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  • 451.
    Straker, Leon
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth.
    Abbott, Rebecca
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Teaching our children to sit or be active? Sedentary behavior, light activity and moderate/vigorous activity at and away from school2012Inngår i: 4th International Congress on Physical Activity and Public Health, Australian Conference of Science and Medicine in Sport, National Sports Injury Prevention Conference Abstracts, 2012, s. S280-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Sedentary behavior in children is associated with poor health whilst moderate/vigorous activity is associated with better health. The school setting may be an opportunity to reduce sedentariness and enhance physical activity, yet concerns have been raised that children may be more sedentary at school. This paper examined activity patterns, including both sedentary time and time in health enhancing physical activity, in children across their typical week.

    Methods: Sixty-six 10–12 year old children were recruited from 48 schools in the Perth metropolitan area as part of a randomized controlled study (Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN 12609000279224) investigating the effects of electronic games on physical activity. The data for this paper come from their baseline assessment, which all occurred during school term time. Children wore an Actical accelerometer on their hip for one week. Time spent in sedentary, light, moderate and vigorous physical activity was assessed. School day and weekend day activity patterns were examined along with activity patterns both in (school time) and out of school (non-school-time) on school days.

    Results: Valid (at least 4 days) accelerometer data were available on 53 children (28 girls). The average time of accelerometer recording per day was 822 ± 71 minutes (13.7 hours). Accumulated time in sedentary behavior was similar on school days and weekend days (mean [SD]: 64.4%[5.3] vs 64.9%[9.0], p = 0.686). Children were more likely to reach physical activity guidelines on school days than at the weekend (47.7% v 22.2%, p < 0.001) and spend more time in brief–less than 5 minutes–bursts of activity of any intensity (35.3%[5.1] vs 32.6%[6.9], p = 0.002). However, children spent a higher proportion of time in sedentary behavior (66.8%[7.3] vs 62.4%[5.2], p < 0.001), and significantly more time in extended sedentariness–sedentary for more than thirty minutes or more (75.6mins[45.8] vs 45.0 mins[26.8], p < 0.002)–within school time compared to non-school time.

    Discussion: Children spent a considerable proportion of their school or non-school day in sedentary behavior, and routinely spent over two hours of each day in extended sedentary behavior. School should be a place where children learn healthful habits, and whilst it appears to be associated with better moderate/vigorous physical activity exposure it was associated with poorer extended sedentary exposure. Increasing moderate/vigorous physical activity and reducing time spent in sedentary behavior both in and out of school remains an important challenge.

  • 452.
    Straker, Leon
    et al.
    School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth.
    Hall, Caitlin
    The University of Queensland, School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, Brisbane.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    van der Beek, Allard
    Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam.
    Huijsmans, Maaike
    Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Gilson, Nicholas
    The University of Queensland, School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, Brisbane.
    Blue‐collar worker sedentary exposure at work and non‐work: systematic review of studies using objective measurement2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 453.
    Straker, Leon
    et al.
    School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth.
    Hallman, David
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Gupta, Nidhi
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    The Goldilocks Principle: Innovative work design for improved health2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 454.
    Straker, Leon
    et al.
    School of Physiotherapy, Curtin University of Technology, Perth Australia.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Increased physical work loads in modern work - a necessity for better health and performance?2009Inngår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 52, nr 10, s. 1215-1225Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Shifting workforce proportions to sedentary occupations and technology developments in traditionally physically demanding occupations have resulted in low physical workloads for many workers. Insufficient physical stress is known to have detrimental short- and long-term effects on health and physical capacity. It is argued herein that many modern workers are at risk of insufficient physical workload. Further, it is argued that the traditional physical ergonomics paradigm of reducing risk by reducing physical loads ('less is better') is not appropriate for many modern occupations. It is proposed that a new paradigm is required, where 'more can be better'. The potential for work to be seen as an arena for improving physical health and capability is discussed and the types of changes to work that may be required are outlined. The paper also discusses challenges and responsibilities presented by this new paradigm for ergonomists, employers, health and safety authorities and the community. The majority of workers in affluent communities now face the significant threat to health of insufficient physical workload. Ergonomics can design work to a prescription that can not only reduce injury risk but enhance health and capacity. However, this will require a change in paradigm.

  • 455.
    Straker, Leon
    et al.
    School of Physiotherapy, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    The ‘Goldilocks Principle’: designing physical activity at work to be ‘just right’ for promoting health2018Inngår i: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 52, nr 13, s. 818-819Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 456.
    Stratimirovic, Dj.
    et al.
    Faculty of Stomatology, Department of Physics, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro.
    Milosevic, S.
    Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro.
    Blesic, S.
    Institute for Medical Research, Laboratory for Neurophysiology, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro.
    Ljubisavljevic, M.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Wavelet transform analysis of time series generated by the stimulated neuronal activity2007Inngår i: Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, ISSN 0378-4371, E-ISSN 1873-2119, Vol. 374, nr 2, s. 699-706Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We have studied the stimulated discharge dynamics of fusimotor neurons by applying the wavelet transform technique and by adopting that the neuronal discharge dynamics is manifested by the random time series of interspike intervals. We found two different power-law type behaviors along interspike intervals (ISI) time scale (which implies existence of two different types of neuronal noise), which are separated by a crossover region. Our results reveal that complex neuronal dynamics, in the presence of external stimulation, is manifested with long-range correlated noise in the region before the crossover, on the ISI time scale.

  • 457.
    Svedberg, Pia
    et al.
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mather, Lisa
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Division of Intervention and Implementation Research for Worker Health, The Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Blom, Victoria
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Time pressure and sleep problems due to thoughts about work as risk factors for future sickness absence2018Inngår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 91, nr 8, s. 1051-1059Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: This study investigated whether time pressure or sleep problems due to thoughts about work are associated with future sickness absence (SA) among women and men employed in different sectors, also when adjusting for confounders including familial factors (genetics and shared environment).

    METHODS: The study sample included 16,127 twin individuals (52% women), aged 19-47 years who in 2005 participated in an online survey including questions regarding time pressure, sleep, work and health. Register data on SA (> 14 days) were obtained from the National Social Insurance Agency and individuals were followed from date of survey response until 12/31/2013. Associations between time pressure, sleep problems due to thoughts about work and future SA were investigated using logistic regression analyses to assess odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).

    RESULTS: In total 5723 (35%) individuals had an incident SA spell during follow-up. Sleep problems due to thoughts about work were associated with SA in the fully adjusted model (OR 1.22, CI 1.10-1.36). Stratified by sector, the highest estimate was found for state employees (OR 1.54, CI 1.11-2.13). Familial factors did not seem to influence the associations. We found no statistically significant associations between time pressure and SA. No sex differences were found.

    CONCLUSIONS: Results indicated that sleep problems due to thoughts about work is a risk factor for future SA. This follows previous research showing that sleep length and sleep disturbances, regardless of reason, are associated with SA. But, experiences of work-related time pressure seem to have no effect on SA.

  • 458.
    Svedmark, Åsa
    et al.
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Björklund, Martin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Häger, Charlotte K.
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nilsson Sommar, Johan
    Department of Public Health & Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Wahlström, Jens
    Department of Public Health & Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Impact of Workplace Exposure and Stress on Neck Pain and Disabilities in Women: A Longitudinal Follow-up After a Rehabilitation Intervention2018Inngår i: Annals of Work Exposures and Health, ISSN 2398-7316, Vol. 62, nr 5, s. 591-603Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The aim was to evaluate if pain, disability, and work productivity are influenced by physical and psychosocial work exposures as well as by stress, up to 1 year after a randomized controlled trial treatment intervention, and to determine whether any such association differed between treatment and control groups.

