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  • 451.
    Engberg-Nordqvist, Lena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Upplevelse av den egna matsituationen hos äldre som har matdistribution i ordinärt boende2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to describe how older people living in ordinary housing and had food distribution by the municipality was experiencing its meal situation. The study has been carried out through unstructured interviews with eight people who were over 75 years who living in their own homes and had food distribution by the municipality. Data were analysed using qualitative manifest content analysis and five categories revealed: about food's nature and content , internal and external conditions , adaptation, needs and strategies and being dependent on other people. The informant felt that they missed having social companionship at mealtimes. They felt that the food distribution was a good way to ingest food when you were unable to do it youself . The biggest gripe with the mealbox was that the potatoes were perceived not tasting good. The informant also described not feeling hungry this was particularly noticeable among those who felt that their health was deteriorating , was miserable, had few social relationships, had physical limitations and was in need of much help from home care services . Home service was described as an important social contact, but all informants felt that the staff was stressed. The study's conclusion indicates that informants wish more active staff support at mealtimes and that lunchbox portion should be reduced. The reduced portion should contain nourished diet for those who are in need of it. Lunch boxes and the potatoes should be made more appetizing to older should get increased appetite

    Keywords: older people , malnutrition, food distribution, ordinary housing .

  • 452.
    Engebretzen, Gabriel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Solinen, Joel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    En kvalitativ intervjustudie om hur Fysisk aktivitet på recept (FaR) som metod påverkar motivation till fysisk aktivitet hos FaR- klienter2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Physical activity on prescription, (PaP), is a method used to prevent and treat common diseases. The aim of PaP is to get individuals to become more physically active [PA] and through that influence the disorders in a positive direction through a more active lifestyle. This change requires motivation and something that creates a desire to perform the PA. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate whether a prescriptions may warrant increased PA in the clients. The methodology used in this study was semi-structured interviews with open questions. Six respondents participated. The requirement was that the people would have a PaP- prescription. The results indicate that the perceived support from both the healthcare, PaP- leader and social support plays a major role in the creation and maintenance of motivation to the PA in the PaP- client. The conclusion is that the mediated knowledge and support from health care and PaP leader created a meaningfulness, understanding and manageability of the client. This can lead to increased motivation to PA in PaP client.

  • 453.
    Engelmark, Emilia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap.
    Johansson, Elin
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap.
    Upplevelser av livskvalitet i samband med en pacemakeroperation: En litteraturstudie2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this literature study was to describe how patients experience their quality of life while undergoing a pacemaker implantation. Searches were carried out in the databases Academic Search Elite, Ebsco Host, Pub Med, Pub Med Central, Science Direct and manually. Keywords used were quality of life, treatment outcomes, emotions, pacing and life. This resulted in nineteen peer rewieved articles that were selected for the study results. The results showed that patients undergoing a pacemaker implantation experienced an improvement in their physical health with increased functional status, more energy and strength. From a psychological perspective, some patients experienced an improvement in quality of life while others felt worried and depressed. A common factor among the patients was anxiety and insecurity concerning daily routine activities. The amount of time passed after the pacemaker implantation was also a common factor that had impact on how patients experienced their physical and psychological health. To get a deeper knowledge and understanding when meeting patients undergoing a pacemaker implantation it is important that more research, especially qualitative, is carried out.

  • 454.
    Englund, Ingela
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Wallin, Pia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Information och stöd kring egenvård som individer med diabetes typ 2 finner värdefull: En beskrivande litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    Introduction:

    Diabetes mellitus type 2 is the most common form of diabetes in the world and is rapidly increasing, it is a serious endocrinology, progressive illness with high chance of complications. Due to the patients life quality being a very important priority it is necessary for a continuous and rigorous selfcare. In order for the patient to have an opportunity to do so the nurse needs to support the patient with knowledge in the form of education, assistance and information.

    Purpose:

    The main purpose of this study is to describe what type of information, knowledge and support in regards to selfcare for grownups are valuable and helpful for individuals with diabetes mellitus type 2.

    Method:

    A descriptive literature study based upon twelve scientific articles found from PubMed database using the search words Diabetes Mellitus Type 2, Selfcare and Information. Both authors have processed the articles and search words.

    Aim objective:

    Numerous patients expressed the need for support and education concerning food, physical activities and weight balance. Education in group and individual levels are highly demanded, especially to share individual experiences between diagnosed patients. The educational activities generated an increased feeling of self-esteem and an opportunity through selfcare of being able to treat yourself in a correct manner. Mobilized selfcare support was considered useful and resulted in good control over Diabetes. Blood samples where used to examine the effect of different behavioral changes related to the treatment.

    Conclusion:

    Education in group and individual levels are considered very import-ant and valuable, furthermore web- and mobile support were also considered valuable. Patients with type 2 diabetes desired information and support in to a greater extent, the caretaker and nurse with their knowledge within care, have a key role in the process of improving selfcare treatment for the diagnosed patients.

  • 455.
    Englund, Linnea
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lundgren, Fanny
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Fotbollsspel på konstgräs ur ett skadeperspektiv: En litteraturstudie om skadeförekomsten och de vanligaste skadorna hos fotbollsspelare som tränar och spelar match på konstgräs.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att genom litteraturgranskning beskriva förekomsten och typ av skador hos fotbollsspelare som spelar match och tränar på konstgräs.

    Metod: Litteratursökning i databaserna PubMed, Cinahl och Human Kinetics resulterade  i 12 artiklar som publicerats de senaste 10 åren. Alla artiklar har evidensgraderats, granskats och därefter sammanställts.

    Resultat: Den vanligaste skadelokaliseringen inom fotboll på konstgräs är lår- och knäskador, följt utav ankelskador och ljumskskador. Den skada som var mest frekvent förekommande var ligamentskador och muskelskador. Vrickningar i ankeln uppstod ofta vid fotbollsspel på konstgräs, även inre blödningar i lårmuskulaturen och ligamentskador i knäleden var vanligt förekommande. Den vanligaste typen av skada är den minimala skadan som genererar 1-3 dagars frånvaro från träning och match. Den näst vanligaste typen av skada är den måttliga skadan som frånhåller fotbollsspelaren från träning och match mellan 8-28 dagar.

    Slutsats: Denna studie visar sambandet mellan skadeförekomst och exponeringstid. Den vanligaste skadan inom fotboll på konstgräs är vrickningar i ankeln, inre blödningar i lårmuskulaturen och ligamentskador i knäleden. 

  • 456.
    Englund, Sandra
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Mårtensson, Thèrése
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Livskvalitet hos personer med Amyotrofisk lateralskleros (ALS) - En litteraturstudie2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to describe how people with Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) experience their quality of life. The method used was a study of literature with design description. A various combination of search words, such as “amyotrophic lateral sclerosis”, “ALS”, “quality of life” and “people” were used in searching the computer bases Medline (Pubmed) and Science Direct. In total, thirteen scientific articles were analysed and quality tested, subsequently they were categorized into four categories: physical, mental, social and existential quality of life. Research into the physical aspects surrounding the quality of life showed that it is, above all, the disparaging functional capabilities and restrictions related to the illness which causes the mental suffering. In time, the patients interests changed from active to passive. In contrast to this, the experience of mental suffering was very low. Results of the studies into the social aspects showed that the patients relationship with family and friends was of the greatest value to quality of life, as well as the foremost support towards conquering the difficulties which the illness causes. The patients religious beliefs and access to a priest, play a significant part regarding the conquering of existential questions and thoughts.

  • 457.
    Englund Åsbrink, Towe
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nedeljkovic, Jonathan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    HIV- positiva personers uppfattningar och upplevelser av bemötande från sjukvårdspersonal: en litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Idag lever ca 30-35 miljoner av världens befolkning med Humant immunbrist virus. I Sverige är ungefär 6500 personer infekterade och varje år rapporteras 400-500 nya fall. När en person drabbas av Humant immunbrist virus medför det ofta en stor förändring i livet. Hos sjukvårdspersonal finns det en bristande kunskap inom ämnet.

    Syfte: Beskriva hur personer med Humant immunbrist virus uppfattar och upplever att de bemöts av sjukvårdspersonal, samt beskriva undersökningsgruppen i inkluderade artiklar.

