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  • 51.
    Abhary, Kazem
    et al.
    University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia.
    Kovacic, Zlatko
    The Open Polytechnic of New Zealand, Lower Hutt, New Zealand.
    Lundberg, Sven-Erik
    Association of International Roll Pass Designers and Rolling Mill Engineers, Dortmund, Germany.
    Narayanan, Ramadas
    Central Queensland University, Bundaberg, Australia.
    Spuzic, Sead
    University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia.
    The application of a hybrid algorithm to roll pass design2015In: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 0268-3768, E-ISSN 1433-3015, Vol. 79, no 5-8, p. 1063-1070Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human–computer interface was utilized to amplify the power of a hybrid algorithm that combines fuzzy logic, regression analysis, and non-linear optimization to extract knowledge from a roll pass design database. This strategy is applied to grooves with vertical and horizontal symmetry which are employed in initial passes to roll a broad range of steel products. The results presented here from the case study are both statistically significant and valid from the viewpoint of roll pass design theory. © 2015, Springer-Verlag London.

  • 52.
    Abid, Muhammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management.
    Global Supply Chain Design: Exploring configurational and coordination factors2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis addresses the topic of global supply chain design. One major challenge concerns how to manage the tension between separation and integration pertaining to the localization of business activities. In this regard Ferdows (2008) worked to create two new production network models (rooted production network and footloose production network). Earlier studies have highlighted the choices that are involved in the network of facilities but lack in providing a comprehensive picture in terms of both configurational and coordination factors that govern the design of global supply chain. There is a need for a conceptual model where factors affecting the design process of a global supply chain can be applied. Two main research questions have been addressed in this study. First, exploring and identifying the factors affecting global supply chain design. Second, investigating the factors that influence the position on the spectrum of rooted and footloose supply chain design.      

    A literature review analysis and multi-case studies have been performed for this study in order to explore the factors. The companies were selected in order to reflect upon the two types of network, i.e., rooted and footloose. The primary data were selected through interviews with the managers.

    This study highlighted that there are many factors that affect configurational and coordination decision areas within a global supply chain. This study categorized the factors and the configurational/coordination decision areas with two main competitive priorities, i.e., cost and differentiation in the form of a “conceptual model.” The study also highlighted the factors in a matrix, which showed their position on the spectrum of rooted and footloose network configurations. For instance, the coordination factors that drive towards a footloose network include: high orchestration capabilities, need access to new technology and knowledge, proximity to suppliers, etc. The configurational factors that drive towards a rooted network include: economic stability, proximity to market, concerns for sustainability issues, high transportation cost, need for high proximity between key functions, need for intellectual property rights protection, etc.

  • 53.
    Abid, Muhammad
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekonomi och organisation.
    Relationship between competitive priorities and global supply chain design: A conceptual frameworkManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 54.
    Abid, Muhammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Dabhilkar, Mandar
    Stockholm University, School of Business.
    Factors affecting shifts in global supply chain networks: A configurational approach2013In: Proceedings of the 20th International Annual EurOMA conference, Dublin, Ireland, 9-12 June 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In certain situations, global companies strive to take advantage of short-term changes in economic and exchange rates on the never-ending journey of competitiveness. This paper seeks to extend Ferdows’s (2008) production network models by adding the factors affecting shifts between rooted and footloose network configurations. Two companies were selected in order to illustrate the models and reveal other possible factors. The identified factors are differentiated in terms of configuration and coordination and merged in a matrix. The trends and implications on global supply chains are also discussed. 

  • 55.
    Abid, Muhammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Hellberg, Roland
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Dabhilkar, Mandar
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Industrial Economics and Management .
    Factors affecting global supply chain design2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the limited existing knowledge pertaining to the factors which govern localization of operations and capabilities in a global supply chain, the purpose of the paper is to find out which factors and how they jointly affect the design of global supply chains. The relevant literature is reviewed and a concept matrix is developed. Five companies were selected in order to illustrate the issues of global supply chain design. Among them, three companies are considered to have efficient supply chain and less complex products, while the two others are considered to have responsive supply chain and more complex products. The issues discussed with the selected companies cover global sourcing, challenges, technological advancement and issues related to management control. The study identifies about fifty factors that affect global supply chain design, and specifically how theses relate to design decisions on location of factories and production, supplier selection and development, distribution of products and organisation of interfaces along the supply chain. The discrepancies between theory and practice as well as the implications for further research are discussed.

  • 56.
    Abid, Muhammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Hellberg, Roland
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Mandar, Dabhilkar
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Industrial Economics and Management .
    Global supply chain design: Building a decision model2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The knowledge pertaining to the factors, which govern localization of operations and capabilities in a global supply chain, is limited. The purpose of the paper is to find out which factors and how they jointly affect the design of a global supply chain. The relevant literature is reviewed and a concept matrix is developed. The study identifies 30 factors that affect a global supply chain design and specifically how theses relate to the design decisions on location of factories and production, supplier selection and development, distribution logistics, organisation of interfaces/enterprise information infrastructure along the supply chain and human resource development. The decision model is developed and the description of the model is done with the help of an example (location of a factory) by using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) (Saaty, 1990).  

  • 57.
    Abid, Muhammad
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Fobbe, Lea
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Sustainability reporting as a way to foster entrepreneurial universities2018In: Proceedings of the 25th Annual EurOMA Conference - To Serve, to Produce and to Servitize in the Era of Networks, Big Data and Analytics, Budapest, June 24-26, 2018., 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Higher education institutions (HEIs) play a major role in the development of societies. In the last decades, there has been an increasing interest on the commercialisation of knowledge by universities for economic development that lead to the emergence of the term “Entrepreneurial University”. This study aims to report the sustainability efforts of the University of Gävle, Sweden by applying a systematic tool, Graphical Assessment of Sustainability in Universities (GASU). This study highlights sustainability reporting as a way to improve communication practices between universities and stakeholder. The systematic and holistic assessment of HEIs gives insights of collaboration opportunities and by that foster their entrepreneurial journey.

