netherlands.
    Evaluation of non-chemical seed treatment methods for control of Alternaria brassicicola on cabbage seeds2011In: Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, ISSN 1861-3829, E-ISSN 1861-3837, Vol. 118, no 6, p. 214-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the lack of foliar fungicide use, the organic production of Brassica seeds free of Alternaria spp. is difficult. Therefore, effective seed treatments certified for use in organic farming are needed to eradicate or at least effectively reduce the seed-borne inoculum. We here report results of greenhouse and field experiments in which non-chemical seed treatments were tested for control of A. brassicicola on cabbage seeds naturally infested with the pathogen. In greenhouse experiments, significant improvements were obtained by seed treatment with some commercialised and experimental microbial biocontrol agents, an emulsion of thyme oil in water (0.1%) and by the tested physical seed treatments methods (i.e. hot water, aerated steam and electron seed treatment). Resistance inducers tended to increase the percentage of healthy plants, but the effects were statistically not significant. Generally the combination of physical treatments with the effective agents did not result in improved performance. Positive effects on crop establishment and yield by the same treatments were also observed in field tests. Overall the results indicate that several options for non-chemical control of A. brassicicola on Brassica seeds exist that are comparable in efficacy to the chemical standard Aatiram (active ingredient thiram) used in this study.

  • 471.
    Ameztegui Lindberg, Marcos
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies.
    Söderberg, Emma
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies.
    Simning: ett svenskt kulturarv?: en intervjustudie om lärares syn på simundervisning på gymnasiet2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Simkunnighet är ett kursmål i ämnet Idrott och hälsa som alla elever förväntas uppnå i grundskolan. I gymnasieskolans kursplaner för idrottsämnet har kravet om simkunnighet dock plockats bort. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka i vilken utsträckning idrottslärare på gymnasiet använder sig av simundervisning, även om simkunnighet inte är ett kursmål. Studien innefattar en undersökning av de icke simkunniga elevernas möjligheter att lära sig simma på gymnasiet samt en undersökning om lärare anser att simkunnighet bör vara ett kursmål även på gymnasienivå.

    Metoden som användes för att besvara undersökningens syfte var kvalitativa intervjuer. Vår undersökningsgrupp bestod av fem aktiva gymnasielärare i Idrott och hälsa i en kommun i norra Sverige.

    Resultatet av undersökningen visar att idrottslärarna använder sig av simundervisning på gymnasiet trots att det inte är ett explicit kursmål. Det framgår också att endast en skola vidtar åtgärder för att hjälpa de elever som har bristande simkunskaper och att fyra av fem idrottslärare anser att simkunnighet bör vara ett kursmål i Idrott och hälsa. Våra slutsatser är att simundervisningen förs vidare i idrottsundervisningen på grund av kulturella traditioner och att idrottslärarna betraktar simundervisningen ur ett ekonomiskt perspektiv.

     

  • 472.
    Amin, A.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences. Teleconnect GmbH, Dresden, Germany; University of Applied Sciences Dresden, Dresden, Germany.
    Bluschke, A.
    Teleconnect GmbH, Dresden, Germany.
    Emery, S.
    Innodul AG, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Krüger, F.
    Teleconnect GmbH, Dresden, Germany; University of Applied Sciences Dresden, Dresden, Germany.
    Matthews, M.
    Teleconnect GmbH, Dresden, Germany.
    Rietzsch, P.
    Teleconnect GmbH, Dresden, Germany.
    Steglich, R.
    Contec Steuerungstechnik and Automation GmbH, Ebbs, Austria.
    Multi-carrier transmission over si-pof2011In: POF 2011: 20th International Conference on Plastic Optical Fibers - Conference Proceeding, 2011, p. 81-86Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-carrier modulation (MCM) is today’s method of choice for communication systems. This is also true for SI-POF. The basics of MCM and special characteristics for the optical transmission using SI-POF are explained within this paper. Current approaches for MCM over SI-POF are described: Teleconnect’s G.hn based solution for home networking and Innodul’s DMT-based Gigabit solution.

  • 473.
    AMIN, AHMED
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Implementation and Investigation of VDSL2 Signal Modulation/Demodulation Functions for FDM Solution via POF Channel2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For higher data rate and attractive price level internet service Very High Data rate Subscriber Line 2 (VDSL2) is a perfect option. VDSL2 is a great achievement in Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) technology. It has a good impact in modern triple play (Voice, Data and Video) Internet service but for modern world applications required more data rate than the VDSL2 system can provide but it should be inexpensive and easy to install. So the desired goal of this thesis work is to achieve higher bitrates for VDSL2 system, by transmitting multiple VDSL2 signal using Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) channel instead of copper channel. POF channel is a suitable solution for high data rate application. Moreover POF is very rugged and suitable for high data rate application because of optical based transmission and it’s also very easy to implement into the interior networking. Moreover POF doesn’t have any impact of Electro Magnetic Interference because of optical transmission. So several VDSL2 signals are amplitude modulated to allocate specific frequency band and combined together which can be called as frequency division multiplexing and POF is used as channel to carry the combined signal which provide much higher bit rate than single signal and efficiently utilize the bandwidth of the channel. Then at the receiver end the combined signals are split and amplitude demodulate at the respective receiver to recover the expected frequency band for the receiver.       

