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  • 501.
    Bordes Roca, Adria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science.
    Impacts of implementation of electric scooters in daily transport: case study in Gavle2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 502.
    Borg, Helene
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Naturvetenskapligt labbkompendium: En Studieguide för integrerad undervisning2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The problematic situation in Secondary Schools education regarding motivation and stimulation in scientific subjects has not yet been solved. Theories of didactic skills have developed throughout the last centuries, but to achieve sustainable learning methods teacher need to improve their creativity and enthusiasm by leaving the comfort zone. Implementation of scientific knowledge has to undergo many steps before students accept the facts and can use the information in another scenario. Though, lots of attempt to establish good and healthy atmosphere in the classroom has occurred by optimize student learning process. Therefore, it is of great importance that all courses regarding science topics work together by integrate the issues, theories, discussions and skills. The different disciplines such as biology, chemistry and environmental courses are all dependent on laboratory experience to anchor long lasting memory bank. By anchor the experiments in the reality students motivation increased by their eagerness to discover the unknown. Mathematics has the privilege of being the overall discipline that can quantify and examine the laws of science in an experiential manner. The advantage of measuring different situation and calculate the significance helps student to understand environmental phenomena occurring on our planet. The purpose of making a

    Study Guide was to improve laboratory exercise by stimulating inventiveness, increasing adjustments toward the reality and expanding participation of all different scientific disciplines such as biology, chemistry and mathematics. The Study Guide

    was design to consist of defined protocols to self-exploring experiments. Problem-Based Learning (PBL) has the advantage of putting the solving process in the center. Thereby, it can generate a platform of self-regulated education making the student taking charge of its own progress. The eagerness of improved wisdom can be transform into a cascade of reactions and outcomes that will lead into new inventions. Since the students often pay more attention to what the teacher does than what the teacher says, the teacher’s leadership has to have the same philosophy as the mathematic prospective of solving a problem. If all our senses were activated during an event profound understanding of the circumstance will occur. The athletic coaching skills normally have a philosophy involving PBL strategy. Taking into account how different sports adjust their training sessions to suit each individual capacity and to strengthen their weakness, is something many teachers can learn from. Coaching has entered the education corridor, but still many teacher lack the knowledge how coaching should be performed. Synchronizing suitable chemistry and biology theories and experiments in time established long lasting awareness. By using tools the student are well familiar with, such as www.youtube.se, increased their ability to search for reliable scientific information elsewhere. The guarantee can never be ensured, since there are so many factors that influence the outcome of the lesson. To prepare for the unknown is what scientific research is all about, which a teacher has to embrace and use as a self-reflecting process to ensure quality of learning than quantity of studying. The group dynamic varies enormously, but those who know the usefulness of education have the motivation to continue the path of science.

  • 503.
    Borg, Tommy
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Utvärdering av Wordpress: Design och Säkerhet2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Wordpress har använts länge för att bygga webbsidor, från början mest webbsidor där bloggen stod i centrum, men på senare tid även för att bygga mer avancerade webbsidor. Detta är skrivet i första hand för att få ett grepp om vilka fördelar och nackdelar det finns med Wordpress som webbplattform. Dokumentet ska kunna fungera som visst informationsunderlag vid utvecklandet av en Wordpresswebbsida. Dokumentet pekar på problematiken med att ge en kund viss begränsad möjlighet att lägga upp eget material, och ändå försöka säkerställa webbsidans grundkonstruktion och design. Det som gjordes är en Wordpresswebbsida och mall i Wordpress som ska kunna ligga till grund vid utvecklande av nya webbsidor i Wordpress, bägge med en mängd relevanta inlagda plugin, allt för att webbsidan ska ha vissa funktioner som video, bildgallerier, medlemshantering med mera, och en utvärdering om säkerheten i Wordpress.

  • 504.
    Borghero, Cecilia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Feasibility study of dam deformation monitoring in northern Sweden using Sentinel1 SAR interferometry2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Dams are man-made structures that in order to keep functioning and to be considered structurally healthy need constant monitoring. Assessing the deformation of dams can be time consuming and economically costly.

    Recently, the technique of Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) has proved its potential to measure ground and structural deformation. This geodetic method represents a cost-effective way to monitor millimetre-level displacements and can be used as supplemental analysis to detect movements in the structure and its surroundings.

    The objective of this work is to assess the practicality of the method through the analysis of the surface deformation of the Ajaure dam located in northern Sweden, in the period 2014-2017, using the freely available Sentinel-1A images. The scenes, 51 in ascending and 47 in descending mode, were processed exploiting the Persistent Scatterer (PS) technique and deformation trends, and time series were produced.

    Built in the 60’s, the Ajaure embankment dam is considered as high consequence, meaning that a failure would cause socio-economic damages to the communities involved and, for this reason, the dam needs constant attention. So far, a program of automatic measurements in situ has been collecting data, which have been used partly to compare with InSAR results.

    Results of the multi temporal analysis of the limited PS points on/around the dam show that the dam has been subsiding more intensely toward the centre, where maximum values are of approximately 5 ± 1.25 mm/year (descending) and 2 ± 1.27 mm/year (ascending) at different locations (separated of approximately 70 m). Outermost points instead show values within -0.7 and 0.9 mm/year, describing a stable behaviour. The decomposition of the rate has furthermore revealed that the crest in the observation period has laterally moved toward the reservoir.

    It has been observed that the operation of loading and unloading the reservoir influence the dam behaviour. The movements recorded by the PS points on the dam also correlate with the air temperature (i.e. seasonal cycle).

    The research revealed that the snow cover and the vegetation could have interfered with the signal, that resulted in a relative low correlation. Therefore, the number of PS points on and around the dam is limited, and comparison with the geodetic data is only based on a few points. The comparison shows general agreement, showing the capacities of the InSAR method.

    The study constitutes a starting point for further improvements, for example observation in longer period when more Sentinel1 images of the study area are collected. Installation of corner reflectors at the dam site and/or by use of high resolution SAR data is also suggested.

  • 505.
    Borgström, Stina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Norman, Elin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Värdeinverkan vid avsaknad av väg: Hur påverkas marknadsvärdet om väg fram till fastigheten saknas?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to serve as a material for further investigation concerning higher quality of tax procedures related to the adjustment of assessed values when there is no road to single- family houses. This is because there are currently no guidelines for this type of adjustment. The aim of the study is to investigate the value of the impact an absence of a road to single-family houses may have on its market value, and what makes this value of the impact difficult or easy to assess.

    The methods applied in the study concerns a quantitative- and qualitative research. The quantitative survey was conducted in the form of telephone interviews with brokers and property appraisers. This was done to obtain a general picture of how the market considers the condition of an absence of road. This survey was supplemented with qualitative interviews to obtain a deeper understanding of how the market value is influenced by this condition, and how this value assessment is done.

    The results of the survey indicate that an impact of the market value can be demonstrated for those single- family houses which have an absence of road. The impact of the market value is difficult to assess because it varies by different property conditions, market values and facility costs. The result also shows that, even at a distance of over 100 meters from the property to the nearest drivable road, the impact on the market value is considered to be above 20 percent. The conclusions from the results are that an absence of road, in the most cases, is a value lowering factor. Furthermore would clearer guidelines, for value assessment, facilitate the process of the valuation.

  • 506.
    Borgvall, Albin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Rodestrand, Robin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Utvecklad value stream mapping för en varierande produktion mot kundorder: En fallstudie vid Karl Hedin Emballage AB2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Today’s high demand on customer specific products has led to an upstream of organizations that are adapting an make-to-order production strategy. Seeing that these organizations compete by obtaining low lead-times and the ability to present unique and affordable products, a need has been created to use lean-based methods in attempt to reduce waste, create an efficient production, thus to gain competitive advantage. The issue is that lean-methods are not developed for these types of organizations. 