  • 58.
    Abolghasemi Kordestani, Arash
    et al.
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Farhat, Farshad
    Peighambari, K
    Lueå Tekniska Universitet.
    Supply chain process maturity and financial performance study of Swedish steel SMEs2010In: Proceedings of  the 17th Euroma conference, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this research is to demonstrate that the financial performance of the current year in Swedish steel SMEs is dependent on the amount of maturity of supply chain processes. This is examined by considering current supply chain process maturities of the firm together with financial performance of prior years. It was found that the delivery process of supply chain processes and prior cost of goods sold (COGS) have an effect on current COGS. Additionally, prior inventory and plan process of the supply chain have a positive and negative effect on inventory turnover respectively.

  • 59.
    Abolghasemi Kordestani, Arash
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Farhat, Farshad
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Supply Chain Maturity and Financial Performance: Study of Swedish SMEs2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The goal of this research is to demonstrate that financial performance of current year is dependent to the amount of maturity of the supply chain processes. This aim is achieved through considering current supply chain process maturities of the firm together with financial performance of prior years.

     

     

    Research question - How supply chain process maturities in relation to financial performance of prior years are related to current financial performance  

     

     

    Methodology - The deductive approach has been followed to use theories and literatures to build the hypothetical model in order to test it empirically.

    This quantitative research is benefited from the primary data of Swedish steel SMEs including the secondary data from financial ratios from Scandinavian financial database

     

     

    Findings - The effect between supply chain process maturity and current year financial performance, the effect between prior year financial performance and current year financial performance, and also total effect of prior year financial performance and supply chain process maturity on current year financial performance proved empirically.

  • 60.
    Abolghasemi Moghaddam, Saman
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science.
    The effects of low-emissivity window films on thermal comfort and energy performance of a historic stone building in cold climate: computer simulations with "IDA ICE"2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Low-emissivity (low-E) window films are designed to improve the energy performance of windows and prevent indoor overheating by solar radiation. These films can be applied to different types of glazing units without the need for changing the whole window. This characteristic offers the possibility to improve the energy performance of the window of old and historic buildings for which preservation regulations say windows should remain more or less unchanged. This research aims to figure out to what extent a low-E window film can improve thermal comfort and energy performance of an old three-storey historic stone building in the cold climate of Mid-Sweden. In this research, first, with help of the simulation software “IDA ICE”, the entire building was modelled without window films in a one-year simulation. Second step was to add the low-E window films (3M Thinsulate Climate Control 75 (CC75)) to all the windows and repeat the simulation. Comparison between the results of the two cases revealed an improvement in energy use reduction as well as the thermal comfort when applying the films. For the application of the window films, a cost analysis using payback method was carried out which showed a long- time payback period. Although an investment with a long-time payback period is considered as a disadvantage, for historic buildings with very strict retrofit regulations specially when it comes to the building’s facades, application of the low-emissivity window films for better energy performance and thermal comfort is among the recommendable measures, but not necessarily the best.

  • 61.
    Abou Khaled, Walle
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Baban, Dylan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Influencers på Instagram: En jämförande studie om hur olika sorters influencers påverkar konsumenters varumärkesuppfattning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The purpose of the study is to investigate how consumers’ brand perception is influenced by influencer marketing with regard to influencers' number of followers and topical alignment.

    Method: In this study, a quantitative method has been conducted to aggregate 173 responses in a web-based questionnaire survey. After screening based on our selection, 153 responses were processed in SPSS where descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and cluster analysis were conducted. The result was used to conduct a discussion to draw further conclusions.

    Conclusion: The study shows that both topical influencers and influencers with many followers have a positive impact on consumer brand perception. Influencers with a large number of followers contribute to a more positive impact on consumer brand perception than topical influencers. For maximum results, marketers should use an influencer that has both a large number of followers and focuses on a topic.

    Contribution: The study's contribution to the theory of marketing research area is an increased knowledge of the influence of different types of influencers on consumer brand perception. The study shows that the number of followers weighs heavier than the topic in terms of how positively affected a consumer's perception of the brand is.

  • 62.
    Abou Raas, Mhd Jihad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Wall Compensation Algorithms for M-sequence UWB Radar2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A technique for wall compensation in the ultra-wideband (UWB) through-wall imaging radar is presented. The UWB system can be utilize in high precision measurements, but due to phase distortion and amplitude attenuation caused by the wall the precision is limited, the target is displaced, and the image is defocused. 

    In order to mitigate the wall effects, two methods are applied in this project. First, the unknown wall transfer function is estimated using real data measurements to design the inverse filter. Secondly, FIR Wiener filter is designed to improve the received m-sequence. After all, each method is tested using three parameters, the signal to noise ratio (SNR), the signal to clutter ratio (SCR), and the relative position error (RPE). 

    The inverse filter can eliminate the wall effects very well; it could correct not only the position of the target but also the image defocus. The new method can give improve the image quality and that can extend the use of UWB radar in many applications. 