    Methods: Ninety-seven working women suffering non-specific neck pain (n = 67 treatment group, n = 30 control group) were followed from end of treatment intervention and at 9- and 15-month follow-ups, respectively. Physical and psychosocial exposures, as well as perceived stress, were assessed after the treatment intervention. Pain, neck disability, and work productivity were assessed at baseline, after intervention 3 months later and at 9- and 15-month follow-ups. Longitudinal assessment was conducted using the exposure level at 3 months as predictor of pain, disability, and work productivity at 3, 9, and 15 months, respectively. Mixed models were used to estimate longitudinal associations, accounting for within-individual correlation of repeated outcome measures by incorporation of a random intercept. Age and duration of neck pain were adjusted for in all models. To evaluate group differences, interactions between exposures and treatment groups were estimated.

    Results: High perceived stress was associated with more neck pain, more neck disability, and decreased work productivity in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. High 'control of decision' was associated with less neck pain, less neck disability, and higher work productivity in cross-sectional analyses but only to less disability and higher productivity in longitudinal analyses. Shoulder/arm load was the only physical exposure variable that was significantly associated with work productivity in the univariate analyses. Only small differences were observed between treatment and control groups.

    Conclusion: High perceived stress and low 'control of decision' were associated with more neck pain, increased neck disability, and decreased work productivity. Treatment interventions for individuals with neck pain should take into account psychosocial workplace exposures and stress to improve intermediate and long-term results.

  • 459.
    Svedmark, Åsa
    et al.
    Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, fysioterapi, Umeå universitet.
    Björklund, Martin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umea University, Umeå Sweden.
    Häger, Charlotte
    Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, fysioterapi. Umeå universitet.
    Sommar, Johan
    Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, yrkes- och miljömedicin. Umeå universitet.
    Wahlström, Jens
    Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, yrkes- och miljömedicin. Umeå universitet.
    Impact of physical and psychosocial workplace exposure and stress on neck pain rehabilitation in women: - a longitudinal study2017Inngår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 460.
    Svensson, Sven
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Stubbs, Jonathan
    Nordic Occupational Safety and Rehabilitation Institute.
    Larsson, Johan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    The association between subordinate perception of task and relation oriented leadership behaviors and sense of coherence among a sample of Swedish white-collar workers2018Inngår i: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 61, nr 2, s. 327-336Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence suggests that leadership behaviours and sense of coherence influences subordinate health. The influence of leadership behaviours on subordinate sense of coherence has not been investigated in any detail. This cross-sectional quantitative study of managers and subordinates in a large governmental organisation focus on this potential association. The study used two common and empirically tested leadership styles: task oriented leadership and relations oriented leadership. In a logistic regression analysis, the association between types of leadership behaviour and SOC were analysed while controlling for age, gender, income, type of employment and organisational tenure. It was hypothesized that both task and relation oriented leadership behaviours would be positively associated with SOC, whereas a laissez faire leadership would be negatively associated with SOC. The hypotheses were not supported. Several implications for further research are discussed including capturing data about both subordinates’ preferred and perceived leadership behaviours.

  • 461.
    Söderfjell, Stefan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Molander, Bo
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Johansson, Håkan
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Barnekow-Bergkvist, Margareta
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Musculoskeletal pain complaints and performance on cognitive tasks over the adult life span2006Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 47, nr 5, s. 349-359Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aimed at comparing participants with and without self reported musculoskeletal pain in a normal population with regard to performance on a range of tests for episodic memory, semantic memory, and other cognitive functions and to see if expected differences interacted with age. The results showed that participants with pain performed worse on a range of tasks as compared to participants without pain, and that these differences occurred regardless of age. The most robust effects of pain were displayed on tests for vocabulary and construction ability as these were the only effects that remained significant after controlling for years of education and reported depression in separate analyses. When depression and education were controlled for in the same analysis, even these effects were eliminated, suggesting interplay between pain, depressive status, and educational level in the negative effects on cognitive functioning.

  • 462.
    Söderlund, Helena
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap.
    Universitetslärares upplevelse av arbetsrelaterad stress och återhämtning vid distansarbete2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    University teachers' conditions at work have changed and work-related stress increases among academics atuniversities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether university teachers' experience of work-related stress and recovery differed depending on their extent of telework. The study wasan empirical quantitative cross-sectional study where 95 university teachers’ from two universities in Sweden answered a web survey. About half of the university teachers’ telework several times a week and the results show that university teachers' experience of recovery in relation to telework differs, but not their work-related stress. Gender was found to have a small impact on the recovery to telework, but not onwork-related stress. The conclusion is that university teachers’ who telework frequently experience worse recovery than those who rarely telework. The difference in recovery may be because telework makes it more difficult for the university teacher to finish the work compared to they who not telework.

  • 463.
    Sörebäck, Julia
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Salutogent perspektiv i arbetslivet: En intervjustudie gällande faktorerna krav, kontroll, socialt stöd och stress, bland personal i hemtjänsten efter införandet av ett ny arbetsmetod2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the experiences of the factors demand, control, social support and stress among the staff in home care service and establish how these factors have changed after the introduction of the new working method Vanguardin 2014.

    The method of the study had a qualitative approach and the data collection was done using semistructured interviews. Four interviews were conducted with staff in a home care service group. The study selection was targeted and the participants were recruited by contacting a manager of a municipal home care service group in a town in central of Sweden.The interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed with a manifest thematic content analysis, with a phenomenological element.

    The results showed that the factors demand, controll, social support and stress have improved since the introduction of the new working method. The results showed that the work-related demands have changed from being a negative factor that caused stress, to instead being something positive that develops staff as individuals. Participation and influence increased in the workplace as staff themselfes began to plan their work. This contributed to an increased sense of control. Social support improved in the workplace since they became smaller groups and thus became better acquainted with each other. Stress is no longer due to high workload but occurs rather if problems arise in the work group.

    The conclusion is that demands, control, support and stress are important factors in working life that either affect health negatively or positively. Vanguard as aworking method has contributed positively in the investigated group and improved the perceived health of the workers.

  • 464. Takala, Esa-Pekka
    et al.
    Pehkonen, Irmeli
    Forsman, Mikael
    Hansson, G. Å.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Neuman, P.
    Sjøgaard, Gisela
    Veiersted, K. B.
    Westgaard, R.
    Winkel, Jörgen
    Systematic evaluation of observational methods assessing biomechanical exposures at work2009Inngår i: Proceedings of the IEA2009 conference, Beijing, 2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 465.
    Takala, Esa-Pekka
    et al.
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Pehkonen, Irmeli
    Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland,.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hansson, Gert-Åke
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund, Sweden.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Neumann, W Patrick
    Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada.
    Sjøgaard, Gisela
    University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Veiersted, Kaj Bo
    National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo, Norway.
    Westgaard, Rolf H
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Winkel, Jørgen
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden and National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Systematic evaluation of observational methods assessing biomechanical exposures at work2010Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 36, nr 1, s. 3-24Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This systematic review aimed to identify published observational methods assessing biomechanical exposures in occupational settings and evaluate them with reference to the needs of different users.

    Methods: We searched scientific databases and the internet for material from 1965 to September 2008. Methods were included if they were primarily based on the systematic observation of work, the observation target was the human body, and the method was clearly described in the literature. A systematic evaluation procedure was developed to assess concurrent and predictive validity, repeatability, and aspects related to utility. At least two evaluators independently carried out this evaluation.

    Results: We identified 30 eligible observational methods. Of these, 19 had been compared with some other method(s), varying from expert evaluation to data obtained from video recordings or through the use of technical instruments. Generally, the observations showed moderate-to-good agreement with the corresponding assessments made from video recordings; agreement was the best for large-scale body postures and work actions. Postures of wrist and hand as well as trunk rotation seemed to be more difficult to observe correctly. Intra- and inter-observer repeatability were reported for 7 and 17 methods, respectively, and were judged mostly to be moderate or good.