  • 474.
    Amin, Ahmed Angelus
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Morales, Federico
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Positionering och tid som faktorer i mobilanpassade enkäter: En kontextmedveten prototyp2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns ett ökat problem med att färre personer väljer att delta i enkätundersökningar, både vad gäller webbenkäter och traditionella postenkäter. En möjlig lösning på problemet skulle kunna vara att ta tillvara på det faktum att det blir allt vanligare att personer väljer att använda sig av mobila enheter för att lösa vardagssysslor. Kanske kan man bättre använda sig av den tekniska utvecklingen och samhällsutvecklingen som allt mer går över till digitala lösningar och på så sätt bidra till ett ökat deltagande i enkäter. Denna uppsats har undersökt om det är möjligt att använda tekniken kontextmedvetenhet för att skapa mobilanpassade enkäter. Detta genom att tillverka en prototyp av en mobilapplikation som kan skicka frågor till smartphones beroende på dess position. Det är möjligt genom mobila enheters egna GPS-mottagare. Enligt den utvärdering som utförts finns det tecken på att användaren upplever det lättare att svara på frågor genom denna prototyp än deras tidigare upplevelser. Dessutom visar resultatet att funktionerna i vår kontextmedvetna prototyp fungerar så som önskat.

  • 475.
    Amin, Azhin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Criminology.
    Jag älskar döden mer än ni älskar livet! ”: En kvalitativ studie om varför IS/DAESH krigare valt att strida för islamiska staten2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Digital development has made the efficiency of extremist networks possible. Internet and social media have been developed and started to be used as "human web-networks" for the recruitment of like-minded people with the same ideological hopes. For DAESH, this is something positive. The purpose is to give a deeper understanding of why young men join the DAESH. The empirical basis therefore consists of interviews conducted with DAESH warriors who are detained in place in northern Iraq. The opportunity to gain access to these respondents for both the study and the empirical basis is unique. The method used is of a qualitative nature. Furthermore, the profit part represents the empirical basis. Authors have transcribed the interviews, and then conducted a thematidation of collected data. With direct quotes from the material, authors argue that there are recurring patterns in it as respondents. The study concludes that young men join the DAESH because of social disorganization and the lack of strong social ties.

  • 476.
    Amin, Hadi
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Evaluation of the Closure of Global Mean Sea Level Rise Budget over January 2005 to August 20162019Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Sea level changes over time because of water mass exchange among the oceans and continents, ice sheets, and atmosphere. It fluctuates also due to variations of seawater salinity and temperature known as the steric contributor. GRACE-based Stokes coefficients provide a valuable source of information, about the water mass exchange as the main contributor to the Earth’s gravity field changes, within decadal scales. Moreover, measuring seawater temperature and salinity at different layers of ocean depth, Argo floats help to model the steric component of Global Mean Sea Level. In this study, we evaluate the Global Mean Sea Level (GMSL) budget closure using satellite altimetry, GRACE, and Argo products. Hereof, considering the most recent released GRACE monthly products (RL06), we examine an iterative remove-restore method to minimize the effect of artifact leaked large signal from ice sheets and land hydrology. In addition, the effect of errors and biases in geophysical model corrections, such as GIA, on the GMSL budget closure is estimated. Moreover, we quantify the influence of spatial and decorrelation filtering of GRACE data on the GMSL budget closure. In terms of the monthly fluctuations of sea level, our results confirm that closing the GMSL budget is highly dependent on the choice of the spatial averaging filter. In addition, comparing the trends and variations for both the global mean sea level time series and those estimated for mass and steric components, we find that spatial averaging functions play a significant role in the sea level budget closure.

  • 477.
    Amin, Hadi
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Sjöberg, Lars
    Division of Geodesy and satellite positioning, KTH.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    A global vertical datum defined by the conventional geoid potential and the Earth ellipsoid parameters2019In: Journal of Geodesy, ISSN 0949-7714, E-ISSN 1432-1394, Vol. 93, no 10, p. 1943-1961Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The geoid, according to the classical Gauss–Listing definition, is, among infinite equipotential surfaces of the Earth’s gravity field, the equipotential surface that in a least squares sense best fits the undisturbed mean sea level. This equipotential surface, except for its zero-degree harmonic, can be characterized using the Earth’s global gravity models (GGM). Although, nowadays, satellite altimetry technique provides the absolute geoid height over oceans that can be used to calibrate the unknown zero-degree harmonic of the gravimetric geoid models, this technique cannot be utilized to estimate the geometric parameters of the mean Earth ellipsoid (MEE). The main objective of this study is to perform a joint estimation of W0, which defines the zero datum of vertical coordinates, and the MEE parameters relying on a new approach and on the newest gravity field, mean sea surface and mean dynamic topography models. As our approach utilizes both satellite altimetry observations and a GGM model, we consider different aspects of the input data to evaluate the sensitivity of our estimations to the input data. Unlike previous studies, our results show that it is not sufficient to use only the satellite-component of a quasi-stationary GGM to estimate W0. In addition, our results confirm a high sensitivity of the applied approach to the altimetry-based geoid heights, i.e., mean sea surface and mean dynamic topography models. Moreover, as W0 should be considered a quasi-stationary parameter, we quantify the effect of time-dependent Earth’s gravity field changes as well as the time-dependent sea level changes on the estimation of W0. Our computations resulted in the geoid potential W0 = 62636848.102 ± 0.004 m2 s−2 and the semi-major and minor axes of the MEE, a = 6378137.678 ± 0.0003 m and b = 6356752.964 ± 0.0005 m, which are 0.678 and 0.650 m larger than those axes of GRS80 reference ellipsoid, respectively. Moreover, a new estimation for the geocentric gravitational constant was obtained as GM = (398600460.55 ± 0.03) × 106 m3 s−2.