  • 63. Aboul-Ata, Aboul-Ata E.
    et al.
    Vitti, Antonella
    Nuzzaci, Maria
    El-Attar, Ahmad K.
    Piazzolla, Giuseppina
    Tortorella, Cosimo
    Harandi, Ali M.
    Olson, Olof
    Wright, Sandra A. I.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Biology.
    Piazzolla, Pasquale
    Plant-Based Vaccines: Novel and Low-Cost Possible Route for Mediterranean Innovative Vaccination Strategies2014In: Advances in Virus Research / [ed] Maramorosch, K; Murphy, F A, Elsevier, 2014, Vol. 89, p. 1-37Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A plant bioreactor has enormous capability as a system that supports many biological activities, that is, production of plant bodies, virus-like particles (VLPs), and vaccines. Foreign gene expression is an efficient mechanism for getting protein vaccines against different human viral and nonviral diseases. Plants make it easy to deal with safe, inexpensive, and provide trouble-free storage. The broad spectrum of safe gene promoters is being used to avoid risk assessments. Engineered virus-based vectors have no side effect. The process can be manipulated as follows: (a) retrieve and select gene encoding, use an antigenic protein from GenBank and/or from a viral-genome sequence, (b) design and construct hybrid-virus vectors (viral vector with a gene of interest) eventually flanked by plant-specific genetic regulatory elements for constitutive expression for obtaining chimeric virus, (c) gene transformation and/or transfection, for transient expression, into a plant host model, that is, tobacco, to get protocols processed positively, and then moving into edible host plants, (d) confirmation of protein expression by bioassay, PCR-associated tests (RT-PCR), Northern and Western blotting analysis, and serological assay (ELISA), (e) expression for adjuvant recombinant protein seeking better antigenicity, (f) extraction and purification of expressed protein for identification and dosing, (g) antigenicity capability evaluated using parental or oral delivery in animal models (mice and/or rabbit immunization), and (h) growing of construct-treated edible crops in protective green houses. Some successful cases of heterologous gene-expressed protein, as edible vaccine, are being discussed, that is, hepatitis C virus (HCV). R9 mimotope, also named hypervariable region 1 (HVR1), was derived from the HVR1 of HCV. It was used as a potential neutralizing epitope of HCV. The mimotope was expressed using cucumber mosaic virus coat protein (CP), alfalfa mosaic virus CP P3/RNA3, and tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) CP tobacco mild green mosaic virus (TMGMV) CP as expression vectors into tobacco plants. Expressed recombinant protein has not only been confirmed as a therapeutic but also as a diagnostic tool. Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), HSV-2 gD, and HSV-2 VP16 subunits were transfected into tobacco plants, using TMV CP TMGMV CP expression vectors.

  • 64.
    Abou-Soultan, Nariman
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Abujazar, Ahmed
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Hur personer med schizofreni upplever sin livskvalité: En deskriptiv litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Schizophrenia is a form of psychosis, it is rare but a very serious disease and the lifetime risk of becoming sick is 0.8% in Sweden. People with schizophrenia experience altered perception of reality because of symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions. Many relatives of people with schizophrenia argue that there is a lack of knowledge that leads to distorted view of themselves and the environment. The diagnosis of schizophrenia is based on symptoms, which consequently means that nurses have an important role which should include plenty hospitality, communication and understanding of patients' quality of life.

     

    Aim: The aim of this study is to describe how people with schizophrenia experience their quality of life and to describe the method of selection of the articles included.

     

    Method: The present study has a descriptive design and contains a total of 12 articles with qualitative and quantitative effort. The majority of the articles that have been used has the qualitative approach. Data collection has been conducted via PsycINFO.

     

    Main Results: The diagnosis of schizophrenia contributed to confusion and difficulties to accept their disease. Symptoms and side effects of the medicine were the most conspicuous factors that resulted in the loss. Experiences of stigmatization and rejection by the environment were also a contributing factor for a poorer quality of life. The 12 included articles have mainly used the interviews to reach people's subjective experiences of living with schizophrenia.

     

    Conclusion: Schizophrenia affects people's daily lives and relationships with other people negatively which led to the suffering and poorer quality of life. Knowledge of how people with schizophrenia experience their quality of life is important information for nurses that can lead to greater understanding, better reception, care and treatment.

  • 65.
    Abraha, Desalegn
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Hyder, Akmal S
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    From industrial networks to strategic alliances or vice-versa2009In: International Journal of Business and Emerging Markets, ISSN 1753-6219, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 361-386Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 66. Abraha, Desalegn
    et al.
    Hyder, Akmal S
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    The service firms' establishments in developing countries2000In: Journal of Euromarketing, ISSN 1049-6483, E-ISSN 1528-6967, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 57-86Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 67.
    Abraha Gebrekidan, Desalegn
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Skövde.
    Osarenkhoe, Aihie
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Awuah, Gabriel Baffour
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Halmstad.
    Relationships and Networks in the Processes of Establishment of Firms in Transitional Economies: The case of Scandinavian firms in Eastern and Central Europe2006Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Focus on the particular entry mode a firm uses to enter a new market, rather than the process of establishment dominates in extant literature. To fill this void, we apply an establishment process model developed from the network approach to illuminate the web of relationship forms embedded in the establishment process of two Scandinavian firms as they attempt to establish themselves in transition economies. In one case, the results show that Statoil’s process of establishment in Estonia was less time- and resource-consuming because the firm drew support from significant actors in their network of exchange relationships. In the second case, a lack of home and host country support for Scania in Croatia resulted in an arduous and costly process and less stable position in the market, with the firm’s position changing several times as different problems cropped up. In light of the findings from the two cases, theoretical and practical implications for managing the establishment process are discussed.