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compile a model that describes how an organization that is characterized by make-to-order strategy and with a high variety in products manufactured in low volumes can implement value stream mapping to create an efficient production and thus gain competitive advantage.

    Methodology: The study is carried out through a case-study on a company that manufacture based on the specification of customer-orders. To perform a value stream mapping, relevant literature was collected and studied. Consequently, interviews and observations were conducted and constitute the empirical data. Subsequently the literature review along with the empirical data constitutes the conclusions and findings.   

    Results: The case company is characterized by a complex manufacturing of unique products with crossing information- and material flows which complicates value stream mapping. The processes consist of manual cutting, semi-manual cutting, plywood cutting, component manufacturing, and assembling. Processes with similar operations were spread throughout the manufacturing plant and the assembly points were identified as bottle-necks.  

    Conclusion: A model that describes how an organization that is characterized by make-to-order strategy and with a high variety in products manufactured in low volumes can implement value stream mapping has been compiled. Furthermore, additional aspects have been identified that are significant in the implementation of value stream mapping within this form of production.

  • 507.
    Borén, Cecilia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Lämplighetsbedömning vid 3D-fastighetsbildning: Hur bedömningen av lämpliga förvaltningsobjekt görs med hänsyn till storlek och andra påverkande faktorer2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays it can be seen that smaller and smaller 3D-property units are formed. To form 3D-property units the property formation procedure must have undergone an assessment of suitability where the general suitability conditions in the third chapter of the Property Formation Act should be taken into account. The legislative history and the commentary of the Property Formation Act speak of that the 3D-property units formed should be suitable management objects and be of palpable size. The size perspective on the 3D-property units has, in some cases, been proven challenging to assess for the cadastral authority.

    This study examines how the assessment of suitable management objects is performed and how the assessment can be affected by other factors. To achieve this, a survey, interviews and a study of property information procedure dossiers have been done. The study of dossiers shows that it is difficult to see reasons to why the 3D-property unit has been considered suitable. The survey and interviews show that the assessment is done with the 3D-property unit’s purpose and independence in mind. The independence is dependent on that the 3D-property unit can operate without too many rights, be economically stable and function alone from a management perspective. The size is only of small significance when it comes to the assessment.

    Conclusion is that the suitability for each management object, the 3D-property units, is done according to the general suitability conditions of the third chapter of the Property Formation Act, where the size doesn’t have an impending significance. However, other factors can affect the assessment; factors that are taken into account individually in each 3D-case.

  • 508.
    Bosell, Josefine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Lindblad, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Fastighetstaxering av lokalhyreshus: Utrymmen under mark2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    At a property tax assesment of a non-residential rental housing unit the valuation model of land does not take in to consideration the space beneath it that generate revenue from rent. This means that the tax assessment value of the land does not necessarily reflect the market value.   The purpose of this paper is to make a survey, of two Swedish cities, that can provide the National Land Survey with information that can help them improve the quality of the tax assessment value. The aim is to identify possible connections between the market value in comparison to the tax assessment value of properties with and without space beneath ground.  The methods used are a qualitative analysis of the purchase price in relation to tax assessment values and qualitative interviews. The analysis of the purchase price was done to answer if space beneath ground affects the market value compared to the tax assessment value. The interviews aim to create a deeper knowledge of the value of space beneath ground.  The results from the analysis of the purchase price showed that the market value was not affected by space beneath ground. However, it emerged in the interviews that the land value for space beneath ground should be handled differently during assassment, because it has a noteworthy value. The conclusion was that space beneath ground that generates revenue, should be included in the property tax assessment under special conditions.  

  • 509.
    Bosnjak, Vjekoslav
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Waste Heat Recovery in Intensive Small and Medium Sized Industries: Case Study - Gästrike Härdverkstad2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to keep a high level and to stay competitive in the world market in the future, it is important for the Swedish steel industry to improve their efficiencies continuously and to reduce the energy consumption. In order to realize these goals, the Swedish steel association Jernkotoret was found and by their initiative Triple Steelix was found in 2006 in Berglanden, a significant area for the steel industry. In 2009, the Clean Production Centre was found in Hofors in order to build a cluster of local steel manufacturers, factories and companies. One of those companies is Gästrike Härdverkstad, a small steal heat treatment industry with six employees and about 700.000 tons treated materials every year.

    The aim for this thesis is to suggest solutions for recovering waste heat and lowering the total energy consumption in furnaces for heat treatment in the case of Gästrike Härdverkstad.

    Some limitations were necessary to complete the analysis and to come to conclusions. The yearly treated material and energy prices were assumed to be constant and the yearly power consumption was estimated by an extrapolation of a one to five days measurement.

    Gästrike Härdverkstad is located in Uhrfors, the southern part of Åshammar, a village with 727 inhabitants. There are not any buildings with a possibility to supply heat and there is no district heating in the surroundings. The company has a power consumption of 1.40 GWh/year, of which 65.7% is consumed by the 12 main furnaces. The rest is used by eight seldom used furnaces, devices and auxiliary machines of the support process like fans, pumps, compressor, office heating, and some other. The efficiencies of the main furnaces are between 10% and 20%.The estimated energy consumption of the space heating is about 27 MWh/year, which completely can be covered by the material coolant and the combustion heat of the exhaust gases from the hardening furnaces. Since there are 10 different types of furnaces with different duties and efficiencies, the preheating furnace was taken as an example and compared with a new furnace. According to the needs of Gästrike Härdverkstad, the furnace VAW 60/100-650°C from the company Vötsch was chosen at the cost of 248,827 SEK. The payback time depends on the efficiency. With an efficiency of 40% the payback time would be about 13 years, see Figure 20.

    After the annealing and ageing, the finished products are cooled down in the building hall by the ambient air. In future, the possibility of preheating the material with the heat of the finished products should be considered. With an efficiency of 30.87%, one preheating furnace could bereplaced, and taken a payback time of 5 years into account; the price of the construction would be allowed to be up to 253,200 SEK.

  • 510.
    Boström, Joel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Building a GIS Web Service for Mobile Phone and Evaluating its Usability: Case study – A cleanliness index GIS2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to identify key usability factors in a GIS (Geographical Information System) web service for mobile phone. The study also includes a usability evaluation of such a prototype. The prototype was created with the objective of evaluating the cleanliness in the city of Gävle and involving the users in keeping the city clean. Research on the subject of usability was performed in preparation for the development of the prototype. The subsequent usability test that was performed showed that the prototype was highly usable in consideration to efficiency, learnability and satisfaction. However in regards to effectiveness, the prototype was in its current state not highly usable.

  • 511.
    BOUCHANE, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Energy auditing and saving for a four floor building: Diös building, ventilation and heating system2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 512.
    Boustedt, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science.
    A Student Perspective on Software Development and Maintenance2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How do Computer Science students view Software Development and Software Maintenance? To answer this question, a Phenomenographic perspective was chosen, and 20 Swedish students at four universities were interviewed.

    The interviews were analyzed to find in which different ways the informants, on collective level, see the phenomena of interest. The resulting outcome spaces show that software development is described in a number of qualitatively different ways reaching from problem solving, design and deliver, design for the future and then a more comprehensive view that includes users, customers, budget and other aspects. Software maintenance is described as correcting bugs, making additions, adapting to new requirements from the surroundings, and something that is a natural part of the job.