  • 478.
    Amin, Hadi
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    A global vertical datum defined by the conventional geoid potentialand the Earth ellipsoid parameters2020Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    According to the classical Gauss–Listing definition, the geoid is the equipotential surface of the Earth’s gravity field that in a least-squares sense best fits the undisturbed mean sea level. This equipotential surface, except for its zero-degree harmonic, can be characterized using the Earth’s Global Gravity Models (GGM). Although nowadays, the satellite altimetry technique provides the absolute geoid height over oceans that can be used to calibrate the unknown zero-degree harmonic of the gravimetric geoid models, this technique cannot be utilized to estimate the geometric parameters of the Mean Earth Ellipsoid (MEE). In this study, we perform joint estimation of W0, which defines the zero datum of vertical coordinates, and the MEE parameters relying on a new approach and on the newest gravity field, mean sea surface, and mean dynamic topography models. As our approach utilizes both satellite altimetry observations and a GGM model, we consider different aspects of the input data to evaluate the sensitivity of our estimations to the input data. Unlike previous studies, our results show that it is not sufficient to use only the satellite componentof a quasi-stationary GGM to estimate W0. In addition, our results confirm a high sensitivity of the applied approach to the altimetry-based geoid heights, i.e. mean sea surface and mean dynamic topography models. Moreover, as W0 should be considered a quasi-stationary parameter, we quantify the effect of time-dependent Earth’s gravity field changes as well as the time-dependent sea-level changes on the estimation of W0. Our computations resulted in the geoid potential W0 = 62636848.102 ± 0.004 m2s-2 and the semi-major and –minor axes of the MEE,a = 6378137.678 ± 0.0003 m and b = 6356752.964 ± 0.0005 m, which are 0.678 and 0.650 m larger than those axes of the GRS80 reference ellipsoid, respectively. Moreover, a new estimation for the geocentric gravitational constant was obtained as GM = (398600460.55 ± 0.03) × 106 m3s-2.

  • 479.
    Amin, Hadi
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    A global vertical datum defined by the conventional geoid potentialand the Earth ellipsoid parameters2020Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    According to the classical Gauss–Listing definition, the geoid is the equipotential surface of the Earth’s gravity field that in a least-squares sense best fits the undisturbed mean sea level. This equipotential surface, except for its zero-degree harmonic, can be characterized using the Earth’s Global Gravity Models (GGM). Although nowadays, the satellite altimetry technique provides the absolute geoid height over oceans that can be used to calibrate the unknown zero-degree harmonic of the gravimetric geoid models, this technique cannot be utilized to estimate the geometric parameters of the Mean Earth Ellipsoid (MEE). In this study, we perform joint estimation of W0, which defines the zero datum of vertical coordinates, and the MEE parameters relying on a new approach and on the newest gravity field, mean sea surface, and mean dynamic topography models. As our approach utilizes both satellite altimetry observations and a GGM model, we consider different aspects of the input data to evaluate the sensitivity of our estimations to the input data. Unlike previous studies, our results show that it is not sufficient to use only the satellite componentof a quasi-stationary GGM to estimate W0. In addition, our results confirm a high sensitivity of the applied approach to the altimetry-based geoid heights, i.e. mean sea surface and mean dynamic topography models. Moreover, as W0 should be considered a quasi-stationary parameter, we quantify the effect of time-dependent Earth’s gravity field changes as well as the time-dependent sea-level changes on the estimation of W0. Our computations resulted in the geoid potential W0 = 62636848.102 ± 0.004 m2s-2 and the semi-major and –minor axes of the MEE,a = 6378137.678 ± 0.0003 m and b = 6356752.964 ± 0.0005 m, which are 0.678 and 0.650 m larger than those axes of the GRS80 reference ellipsoid, respectively. Moreover, a new estimation for the geocentric gravitational constant was obtained as GM = (398600460.55 ± 0.03) × 106 m3s-2.

  • 480.
    Amin, Md. Khaled
    et al.
    American International University-Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Chowdhury, Ehsanul
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Zaman, Mahmud Habib
    North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Understanding the Determinants of Technology Driven Services Adoption by the Rural Consumers in Bangladesh2018In: Journal of Business Administration, ISSN 1680-9823, Vol. 38, no 1 & 2, p. 103-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study sought to ascertain the possible determinants that sway rural consumers’ behavioral intention to use technology driven services in Bangladesh. Using the self-administrated questionnaire followed by several in-depth interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) as supporting instruments, this study analyzed information gathered from one hundred and three respondents, drawn purposively from a village locally known as Dollar Bazar, situated in Manikganj district of Bangladesh.  All respondents were provided with the structured and self-administrated questionnaires and advised to quantify their responses in a 7-point Likert scale ranging from Strongly Disagree (SD) to Strongly Agree (SA). Questionnaire items were primarily adopted from prior studies, pertinent to Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) diffusion, adoption, and acceptance. Results of the study reveal that the three retained observed variables; Service Perception (SP), Perceived Interaction (PI), Intention to Use (ITU) have good degree of internal consistency. Moreover, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) results brought out the facts that the variable, namely Perceived Interaction (PI) is significantly affecting the dependent variable while Service Perception (SP) has no significant effect on the intention to use which are quite consistent with the earlier estimates in this field. Findings of this study have theoretical contributions as it directly contributes by enhancing the outlook of the literature of technology adoption, and provide managerial implications for ICT driven organizations (i.e. Telecom companies, Value Added service [VAS] providers, Financial Institutions) by enhancing knowledge regarding the rural consumers of Bangladesh and their behavior. 