  • 68.
    Abraham, David
    et al.
    Lunds Universitet.
    Ryrholm, Nils
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Witzell, Håkan
    Lunds Universitet.
    Scoble, Malcolm
    British Museum of Natural History.
    Holloway, Jeremy
    British Museum of Natural History.
    Löfstedt, Christer
    Lunds Universitet.
    Molecular phylogeny of the subfamilies in Geometridae (Geometroidea: Lepidoptera.)2001In: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, ISSN 1055-7903, E-ISSN 1095-9513, Vol. 20, p. 65-77Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 69.
    Abraham Tewoldemedhin, Fithawi
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Medeubayev, Meiras
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Knowledge Hiding in Consulting Industry: the Case of EY in Kazakhstan2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: This study aims to explore the knowledge hiding phenomenon among project teammembers in the consulting industry. This study investigated why, when, how and what type ofknowledge team members hide.Methodology: This research applied a qualitative research with inductive approach. Semistructuredinterviews with eleven participants from EY in Kazakhstan were conducted.Secondary data was obtained from existing scientific articles and books.Findings: Findings of the study provided that (i) variables affecting knowledge hiding atindividual level also influence at team level; (ii) the technological and organizational barriershad a minor influence on knowledge hiding at team level; (ii) tacit/explicit and key/commonknowledge are subject to hiding among team members; (iv) three additional variables arediscovered at team level, i.e. laziness, fear of being seen silly and self-study.

    Theoretical contributions: This study contributes to the counterproductive knowledgebehaviour by exploring patterns of knowledge hiding among team members. Additionalknowledge sharing barriers of why and when team members hide knowledge were found. Teammembers hide knowledge when they feel ownership over knowledge and territoriality servesas a mediating tool. Nevertheless, collective knowledge psychological ownership weakensknowledge hiding, because team’s success is more important than individual’s goals.Managerial implications: Organizations are encouraged to nurture team environment, becauseteam members might feel that they are obliged to share their knowledge. Also, managementshould consider to lower territoriality perspectives (e.g. by team buildings, etc.).

    Limitations and future research: Future research should increase the number of respondentsfrom different companies, industries and geographical areas. To validate the three newly foundknowledge hiding variables at team level, they can be tested at individual level. On top of thatfuture research can focus on the effects of interpersonal injustice on knowledge hiding on eachmember, motivational process on knowledge concealing/sharing and cross-cultural differencesof how knowledge concealing is interpreted can be researched.

  • 70.
    Abrahamsen, Håkon B
    et al.
    Norwegian Air Ambulance Fdn, Drobak, Norway; Univ Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Natl Ctr Emergency Primary Hlth Care, Bergen, Norway; Univ Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway .
    Sollid, Stephen J M
    Norwegian Air Ambulance Fdn, Drobak, Norway; Univ Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway; Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Öhlund, Lennart S.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Public health science.
    Røislien, Jo
    Univ Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway; Univ Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Bondevik, Gunnar Tschudi
    Univ Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Natl Ctr Emergency Primary Hlth Care, Bergen, Norway.
    Simulation-based training and assessment of non-technical skills in the Norwegian Helicopter Emergency Medical Services: a cross-sectional survey2015In: Emergency Medicine Journal, ISSN 1472-0205, E-ISSN 1472-0213, Vol. 32, no 8, p. 647-653Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Human error and deficient non-technical skills (NTSs) among providers of ALS in helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) is a threat to patient and operational safety. Skills can be improved through simulation-based training and assessment. Objective: To document the current level of simulation-based training and assessment of seven generic NTSs in crew members in the Norwegian HEMS. Methods: A cross-sectional survey, either electronic or paper-based, of all 207 physicians, HEMS crew members (HCMs) and pilots working in the civilian Norwegian HEMS (11 bases), between 8 May and 25 July 2012. Results: The response rate was 82% (n=193). A large proportion of each of the professional groups lacked simulation-based training and assessment of their NTSs. Compared with pilots and HCMs, physicians undergo statistically significantly less frequent simulation-based training and assessment of their NTSs. Fifty out of 82 (61%) physicians were on call for more than 72 consecutive hours on a regular basis. Of these, 79% did not have any training in coping with fatigue. In contrast, 72 out of 73 (99%) pilots and HCMs were on call for more than 3 days in a row. Of these, 54% did not have any training in coping with fatigue. Conclusions: Our study indicates a lack of simulation-based training and assessment. Pilots and HCMs train and are assessed more frequently than physicians. All professional groups are on call for extended hours, but receive limited training in how to cope with fatigue.

  • 71.
    Abrahamsson, Angela
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hansson, Eva-Lena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Att beskriva personers upplevelse av sin livssituation efter att ha genomgått en gastric bypass operation ur ett fysiskt, psykiskt och socialt perspektiv: Litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Obesity is now a growing problem in the world and as a result, several do gastric bypass surgery for weight loss. It is important that the experiences from a physical, mental and social approach is illuminated to provide a better understanding and to help them to right direction.

    Aim: To describe the experience situation of life a one person after doing a gastric bypass surgery from a physical, psychological and social perspective.

    Method: A descriptive study of eleven scientific articles.

    Results: After a gastric bypass, the people have a more positive attitude towards life according the three perspectives. They experienced that they fit into society and could participate in the social and physical context in a better way than before. Sometime after the surgery, the participants experienced that they were back into the old habits which gave them a worse quality of life. They ment that the operation was a tool but the hard part remained and they expected a challenge, as some managed better than others.

    Conclusions: It is important to give people good support, and information to enable them to preserve their new lifestyle. They are making a great mental effort, therefore they are indeed of psychotherapy and guidence to find a suitable copingstrategy to handle different situations.