    Finally, conclusions from the results and additional observations are discussed in terms of their implications for teaching, and some suggestions for practical use are given.

  • 513.
    Boustedt, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science.
    On the Road to a Software Profession: Students' Experiences of Concepts and Thresholds2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that there are gaps in knowledge between newly hired and experienced professionals and that some of these gaps are related to concepts, such as the concepts of object orientation. This problem, and the fact that most computer science majors want to work in the software industry, leads to questions regarding why these gaps exist and how students can be better prepared for their future careers. Against this background, this thesis addresses two theme-based perspectives that focus on students' views of concepts in Computer Science.

    The first theme-based perspective investigated the existence of potential Threshold Concepts in Computer Science. Such concepts should be troublesome, transformative, irreversible, and integrative. Qualitative methods have been mainly used and empirical data have been collected through semi-structured interviews, concept maps, and written stories. The results identified two Threshold Concepts, suggested several more, and then described the ways in which these concepts have transformed students.

    The second theme-based perspective took a phenomenographic approach to find the variation in how students understand concepts related to the software profession. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews. In one study the interviews were held in connection with role-playing where students took on the role of a newly hired programmer. The results show a variety of ways to experience the addressed phenomena in the student collective, ranging from superficial views that often have a practical nature to more sophisticated understandings that reflect a holistic approach, including a professional point of view.

    Educators can use the results to emphasize concepts that are important from students' perspectives. The phenomenographic outcome spaces can help teachers to reflect upon their own ways of seeing contrasted with student conceptions. I have indicated how variation theory can be applied to open more sophisticated ways of seeing, which in this context stresses the professional aspects to help students prepare for becoming professional software developers.

  • 514.
    Boustedt, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science.
    Students' different understandings of class diagrams2012In: Computer Science Education, ISSN 0899-3408, E-ISSN 1744-5175, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 29-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The software industry needs well-trained software designers and one important aspect of software design is the ability to model softwaredesigns visually and understand what visual models represent. However, previous research indicates that software design is a difficulttask to many students. This article reports empirical findings from aphenomenographic investigation on how students understand classdiagrams, Unified Modeling Language (UML) symbols, and relationsto object-oriented (OO) concepts. The informants were 20 Computer Science students from four different universities in Sweden. The results show qualitatively different ways to understand and describe UML class diagrams and the ‘‘diamond symbols’’ representing aggregation and composition. The purpose of class diagrams was understood in a varied way, from describing it as a documentation to a more advanced view related to communication. The descriptions of class diagrams varied from seeing them as a specification of classes to a more advanced view, where they were described to show hierarchic structures of classes and relations. The diamond symbols were seen as ‘‘relations’’ and a more advanced way was seeing the white and theblack diamonds as different symbols for aggregation and composition. As a consequence of the results, it is recommended that UML should be adopted in courses. It is briefly indicated how the phenomenographic results in combination with variation theory can be used by teachers to enhance students’ possibilities to reach advanced understanding of phenomena related to UML classdiagrams. Moreover, it is recommended that teachers should put more effort in assessing skills in proper usage of the basic symbols and models and students should be provided with opportunities to practise collaborative design, e.g. using whiteboards.

  • 515.
    Boustedt, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science.
    Ways to Understand Class Diagrams2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The software industry needs well trained software designers and one important aspect of software design is the ability to model software designs visually and understand what visual models represent. However, previous research indicates that software design is a difficult task to many students. This paper reports empirical findings from a phenomenographic investigation on how students understand class diagrams, UML symbols and relations to object oriented concepts. The informants were 20 Computer Science students from four different universities in Sweden.

    The results show qualitively different ways to understand and describe UML class diagrams and the "diamond symbols" representing aggregation and composition. The purpose of class diagrams was understood in a varied way, from describing it as a documentation to a more advanced view related to communication. The descriptions of class diagrams varied from seeing them as a specification of classes to a more advanced view where they were described to show hierarchic structures of classes and relations. The diamond symbols were seen as "relations" and a more advanced way was seeing the white and the black diamonds as different symbols for aggregation and composition.

    As a consequence of the results, it is recommended that UML should be adopted in courses. It is briefly indicated how the phenomenographic results in combination with variation theory can be used by teachers to enhance students' possibilities to reach advanced understanding of phenomena related to UML class diagrams. Moreover, it is recommended that teachers should put more effort in assessing skills in proper using of the basic symbols and models, and students should get many opportunities to practise collaborative design, e.g., using whiteboards.

  • 516.
    Boustedt, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science.
    Eckerdal, Anna
    Uppsala Universitet.
    McCartney, Robert
    University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA.
    Sanders, Kate
    Rhode Island College, Providence, RI, USA.
    Thomas, Lynda
    Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth, Wales, UK.
    Zander, Carol
    University of Washington Bothell, Bothell, WA, USA .
    Students' perceptions of the differences between formal and informal learning2011In: ICER '11 Proceedings of the seventh international workshop on Computing education research / [ed] Kate Sanders, Michael Caspersen, Alison Clear, New York, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2011, p. 61-68Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that most learning in the workplace takes place outside of formal training and, given the swiftly changing nature of the field, computer science graduates more than most workers, need to be able to learn computing topics outside of organized classes.

    In this paper we discuss students' perceptions of the difference between formal and informal learning of computing topics, based on three datasets: essays collected from a technical writing course at a single university; the results of a brainstorming exercise conducted in the same course; and semi-structured interviews conducted at six institutions in three countries.

    The students report strengths and weaknesses in informal learning. On the one hand, they are motivated, can choose their level of learning, can be more flexible about how they learn, and often retain the material better. On the other hand, they perceive that they may miss important aspects of a topic, learn in an ad hoc way, and have difficulty assessing their learning.

  • 517.
    Boustedt, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science.
    McCartney, Robert
    University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA.
    Tenenberg, Josh
    University of Washington Tacoma, Tacoma, WA, USA.
    Cooper, Stephen
    Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA.
    Garcia, Daniel, D.
    University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA.
    Friend Hutton, Michelle
    Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA.
    Parlante, Nick
    Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA.
    Richards, Brad
    University of Puget Sound, Tacoma, WA, USA.
    It seemed like a good idea at the time2011In: SIGCSE'11: Proceedings of the 42nd ACM technical symposium on Computer science education, New York, NY, USA: ACM , 2011, p. 163-164Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We often learn of successful pedagogical experiments, but we seldom hear of the the ones that failed. For this special session we solicited submissions from the SIGCSE membership, selected the best from among these, and will have presentations at the session by the selected authors. Our contributions describe pedagogical approaches that seemed to be good ideas but turned out as failures. Contributors will describe their pedagogical experiment, the rationale for the experiment, evidence of failure, and lessons learned.

  • 518.
    Boustedt, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Computer science.
    McCartney, Robert
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Connecticut, United States.
    Tenenberg, Josh
    Computing and Software Systems, University of Washington, Tacoma, WA, United States.
    Gehringer, F
    Department of Computer Science, North Carolina State University, United States.
    Lister, Raymond
    Faculty of Information Technology, University of Technology, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Musicant, Dave
    Department of Computer Science, Carleton College, United States.
    It seemed like a good idea at the time2010In: SIGCSE '10 : Proceedings of the 41th ACM technical symposium on Computer science education, New York: ACM , 2010, p. 558-559Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We often learn of successful pedagogical experiments, but we seldom hear of the the ones that failed. For this special session we solicited submissions from the SIGCSE membership, selected the best from among these, and will have presentations at the session by the selected authors. Our contributions describe pedagogical approaches that seemed to be good ideas but turned out as failures. Contributors will describe their pedagogical experiment, the rationale for the experiment, evidence of failure, and lessons learned.