  • 481.
    Amin, Shoaib
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Characterization and Linearization of Multi-band Multi-channel RF Power Amplifiers2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The World today is deeply transformed by the advancement in wireless technology. The envision of a smart society where interactions between physical and virtual dimensions of life are intertwined and where human interaction is mediated by machines, e.g., smart phones, demands increasingly more data traffic. This continual increase in data traffic requires re-designing of the wireless technologies for increased system capacity and flexibility. In this thesis, aspects related to behavioral modeling, characterization, and linearization of multi-channel/band power amplifiers (PAs) are discussed.

    When building a model of any system, it is advantageous to take into account the knowledge of the physics of the system and include into the model. This approach could help to improve the model performance. In this context, three novel behavioral models and DPD schemes for nonlinear MIMO transmitters are proposed.

    To model and compensate distortions in GaN based RF PAs in presence of long-term memory effects, novel models for SISO and concurrent dual-band PAs are proposed. These models are based on a fixed pole expansion technique and have infinite impulse response. They show substantial performance improvement. A behavioral model based on the physical knowledge of the concurrent dual-band PA is derived, and its performance is investigated both for behavioral modeling and compensation of nonlinear distortions.

    Two-tone characterization is a fingerprint method for the characterization of memory effects in dynamic nonlinear systems. In this context, two novel techniques are proposed. The first technique is a dual two-tone characterization technique to characterize the memory effects of self- and cross-modulation products in concurrent dual-band transmitter. The second technique is for the characterization and analysis of self- and cross-Volterra kernels of nonlinear 3x3 MIMO systems using three-tone signals.

  • 482.
    Amin, Shoaib
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Characterization and Linearization of Multi-channel RF Power Amplifiers2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The demands for high data rates and broadband wireless access requirethe development of wireless systems that can support wide and multi-bandsignals. To deploy these signals, new radio frequency (RF) front-ends are requiredwhich impose new challenges in terms of power consumption efficiencyand sources of distortion e.g., nonlinearity. These challenges are more pronouncedin power amplifiers (PAs) that degrade the overall performance ofthe RF transmitter.Since it is difficult to optimize the linearity and efficiency characteristicsof a PA simultaneously, a trade-off is needed. At high input power, a PAexhibits high efficiency at the expense of linearity. On the other hand, atlow input power, a PA is linear at the expense of the efficiency. To achievelinearity and efficiency at the same time, digital pre-distortion (DPD) is oftenused to compensate for the PA nonlinearity at high input power. In case ofmulti-channel PAs, input and output signals of different channels interactwith each other due to cross-talk. Therefore, these PAs exhibit differentnonlinear behavior than the single-input single-output (SISO) PAs. The DPDtechniques developed for SISO PAs do not result in adequate performancewhen used for multi-channel PAs. Hence, an accurate behavioral modeling isessential for the development of DPD for multi-channel RF PAs.In this thesis, we propose three novel behavioral models and DPD schemesfor nonlinear multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmitters in presenceof cross-talk. A study of the source of cross-talk in MIMO transmittershave been investigated to derive simple and powerful modeling schemes.These models are extensions of a SISO generalized memory polynomial model.A comparative study with a previously published MIMO model is also presented.The effect of coherent and partially non-coherent signal generationon DPD performance is also highlighted. It is shown experimentally thatwith partially non-coherent signal generation, the performance of the DPDdegrades compared to coherent signal generation.In context of multi-channel RF transmitters, PA behavioral models andDPD schemes suffer from a large number of model parameters with the increasein nonlinear order and memory depth. This growth leads to highcomplexity model identification and implementation. We have designed aDPD scheme for MIMO PAs using a sparse estimation technique for reducingmodel complexity. This technique also increases the numerical stability whenlinear least square estimation model identification is used.A method to characterize the memory effects in a nonlinear concurrentdual-band PAs is also presented. Compared to the SISO PAs, concurrentdual-band PAs are not only affected by intermodulation distortions but alsoby cross-modulation distortions. The characterization of memory effects inconcurrent dual-band transmitter is performed by injecting a two-tone testsignal in each input channel of the transmitter. Asymmetric energy surfacesare introduced for the intermodulation and cross-modulation products, whichcan be used to identify the power and frequency regions where the memory effects are dominant.

  • 483.
    Amin, Shoaib
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. Dept of Signal Processing, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Händel, Peter
    Dept of Signal Processing, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Characterization and modeling of RF amplifiers with multiple input signals2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A characterization technique for RF PAs excited with multiple signals is presented. The technique can be used for characterization of memory effects in IM/CM products. The extracted information can in return be of use for modifying behavioral models to better capture memory in IM/CM products.