  • 72.
    Abrahamsson, Emil
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences.
    Digitalt arkiv2008Student paper second term, 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Grunden för detta arbete har varit att förenkla hantering och sökning bland ritningar och förteckningar i ett ritningsarkiv. Lösningen har blivit ett webbaserat datasystem som bygger på en databas där all information lagras och är sökbar. Resultatet har blivit ett system som man oavsett var man befinner sig inom företagets nätverk ha tillgång till alla ritningar och förteckningar på ett snabbt och effektivt sätt.

  • 73.
    Abrahamsson, Emilie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Relationen mellan kalkyleringsmetoder, Lean och produktionsflöden av kundanpassad karaktär: Hur kostnadsprecisionen i förkalkyleringen i denna typ av produktion kan ökas samt vilken kalkyleringsmetod som passar bäst2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since the manufacturing industry is heading for a higher level of customization and implementation of Lean, at the same time as outmoded traditional costing methods is still used in modern industrial organizations, it is interesting to explore the relations between production flows of customized character, Lean and different costing methods.

    The purpose of this thesis is to increase the cost precision in the preliminary calculation for a product flow of customer adapted and Lean character, and to describe a generalizable work process for this. The purpose is also to develop general recommendations regarding the choice of costing methods by, on a basis of the character of this production, a comparative analysis of costing methods (traditional costing methods, ABC and Lean accounting/VSC). Through a literature study and a case study of a production flow with a high level of variety and influence from Lean, both of the purposes has been fulfilled.

    The case study has been accomplished through interviews and observations. Problems and positive elements that according to literature characterize the production of customized products have also been found in the case company. That connection has been used to support the analysis of the relations. The relations between costing methods, Lean and production flows of customized character has been analyzed through a comparison between findings in literature and results from the case study. It has been found that Value Stream Costing (VSC) is the most appropriate costing method for production flows of customized products that has reached a high maturity level of Lean.

    The preliminary costing is dependent on reliable operation times which have been produced on the case study company, while a general work process has been developed. The operation times were in this case identified through video recordings of the production moments and a following analysis in the software AviX. By following the general work process that has been developed, useful material for preliminary costing and continuous improvements in the production flow will be obtained.

    Since research is showing that Lean should be implemented in the whole organization if full advantages of Lean shall be obtained, VSC is found to be an ideal costing method to replace outmoded, traditional costing methods at the same time as this costing method simplifies costing in production flows of customized character.

  • 74.
    Abrahamsson, Isak
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Karlsson, Malin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Värdeinvestering – en hållbar strategi för överavkastning?: Ett test av investeringsstrategin F_SCORE på värdeaktier med hög book-to-market kvot2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The main aim is to test if Piotroskis F_SCORE applied on stocks with high book-to- market ratio outperforms the market portfolio and therefore determine the level of market efficiency. The secondary aim is to provide knowledge to business executives about the relevance of a book-to-market policy.

    Method

    This study is a quantitative research which assumes a positivistic research philosophy with a deductive approach. Several regression analyses have been used to confirm the statistical significance of the different estimated parameters. The empirical results give answers to two hypotheses based on the aim of this research. The empirical data have been collected from Thomson Reuter Datastream, compiled in Excel and analyzed with the statistical software Stata.

    Result & Conclusions

    The empirical results of this study show that the value portfolio has a higher return than the market index. The risk-adjusted return for the value portfolio is higher compared to the market portfolio. This indicates that the higher return of the value portfolio is not due to a higher risk. By the results of this study there is not possible to determine whether the market is fully efficient or not. It is only possible to exclude the strong and semi-strong form of market efficiency.

    Suggestions for future research

    For future studies, we suggest further research about the weak form of market efficiency. Using historical data to determine future return, as Contrarian model, is one suggestion to reach further evidence of market (in)efficiency. Since F_SCORE assumes a normal distribution and because of the poor performance of the low F_SCORE firms another suggestion is short-sell these stocks to see if the return ca be increased. This empirical field needs further research about which factors that causes the higher return for these stocks. The small firm effect, liquidity and behavioral finance are just a few anomalies that may have a relationship with excess return.

    Contribution of the thesis

    The investment strategy in this research shows a higher excess return compared to the market index as well as a higher risk-adjusted return over the given period. This is not only a contribution to investors but also in a theoretical field due to the efficient market hypothesis. F_SCORE have a normal distribution curve where the stocks with F_SCORE of 5 or higher generally have a higher mean return. Another contribution is the relevance of book to market ratio as a useful strategy for valuating companies. The practical contribution gives business executives better understanding about the relevance of a book-to-market policy when attracting investors. 

  • 75.
    Abrahamsson, Kristin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Nordh, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
     Att främja god munvård hos patienter i palliativ vård: utbildning, kunskap och attityd bland sjuksköterskor: -en litteraturstudie2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this literature study was to describe education, knowledge and attitudes among nurses regarding oral health care and in which way nurses can promote proper mouth care among patients within palliative care. A descriptive design was the method chosen, with articles obtained via Cinahl and Pubmed (Medline). Twelve articles were found that subsequently formed this study. The results showed that many nurses considered having recieved insufficient mouth care training during their education. Since the level of knowledge among many nurses was lacking it has been shown that both staff and patients within palliative care benefit from education. There were many negative attitudes about mouth care among nurses. Moreover, it was not prioritized enough within palliative care according to nurses. However, they felt that it should be. Different programs and developed tools have shown to facilitate nurses' work. Patient education has also contributed to a better mouth status. The conclusion of the study is that there are flaws in education, knowledge and attitudes about mouth care among nurses. To change this nurses want more education and training. Thus better condition can be created for nurses to promote proper mouth care for patients within palliative care.