    Conclusions: With training, observers can reach consistent results on clearly visible body postures and work activities. Many observational tools exist, but none evaluated in this study appeared to be generally superior. When selecting a method, users should define their needs and assess how results will influence decision-making

  • 466.
    Tengmo, Matilda
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap.
    Flexibelt arbete och stress: En kvantitativ enkätstudie på universitetsanställda2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Ett flexibelt arbete innebär att arbetet är flexibelt gällande tid och rum där arbetstagarna får ett stort inflytande över när, var och hur länge de ska utföra sitt arbete. Flexibiliteten kan innebära att gränserna mellan arbete och privatliv suddas ut, där det föreligger individuella skillnader i såväl förmågan att sätta gränser mellan domänerna arbete och privatliv som preferenser gällande gränssättande, där vissa föredrar att hålla arbetet på arbetet medan andra trivs med att blanda samman arbetet med privatliv.

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att undersöka om obalans mellan beteende och preferenser inom ett flexibelt arbete visade samband med stress hos undervisande och forskande personal på ett universitet. Studien kontrollerade även för relevanta variabler.

    Metod: Designen var en tvärsnittsstudie där en enkät skickades ut till 1271 undervisande och forskande personal på ett universitet. För att mäta gränslöst beteende, preferenser gällande gränssättande och stress användas tre stycken etablerade formulär; Work interrupting nonwork behaviors scale, Workplace segmentation preferences och COPSOQ II. Svarsfrekvensen var 39,7% och två hierarkiska multipla regressionsanalyser genomfördes med stress som utfallsvariabel, arbetsbelastning och undervisningsfördelning som förväxlingsvariabler och prediktorn utgjordes i analys 1 av Obalans – Beteende, seg. (n=218) och i analys 2 av Obalans – Beteende, integ. (n=303).

    Resultat: I analys 1 förelåg det ett negativt samband mellan stress och Obalans – Beteende, seg. När förväxlingsvariablerna kontrollerades förklarade Obalans – Beteende, seg. 4,4% av variationen i stress. I analys 2 förelåg det ett positivt samband mellan stress och Obalans – Beteende, integ. När förväxlingsvariablerna kontrollerades förklarade Obalans – Beteende, integ. 9,3% av variationen i stress.

    Slutsats: Föreliggande studie indikerar på att obalans mellan beteende och preferenser både är en faktor som kan genera i ökad och minskad stress, där studiens resultat tyder på att obalansen värderas olika vilket i sin tur skulle kunna bero på att segregation respektive integration är olika svårt att uppnå.

  • 467.
    Toomingas, Allan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Bratt Carlström, Margareta
    Avonova Hälsa Stockholm AB.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    A good working life for everyone2012Inngår i: Occupational Physiology / [ed] Toomingas A, Mathiassen SE, Wigaeus Tornqvist E, Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2012, s. 271-284Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 468.
    Toomingas, Allan
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Bratt Carlström, Margareta
    Avonova Hälsa Stockholm AB.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Ett gott arbetsliv för alla2008Inngår i: Arbetslivsfysiologi / [ed] Allan Toomingas, Svend Erik Mathiassen, Ewa Wigaeus Tornqvist, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2008, s. 347-361Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 469.
    Toomingas, Allan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hagberg, Mats
    Occupational & Environmental Medicine University of Gothenburg.
    Heiden, Marina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Richter, Hans
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Westergren, Karl Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Wigaeus Tornqvist, Ewa
    School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University.
    Incidence and risk factors for symptoms from the eyes among professional computer users2012Inngår i: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, nr Suppl. 1, s. 3560-3562Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Personal computers are used by a majority of the working population in their professions. Little is known about risk-factors for incident symptoms from the eyes among professional computer users. The aim was to study the incidence and risk-factors for symptoms from the eyes among professional computer users. This study is a part of a comprehensive prospective follow-up study of factors associated with the incidence of symptoms among professional computer users. 1531 computer users of different professions at 46 companies were invited, whereof 1283 answered a baseline questionnaire (498 men; 785 women) and 1246 at least one of 10 monthly follow-up questionnaires. The computer work-station and equipment were generally of a good standard. The majority used CRT displays. During the follow-up period 329 subjects reported eye symptoms. The overall incidence rate in the whole study group was 0.38 per person-year, 0.23 in the subgroup of subjects who were symptom free at baseline and 1.06 among subjects who reported eye symptoms at baseline. In the bivariate analyses significant associations were found with all explanatory variables, except BMI. The reduced multivariate model showed significant associations with extended computer work, visual discomfort (dose-response), eye symptoms at baseline (higher risk), sex (women=higher risk) and nicotine use. The incidence of eye problems among professional computer users is high and related to both individual and work-related factors.

  • 470.
    Toomingas, Allan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Karolinska Institutet.
    Hagberg, Mats
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Heiden, Marina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Richter, Hans
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Westergren, Karl-Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Wigaeus Tornqvist, Ewa
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Jönköping University, School of Health Sciences.
    Risk factors, incidence and persistence of symptoms from the eyes among professional computer users2014Inngår i: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 47, nr 3, s. 291-301Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Symptoms from the eyes are common among computer users. Knowledge is scarce about these problems, however.

    OBJECTIVES:

    The aim was to study risk-factors, incidence and persistence of eye-symptoms among professionally active computer users.

    METHODS:

    This was a questionnaire based prospective study where 1283 males and females from different professions and companies answered a baseline questionnaire about individual factors and working conditions, e.g. duration of daily computer work, comfort of screen work, psychosocial factors. Subjects were at baseline and 10 follow-ups asked about the number of days with eye-symptoms during the preceding month.

    RESULTS:

    The incidence-rate of symptoms persisting minimum three days was 0.38/person-year. A multivariate Hazard-ratio model showed significant associations with extended continuous computer work, tasks with high demands on eye-hand coordination, low level of control, visual discomfort, female sex and nicotine use. Eye-symptoms at baseline was a strong risk factor for new symptoms.

    CONCLUSION:

    The incidence of eye-symptoms among professional computer users is high and related to both individual and work-related factors. The organization of computer work should secure frequent breaks from near-work at the computer screen. The severity of vision-related problems could in field studies be quantified by asking for the persistence of symptoms.

  • 471.
    Toomingas, Allan
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Wigaeus Tornqvist, Ewa
    Skolan för teknik och Hälsa, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Arbete, arbetsliv, arbetslivsfysiologi2008Inngår i: Arbetslivsfysiologi / [ed] Allan Toomingas, Svend Erik Mathiassen, Ewa Wigaeus Tornqvist, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2008, s. 17-38Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 472.
    Toomingas, Allan
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Mathiassen, Svend ErikHögskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.Wigaeus Tornqvist, EwaKungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Skolan för teknik och hälsa.
    Arbetslivsfysiologi2008Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 473.
    Toomingas, Allan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend ErikHögskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.Wigaeus Tornqvist, EwaSchool of Health Sciences, Jönköping.
    Occupational Physiology2012Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In a clear and accessible presentation, Occupational Physiology focuses on important issues in the modern working life. Exploring major public health problems such as musculoskeletal disorders and stress, this book explains connections between work, well-being, and health based on up-to-date research in the field. It provides useful methods for risk assessments and guidelines on arranging a good working life from the perspective of the working individual, the company, and society as a whole.

    The book focuses on common, stressful situations in different professions in work life. Reviewing bodily demands and reactions in eight selected common but contrasting job types, the book explains relevant physiology in a novel way. Rather than being structured according to organs in the body, the book accepts the complex physiology of typical jobs and uses this as an entry. In addition to physiological facts, the book discusses risk factors for disorders and gives ideas on how to organize and design work and tasks so as to optimize health, work ability, and productivity.