    Metod: En litteraturstudie med en deskriptiv design. Elva artiklar inkluderades, två kvantitativa och nio kvalitativa.

    Resultat: Två teman identifierades: Negativt bemötande och Positivt bemötande. Tre underrubriker hittades under rubriken Negativt bemötande, vilket var: Att bli bemött annorlunda, Bemött med rädsla och Brist på empati. Undersökningsgruppen presenteras under rubriken: Presentation av artiklarnas undersökningsgrupp. HIV- positiva personer upplevde ofta att de blev bemötta med fördomar från sjukvårdspersonal. Sjukvårdspersonalen kunde få deltagarna att känna sig ignorerade och respektlöst behandlade. Många HIV- positiva personer upplevde att de behandlades annorlunda på grund av sin sjukdom. Goda kunskaper inom HIV- vård från sjukvårdspersonalens sida resulterade i att deltagarna kände sig väl bemötta.

    Slutsatser: HIV- positiva personer upplevde att de blev dåligt bemött av sjuvårdspersonal.

    Fördomar och diskriminering var vanligt förekommande företeelser i vårdmötet. Det visade sig även att den sjukvårdspersonal som hade ökade kunskaper om Humant immunbrist virus, hade ett bättre bemötande gentemot denna patientgrupp.

  • 458.
    Engqvist, Kim
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Hansson, Hanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Kunskap till allmänsjuksköterskor för att stödja och motivera patienter till effektiva metoder för viktnedgång efter bariatrisk kirurgi: Litteraturstudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Fetma är ett ökande problem och bariatrisk kirurgi blir allt vanligare. Bariatrisk kirurgi är ett effektivt sätt för snabb och hållbar viktnedgång och minskar fetmarelaterade sjukdomar. Vissa patienter går dock efter en tid upp i vikt igen och då har sjuksköterskan en roll att motivera patienterna som genomgått en operation till att uppnå en tillfredställande viktnedgång. Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att genom en sammanställning av metoder som visat sig vara effektiva för viktnedgång efter bariatrisk kirurgi ge allmänsjuksköterskor kunskap för att på bästa sätt motivera, hjälpa och stödja patienter som genomgått ett bariatriskt ingrepp att uppnå en tillfredställande viktnedgång. Den metod som användes var artikelsökning i PubMed och Cinahl där elva artiklar valdes. Resultatet visade att patienter som gått på fler än fem gruppmöten, fick motiverande samtal, ätit tre måltider per dag, satt mål gällande kost och motion, gick på regelbunden uppföljning och hade större medbestämmande hade den mest effektiva viktnedgången på lång sikt. Studiens slutsats var att sjuksköterskan kan motivera patienter som genomgått bariatrisk kirurgi genom att använda sig av motiverande samtal, att uppmuntra till att delta i gruppmöten, att hålla sig till kostplanen och att tala om betydelsen av postoperativ uppföljning.

  • 459.
    Engstrand, Frida
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Nilsson, Linnéa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Nyutexaminerade sjuksköterskors upplevelse av att arbeta som sjuksköterska2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: approximately 5000 nurses are examined each year in Sweden. A nurse has many tasks in addition to the care around the patient. As a person, the nurse should be respectful and show compassion. Experienced nurses felt that newly graduated nurses lacked the knowledge required to independently exercise the profession. The experienced nurses felt responsible for the newly graduated nurses, saying that, among other things, they experienced tiredness and fatigue.Aim: to describe newly graduate nurse´s experience of working as a nurse. Furthermore, the aim of this study was to examine the sampling of the included articles.Methods: a literature study with a descriptive design. The eleven scientific articles included in the study were quantitative, qualitative and mixed approaches. The articles were searched in the PubMed database.Main results: newly graduated nurses felt that good guidance promoted the development of knowledge, but that several factors negatively affected self-confidence in the professional role; including the lack of clinical experience. Experiences of hierarchy and bullying were described as well as the communication leading to experiences of stress. The fact that newly graduated nurses thought to quit their work was due, inter alia, to the fact that they felt incompetent and had difficulty feeling free because they thought about work all the time.Conclusion: newly graduated nurses experienced the first professional years as mentally demanding and exhaustive due to the lack of clinical experience and experiences of bullying. A good supervisor fostered the development of knowledge and contributed to a better experience. Increased understanding of the experience of newly graduated nurses is beneficial for both experienced nurses and for the occupations so that they can improve the working environment of newly graduated nurses.

  • 460.
    Engström, Jennifer
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Mandlbauer, Madeleine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    En litteraturstudie om Coreträning, smärta och cobb angle hos tonåringar med idiopatisk skolios2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Skolios är en åkomma som förekommer hos två till fyra procent av alla barn och ungdomar i en ålder på 10-20 år. Skolios innebär att personen har en snedställning av ryggraden som mäts och definieras med metoden cobb angle. Detta kan ge upphov till smärta men även andra typer av problem som exempelvis längre livskvalitet. Ungdomarna kan uppleva att det besvärar dem i deras vardag både fysiskt, psykiskt och socialt. Vid andra allmänna former av ryggproblem har studier påvisat goda resultat för minskad smärta vid fysisk aktivitet av bålen.

     

    Syftet: med studien är att utvärdera om coreträning kan minska ryggsmärtor och cobb angle hos tonåringar med idiopatisk skolios.

     

    Metod: Metoden som användes är en deskriptiv litteraturstudie. För att hitta relevanta studier användes databaserna pubmed och cinahl. Studiernas evidensgranskades utifrån ett granskningsprotokoll (GRADE).

     

    Resultatet: inkluderade 14 artiklar som redovisades i fyra olika teman: Coreträning som reducerar smärta & cobb angle, Coreträning utan inverkan på smärta och cobb angle, muskelstyrka & träningskapacitet och samband mellan bålstabilitet & livskvalité. Resultatet påvisade lite delade meningar om huruvida coreträning kan hjälpa till att minska smärta och cobb angle. Merparten av artiklarna visade att specifikt utformad coreträning kan hjälpa till att reducera smärta och cobb angle, men däremot sågs ingen större skillnad mellan generella- och specifika träningsprogram på reducering av smärta och cobb angle.

     

    Slutsats: I denna studie framkom samband mellan ökad bålstabilitet och minskad smärta/cobb angle. Detta kan tyda på att specificerad coreträning skulle kunna agera som behandling för att minska smärta och cobb angle hos tonåringar med idiopatisk skolios.

  • 461.
    Engström, Malin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Helsing, Sara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Att leva med HIV och upplevelsen av stigmatisering från samhället - ett patientperspektiv: Deskriptiv litteraturstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med litteraturstudien var att beskriva hur vuxna personer med HIV upplever och hanterar sitt liv efter diagnos. Deskriptiv design användes och studien omfattade 16 artiklar som söktes fram via databaserna Cinahl och PubMed samt genom manuell sökning. Resultatet visade att rädsla och oro fanns över att berätta för andra om sin HIV diagnos. De var rädda att bli utstötta av vänner och familj samt annorlunda behandlade än före diagnos. Stigmatisering var vanligt förekommande bland personer diagnosticerade med HIV och många upplevde ensamhet och isolering från samhället, många gånger beroende på svårigheter att känna tillit till andra. Att ha ett socialt nätverk var betydande och då både av vänner och familj samt interaktion med andra i liknande situation men även att kunna fokusera på andra saker än sjukdomen, att sätta upp framtida mål och ha fritidsintressen. Personer diagnosticerade med HIV upplever stigmatisering från samhället. Känslor av skuld och skam är vanligt förekommande och vikten av ett socialt nätverk är betydande för att kunna hantera dessa känslor samt den förändrade livssituationen. Varje individ är unik och bör bemötas med respekt och utan förutfattade meningar.