  • 76.
    Abrahamsson, Kristine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Humanities.
    Mothers and Daughters between Two Cultures in Short Fiction by Edwidge Danticat2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay takes a look at two short stories from the novel Krik? Krak! written by the Haitian-American author Edwidge Danticat. The short stories “Caroline’s Wedding” and “New York Day Women” are about mother-daughter relationships where the mothers and daughters are either first or second generations immigrants from Haiti. This essay focuses on these relationships and how they are related to immigration. To address these issues of relationships and immigration, several critics and their opinions on the subject are presented as well as an examination of key events in the short stories.

  • 77.
    Abrahamsson, Lena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Lindberg, Jennie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Det krävs mer än mediciner: Betydelsen av samverkan och stödjande insatser kring personer som deltar i substitutionsbehandling för sitt opiatberoende2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Substitutionsbehandling är en vårdform som rekommenderas av Socialstyrelsen för personer med ett långvarigt opiatberoende. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka hur samverkan kring klienterna fungerade, samt vilka stödinsatser som kunde bli aktuella utifrån klinternas behov. Då substitutionsbehandling anses vara kontroversiellt, fanns även ett intresse av att undersöka de professionellas upplevelser av vårdformen. Studien bygger på kvalitativa intervjuer med yrkesverksamma (n=8) som i sina olika yrkesroller hade kontakt med klienterna. Resultatet analyserades utifrån systemteori, stämplingsteori och empowerment. Studiens huvudresultat visade att det förekom mycket samverkan kring klienterna och att det fanns flera stödinsatser tillgängliga för den enskilde. Inställningen till substitutionsbehandling var till övervägande del positiv och de främsta argumenten för vårdformen uppgavs vara de personliga vinsterna för klienterna. Slutsatsen är att det krävs mer än mediciner för att upprätthålla drogfrihet och klienternas sociala nätverk kan vara avgörande för en lyckad behandlingsprocess. Studiens resultat kan därmed bidra med kunskap om substitutionsbehandling.

  • 78.
    Abrahamsson, Pege
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Hedlund, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Valutariskhantering: En omotiverad kostnad eller ettvardagligt behov?2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Vårt syfte med detta arbete är att undersöka hur två stora företag i Gävleborgslän, med betydande del av sin verksamhet på export, hanterar de valutarisker som uppstår. Företagen som vi valt att granska är Sandvik och Korsnäs som båda är tillverkande företag inom industrin.

    Vi kommer sedan att jämföra hur respektive företag har valt att hantera sina risker och belysa de skillnader och likheter som dessa två företag har i sitt arbete med valutarisker. Slutligen ämnar vi jämföra det empiriskt insamlade materialet med den teoretiska referensram som finns inom det valda ämnet.

    Metod: Vi har valt att använda oss av en kvalitativ metod när vi insamlat data. Insamlingen har främst skett via samtalsintervjuer på respektive företags huvudkontor. Kompletterande information har insamlats via mejlkontakt med våra respondenter. De teorier vi har använt behandlar främst valutarisker och metoder för valutarisker.

    Resultat & slutsats: Slutsatsen från vårt arbete visar att de företag vi studerat har insett betydelsen av valutaexponering men bara ett av företagen har valt att aktivt arbeta med riskhanteringen. Vi vill dock poängtera att båda företagen tagit ställning till hur arbetet med risker ska hanteras.

    Förslag till fortsattforskning: I vårt arbete visar vi en bild av hur två företag hanterar sina valutarisker och exponeringar. Det kan vara intressant att undersöka detta ur ett större perspektiv. En djupare studie med fler företag kan göras. I vår studie sker jämförelsen mellan två industriföretag. Att göra jämförelsen med ett företag inom ett annat segment, t ex dagligvaruhandeln eller telekombranschen, finner vi intressant.

    Valutariskhantering: en omotiverad kostnad eller ett vardagligt behov?

    Uppsatsens bidrag: Vårt arbete ger ett bidrag till exporterande företag för att få en uppfattning om olika sätt att hantera sina valutarisker. Uppsatsen kan även användas av Sandvik och Korsnäs för att få reda på hur två studenter anser om deras arbete med valutasäkring.

    Nyckelord: Valutarisk, valutasäkring, valutaexponering, valutahantering, derivatinstrument, terminskontrakt, optioner.

  • 79.
    Abrahamsson, Viktoria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Carlstedt, Belinda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Våld och personer med funktionsnedsättning: En studie om våldets innebörder beroende på inblandade aktörer, inom grupp- och serviceboenden2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Through semi-structured interviews with three women working as care personnel in group or service homes for persons with disabilities, perceptions regarding violence as linked to persons with disabilities is studied from a social-constructionist point of view. The study explores how the roles of actors involved can be associated with notions and interpretations expressed, and with what the interviewees regard as “appropriate” action to handle the situation. The role of the aggressor proved crucial. Gender of the actors was not expressed as important but indications existed pointing to perceived differences. When discussing appropriate action, the interviewees related to both a sense of “duty” and the “right” thing to do from a utilitarian perspective. When involving a colleague, loyalty became relevant. Throughout the study the dimension of power and the complexity of violence is considered and its different understandings depending on context, actors and perspective.

  • 80.
    Abramsson, Mattias
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Vikström, Johan
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Finns det för få fastighetsvärderare ur de offentliga aktörernas synvinkel?2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Inom fastighetsbranschen finns det ungefär 100 000 yrkesverksamma. Denna bransch står inom de närmaste åren för stora pensionsavgångar. En av de yrkeskategorier som kommer att påverkas är fastighetsvärderare. I dagsläget finns det ungefär 600 yrkesverksamma fastighetsvärderare. Genom ett antal offentliga aktörer som är verksamma inom fastighetsmarknaden, vill vi belysa frågan om de anser att det råder brist på fastighetsvärderare. Vi har valt att i denna studie särskilt granska och studera Gävle kommun och dess fastighetsbolag, Gavlefastigheter.