    Although many books cover physiology, they are based on a traditional anatomical structure (e.g., addressing the physiology of the cardiovascular system, the gastrointestinal system, and so forth) and require readers to synthesize this knowledge into real-life complex applications. Occupational Physiology is, instead, structured around a number of typical jobs and explains their physiology, as complex as they may be. This approach, while still presenting the physiology needed to understand occupational life, demonstrates how to use this information in situations encountered in practice.

  • 474.
    Toomingas, Allan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Wigaeus Tornqvist, Ewa
    School of Health Sciences, Jönköping.
    Work, Working Life, Occupational Physiology2012Inngår i: Occupational Physiology / [ed] Toomingas A, Mathiassen SE, Wigaeus Tornqvist E, Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2012, s. 1-18Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 475.
    Trask, Catherine
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. University of Saskatchewan, College of Medicine, Centre for Health & Safety in Agriculture, Saskatoon, SK S7N 0W8, Canada.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Jackson, Jennie
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Wahlström, Jens
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Umea University, Department of Public Health & Clinical Medical Occupational & Environmental Medicine, SE-90185 UmeåSweden.
    Data processing costs for three posture assessment methods2013Inngår i: BMC Medical Research Methodology, ISSN 1471-2288, E-ISSN 1471-2288, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 124-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. Data processing contributes a non-trivial proportion to total research costs, but documentation of these costs is rare. This paper employed a priori cost tracking for three posture assessment methods (self-report, observation of video, and inclinometry), developed a model describing the fixed and variable cost components, and simulated additional study scenarios to demonstrate the utility of the model. 

    Methods. Trunk and shoulder postures of aircraft baggage handlers were assessed for 80 working days using all three methods. A model was developed to estimate data processing phase costs, including fixed and variable components related to study planning and administration, custom software development, training of analysts, and processing time.   

    Results. Observation of video was the most costly data processing method with total cost of 31,433, and was 1.2-fold more costly than inclinometry (€ 26,255), and 2.5-fold more costly than self-reported data (€ 12,491). Simulated scenarios showed altering design strategy could substantially impact processing costs. This was shown for both fixed parameters, such as software development and training costs, and variable parameters, such as the number of work-shift files processed, as well as the sampling frequency for video observation.  When data collection and data processing costs were combined, the cost difference between video and inclinometer methods was reduced to 7%; simulated data showed this difference could be diminished and, even, reversed at larger study sample sizes. Self-report remained substantially less costly under all design strategies, but produced alternate exposure metrics. 

    Conclusions. These findings build on the previously published data collection phase cost model by reporting costs for post-collection data processing of the same data set.  Together, these models permit empirically based study planning and identification of cost-efficient study designs.

  • 476.
    Trask, Catherine
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Rostami, Mehdi
    School of Public Health, University of Saskatchewan, Canada.
    Partly visible periods in posture observation from video: prevalence and effect on summary estimates of postures in the job2015Inngår i: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 49, s. 63-69Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the extent to which observers rate clearly visible postures on video differently from postures that are only partly visible, and whether this would have an effect on full-shift posture summaries. Trunk and upper arm postures were observed from 10,413 video frames representing 80 shifts of baggage handling; observers reported whether postures were fully or only partly visible.  Postures were summarized for each shift into several standard metrics using all available data, only fully visible frames, or only partly visible frames. 78% of trunk and 71% of upper arm postural observations were inferred.  When based on all data, mean and 90th percentile trunk postures were 1.3° and 5.4° lower, respectively, than when based only on fully visible situations.  For the arm; differences in mean and 90thpercentile were 2.5° and 8.1°.  Daily posture summaries can, thus, be significantly influenced by whether partly visible postures are included or not

  • 477.
    Trask, Catherine
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Centre for Health and Safety in Agriculture, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Rostami, Mehdi
    Collaborative Biostatistics Program, School of Public Health, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.
    Heiden, Marina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Observer variability in posture assessment from video recordings: the effect of partly visible periods2017Inngår i: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 60, s. 275-281Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Observers rank partly visible postures on video frames differently than fully visible postures, but it’s not clear if this is due to differences in observer perception. This study investigated the effect of posture visibility on between-observer variability in assessments of trunk and arm posture.  Trained observers assessed trunk and arm postures from video recordings of 84 pulp mill shifts using a work sampling approach; postures were also categorized as ‘fully’ or ‘partly’ visible.  Between-worker, between-day, and between-observer variance components and corresponding confidence intervals were calculated. Although no consistent gradient was seen for the right upper arm, trunk posture showed smaller between-observer variance when all observers rated a posture as fully visible. This suggests that, partly- visible data, especially when observers disagree as to the level of visibility, introduces more between-observer variability when compared to fully visible data.  Some previously-identified differences in daily posture summaries may be related to this phenomenon.

  • 478.
    Trask, Catherine
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Rostami, Mehdi
    Collaborative Biostatistics Program, School of Public Health, University of Saskatchewan.
    Heiden, Marina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Variance components of observed postural exposure - the effect of partly visible periods2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Previous studies have shown that video-based observation of postures that are only partly visible leads to different daily summary values than when postures are fully visible. However, the source of these differences is unclear. The purpose of this study was to estimate the between-observer variance of trunk and arm posture estimates (relative to within- and between-worker variance), and to investigate the effect of visibility on this observer variability of trunk and arm postural exposure estimates.

    Methods. Video recordings were made of 28 pulp mill workers for three full shifts each. Trunk and arm postures were then estimated by trained observers using a work sampling approach; posture images were also assessed as being “fully” or “partly” visible. REML techniques were used to estimate the between-worker, between-day and betweenobserver components of variance at different visibility levels; Wald-based confidence intervals and p-values were used to determine sources of variation.

    Results. Estimates of partly visible postures (as agreed upon by all observers) were lower than fully visible postures. However, more than 90% of trunk observations and 85% of arm observations did not have full agreement on visibility between observers. Right upper arm posture showed smaller between-observer variance when all observers rated a posture to be fully visible, as compared to all observers agreeing it was only partly visible. This suggests partly visible data introduces more methodological (i.e. between-observer) variability when compared to fully visible data. However, no significant differences in between-observer variability were found for the trunk, suggesting that other factors explain the reported differences in estimated postures between fully and partly visible data in this case.

    Discussion. Future studies involving concurrent direct measurement would determine whether there is a true difference in posture between partly visible and fully visible periods, or whether the difference between fully and partly visible periods are related to observer performance.

  • 479.
    Trask, Catherine
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Teschke, K
    University of British Columbia School of Population and Public Health, Vancouver, Canada.
    Koehoorn, M.W
    University of British Columbia School of Population and Public Health, Vancouver, Canada.
    More for the Money: Cost Efficiency in Trunk Posture Observation2010Inngår i: Canadian Association for Research in Work and Health, Toronto, Canada, 2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives:In a climate of scarce research funds, cost-effective exposure assessment becomes more critical. There is a long-acknowledged tradeoff between precision and cost of exposure assessment methods (Winkel and Mathiassen, 1994) that is seldom quantified.The purpose of this study was to compare different sampling strategies for observed trunk posture and determinewhich is the most cost-effective.Knowing the price-performance tradeoffs of observational exposure assessment can help researchers make the most of limited funds.Methods(maximum 150 words)Trunk posture data was observed by trained experts during full work shifts on 126 workers in heavy industry, with repeated measures on 76% of workers. The observed percentage of time spent with trunk flexed more than 60 degrees was recorded and summarized for each work day using the Back-EST sampling method (Village et al 2009). A cost model was developed using previously published cost data (Trask et al 2007) to account for the costs of recruiting companies, workers, and making a full-shift observation of trunk posture. Precision was described in terms of the standard error of the group mean (SEM), using equations from Samuels (1985) that account for multiple measures within companies and workers. Changes in cost efficiency were calculated for sampling strategies employing different combinations of the following: 1-4 companies, 1-12 workers, and 1-4 measures per worker. The case of one recruited company is highlighted here as an example.Results:(maximum 100 words)The SEM declines steeply for the first few additional subjects, while further subjects increase costs considerably with no substantial improvements in precision. Adding repeated measures generally increased costs with smaller gains in precision. In a single-company example, measuring 6 subjects twice (12 measurements total) yields SEM = 0.76 and costs $3929. The same number of measurements can cost up to $4505 with 12 subjects and no repeats, improving the SEM to 0.75. However, increased cost does not always deliver gains in precision; an SEM of 0.76 can cost up to $5545 when 5 subjects are measured 4 times.Conclusions(maximum 100 words)The total number of measurements has been used as a metric for cost optimization in previous investigations (Lemasters et al 1996). However, an equal number of measurements can have different costs depending on how they are allocated due to recruitment costs. Such cost-efficiency information allows researchers to make informed decisions on the use of limited resources when designing ergonomic studies; either determining the maximum precision level that can be achieved for a given cost, or the minimum cost for a given level of precision.