  • 519.
    Boustedt, Simon
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management. Lantmäteriet.
    Visualisering av fotogrammetrisk blockutjämning: En applikation för analys vid orientering av flygfoton2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom geografisk informationsteknik är behovet av ortofoton stort. Ett ortofoto är en flygbild som korrigerats geometriskt och satts samman till en skalriktig avbildning av marken. Detta görs i en fotogrammetrisk process som kallas blocktriangulering. I block-trianguleringsprocessen används en mängd indata vars kvalitet får direkt inverkan på resultatet. Genom att vikta indata kan olika lösningsförslag tas fram. I detta arbete undersöks huruvida en visualisering av dessa lösningsförslag kan vara användbar för analys vid orientering av flygfoton. En prototyp för detta har utvecklats i samarbete med Lantmäteriet, vars användbarhet sedan testats.

  • 520.
    Braat-Eggen, Ella
    et al.
    Avans University of Applied Sciences, Tilburg, the Netherlands; Eindhoven University of Technology, the Netherlands .
    Keus van de Poll, Marijke
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Hornikx, Maarten
    Eindhoven University of Technology, the Netherlands.
    Kohlrausch, Armin
    Eindhoven University of Technology, the Netherlands.
    Auditory distraction in open-plan study environments: Effects of background speech and reverberation time on a collaboration task2019In: Applied Acoustics, ISSN 0003-682X, E-ISSN 1872-910X, Vol. 154, p. 148-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that semantic-based tasks are negatively influenced by semantic aspects in background speech. Collaboration is an important task in open-plan study environments and is a semantic task which might be disrupted by background speech. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the influence of irrelevant background speech on student-collaboration. Participants worked in pairs to solve spot-the-difference puzzles, by using the 'DiapixUK' collaboration task, while they were exposed to different background sound scenarios. The composed sound scenarios varied in semantic content (mother tongue and foreign language background speech)and reverberation time (short vs long), the latter affecting speech intelligibility. Although a longer reverberation time decreases the intelligibility of background speech and a foreign language decreases meaningfulness of speech, no significant changes in performance were found. On the other hand, the data show an increased perceived disturbance for a longer reverberation time, which we interpret as an increased difficulty of interpersonal communication in the collaboration task due to the increased level of the background speech. The quiet reference condition was the most preferred sound condition which is in line with both the effect of a low background sound level and the absence of semantic interference. 

  • 521.
    Brand, Katharina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Lekfull matematik i förskolan2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet i denna undersökning har varit att undersöka hur utvecklad barnens antalsräkning är i olika åldrar genom att framförallt studera antalsprincipen och abstraktionsprincipen. Genomförande har skett i olika åldersgrupper där barnen har fått fiska ankor med matematikuppdrag under ankornas magar i form av prickar att räkna. Observationer har gjorts under aktiviteterna där jag antecknat barnens svar i ett färdigt kryssprotokoll. Studien visar hur barn hanterar antalsräkning i lekfulla aktiviteter där det blir inspirerande att lära sig räkna genom att räkna prickar på ankorna, samt att para ihop dem efter utseende. Resultatet visade att barnen har goda kunskaper i antalsräkning där pekräkningen användes. Vid ögonräkningen visade barnen bristande kunskaper.

  • 522.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Lim, Nancy J.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Visualising DEM-related flood-map uncertainties using a disparity-distance equation algorithm2016In: IAHS-AISH Proceedings and Reports / [ed] A. H. Schumann, G. Blöschl, A. Castellarin, J. Dietrich, S. Grimaldi, U. Haberlandt, A. Montanari, D. Rosbjerg, A. Viglione, and S. Vorogushyn, Göttingen: Copernicus Publications on behalf of International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) , 2016, Vol. 373, p. 153-159Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The apparent absoluteness of information presented by crisp-delineated flood boundaries can lead tomisconceptions among planners about the inherent uncertainties associated in generated flood maps. Even mapsbased on hydraulic modelling using the highest-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs), and calibrated withthe most optimal Manning’s roughness (n) coefficients, are susceptible to errors when compared to actual floodboundaries, specifically in flat areas. Therefore, the inaccuracies in inundation extents, brought about by thecharacteristics of the slope perpendicular to the flow direction of the river, have to be accounted for. Instead ofusing the typical Monte Carlo simulation and probabilistic methods for uncertainty quantification, an empiricalbaseddisparity-distance equation that considers the effects of both the DEM resolution and slope was used tocreate prediction-uncertainty zones around the resulting inundation extents of a one-dimensional (1-D) hydraulicmodel. The equation was originally derived for the Eskilstuna River where flood maps, based on DEM dataof different resolutions, were evaluated for the slope-disparity relationship. To assess whether the equation isapplicable to another river with different characteristics, modelled inundation extents from the Testebo Riverwere utilised and tested with the equation. By using the cross-sectional locations, water surface elevations, andDEM, uncertainty zones around the original inundation boundary line can be produced for different confidences.The results show that (1) the proposed method is useful both for estimating and directly visualising modelinaccuracies caused by the combined effects of slope and DEM resolution, and (2) the DEM-related uncertaintiesalone do not account for the total inaccuracy of the derived flood map. Decision-makers can apply it to alreadyexisting flood maps, thereby recapitulating and re-analysing the inundation boundaries and the areas that areuncertain. Hence, more comprehensive flood information can be provided when determining locations whereextra precautions are needed. Yet, when applied, users must also be aware that there are other factors that caninfluence the extent of the delineated flood boundary.

  • 523.
    Brandt, S. Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Lim, Nancy Joy
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Importance of river bank and floodplain slopes on the accuracy of flood inundation mapping2012In: River Flow 2012: Volume 2 / [ed] Rafael Murillo Muñoz, Leiden, The Netherlands: CRC Press / Balkema (Taylor & Francis) , 2012, p. 1015-1020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective flood assessment and management depend on accurate models of flood events, which in turn are strongly affected by the quality of digital elevation models (DEMs). In this study, HEC-RAS was used to route one specificwater discharge through the main channel of the Eskilstuna River, Sweden. DEMs with various resolutions and accuracies were used to model the inundation. The results showed a strong positive relationship between the quality of theDEMand the extent of the inundation. However, evenDEMswith the highest resolution produced inaccuracies. In another case study, the Testebo River, the model settings could be calibrated, thanks to a surveyed old inundation event. However, even with the calibration efforts, the resulting inundation extents showed varying degrees of deviation from the surveyed flood boundaries. Therefore, it becomes clear that not only does the resolution of the DEM impact the quality of the results; also, the floodplain slope perpendicular to the river flow will impact the modelling accuracy. Flatter areas exhibited the greatest predictive uncertainties regardless of the DEM’s resolution. For perfectly flat areas, uncertainty becomes infinite.