     

    Metod: Vi har med empirisk forskning, som bedrivs med företrädesvis kvantitativa och kvalitativa metoder, utfört denna studie. Data har samlats in genom intervjuer som sedan sammanställts och analyserats både utifrån de resultat vi fick in men även genom transaktionshandlingar som vi tagit del av ifrån Gavlefastigheter. Resultaten redovisas i löpande text. 

     

    Resultat & Slutsats: Resultaten vi fick fram visar på att ur de offentliga aktörernas perspektiv upplever alla utom en att det finns ett tillfredställande utbud av fastighetsvärderare. De offentliga aktörerna gör inte många fastighetstransaktioner och de anlitar bara fastighetsvärderare vid unika och komplexa objekt. Fastighetsvärderarna kommer att påverkas av pensionsavgångarna. Det i sin tur kommer inte, ur de offentliga aktörernas synvinkel, påverka efterfrågan av fastighetsvärderarnas tjänster.

     

    Förslag till fortsatt forskning: Vi har i denna studie valt att belysa vår problemformulering utifrån ett antal offentliga aktörers synvinkel. Det skulle vara intressant att göra en liknande fallstudie utifrån fastighetsvärderarnas egen sida, men även utifrån de privata fastighetsägarnas sida.

     

    Uppsatsens bidrag: Vi har med denna studie bidragit med att påvisa att de offentliga aktörerna inte anser att det finns för få fastighetsvärderare och att anlitningen av dem sker i mindre omfattning.

  • 81.
    Abrego peris, Iñaki
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Electronics.
    Antenna with medical applications for tumour cancer: hyperthermia function2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The idea is to improve or help the treatments that exist in the market in the medical field. Treatments such as mammography or radiotherapy make use of X-rays. X-rays are electromagnetic radiation in a high frequency band, this type of electromagnetic is dangerous to health because ionizing radiation is used, ionized atoms interact with matter. For this reason, in our work we give alternative solution to these treatments without any risk to health. This project consists in the use of non-harmful frequencies such as microwave. In this way, we will make an antenna with medical applications whose frequency range will be between 300 MHz and 30 GHz, specifically between 950MHz and 2.45GHz (medical range). The first step will be the detection of the tumour and classification of this, but our work is about another technique called hyperthermia. This technique consists in increase the temperature with a value of 40-43 degrees in the tumour area. Tumour resistance decreases when heat is applied to this. When combining a treatment with oncologic hyperthermia, the effect of radiotherapy is most effective (between 1.5-5 times). The most important part is study antenna in body tissues characteristics as SAR, depth penetration and antenna size; this theory part is essential to know the best parameters and what case use this. In work development we will choose and design antennas for the different parts of the body in some specific frequencies and choose circular antennas in frequencies of 915 MHz and 1.8 GHz. Finally, we will take measurements about temperature increase with meat and say some conclusions.

  • 82.
    Abrehdary, M.
    et al.
    Royal Inst Technol KTH, Div Geodesy & Satellite Positioning, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Sjöberg, L. E.
    Royal Inst Technol KTH, Div Geodesy & Satellite Positioning, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS. Royal Inst Technol KTH, Div Geodesy & Satellite Positioning, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Modelling Moho depth in ocean areas based on satellite altimetry using Vening Meinesz-Moritz' method2016In: Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica, ISSN 2213-5812, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 137-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experiment for estimating Moho depth is carried out based on satellite altimetry and topographic information using the Vening Meinesz-Moritz gravimetric isostatic hypothesis. In order to investigate the possibility and quality of satellite altimetry in Moho determination, the DNSC08GRA global marine gravity field model and the DTM2006 global topography model are used to obtain a global Moho depth model over the oceans with a resolution of 1 degrees x 1 degrees. The numerical results show that the estimated Bouguer gravity disturbance varies from 86 to 767 mGal, with a global average of 747 mGal, and the estimated Moho depth varies from 3 to 39 km with a global average of 19 km. Comparing the Bouguer gravity disturbance estimated from satellite altimetry and that derived by the gravimetric satellite-only model GOGRA04S shows that the two models agree to 13 mGal in root mean square (RMS). Similarly, the estimated Moho depths from satellite altimetry and GOGRA04S agree to 0.69 km in RMS. It is also concluded that possible mean dynamic topography in the marine gravity model does not significantly affect the Moho determination.