  • 480.
    Trask, Catherine
    et al.
    Centre for Health and Safety in Agriculture, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Wahlström, Jens
    Department of Public Health & Clinical Medicine, Umeå University.
    Getting what we pay for: comparing the cost efficiency of direct and observed trunk posture methods2013Inngår i: Eighth International Conference on Prevention of Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders; abstracts, 2013, s. 177-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 481.
    Trask, Catherine
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Wahlström, Jens
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Cost-efficient assessment of biomechanical exposure in occupational groups, exemplified by posture observation and inclinometry2014Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 40, nr 3, s. 252-265Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This study compared the cost-efficiency of observation and inclinometer assessment of trunk and upper arm inclination in a population of flight baggage handlers, as an illustration of a general procedure for addressing the trade-off between resource consumption and statistical performance in occupational epidemiology.

    Methods:  Trunk and upper arm inclination with respect to the line of gravity were assessed for 3 days on each of 27 airport baggage handlers using simultaneous recordings by inclinometers and video.  Labour and equipment costs associated with data collection and data processing were tracked throughout.  Statistical performance, in terms of the inverse of the standard deviation and root mean squared error of the group mean exposure, was computed from the variance components within and between workers, and bias (with inclinometer assumed to produce ‘correct’ inclination angles).  The behavior of the trade-off between cost and efficiency with changed sample size, as well as with changed logistics for data collection and processing, was investigated using simulations.

    Results:  At similar total costs, time spent at trunk and arm inclination angles greater than 60 degrees as well as 90th percentile arm inclination were estimated at higher precision using inclinometers, while median inclination and 90th percentile trunk inclination was determined more precisely using observation.  This hierarchy persisted in a scenario where the study was immediately reproduced in another population, while inclinometry was more cost-efficient than observation for all three posture variables in a scenario where data were already collected and only needed to be processed. Observations showed to be biased relative to the –assumed to be correct – inclinometer data, and so inclinometry became the most cost-efficient option for all posture variables and irrespective of scenario when statistical performance was measured by bias and precision combined.

    Conclusions: Inclinometers were more cost-efficient in use than observation for two out of three posture metrics investigated when statistical performance was measured only in terms of precision. Since observations were biased, inclinometers consistently outperformed observation when both bias and precision were included in statistical performance. The presented general model for assessing cost-efficiency may be used for designing exposure assessment strategies with considerations not only to statistical criteria, but even to costs. The empirical data provide a specific basis for planning assessments of working postures in occupational groups.

  • 482.
    Trask, Catherine
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Wahlström, Jens
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Heiden, Marina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Rezagholi, Mahmoud
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Data collection costs in industrial environments for three occupational posture exposure assessment methods2012Inngår i: BMC Medical Research Methodology, ISSN 1471-2288, E-ISSN 1471-2288, Vol. 12, s. 89-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Documentation of posture measurement costs is rare and cost models that do exist are generally naïve. This paper provides a comprehensive cost model for biomechanical exposure assessment in occupational studies, documents the monetary costs of three exposure assessment methods for different stakeholders in data collection, and uses simulations to evaluate the relative importance of cost components.  Trunk and shoulder posture variables were assessed for 27 aircraft baggage handlers for 3 full shifts each using three methods typical to ergonomic studies: self-report via questionnaire, observation via video film, and full-shift inclinometer registration.  The cost model accounted for expenses related to meetings to plan the study, administration, recruitment, equipment, training of data collectors, travel, and onsite data collection.  Sensitivity analyses were conducted using simulated study parameters and cost components to investigate the impact on total study cost.

    Results. Inclinometery was the most expensive method (with a total study cost of € 66,657), followed by observation (€ 55,369) and then self report (€ 36,865). The majority of costs (90%) were borne by researchers.  Study design parameters such as sample size, measurement scheduling and spacing, concurrent measurements, location and travel, and equipment acquisition were shown to have wide-ranging impacts on costs. 

    Conclusions. This study provided a general cost modelling approach that can facilitate decision making and planning of data collection in future studies, as well as investigation into cost efficiency and cost efficient study design. Empirical cost data from a large field study demonstrated the usefulness of the proposed models.

  • 483.
    Trask, Catherine
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Wahlström, Jens
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Heiden, Marina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Rezagholi, Mahmoud
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Modeling costs of exposure assessment methods in industrial environments2012Inngår i: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 41, s. 6079-6086Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Documentation of posture measurement cost is rare and cost models that do exist are generally naïve. This paper provides a comprehensive cost model for ergonomic research, documents the monetary costs of three exposure assessment methods (inclinometry, video observation, and self-report), and discusses cost components. Trunk and shoulder posture were assessed for 27 aircraft baggage handlers for 3 full shifts each using three methods typical to ergonomics: self-report via questionnaire, observation via video film, and full-shift inclinometer registration. The model accounted for costs related to meetings to plan the study, administration, recruitment, equipment, training of data collectors, travel, and onsite data collection. Findings show that inclinometer was the most expensive method, followed by observation and then self report; the majority of costs (90%) were borne by researchers. Study design parameters such as sample size, measurement scheduling and spacing, concurrent measurements, location and travel, and equipment acquisition were shown to have wideranging impacts on costs. This study provided empirical cost data for use in cost models that can facilitate decision making and planning of future studies, and can be used to investigate cost efficiency in future studies

  • 484.
    Trask, Catherine
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Teschke, Kay
    University of British Columbia, Canada.
    Morrison, Jim
    Simon Fraser University, Canada.
    Johnson, Pete
    University of Washington, USA.
    Village, Judy
    University of British Columbia, Canada.
    Koehoorn, Mieke
    University of British Columbia, Canada.
    EMG estimated mean, peak, and cumulative spinal compression of workers  in five heavy industries2010Inngår i: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 40, nr 4, s. 448-454Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this study was to explore the use of compression-normalized electromyography (CNEMG) to estimate mean, peak, and cumulative loading of the low back in workers of five heavy industries using and to compare the estimates to the NIOSH guidelines. Full-shift (5.5 to 10.3 hours) EMG measurements were collected from 105 workers and transformed into units of low back compressive force (Newtons). The mean, peak, and cumulative CNEMG as well as the percentage of work time spent above 3400 N and 6800 N thresholds were calculated. Mean CNEMG (sd) was 1564 N (796), peak was 2721 (1545), and cumulative was 38 MN.sec (22). Mean time spent above the NIOSH threshold of 3400 N was on average 6.3% of shift, while mean time spent above the 6400 N threshold was around 1%. CNEMG allowed the feasible investigation of tasks and jobs that would be virtually impossible with more advanced biomechanical methods and represents a more objective measure of exposure than observation or self-report. CNEMG is a relatively new method with methodological limitations, however, CNEMG's strength may be as an objective, relative measure of exposure in studies where low back EMG is collected in a relatively systematic and structured manner.