  • 484.
    Amin, Shoaib
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. Department of Signal Processing, School of Electrical Engineering, KTH.
    Händel, Peter
    Department of Signal Processing, School of Electrical Engineering, KTH.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Digital Predistortion of Single and Concurrent Dual Band Radio Frequency GaN Amplifiers with Strong Nonlinear Memory Effects2017In: IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques, ISSN 0018-9480, E-ISSN 1557-9670, Vol. 65, no 7, p. 2453-2464, article id 7855827Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrical anomalies due to trapping effects in Gallium Nitride (GaN) power amplifiers (PAs)give rise to long-term or strong memory effects. We propose novel models based on infinite impulse response (IIR) fixed pole expansion techniques for the behavioural modeling and digital pre-distortion of single-input-single-output (SISO) and concurrent dual-bandGaN PAs. Experimental results show that the proposed models outperform the corresponding finite impulse response (FIR) models by up to 17 dB for the same number of model parameters. For the linearization of a SISO GaN PA the proposed models give adjacent channel power ratios (ACPRs) that are 7 to 17 dBlower than the FIR models. For the concurrent dual-band case, the proposed models give ACPRs that are 9to 14 dB lower than the FIR models.

  • 485.
    Amin, Shoaib
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. ACCESS Linnaeus Centre, Department of Signal Processing, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Khan, Zain Ahmed
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. ACCESS Linnaeus Centre, Department of Signal Processing, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Isaksson, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Händel, Peter
    ACCESS Linnaeus Centre, Department of Signal Processing, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Concurrent dual-band power amplifier model modification using dual two-tone test2016In: 46th Europena Microwave Conference (EUMC) 2016, 2016, p. 186-189Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A dual two-tone technique for the characterization of memory effects in concurrent dual-band transmitters is revisited to modify a 2D-DPD model for the linearization of concurrent dual-band transmitters. By taking into account the individual nonlinear memory effects of the self- and cross-kernels, a new2D modified digital pre-distortion (2D-MDPD) model is proposed,which not only supersedes the linearization performance but also reduces the computational complexity compared to the 2DDPDmodel in terms of a number of floating point operations(FLOPs). Experimental results show an improvement of 1.7 dBin normalized mean square error (NMSE) and a 58% reduction in the number of FLOPs.

  • 486.
    Amin, Shoaib
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. KTH.
    Landin, Per
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Händel, Peter
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. ACCESS Linnaeus Centre, Signal Processing Lab, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Behavioral Modeling and Linearization of Crosstalk and Memory Effects in RF MIMO Transmitters2014In: IEEE transactions on microwave theory and techniques, ISSN 0018-9480, E-ISSN 1557-9670, Vol. 62, no 4, p. 810-823Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes three novel models for behavioral modeling and digital pre-distortion (DPD) of nonlinear 2$,times,$ 2 multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmitters in the presence of crosstalk. The proposed models are extensions of the single-input single-output generalized memory polynomial model. Three types of crosstalk effects were studied and characterized as linear, nonlinear, and nonlinear & linear crosstalk. A comparative study was performed with previously published models for the linearization of crosstalk in a nonlinear 2 $,times,$2 MIMO transmitter. The experiments indicate that, depending on the type of crosstalk, the selection of the correct model in the transmitter is necessary for behavioral modeling and sufficient DPD performance. The effects of coherent and partially noncoherent signal generation on the performance of DPD were also studied. For crosstalk levels of ${-}{hbox{30}}$ dB, the difference in the normalized mean square error and adjacent channel power ratio was found to be 3–4 dB between coherent and partially noncoherent signal generation.

  • 487.
    Amin, Shoaib
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. KTH, Signalbehandling.
    Landin, Per N.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Händel, Peter
    KTH, Signalbehandling.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    2D Extended envelope memory polynomial model for concurrent dual-band RF transmitters2017In: International journal of microwave and wireless technologies, ISSN 1759-0795, E-ISSN 1759-0787, Vol. 9, no 8, p. 1619-1627Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a 2D extended envelope memory polynomial (2D-EEMP) model for concurrent dual-band radio frequency (RF) power amplifiers (PAs). The model is derived based on the physical knowledge of a dual-band RF PA. The derived model contains cross-modulation terms not included in previously published models; these terms are found to be of importance for both behavioral modeling and digital pre-distortion (DPD). The performance of the derived model is evaluated both as the behavioral model and DPD, and the performance is compared with state-of-the-art2D-DPD and dual-band generalized memory polynomial (DB-GMP) models. Experimental result shows that the proposed model resulted in normalized mean square error (NMSE) of -51.7/-51.6dB and adjacent channel error power ratio (ACEPR) of -63.1/-63.4 dB, for channel 1/2, whereas the 2D-DPD resulted in the largest model error and DB-GMP resulted in model parameters that are 3 times more than those resulted with the proposed model with the same performance. As pre-distorter, the proposed model resulted in adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR) of -55.8/ -54.6 dB for channel 1/2 and is 7-10 dB lower than those resulted with the 2D-DPD model and2-4 dB lower compared to the DB-GMP model.