  • 462.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap. Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap..
    A Caregiver Perspective on Incorporating IT support into Dementia Care2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The overall aim of the present thesis was to describe and evaluate IT support in dementia care from the perspectives of staff and relatives. More specifically, it was to examine staff members’ satisfaction with work, life satisfaction and sense of coherence before and after increased IT support, to describe staff members’ opinions and perceptions of IT support during the process of implementation, to describe relatives’ opinions of IT support and to compare relatives’ perceptions of their irritations with care and life satisfaction before and after increased IT support. In addition, three questionnaires were further developed and tested among staff working in elderly care, and then used in the staff evaluation. Methods: A quasi-experimental design with baseline assessments and follow-ups and experimental and control groups was used in two studies to investigate the outcomes of IT support. A descriptive design was used to study staff views on IT support, and a correlative design was used in the methodological study. Participants were 33 staff members and 22 relatives in the evaluation, 14 staff members in the descriptive study and 299 staff members in the methodological study. Data collection methods were questionnaires and group interviews. The IT support consisted of passive passage alarms, fall detectors, sensor-activated night-time illumination of the lavatory, movement detectors, email communication, an Internet website and additional computers. Findings and conclusions: Staff job satisfaction and perceived quality of care increased in the experimental group. The relatives were generally positive about the IT support, and the experimental group showed a decrease in practical/logistical irritations. Staff described ‘moving from fear of losing control to perceived increase in control and security’ and ‘constant struggling with insufficient/deficient systems’. Conclusions are that IT support can be a resource in dementia care as perceived by caregivers if IT support is incorporated into the care system.

  • 463.
    Engström, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, Ragny
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap.
    Ljunggren, Birgitta
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap.
    Carlsson, Marianne
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Relatives’ opinions of IT support, perceptions of irritations and life satisfaction in dementia care2006In: Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, ISSN 1357-633X, E-ISSN 1758-1109, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 246-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied relatives' opinions of IT support at a residential home for persons with dementia. We also investigated the relatives' perceptions of irritations and life satisfaction before and after increased IT support. This was accomplished using an experimental group (n = 14) and a control group (n = 8) of subjects in dementia care. The design was quasi-experimental with baseline assessments and three follow-ups. Data were collected using two questionnaires measuring opinions of the IT support: irritations in care (the Nursing Home Hassles Scale) and life satisfaction (the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire). Results showed that relatives' opinions of IT support were generally positive. In the experimental group, relatives' perceptions of practical/logistical irritations decreased between baseline and 12-month follow-up. In the control group, there was an increase in the total Nursing Home Hassles score between baseline and three-month follow-up. This difference did not persist at seven- and 12-month follow-ups. No significant differences were found for life satisfaction. We conclude that relatives had positive opinions of IT support, and their perceptions of practical/logistical irritations decreased after implementation of the IT support package.

  • 464.
    Engström, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, Ragny
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ljunggren, Birgitta
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Marianne
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Staff members' perceptions of a ICT support package in dementia care during the process of implementation2009In: Journal of Nursing Management, ISSN 0966-0429, E-ISSN 1365-2834, Vol. 17, no 7, p. 781-789Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim The aim of the present study was to describe staff members' perceptions of an information and communication technology (ICT) support package during the process of implementation. Background ICT in dementia care will likely increase in the future. The diffusion of new innovations can be better understood through diffusion research. Methods Fourteen staff members in dementia care were interviewed, in groups, once before the new ICT, twice during its implementation and once after. Data were analysed using qualitative content analyses. The ICT included monitors/alarms: passage alarms, fall detectors, sensor-activated night-time illumination of the lavatory, and communication technology: Internet communication and additional computers. Results The results showed two themes 'Moving from fear of losing control to perceived increase in control and security' and 'Struggling with insufficient/deficient systems'. Conclusions Staff perceptions of ICT were diverse and changed during the implementation. Benefits were more pronounced than disadvantages, and improvements were described both in care and in staff job situation. Implications for nursing management Functioning and use of ICT may relate to design as well as by application and the surrounding structure, and the whole system: the organizational structure, the employers and the new product needs to be taken into consideration when implementing new technology.

  • 465.
    Engström, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ljunggren, Birgitta
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap.
    Lindqvist, Ragny
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap.
    Carlsson, Marianne
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Staff satisfaction with work, perceived quality of care and stress in elderly care: psychometric assessments and associations2006In: Journal of Nursing Management, ISSN 0966-0429, E-ISSN 1365-2834, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 318-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: To evaluate validity and reliability of three questionnaires measuring 'work satisfaction', 'patient care' and 'staff health' for staff in elderly care and to study the relationship between staff members' satisfaction with work and perceived stress.

    BACKGROUND: Increased workload, difficulties in recruiting and retaining nurses are reported in elderly care. Valid and reliable instruments measuring staffs' perceptions of work are needed.

    METHODS: A convenience sample of 299 staff answered the questionnaires.

    RESULTS: Factor analysis of 'work satisfaction' gave eight factors, 'patient care' four factors and 'staff health' two factors, explaining 52.2%, 56.4% and 56.8% of the variance. Internal consistency was mostly satisfactory. Multiple regression analysis revealed a model that explained 41% of the variance in perceived stress symptoms.

    CONCLUSIONS: There was support for the instruments' validity and reliability. Older age, higher scores/satisfaction with workload, cooperation, expectations and demands, personal development and lower scores on internal motivation contributed to less stress.

  • 466.
    Engström, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden; Nursing Department, Medicine and Health College, Lishui University, China .
    Löfmark, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Faculty of Health Education, Stord/Haugesund University College, Norway.
    Ugland Vae, Karen Johanne
    Faculty of Health Education, Stord/Haugesund University College, Norway.
    Mårtensson, Gunilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Nursing students' perceptions of using the Clinical Education Assessment tool AssCE and their overall perceptions of the clinical learning environment: a cross-sectional correlational study2017In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 51, p. 63-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Clinical education is a vital part of nursing students' learning; the importance of assessment tools and feedback in stimulating student learning has been stressed, but this needs to be studied in more detail.

    Objectives

    To examine relationships between nursing students' perceptions of using an Assessment tool in Clinical Education (AssCE) during their mid-course discussion and final assessment, the content discussed during these meetings between the student, preceptor and nurse teacher and the students' overall perception of the clinical learning environment.

    Design

    A cross-sectional, correlational design was used.

    Setting and Participants

    A convenience sample of 110 nursing students from one Norwegian university college with two campuses.

    Methods

    Data were collected with self-developed questionnaires and analysed using logistic regression with SPSS and the PROCESS macro for mediation analysis.

    Results

    There was a positive relationship between nursing students' perceptions of using the assessment tool AssCE and their overall perception of the clinical learning environment. This relationship was, in turn, mediated by the content discussed during the formative mid-course discussion and summative final assessment.

    Conclusions

    Our conclusion is that the assessment tool AssCE supported students' clinical learning and that this relationship, in turn, was mediated by the degree to which the conversation during the assessment meeting focused on the student's knowledge, skills and professional judgement.

  • 467.
    Engström, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Scandurra, Isabella
    Centre for eHealth, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ljunggren, Birgitta
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, Ragny
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Swedentet.
    Koch, Sabine
    Centre for eHealth, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Marianne
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Evaluation of OLD@HOME virtual health record: staff opinions of the system and satisfaction with work2009In: Telemedicine journal and e-health, ISSN 1530-5627, E-ISSN 1556-3669, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 53-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present research was to study outcomes of use of the OLD@HOME Virtual Health Record with regard to staff opinions about information, communication technology, and satisfaction with work. A quasi-experimental design was used. Staff opinions about the information and communication technology were assessed using a study-specific questionnaire at the test site (n =22) and at other settings in the municipality (n =172). Staff (n =22) job satisfaction, perceived quality of care, and psychosomatic health were assessed using the Satisfaction with Work Questionnaires before and after a 5-month period of testing the technology in an intervention and a comparison group. Staff opinions about the information and communication technology were significantly more positive at the test site compared to other settings in the municipality. For the total scale of quality of care and the factor documentation, there were significant differences in change scores between intervention and comparison groups, with improvements for the comparison group. For job satisfaction and psychosomatic health, there were no differences in change scores between the groups. Participatory design enhances staff opinions about information and communication technology. However, a 5-month test period showed no benefits regarding staff satisfaction with work when compared to a comparison group. On the contrary, the comparison group improved in documentation, and for the intervention group, there was a trend toward deterioration, which may be due to their knowing how to document, but not having time when using both paper-based and electronic systems.

  • 468.
    Engström, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Skytt, Bernice
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Ernesäter, Annica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Fläckman, Birgitta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Mamhidir, Anna-Greta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    District nurses' self-reported clinical activities, beliefs about and attitudes towards obesity management2013In: Applied Nursing Research, ISSN 0897-1897, E-ISSN 1532-8201, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 198-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM:

    To describe district nurses' self-reported clinical activities, beliefs about and attitudes towards obesity management; and to examine associations between the variables.