  • 485.
    Trask, Catherine
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Teschke, Kay
    School of Environmental Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada; School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
    Morrison, Jim
    Simon Fraser University School of Kinesiology, Burnaby, Canada.
    Johnson, Peter
    Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States.
    Koehoorn, Mieke
    School of Environmental Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada; School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
    Optimising sampling strategies: components of low-back EMG variability in five heavy industries2010Inngår i: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 67, nr 12, s. 853-860Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Direct/ measurement of work activities iscostly, so researchers need to distribute resourcesefficiently to elucidate the relationships betweenexposures and back injury.

    Methods This study used data from full-shiftelectromyography (EMG; N¼133) to develop threeexposure metrics: mean, 90th percentile and cumulativeEMG. For each metric, the components of variance werecalculated between- and within-subject, and betweengroupfor four different grouping schemes: grouping byindustry (construction, forestry, transportation,warehousing and wood products), by company, by job andby quintiles based on exposures ranked by jobs withinindustries. Attenuation and precision of simulatedexposureeresponse relationships were calculated for eachgrouping scheme to determine efficient sampling strategies.

    Results As expected, grouping based on exposurequintiles had the highest between-group variances andlowest attenuation, demonstrating the lowest possibleattenuation with this data.

    Conclusion There is potential for grouping schemes toreduce attenuation, but precision losses should beconsidered and whenever possible empirical data shouldbe employed to select potential exposure groupingschemes.

  • 486.
    Trask, Catherine
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. University of British Columbia School of Environmental Health, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Teschke, Kay
    University of British Columbia School of Population and Public Health, Vancouver, Canada .
    Morrison, Jim
    Simon Fraser University School of Kinesiology, Burnaby, Canada.
    Village, Judy
    University of British Columbia School of Environmental Health, Vancouver, Canada.
    Johnson, Peter
    Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, USA.
    Koehoorn, Mieke
    University of British Columbia School of Population and Public Health, Canada .
    Using observation and self-report to predict mean, 90th percentile, and cumulative low back muscle activity in heavy industry workers2010Inngår i: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 54, nr 5, s. 595-606Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Occupational injury research depends on the ability to accurately assess workplace exposures for large numbers of workers. This study used mixed modeling to identify observed and self-reported predictors of mean, 90th percentile, and cumulative low back muscle activity to help researchers efficiently assess physical exposures in epidemiological studies. Full-shift low back electromyography (EMG) was measured for 133 worker-days in heavy industry. Additionally, full-shift, 1-min interval work-sampling observations and post-shift interviews assessed exposure to work tasks, trunk postures, and manual materials handling. Data were also collected on demographic and job variables. Regression models using observed variables predicted 31-47% of the variability in the EMG activity measures, while self-reported variables predicted 21-36%. Observation-based models performed better than self-report-based models and may provide an alternative to direct measurement of back injury risk factors.

  • 487.
    Tronarp, Rebecca
    et al.
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nyberg, André
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hedlund, Mattias
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Häger, Charlotte K.
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    McDonough, Suzanne
    Institute of Nursing and Health Research, Ulster University, Jordanstown, UK.
    Björklund, Martin
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Office-cycling: a promising way to raise pain thresholds and increase metabolism with minimal compromising of work performance2018Inngår i: BioMed Research International, ISSN 2314-6133, E-ISSN 2314-6141, Vol. 2018, artikkel-id 5427201Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sedentary behaviour constitutes a risk for lifestyle related diseases and musculoskeletal pain which does not seem to be compensated for by shorter bouts of high intensity physical activity. A way of tackling this may be long term light intensity physical activity while performing office work.

    Aim: Establish the effects of low intensity cycling (LC), moderate intensity cycling (MC) and standing at a simulated office workstation on pain modulation, metabolic expenditure and work performance.

    Methods: 36 healthy adults (21 females), mean age 26.8 (SD 7.6) years, partook in this randomized 3x3 cross-over trial with 75 minutes of LC on 20% of maximum aerobic power output (MAP), 30 minutes of MC on 50% of MAP and standing 30 minutes with 48 hours wash-out periods. Outcome measures were pain modulation (pressure- and thermal pain thresholds, (PPT and TPT)), work performance (transcription, mouse pointing and cognitive performance) and metabolic expenditure.

    Results: PPTs increased in all conditions. Median increase in PPT trapezius was highest after LC; 39.3 kilopascal (kPa) (15.6;78.6) compared to MC; 17.0 kPa (2.8;49.9) and standing; 16.8 kPa (-5.6;39.4), p=0.015. TPT showed no change. Work performance; compared to standing, transcription was reduced during LC and MC, mouse pointing was faster in LC but had more errors while slower with more errors in MC. Performance in the cognitive task did not differ between conditions. Metabolic expenditure rates differed between all conditions (p<0.001) and were 1.4 (1.3;1.7), 3.3 (2.3;3.7) and 7.5 (5.8;8.7) kilocalories per minute during standing, LC and MC, respectively.

    Conclusions: LC seem to be the preferred option since it raised PPTs, more than doubled metabolic expenditure, while minimally influencing work performance when compared to standing. Thus, LC is promising but requires corroboration in field studies.

  • 488. van den Berg, Johannes
    et al.
    Landström, Ulf
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Dålig sömn ger trötta yrkesförare2006Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 489. van den Berg, Johannes
    et al.
    Landström, Ulf
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Mätmetoder av sömnighet2006Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 490. van den Berg, Johannes
    et al.
    Landström, Ulf
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Symptoms of sleepiness while driving and their relationship to prior sleep, work and individual characteristics2006Inngår i: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 207-226Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In total, 154 lorry and bus drivers participated in a questionnaire study dealing with sleepiness in traffic. The questionnaire included questions about sleep before work, appearance of sleepiness, the type of sleepiness they experienced while driving, and ways to counter sleepiness while driving. Driver sleepiness was analysed with respect to age, type of driving, traffic intensity, experience of work, and sleep before work. About 14% of the drivers reported regular sleepiness while driving, 33% had occasionally fought sleepiness while driving, and 8% had experienced nodding of the head while driving. The majority of the drivers had once been so tired that they had to stop driving. Sleepiness normally occurred between 03.00 and 06.00, at the end of longer trips, and was most frequently appeared in autumn. Poor sleep and poor working hours were considered as the most important causes to sleepiness. Eye tiredness, yawning, difficulties concentrating on the road, and difficulties keeping one’s thoughts together: these were the most frequently reported symptoms of sleepiness. More sleeping hours before work, better working hours, naps during work, listening to the radio, conversations, and lowering the cabin temperature were the most frequently mentioned countermeasures. The appearances of sleepiness while driving was strongly correlated to lower sleep hours and lower sleep quality before work. Age, type of work, or work experience did not interfere with sleepiness in the investigated group in any systematic way.