  • 488.
    Amin, Shoaib
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Mehmood, Imran
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    DETECTION OF MULTIPLE TARGETS USING ULTRA-WIDEBAND RADAR2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, ultra-wideband (UWB) radars are gaining popularity in the radar field mainly inindustrial and commercial areas. The UWB radar has the potential of dramatically improving thecontrol and surveillance of industrial processes in confined areas.The report provides an introduction to radar systems and detail working principle of M-sequenceUWB radar and methodology of how detection of targets is carried out. First two chapters of thereport describes the working of radar systems and M-sequence radar whereas in the later part ofthe report, different detection algorithms are discussed which has been implemented in thepresent radar simulations. In conventional radar the main detection algorithm is matched filteringwhere the transmitted signal is correlated with the received signal. Whereas UWB signal is nonsinusoidalthat is vulnerable to change in its shape during entire radar operation. This is thereason, the traditional signal processing methods like matched filtering or correlation process arenot advisable for UWB signals. Therefore, a different detection scheme known as Inter-periodcorrelation process (IPCP) has been studied.IPCP technique had been implemented and a comparison was made with the conventional targetdetection algorithm. On the basis of comparison made in this project, it has been observed thatthe conventional target detection methods are not effective in case of M-sequence UWB radar.The simulation results shows that by implementing IPCP method, performance close to 8-bitADC can be achievable with 1-bit comparator, also with IPCP implementation system resolutioncan be enhance effectively.Main focus was to analyze how close the system can detect two targets, therefore in all themeasurements i.e. practical and simulated measurements, only two targets were used.

  • 489.
    Amin, Shoaib
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics. KTH, Signalbehandling.
    Van Moer, Wendy
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Händel, Peter
    Department of Signal Processing, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Rönnow, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Characterization of concurrent dual-band power amplifiers using a dual two-tone excitation signal2015In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 64, no 10, p. 2781-2791, article id 7104121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method to characterize the memory effects in a nonlinear concurrent dual-band transmitter is presented. It is an extension of the conventional two tone test for power amplifiers to concurrent dual band transmitters. The output signal of a concurrent dual-band transmitter is affected not only by intermodulation products but also by cross-modulation products. In one frequency band, the transmitter is excited by a two tone signal which frequency separation is swept. In the second band the transmitter is concurrently excited by an other two tone signal with slightly wider frequency separation. The frequency difference of the two signals is fixed during the frequency sweep. The two tone test is made at different power levels. The upper and lower third-order inter- and cross-modulation products are measured. The asymmetry between the upper and lower third-order inter- and cross-modulation products are measures of the transmitter's memory effects. The measurement results show that the memory effects are more dominant in the third-order intermodulation products than in the cross modulation products. An error analysis and system calibration was performed and measurement results for two different devices are presented.

  • 490.
    Amin, Shoaib
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Van Moer, Wendy
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Händel, Peter
    Department of Information Science and Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Rebuttal to "On Dual-Band Amplifications Using Dual Two-Tones Clarifications and Discussions"2017In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 66, no 10, p. 2795-2797Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This rebuttal is to "€œOn dual-band amplifications using dual two-tone: Clarifications and discussion". In the following, we provide our reply.

  • 491.
    Amin, Shoaib
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Zenteno, Efrain
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Landin, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Rönnow, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Isaksson, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Händel, Peter
    ACCESS Linnaeus Centre, Signal Processing Lab, KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Noise Impact on the Identification of DigitalPredistorter Parameters in the Indirect LearningArchitecture2012In: 2012 Swedish Communication Technologies Workshop (Swe-CTW), IEEE conference proceedings, 2012, p. 36-39Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The indirect learning architecture (ILA) is the mostused methodology for the identification of Digital Pre-distorter(DPD) functions for nonlinear systems, particularly for highpower amplifiers. The ILA principle works in black box modelingrelying on the inversion of input and output signals of thenonlinear system, such that the inverse is estimated. This paperpresents the impact of disturbances, such as noise in the DPDidentification. Experiments were performed with a state-of-artDoherty power amplifier intended for base station operationin current telecommunication wireless networks. As expected,a degradation in the performance of the DPD (measured innormalized mean square error (NMSE)) is found in our experiments.However, adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR) canbe a misleading figure of merit showing improvement in theperformance for wrongly estimated DPD functions.

  • 492.
    Amin, Sohaib
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Gender inequality in the workplace: Banks from Sweden and Pakistan2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study is to investigate the glass ceiling and the gender wage gap and reasons behind gender inequality in the banking sector of Sweden and Pakistan.

  • 493.
    Amini Alikani, Amineh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nygren, Sofia
    Upplevelse, livskvalitet och stöd från sjuksköterskor: en litteraturstudie om fatigue hos personer med MS2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: was to increase understanding of the experience of fatigue in people with MS and fatigues impact on quality of life and how the nurse can support and help people with MS in their everyday life.

    Method: Literature review with a descriptive design. Articles (n=15) were retrieved from Medline via PubMed and Cinahl and manual reference lists, six qualitative, eight quantitative and one with a combination of both approaches.

    Findings: it was found that fatigue in people with MS was an invisible symptom, lead to limitations in their everyday life, increased other symptoms and lead to social changes. People suffering from fatigue had lower quality of life than the general population. The findings showed what kind of support people with MS wanted from nurses. People with MS found their own strategies to manage and relieve fatigue, often without help from nurses.