    BACKGROUND:

    Obesity is increasing worldwide and primary care could play a central role in the management.

    METHODS:

    Questionnaire data were collected from 247 nurses in 33 centres.

    RESULTS:

    The most common activities performed weekly were; advice about physical activity (40.1%) and general lifestyle advice (34.8%). However, nearly one third seldom/never performed these activities. Approximately half seldom/never performed BMI assessment and even fewer waist circumference (78.1%). Values for the factors Importance of obesity and Personal effectiveness were skewed towards a positive view and Negative view close to neutral. Multivariate analysis revealed that nurses with specialized tasks, longer working experience and higher perceived personal effectiveness performed more clinical activities.

    CONCLUSION:

    Managers need to make efforts to engage all personnel in obesity management; and strategies to increase self-efficacy are called for.

  • 469.
    Engström, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Skytt, Bernice
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Nilsson, Annika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Working life and stress symptoms among caregivers in elderly care with formal and no formal competence2011In: Journal of Nursing Management, ISSN 0966-0429, E-ISSN 1365-2834, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 732-741Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Working life and stress symptoms among caregivers in elderly care with formal and no formal competence Aim  The aim of the present study was to describe and compare caregivers with formal and no formal competence on job satisfaction, psychosomatic health, structural and psychological empowerment and perceptions of care quality. A further aim was to study relationships among study variables. Methods  A convenience sample of 572 caregivers in elderly care participated. Results  Caregivers with no formal competence perceived higher workload, more communication obstacles, less competence, poorer sleep and more stress symptoms than did their colleagues. Linear regression analyses revealed that the factor self-determination was an explanatory variable of stress levels among caregivers with no formal competence, and self-determination and impact among caregivers with formal competence. Linear regression analysis revealed that different dimensions in structural and psychological empowerment explained the variance in staff job satisfaction, perceived stress symptoms and quality of care. Conclusions  No formal competence seems to be a risk factor for psychosomatic health problems. Implications for nursing management  Managers need to have a strategic plan for how to create a working environment for caregivers with no formal competence. Caregivers' self-determination seems to be important for stress symptoms. Meaning, self-determination, impact and opportunities appear to be important for job satisfaction and competence, opportunities, resources and formal power for quality of care.

  • 470.
    Engström, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Wadensten, Barbro
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala universitet.
    Häggström, Elisabeth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Caregivers' job satisfaction and empowerment before and after an intervention focused on caregiver empowerment2010In: Journal of Nursing Management, ISSN 0966-0429, E-ISSN 1365-2834, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 14-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To evaluate a training programme aimed at strengthening caregivers' self-esteem and empowering them, and also to study correlations between psychological empowerment and job satisfaction.

    Background: Structural and psychological empowerment have received increased attention in nursing management, yet few intervention studies on this topic, based on theoretical assumptions, have been conducted in elderly care.

    Method: Data on self-assessed psychological empowerment and job satisfaction were collected in an intervention (n = 14) and a comparison group (n = 32), before and after the intervention.

    Results: When compared over time in the respective groups, there were significant improvements in the intervention group regarding the factor criticism (job satisfaction scale). There were no statistically significant differences in the comparison group. Total empowerment and all factors of empowerment correlated positively with total job satisfaction. Six out of eight factors of job satisfaction correlated positively with total empowerment.

    Conclusions: Caregivers' perception of criticism can improve through an intervention aimed at strengthening their self-esteem and empowering them.

    Implications for nursing management: Intervention focused on psychological empowerment and especially caregivers' communication skills seems to be beneficial for caregivers. Recommendations are to increase the programme's length and scope and to include all staff at the unit. However, these recommendations need to be studied further.

  • 471.
    Engström, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Westerberg Jacobson, Josefin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Mårtensson, Gunilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Uppsala University and University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Staff assessment of structural empowerment and ability to work according to evidence-based practice in mental health care2015In: Journal of Nursing Management, ISSN 0966-0429, E-ISSN 1365-2834, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 765-774Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To study associations between staff members' self-rated structural empowerment in mental health care, organisational type, and the ability and willingness to work according to evidence-based practice.

    Method: Questionnaire data were collected from 253 mental health staff members.

    Result: Multivariate logistic regressions analyses revealed that participants who scored higher on opportunity (OR 2.5) and were employed by the county council (OR 1.9) vs. the municipality were more likely to report high evidence-based practice ability. A generalised estimating equation taking into account unknown correlations within units found opportunity and resources to be significant predictors of evidence-based practice ability. Regarding evidence-based willingness, increased odds were found for higher scores of opportunity (OR 2.2) and being employed by the county council (OR 2.9). The generalised estimating equation also found resources to be a significant predictor of evidence-based willingness. In both organisations, the values for empowerment were moderate.

    Conclusion: Structural conditions such as access to opportunities and resources are important for creating supporting structures for practice to be evidence-based. Implications for nursing management: Our results emphasise the managers' essential role in creating empowering structures, and especially access to opportunities and resources, for their staff to carry out evidence-based practice.

  • 472.
    Engström, Matilda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Eklund, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelse av att vårda vuxna palliativa patienter inneliggande på sjukhus2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund:

    För lindring av lidande och en förbättring av livskvaliten i livetsslut gavs palliativ vård något som grundades på kunskap, teamarbete, kommunikation och samspel. Inom palliativ vård såg döden som en naturlig process med fokus på att leva aktivt så länge som möjligt. I Sverige fanns det brister i grundutbildningen inom palliativ vård.

  • 473.
    Enhol Näslund, Anna-Karin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Hälsofrämjande ledarskap inom kommunal äldreomsorg2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 474.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    Fakultet for sykepleie og helsevitenskap - Nord universitet.
    How will the nurse students be prepared to meet the older patient?2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 475.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    Fakultet for sykepleie og helsevitenskap - Nord universitet.
    The effect of meaningful irrelevant speech on teachers´ attention and memory2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 476. Enmarker, Ingela
    The effect of road traffic noise on teachers´ attention and memory2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 477. Enmarker, Ingela
    et al.
    Boman, Eva
    Noise annoyance in schools – Teachers’ perceptions2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 478.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    et al.
    Fakultet for sykepleie og helsevitenskap - Nord universitet.
    Boman, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Hygge, Staffan
    The effects of noise on memory1998Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 479.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    et al.
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Nord-Trøndelag University College, Namsos, Norway; Center for Care Research, Norway.
    Hellzén, Ove
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Nord-Trøndelag University College, Namsos, Norway; Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Ekker, Knut
    Faculty of Agriculture and Information Technology, Nord-Trøndelag University College, Steinkjer, Norway.
    Berg, Anne Grethe
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Nord-Trøndelag University College, Namsos, Norway; Norwegian Food Safety Authority, Steinkjer, Norway.
    Health in older cat and dog owners: The Nord-Trondelag Health Study (HUNT)-3-study2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 40, no 8, p. 718-724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The main objective was to compare older male and female cat, dog, and non-owners with regard to demographic and health-related characteristics. Method : Data in the present cross-sectional population study were drawn from HuNT-3 in Norway. A total of 12,297 persons (5631 men; 6666 women) between the ages of 65 and 101 years were included, of whom 2358 were pet owners. Results : The main finding was that owning a dog demonstrated several health-related characteristics to a higher positive degree than both non-pet and cat ownership among the participants. Cat owners showed higher body mass index values and higher systolic blood pressure, and reported worse general health status. They also exercised to a lower degree than the others. Conclusions : As the result implies that older cat owners are negatively outstanding in many aspects of health compared with the dog owners, in the future, more focus must be put on the worse health of those. Further, there were more married male than female cat and dog owners. This probably depends on traditional cultural thinking; the man is the owner of the pet even if the woman lives with and cares about it. It is important to point out that different groups in the population might select different pets. Consequently, the findings showing a correlation between pet ownership and health may be owing to unrelated confounding factors.