  • 524.
    Brandt, Sven Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Modeling and visualizing uncertainties of flood boundary delineation: algorithm for slope and DEM resolution dependencies of 1D hydraulic models2016In: Stochastic environmental research and risk assessment (Print), ISSN 1436-3240, E-ISSN 1436-3259, Vol. 30, no 6, p. 1677-1690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As flood inundation risk maps have become a central piece of information for both urban and risk management planning, also a need to assess the accuracies and uncertainties of these maps has emerged. Most maps show the inundation boundaries as crisp lines on visually appealing maps, whereby many planners and decision makers, among others, automatically believe the boundaries are both accurate and reliable. However, as this study shows, probably all such maps, even those that are based on high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs), have immanent uncertainties which can be directly related to both DEM resolution and the steepness of terrain slopes perpendicular to the river flow direction. Based on a number of degenerated DEMs, covering areas along the Eskilstuna River, Sweden, these uncertainties have been quantified into an empirically-derived disparity distance equation, yielding values of distance between true and modeled inundation boundary location. Using the inundation polygon, the DEM, a value representing the DEM resolution, and the desired level of confidence as inputs in a new-developed algorithm that utilizes the disparity distance equation, the slope and DEM dependent uncertainties can be directly visualized on a map. The implications of this strategy should benefit planning and help reduce high costs of floods where infrastructure, etc., have been placed in flood-prone areas without enough consideration of map uncertainties.

  • 525.
    Brandtieng, Christofer
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Creating Believable Acting in Animation2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Creating a believable acting experience with character animation is essential for animators that want to work in the animation industry. This research focus on developing guidelines for planning the animation, with the goal to ensure that every animation feel as believable and emotionally true as possible. The two animation software that are being used in this research are Autodesk Maya 2012 and Digicel Flipbook. Two animation shots are created and compared in order to analyze if a common set of guidelines can be used for every animation the animator may encounter.

  • 526.
    Bransell, Kristian
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Fredriksson, Linus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Införande av frivillig överlåtelsedeklaration för småhus: En studie om möjligheten att komplettera dagens fastighetstaxeringsmodell2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate desired conditions in order to implement a voluntary transfer-declaration within purchase of property. The study investigates property taxation for single-family houses and whether a transfer-declaration could be used as a complement to the current taxation model. Furthermore, it describes the property-taxation model in use and relevant legislation. The taxation-value is calculated through mass appraisal and should consist of 75 % of the market-value evaluated two years back. The method used in the study was; literature review, interviews and surveys. The aim of the literature review was to clarify previous research, legislation and state investigations. The six interviews were held individually with professionals to gain a more profound understanding of the topic. The survey was used to describe views from experts within the field, addressing current real property-taxation data in regard to quality and usefulness. The result suggests that an increase in quality within taxation-data can produce benefits in valuations. If a transference-declaration is used to gather information based on property-declaration one can monitor and spot erroneous data, which thereby could be corrected. However, the voluntary part of the transference-declaration can be questioned. Finally, the implementation could also result in an increased workload for the registration office.

  • 527.
    Bransell, Åsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Vinter i trädgården: Ett formgivningsförslag för en attraktivare utemiljö vintertid2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 528.
    Bravo Jimenez, Ismael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Detection and removal of wind turbine ice: Method review and a CFD simulation test2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, the energy sector is facing a huge demand that needs to be covered. Wind energy is one of the most promising energy resources as it is free from pollution, clean and probably will arise as one of the main energy sources to prevent global warming from happening. Almost 10% of the global energy demand is coming from renewable resources. By 2050 this percentage is expected to grow to 60%. Therefore, efforts on wind turbine technology (i.e. reliability, design…) need to be coped with this growth.

    Currently, large wind energy projects are usually carried out in higher altitudes and cold climates. This is because almost all of the cold climates worldwide offer profitable wind power resources and great wind energy potential. Operating with wind turbines in cold climates bring interesting advantages as a result of higher air density and consequently stronger winds (wind power is around 10% higher in the Nordic regions). Not only benefits can be obtained but extreme conditions force to follow harsh conditions. Low temperatures and ice accretion present an important issue to solve as can cause several problems in fatigue loads, the balance of the rotor and aerodynamics, safety risks, turbine performance, among others. As wind energy is growing steadily on icy climates is crucial that wind turbines can be managed efficiently and harmlessly during the time they operate.

    The collected data for the ice detection, de-icing and anti-icing systems parts was obtained through the company Arvato Bertelsmann and is also based on scientific papers. In addition, computer simulations were performed, involving the creation of a wind tunnel under certain conditions in order to be able to carry out the simulations (1st at 0ºC, 2nd at -10ºC) with the turbine blades rotating in cold regions as a standard operation.

    In this project, Computational Fluids Dynamics (CFD) simulation on a 5MW wind turbine prototype with ice accretion on the blades to study how CL and CD can change, also different measures of ice detection, deicing and anti-icing systems for avoiding ice accumulation will be discussed. Simulation results showed a logical correlation as expected, increasing the drag force about 5.7% and lowering the lift force 17,5% thus worsening the turbine's efficiency.

  • 529.
    Bredin, Johan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Majholm, Kim
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Utvärdering av multistation Leica MS50 för detektering av deformationer2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Deformationsövervakning har en betydande roll i samhället idag. Genom att studera och förutse deformationer har problemen kring konstruktion av dammar, broar och tunnlar kunnat hållas nere. Utan en fungerande deformationsövervakning kan såväl industrier som människor påverkas negativt. Deformationer i gruvor kan leda till stopp i produktionen medan deformationer i byggnader utgör en risk för människans säkerhet. För att förhindra dessa följder är det viktigt att analysera och övervaka deformationer med lämpligast mätningsmetod. Punktmolnsinsamling för deformationsövervakning utförs i huvudsak med markburna laserskannrar. Ett nytt instrument har dock nyligen kommit ut på marknaden, multistationen Leica MS50, som har möjlighet att skanna in hela punktmoln på liknande sätt som markburna laserskannrar.

     

    I denna studie har deformationsmätningar utförts för att visa den minsta detekterbara rörelse som kan upptäckas med multistationen Leica MS50. Studien behandlar även hur olika upplösningar påverkar skanningstiden och skanningsfrekvensen samt om materialet som skannats har någon inverkan vid detektering av deformationer. I studien användes Leica MS50 i tre olika moment för att skanna punktmoln i flera olika upplösningar för deformationsmätningar. I de olika momenten skannades plastmaterial av olika tjocklekar och optiska egenskaper för att simulera deformation. För att analysera punktmolnen användes mjukvaruprogrammet Geomagic Control. Analysen utfördes genom att skapa en mesh av referensytan och mäta avstånden från deformerade objekt till den nämnda meshen.

     

    Resultaten som erhölls visar tydligt hur deformationer på 2,1 mm kan upptäckas i djupled. Vidare kunde det konstanteras att skanningsmaterialets egenskaper har en stor påverkan vid avståndsmätningar. Det gick att se ett tydligt samband mellan tjocklek på material och avståndsfel i de fall där reflekterande transparenta plastmaterial användes. I denna studie kunde samtliga icke-transparenta deformationsobjekt detekteras vid mätning med alla upplösningar. Därmed kan slutsatsen dras att den lägsta upplösningen (15 × 15 mm) är den mest fördelaktiga i denna studie p.g.a. den korta skanningstiden. Det kunde även fastställas att punktupplösningen hade en direkt inverkan på skanningsfrekvensen, ju lägre upplösning desto lägre frekvens.