  • 491.
    van den Berg, Johannes
    et al.
    National Institute of Working Life, Umeå, Sweden.
    Neely, Gregory
    National Institute of Working Life, Umeå, Sweden.
    Wiklund, Urban
    Department of Biomedical Engineering and Informatics, University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden.
    Landström, Ulf
    National Institute of Working Life, Umeå, Sweden.
    Heart rate variability during sedentary work and sleep in normal and sleep-deprived states2006Inngår i: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging, ISSN 1475-0961, E-ISSN 1475-097X, Vol. 25, s. 51-57Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 492.
    van der Beek, Allard
    et al.
    Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam Public Health research institute, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam.
    Dennerlein, Jack T.
    Bouvé College of Health Sciences, Northeastern University, Boston.
    Huysmans, Maaike
    Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam Public Health research institute, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Burdorf, Alex
    Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam.
    van Mechelen, Willem
    Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam Public Health research institute, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam.
    van Dieën, Jaap
    Department of Human Movement Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
    Frings-Dresen, Monique
    Academic Medical Center, Department Coronel Institute of Occupational Health and Netherlands Center for Occupational Diseases, Amsterdam.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    Janwantanakul, Prawit
    Work-related Musculoskeletal Injury Research Unit, Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok.
    van der Molen, Henk
    Academic Medical Center, Department Coronel Institute of Occupational Health and Netherlands Center for Occupational Diseases, Amsterdam.
    Rempel, David
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University of California, San Francisco.
    Straker, Leon
    Curtin University, School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Perth.
    Walker-Bone, Karen
    Arthritis Research UK/MRC centre for Musculoskeletal Health and Work, University of Southampton.
    Coenen, Pieter
    Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam Public Health research institute, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam.
    A research framework for the development and implementation of interventions preventing work-related musculoskeletal disorders2017Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 43, nr 6, s. 526-539Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are highly prevalent and put a large burden on the (working) society. Primary prevention of work-related MSD focuses often on physical risk factors (such as on manual lifting and awkward postures), but has not been too successful in reducing the MSD burden. This may partly be caused by insufficient knowledge of etiological mechanisms and/or a lack of adequately feasible interventions (theory failure and program failure, respectively), possibly due to limited integration of research disciplines. A research framework could link research disciplines thereby strengthening the development and implementation of preventive interventions. Our objective was to define and describe such a framework for multi-disciplinary research on work-related MSD prevention.

    Methods: We described a framework for MSD prevention research, partly based on frameworks from other research fields (i.e., sports injury prevention and public health).

    Results: The framework is composed of a repeated sequence of six steps comprising the assessment of 1) incidence and severity of MSD, 2) risk factors for MSD, and 3) underlying mechanisms; and the 4) development, 5) evaluation, and 6) implementation of preventive intervention(s).

    Conclusions: In the present framework for optimal work-related MSD prevention, research disciplines are linked. This framework can thereby help to improve theories and strengthen the development and implementation of prevention strategies for work-related MSD.

  • 493.
    van der Beek, Allard
    et al.
    Department of Public and Occupational Health, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Burdorf, Alex
    Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam.
    Efficient assessment of exposure to manual lifting using company data2013Inngår i: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 44, nr 3, s. 360-365Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study, based on an extensive dataset on manual materials handling during scaffolding, was to explore whether routinely collected company data can be used to estimate exposure to manual lifting.The number of manual lifts of scaffold parts while constructing/dismantling scaffolds was well predicted by the number of scaffolders in the team and the type of worksite, in combination with company data of either the number of scaffold parts or the scaffold volume. The proportion of explained variance in the number of lifts ranged from 77% to 92%, depending on the variables in the model. Data on scaffold parts and scaffold volume can easily be obtained from the company’s administration, since this is its usual paperwork supporting logistics and customer invoicing, respectively.We conclude that company data can be a promising source of information for ergonomic practitioners and researchers, to support assessment of manual lifting in scaffolding.

  • 494.
    Veiersted, Kaj Bo
    et al.
    National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hansson, Gert-Åke
    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Assessment of time patterns of activity and rest in full-shift recordings of trapezius muscle activity - effects of the data processing procedure2013Inngår i: Journal of Electromyography & Kinesiology, ISSN 1050-6411, E-ISSN 1873-5711, Vol. 23, nr 3, s. 540-547Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper was to compare the effects of different data reduction procedures on the values of variables characterizing the time pattern of trapezius muscle activity during full work shifts. Surface electromyography (EMG) of the right and left upper trapezius muscles were obtained from 40 young subjects in different occupations, mainly electricians, hairdressers and students. The target EMG variables were gap frequency, muscle rest, and the number and duration of episodes with sustained muscle activity (from 0.13 s to 30 min as minimum duration). These variables were derived from the EMG recordings using different Root Mean Square (RMS) windows (from 0.13 to 6.38 s), and discrimination levels between "activity" and "rest" (0.5, 1 and 2 % of maximal EMG). The results give basis for practical suggestions for EMG analyses of full work shifts. For most variables, a discrimination level of 0.5% EMGmax showed to be preferable. The time proportion of muscle rest and sustained muscle activity should, in general, be preferred over the corresponding frequency measures. Sustained muscle activity should be calculated using a RMS window between 1 and 3 s, and preferably be stated in terms of variables describing time proportions of activity. Uninterrupted activity episodes longer than 10 min proved not to be a useful variable due to limited occurrence in many work shifts.

  • 495.
    Village, J
    et al.
    School of Environmental Health, College for Interdisciplinary Studies, University of British Columbia.
    Trask, Catherine
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Chow, Y
    School of Environmental Health, College for Interdisciplinary Studies, University of British Columbia.
    Morrison, J B
    School of Biomedical Physiology and Kinesiology, Simon Fraser University.
    Koehoorn, Mieke
    School of Environmental Health, College for Interdisciplinary Studies, University of British Columbia.
    Teschke, Kay
    School of Environmental Health, College for Interdisciplinary Studies, University of British Columbia.
    Assessing whole body vibration exposure for use in epidemiological studies of back injuries: measurements, observations and self-reports2012Inngår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 55, nr 4, s. 415-424Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved assessment of whole body vibration exposure is needed for epidemiological studies investigating the causes of low back disorders. Vibration was measured on 54 worker-days in five heavy industries, with data collected on observed and self-reported driving conditions, demographics, and vehicle characteristics. Variables significant at p<0.1 in simple linear regressions (20 of 34) were retained for mixed effects multiple regressions to determine the best prediction of rms vibration level and 8-h equivalent vibration exposure. Vibration was measured, on average, for 205 min per work shift (SD 105). Means and standard deviations in ms-2 were: x-axis 0.35 (0.19); y-axis 0.34 (0.28); z-axis 0.54 (0.23); vector sum 0.90 (0.49); and 8-h equivalent vector sum 0.70 (0.37). The final three regression models retained only 2 or 3 of the 34 variables (driving speed (<20 km/h and/or 20–40 km/h) and industry and/or vehicle type and explained up to 60% of the variance (R2=0.26–0.6))

  • 496.
    Vingård, Eva
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Järvholm, Bengt ()
    Umeå universitet.
    Hogstedt, Christer ()
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lindberg, Per ()
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Karlsson, Thomas ()
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Helgesson, Magnus ()
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Johansson, Bo ()
    Uppsala University Hospital, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Psykisk ohälsa, arbetsliv och sjukfrånvaro: en kunskapsöversikt2015Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kunskapsöversikten visar att det finns ett vetenskapligt samband mellan arbete, psykisk ohälsa och sjukskrivning. Riskfaktorer i arbetslivet är psykiskt ansträngande arbete, höga krav, låg kontroll, obalans mellan ansträngning och belöning, samt rollkonflikter. God kontroll och rättvisa ger minskad risk för sjukskrivning på grund av psykisk ohälsa.

    Det vetenskapliga underlaget för vilken åtgärd som är mest effektiv vid återgång i arbete efter en sjukskrivning på grund av psykisk ohälsa är svagt. Kunskaps- översikten visar dock tydligt att arbetsplatsen måste vara involverad för att medarbetaren ska komma tillbaka i arbete på ett bra sätt. Det finns flera vetenskapligt dokumenterade friskfaktorer i arbetet som kan minska risken för psykisk ohälsa och som bör användas i det förebyggande arbetet.

    Kunskapsöversikten visar också att effekten på den psykiska hälsan är likartad när kvinnor och män utsätts för samma faktorer i arbetet.