  • 480.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    et al.
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Nord-Trøndelag University College, Namsos, Norway; Center for Care Research, Mid-Norway, Norway.
    Hellzén, Ove
    Center for Care Research, Mid-Norway, Norway; Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Ekker, Knut
    aculty of Agriculture and Information Technology, Nord-Trøndelag University College, Steinkjer, Norway.
    Berg, Anne-Grethe T.
    Norwegian Food Safety Authority, Steinkjer, Norway.
    Personalities and health in older cat and dog owners: A HUNT-study2013In: Health, ISSN 1363-4593, E-ISSN 1461-7196, Vol. 5, no 9, p. 1449-1454, article id 36906Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this population study was to identify personality traits among older (>65 years) male and female owners of cats and dogs and to compare their general health status in relation to their personality. Further, the aim was to examine whether current cat and dog ownership could be predicted by the owners’ personality and health. Data were collected from the NorthTrøndelag Health Study (HUNT) in Norway. Included were a total of 1897 cat or dog owners between the ages of 65 years and 101 years. The results showed that there were a higher proportion of introverted male cat owners than extraverted ones. Moreover, a majority of women with cats reported that their health was not good. Furthermore, female cat owners who displayed higher scores on neurotic traits experienced significantly poorer health compared to those female cat owners that experienced good health. The same was true for female cat owners who considered themselves to be introverted. Neither personality nor health could predict pet-ownership, but it was more likely for older individuals (80 - 101 years) to own a cat than a dog. This study has shown that human personality is associated with cat and dog ownership, but there are other factors connected with pet ownership as well.

  • 481.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    et al.
    Department of Health Sciences, Nord-Trøndelag University College, Steinkjer, Norway; Center for Care Research, Steinkjer, Norway.
    Hellzén, Ove
    Department of Health Sciences, Nord-Trøndelag University College, Steinkjer, Norway; Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Ekker, Knut
    Department of Agriculture and Information Technology, Nord-Trøndelag University College, Steinkjer, Norway.
    T. Berg, Anne-Grethe
    Department of Clinical Medicine, Vivarium-Haukeland sykehus, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Norway/Norwegian Food Safety Authority, Steinkjer, Norway.
    Depression in older cat and dog owners: The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT)-32015In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 347-352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Depression constitutes a major health problem for older people, in this study defined as people 65 years of age and older. Previous studies have shown that mental health among older people who live with animals could be improved, but contrary results exist as well. Therefore, the objective of the present population study was to compare the self-rated depression symptoms of both female and male non-pet owners, cat owners, and dog owners.

    Method: The participants in this cross-sectional population study included 12,093 people between the ages of 65 and 101. One thousand and eighty three participants owned cats and 814 participants owned dogs. Self-rated depression symptoms were measured using HADS-D, the scale of self-administered depression symptoms in HADS (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale).

    Results: The main results showed higher mean values on the HADS-D for cat owners than for both dog and non-pet owners. The latter group rated their depression symptoms the lowest. When dividing the ratings into low- and high-depression symptoms, the logistic regression analysis showed that it was more likely that males who owned cats perceived lower depression symptoms than females who owned cats. No interactions were recognized between pet ownership and subjective general health status, loneliness, or marital status.

    Conclusions: Our results provide a window into the differences in health factors between older females and males who own cats and dogs in rural areas. Results from population studies like ours might increase the available knowledge base when using cats and dogs in clinical environments such as nursing homes.

  • 482.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    et al.
    Fakultet for sykepleie og helsevitenskap - Nord universitet.
    Hygge, Staffan
    The Effects of Aircraft Noise on Memory, Stress and Arousal in Older Persons2000Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 483.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    et al.
    Høgskolen i Nord - Trøndelag, Norge.
    Olsen, Rose Mari
    Høgskolen i Nord - Trøndelag, Norge.
    Utprøving av kommunal behandlingsenhet: erfaringer og utfordringer i bruk av akuttplasser i sykeheim2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Denne rapporten redegjør for følgeforskning av det 3-årige prosjektet «Akuttplasser i sykehjem»(UP-8) –et prosjekt gjennomført i regi av Midtre Namdal Samkommune (Namsos, Overhalla, Fosnes og Namdalseid) i samarbeid medOsen kommune og Flatanger kommune. Prosjektet UP-8 er ett av flere underprosjekt til «Helhetlige helsetjenester». Følgeforskningen er bestilt av Midtre Namdal Samkommune, og har vært ledet av Ingela Enmarker.Hensikten med UP-8 har værtå klargjørehvordan sykehjemstjenesten kanstyrkes og utvikles i tråd med samhandlingsreformens ideer, herunder utrede hvordan kommunene skal kunne bli i stand til å gi tilbud til pasienter både før, istedenfor og etter sykehusinnleggelse. Under prosjektperioden våren 2011 til sommeren 2013 er akuttsenger utredet og prøvd ut ved Overhalla Sykehjem.

    Følgeforskningen avUP-8 har pågått fra våren 2012 til januar 2014, og har vært finansiert gjennom strategiske midler i Høgskolen i Nord-Trøndelag (HiNT); Namdalsmidler. Hensikten med prosjektet har vært å beskrive erfaringer og utfordringer i bruken av akuttplasser vedOverhalla sykeheim, samt skape aksjoner som kan lede til heving av kvaliteten på tjenestetilbudet. Vi vil rette en stor takk til pasienter, pårørende og pleiepersonale som har vært involvert.

  • 484.
    Enzell, Markus
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Boman, Mathias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Stillasittande - en hälsorisk för kontorsarbetare: En kvantitativ studie om hur kontorsarbetare hanterar problematiken som kan uppstå av stillasittande arbete2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den digitala arbetsplatsen är något som blivit allt vanligare och det stillasittande kontorsarbetet har växt explosionsartat. Långvarigt stillasittande har en mängd negativa hälsoeffekter på kroppen samt kan medföra olika typer av belastningsskador. Tidigare forskning belyser vikten av ett ergonomiskt arbetssätt för att undvika de konsekvenser som kan uppstå av ett stillasittande kontorsarbete.

    Syftet

    med denna studie är att undersöka hur kommunalt anställda i Mellansverige med stillasittande kontorsarbete, under arbetstid, hanterar problematiken som kan uppkomma vid ett stillasittande arbete. Detta gjordes genom att undersöka hur och vad de anställda gör under arbetstid för att undvika de konsekvenser som kan uppstå med ett stillasittande arbete.

    Datainsamlingen skedde genom en kvantitativ

    metod i form av online-enkäter. Detta för att det är ett bra sätt att täcka en större grupp människor och det är tidseffektivt. De som deltog valdes ut med hjälp av två kontaktpersoner på två kommuner i Mellansverige . Kontaktpersonerna distribuerade sedan enkäterna till lämplig urvalsgrupp för studiens syfte. Den besvarades av 131 respondenter varav 90 av dem var kvinnor och 41 var män.

    Resultatet

    för studien visade att alla förutom tre personer tar pauser från det stillasittande arbetet i olika utsträckning. Dessa pauser togs i olika former där ta trapporna var den mest förekommande typen av paus i det stillasittande arbetet. Näst intill alla respondenter svarade att de hade tillgång till anpassningsbart bord och stol samt ergonomiska hjälpmedel såsom "roller mouse". Slutsatsen av denna studie visar att antalet pauser under arbetstid är varierande hos de anställda. Vissa respondenter trodde även att långvarigt stillasittande kunde kompenseras med träning på fritiden.

  • 485.
    Ericsson, Pernilla
    et al.
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umeå University and Hospital, Sweden .
    Lindberg, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, CBF. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Oudin, Anna
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umeå University and Hospital, Sweden .
    Wahlström, Jens
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umeå University and Hospital, Sweden .
    Reliability testing of two ergonomic risk assessment tools2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION

    Quick Exposure Check (QEC¹) and Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA²) are two ergonomic risk assessment tools that have been designed to be useful for ergonomists assessing musculoskeletal risk factors in upper extremities at workplaces.

    AIM

    The aim was to describe the variation between and within ergonomists assessments using QEC and RULA, and to compare the two tools regarding within-observer agreement.

    SUBJECTS & METHODS

    Twenty ergonomists observed five different work tasks twice with three weeks in between, watching video clips. They made ergonomic risk assessments using both QEC and RULA.

    The observed work tasks were: Window replacement, nailing a wooden pallet, toilet cleaning, instrumentation in an operating theatre, and sorting post.

    For the statistical analyses, percent agreement and kappa value was used.