  • 530.
    Bredin, Karin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet.
    Enberg, Cecilia
    Linköpings universitet.
    Niss, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet.
    Knowledge Integration at Work: Individual Project Competence in Agile Projects2017In: Managing Knowledge Integration Across Boundaries / [ed] Fredrik Tell, Christian Berggren, Stefano Brusoni, Andrew Van de Ven, New York: Oxford University Press, 2017, p. 206-226Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 531.
    Bredin, Karin
    et al.
    Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling (IEI) / Företagsekonomi (FEK), Linköpings universitet.
    Niss, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Söderlund, Jonas
    Institutt for ledelse og organisasjon, BI Handelshøyskolen, Olso, Norge.
    Specialist med bredd eller flerbent generalist: Vad utmärker en kunskapsintegrerande projektmedlem?2015In: Kunskapsintegration och innovation i en internationaliserande ekonomi: Slutrapport från ett forskningsprogram / [ed] Hans Andersson och Christian Berggren, Stockholm: Makadam Förlag, 2015, 1, p. 72-83Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 532.
    Bren d'Amour, Christopher
    et al.
    Mercator Research Institute on Global Commons and Climate Change, Germany; Department Economics of Climate Change, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Reitsma, Femke
    Department of Geography,Canterbury University, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Baiocchi, Giovanni
    Department of Geographical Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Güneralp, Burak
    Center for Geospatial Science, Applications and Technology (GEOSAT), Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA.
    Erb, Karl-Heinz
    Institute of Social Ecology Vienna, Alpen-Adria Universitaet Klagenfurt, Vienna, Austria.
    Haberl, Helmut
    Institute of Social Ecology Vienna, Alpen-Adria Universitaet Klagenfurt, Vienna, Austria.
    Creutzig, Felix
    Mercator Research Institute on Global Commons and Climate Change, Germany; Department Economics of Climate Change, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Seto, Karen C.
    Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.
    Future urban land expansion and implications for global croplands2017In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 114, no 34, p. 8939-8944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban expansion often occurs on croplands. However, there is little scientific understanding of how global patterns of future urban expansion will affect the world's cultivated areas. Here, we combine spatially explicit projections of urban expansion with datasets on global croplands and crop yields. Our results show that urban expansion will result in a 1.8-2.4% loss of global croplands by 2030, with substantial regional disparities. About 80% of global cropland loss from urban expansion will take place in Asia and Africa. In both Asia and Africa, much of the cropland that will be lost is more than twice as productive as national averages. Asia will experience the highest absolute loss in cropland, whereas African countries will experience the highest percentage loss of cropland. Globally, the croplands that are likely to be lost were responsible for 3-4% of worldwide crop production in 2000. Urban expansion is expected to take place on cropland that is 1.77 times more productive than the global average. The loss of cropland is likely to be accompanied by other sustainability risks and threatens livelihoods, with diverging characteristics for different megaurban regions. Governance of urban area expansion thus emerges as a key area for securing livelihoods in the agrarian economies of the Global South.

  • 533.
    Bring, Annika
    et al.
    Department of Neuroscience, Physiotherapy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bring, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Statistics.
    Söderlund, Anne
    Department of Neuroscience, Physiotherapy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden, and School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Physiotherapy, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Wasteson, Elisabet
    Division of Psychology, Department of Social Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Östersund , Sweden.
    Åsenlöf, Pernilla
    Department of Neuroscience, Physiotherapy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Coping Patterns and Their Relation to Daily Activity, Worries, Depressed Mood, and Pain Intensity in Acute Whiplash-Associated Disorders2013In: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 293-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND

    There is a lack of knowledge regarding how individuals with acute whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) appraise and cope with situation-specific stressors.

    PURPOSE

    The aim of the study was to describe the daily process of coping reported in a daily coping assessment by individuals with acute WAD within 1 month after the accident. More specifically, profiles of coping strategies were identified and patterns between stressors, primary and secondary appraisals, and coping strategy profiles were described in relation to reported level of activity, worries, depressed mood and pain intensity during the day.

    METHOD

    A descriptive and exploratory design was applied. Two hundred and twenty-nine whiplash-associated disorders-daily coping assessment (WAD-DCA) collected during seven consecutive days from 51 participants with acute WAD in Sweden, were included. Cluster analysis was used to obtain coping strategy profiles and data were graphically visualised as patterns through the coping process.

    RESULTS

    When measuring coping as a daily process relating to the specific stressful situation, different coping pocess patterns appeared. During days with a high degree of physical and mental well-being, high self-efficacy beliefs seemed to be working as an important secondary appraisal, whereas during days with a low degree of physical and mental well-being primary appraisals of the stressor as a threat and catastrophic thoughts were present in the coping process.

    CONCLUSIONS

    Early identification of situational- and individual-specific stressors, appraisals and coping efforts as measured by the WAD-DCA may contribute to the understanding of the coping process in the acute stage of WAD and its possible impact on recovery and adjustment.

  • 534.
    Bring, Johan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Statistics.
    Bring, Annika
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Measuring gait - how the choice of measure can affect the statistical results and the clinical interpretation2017In: European Journal of Physiotherapy, ISSN 2167-9169, E-ISSN 2167-9177, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 8-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The aim of this study was to illustrate how the choice of gait measure could affect the statistical analysis of data and the resulting clinical conclusions. Methodology: A descriptive design in which the results from different tests from 10 patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus illustrates the potential to generate different clinical conclusions. Major findings and principal conclusion: The results illustrate how the choice of measure can affect the statistical results and the clinical interpretation of a study. It is possible to have the paradoxical situation in which one group has a better walking ability if the variable speed is used but the other group has a better walking ability if the variable time is used. An important message is that the choice of measurement and the transformation of data are not primarily statistical issues. If the statistical results are to be useful for clinical decisions, the variables used must be directly related to the utility for the subjects. An understanding of the clinical relevance of different outcomes is required. The distinction between when numbers are purely descriptive and when numbers represent a valuation is subtle and difficult to comprehend.

  • 535.
    Bring, Johan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Statistics.
    Thuresson, Marcus
    Three Points for a Win in Soccer: Is It Fair?2011In: CHANCE: New Directions for Statistics and Computing, ISSN 0933-2480, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 47-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most sports have to change their rules and scoring systems once in a while to adapt to external changes or improve the quality of their sport. The driving force behind many changes has been an attempt to make the games more exciting and suitable for television broadcasting.

    For example, in April 2009, the World Squash Federation changed the rules in squash so points are awarded in every rally (ball played), compared to the traditional rules in which players only could score a point in their own serve.

  • 536.
    Brinnen, Axel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Norrlander, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Terminallokalisering från varuägarens perspektiv2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the usage of the AHP-model to localize a freight consolidation center from a sustainable perspective. The AHP-model is a model that makes decisions easier by weighting various factors against each other according to given priorities. Once analyzed, the AHP-model has been applied to a case company in order to evaluate its effect and eventually see if the case companys localization decision was correct. 

    The case company in this paper is a large swedish company active both on the swedish market and internationally. They have a freight consolidation center located in Gävle, Sweden with the purpose of replenishing stock at company warehouses located in area A and area B. The company requires a transport lead time of less than one day. When the company chose to locate their freight consolidation center to Gävle, there were a few other options, namely area C and area D as well as a thir option located too far south in Sweden. 

    The conclusion of this paper shows that Gävle is the best area for the freight consolidation center out of the available options based on the companies priorities. Area C can not keep the leadtime below one day and area D does not have a port available. 

    It is still hard to define what is sustainable on a long term perspective when it comes to localization. Further research is therefore recommended in order to improve the model in a sustainable manner.

  • 537.
    Broberg, Helen
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    De yngsta barnens matematikinlärning: en litteraturstudie2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Matematik är så mycket mer än att bara räkna tal och siffror. Det kan till exempel vara mönster, jämförelser, färg och form, tid, problemlösning och rumsuppfattning med mera. Syftet med denna studie är att få en bild över hur de yngsta barnen i förskolan lär sig matematik enligt utvald litteratur, även pedagogens roll i matematikinlärningen studeras. Fyra utvalda böcker har studerats för att få svar på frågeställningarna. Därefter har en komparativ analys gjorts, en jämförelse mellan de olika böckerna för att se likheter och skillnader. Författarna har ganska likartade uppfattningar och tankar kring de yngsta barnens lärande i matematik och alla är överens om att pedagogens roll är väldigt betydelsefull för matematikinlärningen. Samspelet med andra, både vuxna och barn, är väsentligt för att barnens matematiska förmågor ska utvecklas.