    Conclusion: Fatigue in people with MS was a troublesome symptom which affected their everyday life and lowered their quality of life. Since fatigue was an invisible symptom it should be approached by nurses. More research is needed about how fatigue in people with MS should be treated and how nurses can best support people with MS to manage and relieve fatigue in their everyday life.

  • 494.
    Aminzoui, Abla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering.
    Vikten av kommunikation med inköpsavdelning: En studie ur medarbetarperpektiv i en fastighetsbolag2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purchasing function has become a strategic position for most companies. Activity in an organization cannot be performed without the presence of the information, which means that communication is important for being able to perform a task or activity. Communication related to the purchasing process has been investigated at Gavlegårdarna, a real estate company located in Gävle. In this work, Gavlegårdarna wanted to examine whether there is an opportunity to improve communication and investigate factors that lead to a lack of communication. The purpose of this study was to get a general image and increase understanding of factors that affect communication. The study is based on a case study, where one interview took place in the purchasing department and a questionnaire sent out to people who work daily with purchasing function.

  • 495.
    Amiot, André
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Hallin Johansson, Fredrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Corporate Social Responsibility, Corporate Governance and CEO compenastion incentives2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Society's awareness of the importance of environmental-, social- and economic issues has increased over the last decades. This increased interest has led to the development of the Corporate Social Responsibility concept (CSR) in which companies actively work simultaneously with environmental, social and economic issues that extend beyond what is legally required by these companies in order to achieve a more sustainable society. As the interest in CSR has increased, a debate whether CSR is value-creating or should be considered an agency cost has arisen. To approach this question previous researches have used the CEO compensation to examine if the engagement in CSR actually is an agency cost or a value creating activity and found that agency costs can be mitigated by tying incentives to performance. Based on these assumptions this study will examine the link between CSR and agency costs using the existence of a CSR related compensation incentives for CEOs related agency costs.

    This study is characterized to be positivistic and within the field of positive accounting research as it has deductive approach in which hypotheses are formulated that this study intends to test which are based on what fundamental economic theories and previous research have found that may affect agency costs. The empirical data are manually collected from companies’ on NasdaqOMX Stockholm 2016 annual reports followed by an analysis of the data using univariate t-test and multiple regressions in order to relate these findings to previous research. This study finds no direct evidence that CEO compensation incentives related to CSR affect agency costs which means that we have not closed the ongoing debate whether CSR engagement is creating shareholder value or should be considered an agency cost. Nonetheless, the results show indications that agency costs are higher for companies that use CEO compensation incentives related to CSR which indicates that CSR is not beneficial to shareholders but should instead be regarded as an agency cost at the expense of shareholders. The result also indicates that a positive accounting research is not particularly useful on a small stock market with reliable results because the findings can not be generalized in a broader perspective

  • 496.
    Amiot, André
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Kroon, Filip
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Beslutsfattare i SMEs hantering av kapitalstruktur med avseende på kontroll & självständighet: En kvalitativ studie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Previous research highlights the factors of control and independence as important for SMEs' choice of capital structure. However, their is a lack of research including decision makers which creates deeper understanding how and why decision makers in SMEs are affected.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to illustrate how decision makers in SMEs handle the problem of capital structure with regard to control and independence factors.

    Method: The study is based in an actor’s view with influences from hermeneutics and social constructionism. The research approach is abductive based on the shifting between theoretical and empirical reflection. The empirical material has been gathered through semi-structured interviews. The theoretical framework is based on previous research with regards on a constructive approach. The approach is to seek out the respondents' perspective on society and not objective facts based on a narrative analysis.

    Contribution: This study illustrates that control and independence affect decision makers during the investment process and in their choice of funding. The study suggests that decision makers refer to maintain control and independence by making decisions themselves and thus controlling the investment. The result highlights that speed and agility affect decision makers choice of funding with regards to control and independence factors. The study also highlights that decision makers in SMEs do not assume any set of capital structure and therefore differ from previous research. 

  • 497.
    Amiot, Victor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Torung, Rikard
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Oliksidig krympning i betong2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Concrete is one of the most commonly used building materials in foundation construction. Concrete is highly resistant to external stresses and hence makes it a very useful material in many different situations. However, there are problems that can arise with the use of concrete. One of the more common is cracking. There are several reasons why this might occur, for example, external impact, creep and moist-related movements. The concrete slab is one of the elements that often encounter this problem. Since concrete slabs are frequently used as foundation, it is of great interest to find solutions for this matter. In order to do that, the causes are needed to be specified more clearly. This study investigated experimentally how a concrete slab reacts when differences in humidity exposing the top and bottom after curing period, and if this may contribute to sufficient deformation to cause cracking. Six specimens were made and observed where three where exposed to a moisture content of 100% on the bottom. The remaining three samples have been placed in dry conditions in order to make a comparison possible. A relative humidity of 25% was measured in the surrounding air. The experiment showed clear differences in deformation between the two situations. The samples exposed to differential humidity exhibited sufficient stresses to cause cracking seen from the moment that occurred in the concrete. This shows that different prevailing humidity on the top and bottom of a slab can create sufficient stress to cause cracking.