    RESULTS

    There was a variation in assessments between the ergonomists in all positions and movements both when using QEC and RULA, except from assessing armposition when observing window replacement using QEC, where all ergonomists assessed the same position (figure 1).

    The ergonomists had higher percent agreement between observation one and two using QEC compared with RULA (table 1).

    CONCLUSION

    There was a variation when assessing positions and movements in different worktasks both between ergonomists and within the same ergonomist using both QEC and RULA. However the agreement between two observations within observers was higher for QEC.

  • 486.
    Ericsson, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Ung och utan arbete - Hur mår man då?: En enkätundersökning om ungdomsarbetslöshet och hälsa2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was to explore young people's experience of unemployment and health. It was made by using a mixed approach. Data was collected by a survey which included quantitative and qualitative questions. It was answered by 41 unemployed young people aged 17-24 years.

    The results from the survey showed that a greater number of young people have good health, and that it was common with a mental well-being. Half of the participants felt stressed. A larger proportion of women had suicidal thoughts compared to men. It was only women who had attempted suicide.

    Unemployed young people experienced unemployment as negative, although they had a positive view on the future. Many responds perceived good opportunities to further education, but the likelihoods of getting a work was perceived by the majority as good or neither good or bad.

    The majority of young people are trying to be active during their unemployment. They experience unemployment as a meaningless time when theirs health status doesn’t improves, rather get worse. Several have to make an effort to feel good and not to be depressed.

    The conclusion is that research on youth unemployment is particularly important because previous research shows that young people and their health, affects more than unemployed adults.

  • 487.
    Erikson, Henrik
    et al.
    Department of Nursing and Care, Swedish Red Cross University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Salzmann-Erikson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Future Challenges of Robotics and Artificial Intelligence in Nursing: What Can We Learn from Monsters in Popular Culture?2016In: The Permanente Journal, ISSN 1552-5767, E-ISSN 1552-5775, Vol. 20, no 3, article id 15-243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is highly likely that artificial intelligence (AI) will be implemented in nursing robotics in various forms, both in medical and surgical robotic instruments, but also as different types of droids and humanoids, physical reinforcements, and also animal/pet robots. Exploring and discussing AI and robotics in nursing and health care before these tools become commonplace is of great importance. We propose that monsters in popular culture might be studied with the hope of learning about situations and relationships that generate empathic capacities in their monstrous existences. The aim of the article is to introduce the theoretical framework and assumptions behind this idea. Both robots and monsters are posthuman creations. The knowledge we present here gives ideas about how nursing science can address the postmodern, technologic, and global world to come. Monsters therefore serve as an entrance to explore technologic innovations such as AI. Analyzing when and why monsters step out of character can provide important insights into the conceptualization of caring and nursing as a science, which is important for discussing these empathic protocols, as well as more general insight into human knowledge. The relationship between caring, monsters, robotics, and AI is not as farfetched as it might seem at first glance.

  • 488.
    Eriksson, Amanda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Walldén, Matilda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Personers upplevelser efter överviktskirurgi, med psykosocialt fokus2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 489. Eriksson, Anna
    Hälsofrämjande arbete utfört av hälsopedagoger inom företagshälsovården2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study was a survey among health educators working with an occupational health in Sweden,

    with the aim to describe their health promotion work. Through a sample of convenience eight

    health educators was contacted by e-mail with an inquiry if they were willing to participate in the

    study. The study was based on a qualitative form where the respondents answered verbal questions

    during private interviews. Five of the interviews took place during personal meetings and

    three of them took place during the telephone. The results showed that the respondents worked

    on individual, group and organisations levels

    profile assessments, health surveys, weight loss groups, smoking cessation courses, promotion of

    health and safety, lectures, training and strategic work among other things. The work was perceived

    by them to contribute to healthier habits among their organizational patients, and could

    therefore be seen wait to improved public health. Several of the respondents mentioned that the

    focus on positive parts was something that the health-educators specifically contributed to the

    work of the companies health services. The majority of them were also confident that healthier

    employees contribute to a more efficient and profitable labor, and that the employer who invested

    in occupational health had much to gain in the long run.

    . Their work was very varied and consisted of health

  • 490.
    Eriksson, Ann-Christine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Eriksson, Kristina
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    LIVET EFTER EN HJÄRTINFARKT- en litteraturstudie gällande patienters behov av stöd2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this literature review was to examine and compile existing research from the

    beginning of the 21 st century about patients needs for different kind of support after a

    myocardial infarction. This literature review included 14 scientific articles who where

    analyzed. The result showed two main categories; individual/information support and

    group/social support. Individual/information support showed a wish for more information

    about the heart, its function and the consequences of the myocardial infarction. Advice and

    information about lifestyle changes, readjustment to daily life and to cope with stress as well

    as information about the medical treatment and its effects was asked for. That would have

    helpt uring the process of recovery. Under the category of group/social support it emerged

    that supportgroups and rehabilitationprograms had an significant part for the recovery after

    the myocardial infarction. Through sharing experiences with others in the same situation, not

    feeling alone and to have a continuous contact with health care professionals the zest for life

    increased. Support from family and friends also had an important meaning for recovery. At

    the same time it also often emerged an overprotective role in relatives that by most of the

    patients seemed to have a negative effect and influence on the recovery. The conclusion

    show´s that nurses have an important role to handle, treat, show understanding and support

    every persons individual needs.

    Keywords:

  • 491.
    Eriksson, Annelie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Vestre Viken HF, Baerum, Norway.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Distriktssköterskors beskrivningar av sjukdomsförebyggande arbete i daglig verksamhet och strukturella förutsättningar för detta arbete: [District nurses’ perceptions of their preventive work and structural conditions for this work]2015In: Nordic journal of nursing research, ISSN 2057-1585, E-ISSN 2057-1593, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 77-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background There is much research about district nurses’ preventive work, effects of it and their perceptions of the preventive work. Less is known about how district nurses perceive their preventive work in relation to structural conditions for this work.

    Aim The aim was to describe district nurses’ perceptions of their preventive work in daily practice; and structural conditions for this using Kanter’s theory of structural empowerment.

    Methods Interviews were conducted 2012 with nine Swedish district nurses. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis.

    Findings The analysis resulted in one theme; ‘To experience stimulation versus frustration; a consistency versus a discrepancy between will and structural conditions’. District nurses who worked with specialized tasks felt that they mostly had the structural conditions required to work in a preventive manner and that they could prioritize which unhealthy living habits to discuss with their patients. District nurses without specialized tasks described that their structural conditions for preventive work was limited in the present streamlined organization. This in turn led to a feeling of frustration.

    Conclusion Preventive work is described as stimulating when district nurses have the conditions required, yet the conditions required are sometimes lacking and especially for district nurses without specialized tasks. There is a will to work in a preventive manner but structural conditions need to be improved.

  • 492.
    Eriksson, Anne-Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kvinnors erfarenheter av att leva med självskadebeteende: En deskriptiv litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Självskadebeteende är en avsiktlig handling av vävnadsskada genom att rispa, skära eller bränna huden utan avsikt till suicid. I Sverige under 2016 vårdades cirka 6900 personer på sjukhus till följd av avsiktlig destruktiv handling, varav 62 % var kvinnor.

    Resultat: Kvinnor med självskadebeteende hade ofta växt upp i en otrygg miljö, varit med om trauma eller saknat vuxenstöd. Självskada hade varit ett sätt för att lindra emotionellt lidande och för att kunna fortsätta att leva. Effekten av självskada avtog och blev som ett beroende innan det eskalerade. Känslor av skam, skuld och ensamhet var vanliga. Stigmatisering hindrade hjälpsökande. Bristande bemötande och vård upplevdes. Främjade för tillfrisknad var att behandla bakomliggande orsak till beteendet, finna alternativa åtgärder till att hantera det emotionella och ha ett holistiskt synsätt.

    Slutsatser: Självskadebeteende har för kvinnor inneburit ett oavbrutet lidande, psykiskt och fysiskt. För sjuksköterskan och övrig vårdpersonal är det viktigt att ha kunskap om orsaker till att kvinnor inte söker hjälp för sitt självskadebeteende för att kunna nå och hjälpa dem. I föreliggande studie framkom att hinder för att söka hjälp hade varit vårdens bristande bemötande och okunskap om självskadebeteendet. Sjuksköterskan behöver ökade kunskaper om självskadebeteendet, sträva efter ett empatiskt bemötande och utföra god holistisk omvårdnad.