  • 538.
    Broberg, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Energisystemåtgärder i fastigheter: en stadsdelsförnyelse2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete beskriver möjligheten att renovera och energieffektivisera fyra fastigheter i stadsdelen Sätra i Gävle. Den totala ytan på alla fyra huskroppar är ca 4200m2. Ägare till fastigheterna är Gavlegårdarna AB och arbetet utförs åt Tema-gruppen som har ansvar för bland annat energiavsnittet i restaureringen.

     

    Målet med renoveringen var att sänka energiförbrukningen med ca 60 % samt att byta fastigheternas energilösning, både för uppvärmning och tappvarmvatten. Den planerade renoveringen kan sedan fungera som en vägvisare för övriga fastighetsbolag vilka kan dra nytta av resultaten i detta projekt.

     

    Arbetet omfattar även teoretiska beskrivningar på funktionen hos olika system som tas upp som intressanta för projektet, såsom olika ventilationslösningar, funktionen hos en värmepump, energilager samt hur solens strålar påverkar energibalansen i en fastighet.

     

    Olika åtgärder för energibesparing och energiproduktion som inte är planerade för detta projekt, men som skulle kunna appliceras även här, har också tagits upp för att ge en större bild av hur mycket som finns att åtgärda på gamla hus när det gäller energibesparing. Förslag på extra åtgärder är: energibesparing vid byte av belysningskällor, återvinning av gråvatten, byte av cirkulationspumpar, injustering av värmesystemet samt egen produktion av el från vinden.

     

    Resultatet av detta arbete visar att det är fullt möjligt att, efter att de presenterade åtgärderna verkställts, minska energiförbrukningen med de 60 % som målet var. Detta ger självklart en lägre driftkostnad för fastighetsägaren, men huruvida installationskostnaden överstiger de besparingar som görs tas ej upp i denna rapport. Resultaten visar således på en tydlig energibesparing vilket innebär minskad belastning på vår miljö.

  • 539. Broberg Viklund, Sarah
    et al.
    Johansson, Maria T.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Technologies for utilization of industrial excess heat: Potentials for energy recovery and CO2 emission reduction2014In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 77, p. 369-379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial excess heat is a large untapped resource, for which there is potential for external use, which would create benefits for industry and society. Use of excess heat can provide a way to reduce the use of primary energy and to contribute to global CO2 mitigation. The aim of this paper is to present different measures for the recovery and utilization of industrial excess heat and to investigate how the development of the future energy market can affect which heat utilization measure would contribute the most to global CO2 emissions mitigation. Excess heat recovery is put into a context by applying some of the excess heat recovery measures to the untapped excess heat potential in Gavleborg County in Sweden. Two different cases for excess heat recovery are studied: heat delivery to a district heating system and heat-driven electricity generation. To investigate the impact of excess heat recovery on global CO2 emissions, six consistent future energy market scenarios were used. Approximately 0.8 TWh/year of industrial excess heat in Gavleborg County is not used today. The results show that with the proposed recovery measures approximately 91 GWh/year of district heating, or 25 GWh/year of electricity, could be supplied from this heat. Electricity generation would result in reduced global CO2 emissions in all of the analyzed scenarios, while heat delivery to a DH system based on combined heat and power production from biomass would result in increased global CO2 emissions when the CO2 emission charge is low. 

  • 540.
    Brodin, Peter
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Är självförtoende högre hos algoritmanvändare?: en studie i beräkningsstrategier hos första årets gymnasieelever2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med undersökningen är att ge ett bidrag till debatten kring algoritmens betydelse i skolundervisningen.

    Frågan som undersökning vilar på är om elever har ett bättre självförtroende åt sina beräkningar om de använder sig av algoritmer i de fyra grundräknesätten? I undersökning jämförs svenska elever mot åländska elever.

    Metoden som har legat till grund för att ge ett svar på frågan är först och främst en enkätstudie och därefter förekommer även intervjuer som syftar till att bredda vyn runt frågan.

    Det framgår utifrån undersökningen att algoritmanvändare har ett högre självförtroende för sina beräkningar samt presterar fler rätta svar än elever som använder den alternativa beräkningsmetoden. Det framgår utifrån intervjuer att de elever vilket är lärda inom algoritmanvändning har svårt för att motivera varför deras svar blir rätt, utan att hänvisa till algoritmernas användningsregler. Med dessa elever förekommer också reflektionen kring deras svars rimlighet mer sällan.

  • 541.
    Bronegård, Martina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Policy för markåtkomst: Granskning av Svensk Energis ”Policy - Markåtkomst”2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The management of land access for construction and maintenance of electric grids are handled differently by the electrical grid companies in Sweden. The branch organization Svensk Energi has created a policy for land access in order to create a unitary and equitable management that they recommend their members to use. The purpose of this study was to examine how the policy is used, to identify the areas of development and compile suggestions for improvement.

    Data for the study were collected through semi-structured interviews with experts in nine of the electrical grid companies that are members of Svensk Energi. The result shows that the application of the policy varies between the companies. According to the study the policy's positive features outnumbers its negative characteristics. The companies consider that the policy can be improved by more distinct guidelines in certain areas and more flexibility in other areas. The study presents and states the grounds for improvement proposals that Svensk Energi is recommended to implement to improve the policy.

  • 542.
    Broqvist, Madeleine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Mathematics.
    Problemlösning bland yngre elever2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka vilka stragier som lärare i lågstadiet anser är mest lämpade för yngre elever, och vilka metoder lärarna använder sig av i sin undervisning. Studien har en kvalitativ ansats, och intervjuer och klassrumsobservationer har genomförts med två lärare. Lärarna hade varit yrkesverksamma i cirka 10 år men arbetade inte på samma skola. Studien har genomförts i en kommun i Mellansverige. Strategierna som eleverna använde sig mest av var att rita sina lösningar och att jobba med laborativa material. Undervisningen innehöll mycket diskussioner bland eleverna. Lärarna betonade att de ville att eleverna skulle reflektera i sina tankegångar och sätta ord på sina tankeprocesser.

  • 543.
    Brossa Dachs, Núria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Machine learning in classification of latex gloves2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The project consists in develop a tool that make a classification of latex

    gloves taking into account the different features that make the difference

    between them using a Matlab code in machine learning.

    This project has the purpose to have a tool that classify those gloves in

    order to know in which market of the world they could be sold and at

    what price. So as to achieve this purpose, it is necessary to collect the data

    and prepare them to introduce in the code.

    The project can be divided in three different parts; the first one is to make

    a research of all the theory about latex gloves, achieve the basic

    fundamentals with the program Matlab and the theory about image

    processing and machine learning. After that, I will collect the 125 data

    and the features to take into account are if the gloves have black spots and

    if they are yellow or white colour. With all the material, it will possible

    to generate a code in Matlab to prepare all the data and finally, train a

    model with machine learning.

    After training this model, the classifier performed well, achieving 82%

    accuracy. However, it is not perfect because the main mistake has been in

    the images taken, some of the gloves had wrinkles, so the code detects

    them as black spots. That is why, as a future work, the quality of the

    images should be improved in order to not have wrinkles and hence

    improve the precision for the classifiers.