  • 497.
    Wadman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Department for Health Behaviours, Swedish National Institute of Public Health, Östersund, Sweden.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    Högskolan i Gävle, Institutionen för teknik och byggd miljö, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    The role of the affective stress response as a mediator for the effect of psychosocial risk factors on musculoskeletal complaints - Part 2: Hospital workers2007Inngår i: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 37, nr 5, s. 395-403Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This cross-sectional study of 267 hospital workers from different professions tested the hypothesis that affective stress responses mediate the effects of the psychosocial work environment on musculoskeletal complaints (MSCs). Self-reported psychosocial conditions,ergonomic workloads, affective stress and energy responses, and MSCs were analysed with a series of logistic regression analyses. The psychosocial variables were strongly related to stress and energy, and stress was related to MSCs. Neck and shoulder complaints were more common in the group with high demands and low skill discretion. This was the only significant relation between psychosocial variables and MSCs that was not explained by their confounding with ergonomic workload. However, controlling for stress did not substantially reduce or reduce this interaction effect, which would have been the case if it had been mediated (completely or partially) by stress.

  • 498.
    Wahlström, Jens
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Bergsten, Eva
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Trask, Catherine
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. Centre for Health and Safety in Agriculture, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Jackson, Jennie
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning. IMM Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Full-shift trunk and upper arm postures and movements among aircraft baggage handlers2016Inngår i: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 60, nr 8, s. 977-990Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The present study assessed full shift trunk and upper arm postural exposure amplitudes, frequencies, and durations among Swedish airport baggage handlers, and aimed to determine whether exposures differ between workers at the ramp (loading and unloading aircraft) and baggage sorting areas.

    Methods: Trunk and upper arm postures were measured using inclinometers during three full work shifts on each of 27, male baggage handlers working at a large Swedish airport. Sixteen of the baggage handlers worked on the ramp and 11 in the sorting area. Variables summarizing postures and movements were calculated, and mean values and variance components between subjects and within subject (between days) were estimated using restricted maximum likelihood algorithms in a one-way random effect model.

    Results: In total, data from 79 full shifts (651 hours) were collected with a mean recording time of 495 minutes per shift (range 319-632). On average, baggage handlers worked with the right and left arm elevated >60° for 6.4% and 6.3% of the total workday, respectively. The 90th percentile trunk forward projection (FP) was 34.1° and the 50th percentile trunk movement velocity was 8°s-1. For most trunk (FP) and upper arm exposure variables, between-subject variability was considerable, suggesting that the flight baggage handlers were not a homogeneously exposed group. A notable between-days variability pointed to the contents of the job differing on different days. Peak exposures (>90°) were higher for ramp workers than for sorting area workers (trunk 0.6% ramp vs 0.3% sorting; right arm 1.3% ramp vs 0.7% sorting).

    Conclusions: Trunk and upper arm postures and movements among flight baggage handlers measured by inclinometry were similar to those found in other jobs comprising manual material handling, known to be associated with increased risks for musculoskeletal disorders. The results showed that full-shift trunk (FP), and to some extent peak arm exposures, were higher for ramp workers compared to sorting workers.

  • 499.
    Wahlström, Jens
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Liv, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, CBF. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Hedlund, Pernilla
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umea University Hospital, SE-901 85 Umeå, Sweden.
    Ahlgren, Christina
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Umea University, SE-901 87 Umeå, Sweden.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Upper arm postures and movements in female hairdressers across four full working days2010Inngår i: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 54, nr 5, s. 584-594Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To describe upper arm postures and movements among female hairdressers, including the variability between hairdressers, between days within hairdresser, and between tasks, as a basis for understanding the characteristics of exposures in the job, considering possible sources of variation and recovery, and discussing appropriate exposure assessment strategies. METHODS: Data on upper arm postures were collected using inclinometers during four working days the same week from 28 female hairdressers working in 13 salons. Twenty of the hairdressers noted customer on and off times in a diary, to allow separate analyses of customer tasks (CT) and auxiliary non-customer tasks (AT), including breaks. For a number of posture and movement variables, mean values and variance components between subjects (BS) and within subjects between days (BD) were estimated using restricted maximum likelihood algorithms in one-way random effect models. RESULTS: For the 20 hairdressers with diaries, CT accounted for 279 min (58%) (SD(BS) = 39 min and SD(BD) = 85 min) of the working day and AT and breaks for 207 min (42%) (SD(BS) = 46 min and SD(BD) = 88 min). The hairdressers worked with the right arm elevated >60 degrees for 6.8% of the whole job (SD(BS) = 2.8% and SD(BD) = 2.0%). On average, the hairdressers worked with the right arm elevated >60 degrees for 9.0% of the time during CT, compared to 3.7% during AT, resulting in a contrast between tasks of 0.35. CONCLUSIONS: Hairdressers may be at risk for developing musculoskeletal disorders in the neck and shoulders due to a considerable occurrence of highly elevated arms, especially during CT. On the other hand, we do not find reasons to classify hairdressing as a job with too little variation. Posture variability between days within hairdressers was in the same order of magnitude as that between hairdressers, suggesting that 'typical' workdays do not exist. The exposure contrast between CT and AT for variables describing elevated arm postures indicates that for these variables a simple task-based approach for estimating job exposure could be successful.

  • 500.
    Waleh Åström, Amanda
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Heiden, Marina
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för arbets- och folkhälsovetenskap, Arbetshälsovetenskap. Högskolan i Gävle, Centrum för belastningsskadeforskning.
    Strömberg, Annika
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och psykologi, Socialt arbete.
    Uncertainty in monetary cost estimates for assessing working postures using inclinometry, observation or self-report2017Inngår i: NES 2017 ”JOY AT WORK”: Conference Proceedings / [ed] Anna-Lisa Osvalder, Mikael Blomé and Hajnalka Bodnar, 2017, s. 160-161Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    In order to optimize cost-efficiency when collecting posture data in field studies, accurate cost data are needed. A few studies have assessed costs of different measurement methods, but they did not address the uncertainty of the cost estimates. Information on the uncertainty of cost estimates is key input when deciding which method to use.

    Aim

    This study aimed atassessingthe uncertainty in estimates of costs for collecting posture data by inclinometry, observations and self-report.

    Method

    The study wasbased on data collected at a Swedish paper mill (Heiden et al. 2017)1. Using a model developed by Trask et al. (2014)2, costs were calculatedfor measuring trunk and upperarm postures of twenty-eight workers during three full shifts using inclinometers, observations from recorded videos, and workers’ self-reports from a questionnaire. For each measurement method, the uncertainty of the actually observed total cost was assessed by determining the range of costs between an assumed best case (lowest cost) and worst case (highest cost) using scenario analysis.

    Results

    Observation was the most expensive method (€41499) and also showed a large uncertainty in the cost estimate (€19089–€87154). Self-reports had the lowest cost (€9156) with the smallest uncertainty (€3941–€27473). The overall cost for inclinometry was €16851 with best and worst cases €8567 and €60313, respectively. The actual costs of inclinometry and self-reports in the conducted study were reasonably close to the best case.

    Discussion

    In their study of flight baggage handling, Trask et al. (2014) concluded that inclinometry was more expensive than observation when measuring trunk and arm postures. In the present study, we found observation to be the more expensive. Given the uncertainty in cost estimates, both results are plausible. Notably, in Trask et al. (2014), video recordings were restricted to 4 hours, whereas in the present material, video recordings covered full 7 -to 12-hour shifts. The time allocated to collecting video material for observations will significantly affect the cost comparison of methods, and this may serve as an example that further investigations of separate cost components for each method are warranted.

    Conclusions

    Based on a meticulous cost assessment, we found that cost estimates for observation of working postures were the most uncertain, followed by inclinometry and self-reports. A better understanding of data collection costs and their uncertainty, and thus of how to properly identifyan optimal measurement method, requires a deeper analysis of the cost model, and of the contributions of separate cost components to the overall cost

    1 https://doi.org/10.1093/annweh/wxw0262

    2 https://doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3416

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