  • 493.
    Eriksson, Ann-Kristin Mimmi
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities, Religious studies. Avdelningen för hälsovetenskap, Mittuniversitetet, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Vid utmattningens gräns: Utmattningssyndrom som existentiellt tillstånd: Vårdtagares och vårdgivares erfarenheter av utmattningssyndrom och rehabilitering med en existentiell ansats i svensk vårdkontext2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and objectives: Stress-related illness is a growing public health problem in Sweden and it is the most common reason for sick leave today. Stress-related illness causes suffering on a number of levels and affects the patient’s health and life in the long term. The stress-related ill health also leads to consequences for society, causing high costs for sick leave and health care as well as lost workforce since people partially or entirely lose their capacity to work. Research on stress-related ill health and rehabilitation often underline work-related conditions as crucial in dealing with the problem. There is also research that points out psychosocial factors in understanding stress-related ill health. What we know little about is the existential perspective of clinical burn-out. Therefore, it is of importance to investigate people’s existential experiences of clinical burn-out and the significance of an existential perspective in rehabilitation.

    Aim: The overall aim of this thesis is to gain insight into the existential experience of clinical burn-out as well as to highlight the significance of an existential perspective in rehabilitation. In addition, the thesis aims to reach a deeper understanding of clinical burn-out from an existential point of view and contribute to the field with knowledge of the existential dimension of health.

    Methods: The study, conducted in 2011, is based on qualitative interviews made with an inductive hermeneutic approach. Five patients and seven care givers were interviewed, focusing their existential experiences of clinical burn-out as well as their experiences of rehabilitation with an existential approach. A strategic selection was made of informants in the context of a rehabilitation program with an existential approach for people diagnosed with clinical burn-out. The data was analysed in two steps. In the first step the data was interpreted with an inductive hermeneutic approach. In step two of the analysis, the data was interpreted with a deductive hermeneutic approach, using Karl Jasper’s concept of limit situation as a way of interpreting the existential experience. Aaron Antonovsky’s concept sense of coherence was used as a tool for understanding components that can contribute to restoring health.

    Results: In this study, the patients describe clinical burn-out as a comprehensive existential experience that can be perceived as being in between life and death, in a shadow world, trapped in a dead end. It’s a situation characterized by being powerless. It creates a need to comprehend one’s situation in order to be able to regain control and manage it. It’s a struggle to make sense of the life situation. When not being met with understanding, the patients lose hope. Existential issues in terms of meaning, existence and life choices become urgent. Working with the existential perspective requires trust, openness from both caregiver and patient, distinctness, a way to communicate it and courage to take on the challenge of dealing with existential issues. The perspective also requires that the existential suffering can be contained. Dealing with existential questions leads to self-knowledge and insights that enables a possibility to make different choices and leave negative behavioural patterns. Also, it can lead to a discovery of spirituality and religion as a resource in life. Besides their personal struggle for meaning, the patients see an existential void in society, leaving people without tools to handle existential needs. This is understood as something that affects people’s ability to handle stressful times in life.

    The care providers understand burn-out as a manifestation of a way of living that is not sustainable. It is an existential experience embodied in body and mind that can be experienced as being drained of life. It’s an existential challenge, causing grief when realizing one’s limitations as a human being. Also, loss of meaning and sense of existential vulnerability due to an experience of being annihilated is crucial for understanding the deep existential crisis that clinical burn-out can induce. This situation makes the patient ask existential questions about identity, meaning, values and direction. In the burnout-process the patients have distanced themselves from their own self and therefore need to reconnect with themselves. This makes the existential questions central in the rehabilitation as a way to reconnect to inner strength and resources, which are prerequisites for starting a health promoting, sustainable process which is empowering, making it possible to see oneself as a human being who experience meaning, not only as a patient with a diagnosis. Instead of finding meaning in the diagnosis, the patient’s existential questions and the existential experience is a key to moving forward, out of the situation. Meaning-making is therefore important in the rehabilitation.

    A holistic-existential approach and view of man makes it possible to work with the complexity of the situation. The holistic-existential approach creates synergies and offers an extra tool both for the caregiver and the patient. Focusing on the patient’s resources and competence makes it possible to see the crisis as a way to learn from it.

    The existential perspective in health care and rehabilitation is enabled by competence, openness, reliance, empathy and respect when meeting the patient. It also requires courage to take on the challenge of dealing with existential issues. It can be hard for both the patient and the care giver to confront existential suffering. It is the responsibility of the care giver to enable the existential perspective by acknowledging and making the existential perspective possible to communicate and work it through.

    The care providers understands values in modern society as contributing to people’s experience of feeling alone with existential needs, which intensifies their existential aloneness.

    The care providers’ experience is that the biomedical paradigm aggravates an existential perspective. The perspective is not associated with the care situation. There is a lack of knowledge about and understanding of the value of the existential perspective, all the way from the decision-making level to the clinical meeting with the patient. In addition, the paradigm affects how the patients express their illness. Also, the perspective requires time. Existential perspectives, therefore, tend to be concealed in the health care context.

    Applying Karl Jasper’s concept of limit situation, clinical burn-out can be interpreted as a defining existential experience. It can be understood as a limit situation when humans realize their limitations and at the same time get insights that are crucial for their lives. It’s an experience they wish they had not gone through, but on the other hand, it has led to insights they do not want to be without. The meaning-making process is health promoting by recreating meaning, the fundamental part of sense of coherence, which is crucial for a salutogenic direction.

    Conclusion: The existential state that the clinical burnout patients go through can, using Karl Jasper’s concept, be understood as a limit situation. According to Jasper’s reasoning, the limit situation can be perceived as facing an abyss, making it clear one has limitations as a human being. At the same time, the experience can be perceived as reaching a limit where humans can get insights about human life that can enhance life. Clinical burn-out, using Aaron Antonovsky’s concept, can be understood as a loss of the components that create sense of coherence. Loss of meaning is particularly central for understanding burn-out.

    Consequently, it is crucial to acknowledge the existential challenge that the patient is facing, as well as the importance of the meaning-making process for facilitating a movement in a health promoting manner. It gives a deeper understanding of the challenges and needs of patients suffering from clinical burn-out.

    The existential dimension of health has been highlighted in health promotion, but gets little attention in practice. This is especially significant in the health care context. This points out the need for a discussion about how the existential health dimension can be used as a resource in health care and rehabilitation and how this resource for health can be applied in a better way in health promotion and public health.

  • 494.
    Eriksson, Elin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hellberg, Frida
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kvinnors erfarenheter av att leva med endometrios: En litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Endometriosis is a chronic disease affecting about 176 million fertile women worldwide. Severe menstrual pain and pain during intercourse are the primary symptoms that characterizes the disease. It often takes a long time to get the diagnosis, the nurse should be responsive and identify the patient's needs.

    Aim: The aim of this literature study was to describe women's experiences of living with endometriosis and the included articles data collection methods.

    Method: Literature study with descriptive design. Data were collected through the databases PubMed and Cinahl, the result is built on eleven scholarly articles with qualitative and mixed designs.

    Main Results: The woman who lives with endometriosis experiences severe pain at different time at the menstrual cycle. The diagnosis could take up to several years for some women to receive, where a common occurrence for most of them were mistrust and normalization of the symptoms from the healthcare. Endometriosis has a major impact on women's everyday life where they are both mentally and socially affected by the disease. Most of the women used their own self-strategies as dietary changes to prevent the symptoms. The eleven scholarly articles in this study used different interview methods to collect the data.

    Conclusion: Endometriosis has a major negative impact on women's everyday life and relationships, the disease causes infertility and social constraints. Increased knowledge in society and in health care can contribute to reduced suffering in these women.

  • 495.
    Eriksson, Elin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Häglund, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Organisatoriska orsaker till vårdtagares missnöje med vården2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The health care system is an complex structure with many different actors and professions, who are subject to different management and different conditions. Within this organisation, many situations may arise that can cause dissatisfaction among care recipients.

     

    Aim

    To describe organisational factors in healthcare that cause dissatisfaction with carers, as well as to describe the selection processes for the selected articles' sample groups.