    Moreover, it has been proven that this tool can be implemented in the

    company that has provided the gloves. With that, his plan to sell gloves in

    Europe could be feasible if the bath of gloves accomplishes the required

    Acceptance Quality Limit but it has not been possible to prove because the

    gloves have not been randomly selected to carry out this project. Even so

    knowing that the code works, it could be applied to corroborate this fact.

  • 544.
    Brossard, Isabelle
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Weissmann, Christine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Påverkan av högreflekterande ytor vid användning av Romer Absolute Arm med integrerad skanner2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Laser scanning is known not to give good results with highly reflective surfaces. The issue is particularly visible when scanning with a close-range laser scanner, as the instrument is often used to digitalize objects of polished metal or other highly reflective material. In this case, it causes a significant increase of uncertainties and deviations. In some cases, it is not even possible to get data to work with. It is thus important to know how high reflectivity influences the results of laser scanning. The aim of this work was to investigate how deviations vary when scanning highly reflective surfaces. By knowing more about how influential different sources of uncertainties are on the use of a particular instrument, it is easier to decide on the right instrument and the right method for a particular project.

    The study was conducted by scanning and probing objects of different forms and reflectivities. The handheld line scanner Romer Absolute Arm with integrated scanner was used for scanning and probing. The data analysis was operated in Polyworks, which is the recommended software for the scanner.

    The results from the study show that scanning highly reflective surfaces gives poorer results than scanning surfaces with low reflectivity. However, the results can be improved by learning to use the scanner appropriately, and take into account the surface characteristics and the scanner’s settings. The conclusion is that the handheld scanner is a flexible and user-friendly instrument, but needs training and experience to be used at its full potential.

  • 545.
    Broström, Simon
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Energianalys av byggnad i industriell miljö: Energikartläggning med effektiviseringsförslag till byggnad innehå̊llande betningsprocess hos Ovako Hofors AB2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Världen står inför stora utmaningar där energibehovet ständigt ökar i takt med den globala ekonomin. Något de flesta människor idag känner till är kopplingen mellan energianvändning och negativ påverkan av miljö samt klimat.

    Sveriges industrier står inför stora utmaningar med ständigt växande global marknad. Följder blir tuffare konkurrenssituation för många företag. Konkurrenssituationen medför att företag flyttar sin verksamhet till länder med lägre produktionskostnader. Kostnader vilka i Sverige har ökat väldigt mycket de senaste decennierna. För att stoppa utflyttning av industriverksamhet krävs stora effektiviseringar i industriföretags energianvändning och förändring av attityd gentemot energianvändning.

    Studien vilken ligger till grund för rapporten utfördes med energikartläggning av en lokal hos ståltillverkaren Ovako Sweden AB i Hofors. Lokalen där energikartläggningen utförts innehåller en process kallad betning. Kartläggningen grundas på data erhållna av ÅF, vilka även har varit samarbetspartners i studien.

    Väldigt stora mängder energi används i lokalen, närmare bestämt 14 000 MWh. Störst andel energi går till produktionsprocesser i form av ånga och elektricitet. Ånganvändning står för 8 500 MWh medan elektricitetsanvändning uppgår till 4 500 GWh. För ånga kan kostnadsminskning med 60 % implementeras. Elektricitetskostnader kan med föreslagna metoder minskas med uppskattningsvis 14 %.

    För uppvärmning av lokalen beräknades användningen uppgå till 2 500 MWh. Användning av uppvärmningsenergi kan minskas drastiskt då byggnaden är väldigt dåligt isolerad och använder mycket energi till uppvärmning. Vid införande av samtliga föreslagna åtgärder för uppvärmning sparas totalt 95 % av uppvärmningskostnader 

  • 546.
    Brunberg, Annika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Barås, Madeleine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Applicerbarheten av produktanpassade supply chain-strategier inom stålindustrin: En fallstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    This study aims to investigate the applicability of well-recognized supply chain strategies based on product characteristics. Choosing the right supply chain strategy can be the difference between winner and loser in today’s competitive climate and science offers several recommendations as to which aspects that should be considered. Fisher (1997) and Christopher and Towill (2002) suggest that supply chain strategies should be based on what kind of product the company is handling and that, in order to know which strategy is the most appropriate, the products must be categorized. Some criteria developed for the categorization are lead time, forecast in demand and profit margin. Critics, however, suggest that an application of these theories might be problematic and based on that a case study has been performed in order to test the applicability of the theories within a steel industry setting. Similar case studies within steel industry have not been performed before and the results of this one show that an application is indeed problematic. Among other findings, the study reveals that Fisher’s (1997) model for product categorization is unbalanced and does not provide an answer for how to go about a product that does not fit into neither of his two categories. Christopher and Towill’s (2002) theory generate some contradictive results on which strategy to recommend for the steel company, but offers the possibility of combining strategies for such situations. Conclusively the study shows that basing a supply chain strategy solely on product characteristics is insufficient and that several other aspects need to be considered, e.g. supply uncertainties and limitations regarding transport possibilities. Therefore companies should choose supply chain strategy based on an evaluation of their operations.

  • 547.
    Brunke, Jean-Christian
    et al.
    Institute for Energy Economics and the Rational Use of Energy (IER), University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany .
    Johansson, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system. Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linköping University.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Empirical investigation of barriers and drivers to the adoption of energy conservation measures, energy management practices and energy services in the Swedish iron and steel industry2014In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 84, no 1, p. 509-525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish iron and steel industry is focused on the production of advanced steel grades and accounts for about 5% of the country's final energy consumption. Energy efficiency is according to the European Commission a key element for the transition towards a resource-efficient economy. We investigated four aspects that are associated with the adoption of cost-effective energy conservation measures: barriers, drivers, energy management practices and energy services. We used questionnaires and follow-up telephone interviews to collect data from members of the Swedish steel association. The heterogeneous observations implied a classification into steel producers and downstream actors. For testing the significance, the Mann–Whitney U test was used. The most important barriers were internal economic and behavioural barriers. Energy service companies, in particular third-party financing, played a minor role. In contrast, high importance was attached to energy management as the most important drivers originated from within the company. Energy management practices showed that steel companies are actively engaged in the topic, but need to raise its prioritisation and awareness within the organisation. When sound energy management practices are included, the participants assessed the cost-effective energy conservation potential to be 9.7%, which was 2.4% higher than the potential for solely adopting cost-effective technologies.

  • 548.
    Brändholm, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    En kvalitativ intervjustudie om bedömningskonstens resa inom idrott och hälsa2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 549.
    BUCCARDO, ALDO
    University of Gävle, Center for RF Measurement Technologies. University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    A SIGNAL DETECTOR FOR COGNITIVE RADIO SYSTEM2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The communication systems are changing. Cognitive Radio is an automatic adaptative system to improve the spectrum efficiency. It has intelligence to adapt itself to the environment to improve the transmission performancies. For this system, spectrum sensing function is very important so a signal detector is necessary. In this work a signal detector has been implemented in GNU Radio environment. GNU Radio is a platform that respects the Cognitive Radio aproach. It is flexible, software defined and cheap.

  • 550.
    Buccoliere, Riccardo
    et al.
    Universita di Lecce.
    Sandberg, Mats
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Building science - installation technology.
    Di Sabatino, Silvana
    Universita di lecce.
    An application of ventilation efficiency concepts to the analysis of building density effects on urban flow and pollutant concentration2011In: International Journal of Environment and Pollution, ISSN 0957-4352, E-ISSN 1741-5101, Vol. 47, no 1-4, p. 248-256Article in journal (Refereed)
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