  • 498.
    Amiri, Shahnaz
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy engineering. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem.
    Economic and Environmental Benefits of CHP-based District Heating Systems in Sweden2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Future energy systems and thus the climate are affected by many factors, such as energy resources, energy demand, energy policy and the choice of energy technologies. Energy systems of the future are facing three main challenges; the steady growth of global energy demand, the energy resource depletion, as well as the increasing emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases and their impact on climate change. To meet the mentioned challenges with sustainability in mind, actions that increase energy efficiency and choosing an energy-efficient energy system which is cost efficient will be essential. Combined heat and power (CHP) plants and district heating and cooling could contribute greatly to increased system efficiency by using energy otherwise wasted.

    The aim of this study is to increase the understanding of how CHP-based district heating and cooling systems using different primary energy sources can contribute to more cost-efficient energy systems, which reduce global CO2 emissions, and to highlight the impact of some important parameters and measures on Swedish municipal district heating systems. An important assumption in this study is the estimation of CO2 emissions from electricity production, which is based on marginal electricity perspectives. In the short term, the marginal electricity is assumed to come from coal-fired condensing power plants while in the long term it consists of electricity produced by natural gas-fired combined cycle condensing power plants. This means that the local electricity production will replace the marginal electricity production. The underlying assumption is an ideal fully deregulated European electricity market where trade barriers are removed and there are no restrictions on transfer capacity.

    The results show that electricity generation in CHP plants, particularly in higher efficiency combined steam and gas turbine heat and power plants using natural gas, can reduce the global environmental impact of energy usage to a great extent. The results confirm, through the scenarios presented in this study, that waste as a fuel in CHP-based district heating systems is fully utilised since it has the lowest operational costs. The results also show how implementation of a biogas-based CHP plant in a biogas system contributes to an efficient system, as well as lowering both CO2 emissions and system costs. The results show that replacing electricity-driven (e.g. compression) cooling by heat-driven cooling using district heating (e.g. absorption chillers) in a CHP system is a cost-effective and climate friendly technology as electricity consumption is reduced while at the same time the electricity generation will be increased. The results of the study also show that there is potential to expand district heating systems to areas with lower heat density, with both environmental and economic benefits for the district heating companies.

    The results reveal that the operation of a studied CHP-based district heating system with an imposed emission limit is very sensitive to the way CO2 emissions are accounted, i.e., local CO2 emissions or emissions from marginal electricity production. The results show how the electricity production increases in the marginal case compared with the local one in order to reduce global CO2 emissions. The results also revealed that not only electricity and fuel prices but also policy instruments are important factors in promoting CHP-based district heating and cooling systems. The use of electricity certificates has a large influence for the introduction of biogas-based cogeneration. Another conclusion from the modelling is that present Swedish policy instruments are strong incentives for cogeneration with similar impact as applying external costs.

  • 499.
    Amiri, Shahnaz
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy engineering. Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Henning, Dag
    Optensys Energianalys, Linköping, Sweden .
    Karlsson, Björn G.
    Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Simulation and introduction of a CHP plant in a Swedish biogas system2013In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 49, p. 242-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives of this study are to present a model for biogas production systems to help achieve a more cost-effective system, and to analyse the conditions for connecting combined heat and power (CHP) plants to the biogas system. The European electricity market is assumed to be fully deregulated. The relation between connection of CHP. increased electricity and heat production, electricity prices, and electricity certificate trading is investigated. A cost-minimising linear programming model (MODEST) is used. MODEST has been applied to many energy systems, but this is the first time the model has been used for biogas production. The new model, which is the main result of this work, can be used for operational optimisation and evaluating economic consequences of future changes in the biogas system. The results from the case study and sensitivity analysis show that the model is reliable and can be used for strategic planning. The results show that implementation of a biogas-based CHP plant result in an electricity power production of approximately 39 GW h annually. Reduced system costs provide a profitability of 46 MSEK/year if electricity and heat prices increase by 100% and electricity certificate prices increase by 50%. CO2 emission reductions up to 32,000 ton/year can be achieved if generated electricity displaces coal-fired condensing power.

  • 500.
    Amiri, Shahnaz
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy engineering.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy engineering.
    Possibilities and consequences of deregulation of the European electricity market for connection of heat sparse areas to district heating systems2010In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 87, no 7, p. 2401-2410Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the study is to analyse the conditions for connection of residential buildings in heat sparse areas to district heating systems in order to increase electricity production in municipal combined heat and power plants. The European electricity market has been assumed to be fully deregulated. The relation between connection of heat sparse areas, increased electricity and heat production as well as electricity prices, fuel prices and emissions rights is investigated. The results of the study show that there is potential to expand the district heating market to areas with lower heat concentrations in the cities of Gavle, Sandviken and Borlange in Sweden, with both economic and environmental benefits. The expansion provides a substantial heat demand of approximately 181 GWh/year, which results in an electricity power production of approximately 43 GWh/year. Since the detached and stand-alone houses in the studied heat sparse areas have been heated either by oil boiler or by direct electricity, connection to district heating also provides a substantial reduction in emissions of CO(2). The largest reductions in CO(2) emissions are found to be 211 ktonnes/year assuming coal-fired condensing power as marginal electricity production. Connection of heat sparse areas to district heating decrease the system costs and provide a profitability by approximately 22 million EURO/year for the studied municipalities if the price of electricity is at a European level, i.e. 110 EURO/MWh. Sensitivity analysis shows, among other things, that a strong relation exists between the price of electricity and the profitability of connecting heat sparse areas to district heating systems.

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