     

    Design

    Literature review based on twelve articles, both quantitative and qualitative, from 2007-2017.

     

    Main results

    The main problem area for patients was accessibility. Waiting times of various kinds were common: waiting to get an appointment, long time in the waiting room, waiting for treatment, and more. Specific to primary care were difficulties in getting appointments at all, and perceptions in patients that primary care could not help them with their problems. Dissatisfaction with the physical care environment was mentioned mainly in the form of understaffing and unavailability of hospital beds, but there were also other complaints related to the physical environment. Lack of coordination between different actors cause discontent in some patients, for instance due to poor continuity of care.

     

    Conclusions

    There are a number of reasons for care recipients’ dissatisfaction that have their foundation in the health care organization. Focusing on the patient's emotions, the nurse can help the patient in developing and improving the handling of the problematic situation and the feelings that arise. This is facilitated by the nurse having knowledge of how the organisation is structured, and understanding of its complexity. This knowledge and understanding is also a good prerequisite for organisational improvement.

  • 496.
    Eriksson, Elisabet
    Uppsala universitet, Internationell mödra- och barnhälsovård (IMCH).
    Christian Communities and Prevention of HIV among Youth in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Young people in South Africa, particularly females, are at great risk of acquiring HIV, and heterosexual sex is the predominant mode of HIV transmission. In order to curb the epidemic the Department of Health encourages all sectors in the society, including religious institutions, to respond effectively.

    The present thesis seeks to increase the understanding of the role of Christian communities in prevention of HIV for young people. Three denominations in KwaZulu-Natal were selected to reflect the diversity of Christian churches in South Africa: the Roman Catholic Church, the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Southern Africa, and the Assemblies of God.

    Using qualitative interviews the first paper explores how religious leaders (n=16) deal with the conflict between the values of the church and young people’s sexuality. Study II reports on attitudes to HIV prevention for young people among religious leaders (n=215) using questionnaire survey data. Study III investigates how young people (n=62) reflect on messages received from their churches regarding premarital sex by analysing nine focus group discussions. In the fourth paper, based on questionnaire survey data, we report on young people’s (n=811) experiences of relationships with the opposite sex and their perceived risk of HIV infection.

    The view that young people in churches are sexually active before marriage was common among religious leadership. The majority of religious leaders also reported that they are responsible for educating young people about HIV prevention. Religious leaders who had received training on HIV were more likely to run a life skills programme for young people, however they were ambivalent about prevention messages. Young people reported premarital sexual abstinence as the main HIV prevention message from their churches. The majority responded that they had received information about HIV in church. To be in a relationship was common, more so for males for whom multiple relationships also were viewed more acceptable. To perceive themselves at risk of HIV infection was common.

    Further training for religious leaders is needed to enable them to manage the conflict between the doctrine of the church and their willingness to assist young people in the transition into adulthood.

  • 497.
    Eriksson, Elisabet
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Berg, Sören
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Internationally educated nurses' and medical graduates' experiences of getting a license and practicing in Sweden - a qualitative interview study2018In: BMC Medical Education, ISSN 1472-6920, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 18, no 1, article id 296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The Swedish healthcare system has an increased need for nurses and physicians, and the number of International Educated Nurses (IENs) and International Medical Graduates (IMGs) seeking job opportunities and a license to practice in Sweden is rising. This study explored how IENs and IMGs describe their experience of getting a license to practice, their perceptions of working in Sweden and of how their intercultural competence is utilized.

    METHOD: A qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews with 11 IENs and 11 IMGs. The interviews were conducted between 2015 and 2017. The data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis.

    RESULTS: Three main themes were identified: 'Getting a license - a different story,' 'The work is familiar, yet a lot is new,' 'Trying to master a new language.' The time to obtain a license to practice and finding a job was shorter for IENs and IMGs coming from European countries than for those from non-European countries. Some of the experiences of getting a license to practice and of entering a new workplace in another country were the same for nurses and physicians. In general, both IENs and IMGs felt welcomed and used their intercultural competence at work. Lack of language skills was regarded as the main problem for both professions, while workplace introduction was shorter for IMGs than for IENs.

    CONCLUSIONS: Problems related to language and culture are often underestimated, therefore organizations and managers employing IENs and IMGs should provide longer workplace introduction to facilitate the acculturation process. More time-efficient language courses specifically adapted to IENs and IMGs could make the transition easier and shorten the time to obtain a license to practice for both professions.

  • 498.
    Eriksson, Elisabet
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Internationally educated nurses’ descriptions of their access to structural empowerment while working in another country’s health care context2018In: Journal of Nursing Management, ISSN 0966-0429, E-ISSN 1365-2834, Vol. 26, no 7, p. 866-873Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM:

    To examine internationally educated nurses' experiences of empowerment structures using Kanter's theory of structural empowerment.

    BACKGROUND:

    There has been an increase in the number of nurses working in other countries worldwide and concerns have been raised regarding their working conditions.

    METHOD:

    Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 11 internationally educated nurses. Directed content analysis was used to analyse the data and Kanter's theory of empowerment was used as a framework.

    RESULTS:

    Access to information was generally good. Access to support for their relationship with their managers varied. Regarding access to resources, nurses unfamiliar with clinical leadership found team leadership challenging. Access to in-house learning opportunities were reported as good. Access to informal power was more common than access to formal power.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    The findings support Kanter's theory and demonstrate that internationally experienced nurses encountered varying degrees of access to empowering structures. Access to information and formal power was more general and related to the unit. Access to resources, support, opportunities and informal power were related to both the unit and the informants' specific situation as IENs.

    IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT:

    Managers need to support IENs when having a team leadership role, facilitate encounters between IENs and ordinary staff, and establishing mentorship for IENs.

  • 499.
    Eriksson, Elisabet
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    The challenges of interviewing internationally educated nurses and doctors in another language than their native language2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Globalization has increased the migration of internationally educated nurses’ (IENs) and International Medical Graduates (IMG) to high-income countries.

    Objective: To highlight the challenges of interviewing internationally educated nurses and doctors in another language than their native language regarding their working experiences in the Swedish health and social care system.

    Method: Semi-structured interviews with eleven IENs and eleven IMGs. Data were analyzed with qualitative content analysis.

    Results: Interviews with non-Swedish trained nurses and doctors provide important information about their working experiences in the host country, even if their language skills in the host country’s language can be poor. However, the data had a less nuanced language, the same word could be used repeatedly, English words were sometimes used when not finding the Swedish words and some questions were difficult for the informants to understand and had to be omitted. Performing the interview, transcribing and analyzing them took more time compared to interviews with native speakers. The informants clearly stated that they wanted the interview to be in Swedish and not in for example English.

  • 500.
    Eriksson, Elisabet
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Internationell mödra- och barnhälsovård (IMCH).
    Lindmark, Gunilla
    Uppsala universitet, Internationell mödra- och barnhälsovård (IMCH).
    Axemo, Pia
    Uppsala universitet, Internationell mödra- och barnhälsovård (IMCH).
    Haddad, Beverley
    Ahlberg, Beth Maina
    Uppsala universitet, Internationell mödra- och barnhälsovård (IMCH).
    Ambivalence, silence and gender differences in church leaders' HIV-prevention messages to young people in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa2010In: Culture, Health and Sexuality, ISSN 1369-1058, E-ISSN 1464-5351, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 103-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of semi-structured interviews on HIV prevention were conducted with South African clergy with pastoral and liturgical responsibilities from the Roman Catholic Church, the Lutheran Church and the Assemblies of God. The interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed by interpretive descriptive analysis. Three themes indicative of church leaders' approach to HIV prevention among youth emerged: dilemmas in breaking the silence on HIV and AIDS; ambivalent HIV-prevention messages from church leaders to young people; and gender differences in HIV-prevention messages. While church leaders had taken steps to overcome the stigma, the dilemmas of balancing theological understanding with resistance from their congregations presented a complex scenario. Ambivalence to HIV prevention concerned whose responsibility it was to educate young people about HIV; talking about sexuality in public; pre-marital abstinence and condom use; and resistance from congregation members towards HIV prevention. Finally, findings indicated a discrepancy between church leaders' belief in gender equality and the HIV-prevention messages they verbalised, which appears to burden girls.

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