  • 83.
    Abrehdary, Majid
    et al.
    Department of Environment and Life Sciences, Geomatics Section, University of Karlstad, Karlstad,Sweden; Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lars, Sjöberg
    Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology(KTH), Sweden.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Sampietro, Daniele
    GReD s.r.l., Como, Italy.
    Towards the Moho depth and Moho density contrast along with their uncertainties from seismic and satellite gravity observations2017In: Journal of Applied Geodesy, ISSN 1862-9016, E-ISSN 1862-9024, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 231-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a combined method for estimating a new global Moho model named KTH15C, containing Moho depth and Moho density contrast (or shortly Moho parameters), from a combination of global models of gravity (GOCO05S), topography (DTM2006) and seismic information (CRUST1.0 and MDN07) to a resolution of 1° × 1° based on a solution of Vening Meinesz-Moritz’ inverse problem of isostasy. This paper also aims modelling of the observation standard errors propagated from the Vening Meinesz-Moritz and CRUST1.0 models in estimating the uncertainty of the final Moho model. The numerical results yield Moho depths ranging from 6.5 to 70.3 km, and the estimated Moho density contrasts ranging from 21 to 650 kg/m3, respectively. Moreover, test computations display that in most areas estimated uncertainties in the parameters are less than 3 km and 50 kg/m3, respectively, but they reach to more significant values under Gulf of Mexico, Chile, Eastern Mediterranean, Timor sea and parts of polar regions. Comparing the Moho depths estimated by KTH15C and those derived by KTH11C, GEMMA2012C, CRUST1.0, KTH14C, CRUST14 and GEMMA1.0 models shows that KTH15C agree fairly well with CRUST1.0 but rather poor with other models. The Moho density contrasts estimated by KTH15C and those of the KTH11C, KTH14C and VMM model agree to 112, 31 and 61 kg/m3 in RMS. The regional numerical studies show that the RMS differences between KTH15C and Moho depths from seismic information yields fits of 2 to 4 km in South and North America, Africa, Europe, Asia, Australia and Antarctica, respectively.

  • 84.
    Abrehdary, Majid
    et al.
    Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS. Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Combined Moho parameters determination using CRUST1.0 and Vening Meinesz-Moritz model2015In: Journal of Earth Science, ISSN 1674-487X, E-ISSN 1867-111X, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 607-616Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to Vening Meinesz-Moritz (VMM) global inverse isostatic problem, either the Moho density contrast (crust-mantle density contrast) or the Moho geometry can be estimated by solving a non-linear Fredholm integral equation of the first kind. Here solutions to the two Moho parameters are presented by combining the global geopotential model (GOCO-03S), topography (DTM2006) and a seismic crust model, the latter being the recent digital global crustal model (CRUST1.0) with a resolution of 1A(0)x1A(0). The numerical results show that the estimated Moho density contrast varies from 21 to 637 kg/m(3), with a global average of 321 kg/m(3), and the estimated Moho depth varies from 6 to 86 km with a global average of 24 km. Comparing the Moho density contrasts estimated using our leastsquares method and those derived by the CRUST1.0, CRUST2.0, and PREM models shows that our estimate agrees fairly well with CRUST1.0 model and rather poor with other models. The estimated Moho depths by our least-squares method and the CRUST1.0 model agree to 4.8 km in RMS and with the GEMMA1.0 based model to 6.3 km.

  • 85.
    Abrehdary, Majid
    et al.
    Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS. Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    The spherical terrain correction and its effect on the gravimetric-isostatic Moho determination2016In: International Journal of Geophysics, ISSN 1687-885X, E-ISSN 1687-8868, Vol. 204, no 1, p. 262-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the Moho depth is estimated based on the refined spherical Bouguer gravity disturbance and DTM2006 topographic data using the Vening Meinesz-Moritz gravimetric-isostatic hypothesis. In this context, we compute the refined spherical Bouguer gravity disturbances in a set of 1° × 1° blocks. The spherical terrain correction, a residual correction to each Bouguer shell, is computed using rock heights and ice sheet thicknesses from the DTM2006 and Earth2014 models. The study illustrates that the defined simple Bouguer gravity disturbance corrected for the density variations of the oceans, ice sheets and sediment basins and also the non-isostatic effects needs a significant terrain correction to become the refined Bouguer gravity disturbance, and that the isostatic gravity disturbance is significantly better defined by the latter disturbance plus a compensation attraction. Our study shows that despite the fact that the lateral variation of the crustal depth is rather smooth, the terrain affects the result most significantly in many areas. The global numerical results show that the estimated Moho depths by the simple and refined spherical Bouguer gravity disturbances and the seismic CRUST1.0 model agree to 5.6 and 2.7 km in RMS, respectively. Also, the mean value differences are 1.7 and 0.2 km, respectively. Two regional numerical studies show that the RMS differences between the Moho depths estimated based on the simple and refined spherical Bouguer gravity disturbance and that using CRUST1.0 model yield fits of 4.9 and 3.2 km in South America and yield 3.2 and 3.4 km in Fennoscandia, respectively.

  • 86.
    Absi, Lina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Leino, Matilda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Innovationsförmågans påverkan på goodwill2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent of goodwill that can be explained by the capacity for innovation in Swedish listed companies.

    Introduction: Goodwill is an intangible asset and occurs in connection with acquisitions. In recent years, the record received a great importance and it gives also an expression of the future economic benefits. Goodwill is difficult to define because the item may contain, for example, customer relationships, trademarks, good reputation, etc. In the current situation, innovation is an important factor for companies and has great significance for economic growth and innovation capacity of firms should have an impact on the goodwill value of the entry.

    Method: A quantitative study has been made in this paper. Through the database Retriever data was collected from the largest listed companies. An elimination was made for those companies that had not provided data that was required for the study. Through the statistical program Minitab was two regression models were conducted and analyzed.

    Conclusion: Our conclusion is that the two dimensions of innovation studied, patents and research and development, Large Cap both have a positive explainationary power on goodwill for Large Cap. For Mid Cap there no significant effect appears. For Small Cap patent has a weak impact on goodwill, while research and development showed no impact.

  • 87.
    Abugessaisa, Imad
    et al.
    Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Östman, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Urban and regional planning/GIS-institute.
    Testing-SDI: E-government Prospective, Requirements, and Challenges2011In: International Journal of Public Information Systems, ISSN 1653-4360, Vol. 2011, no 1, p. 11-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatial Data Infrastructure denotes the collection of technologies, policies and institutional arrangements that facilitate the availability of and access to spatial information. During the last few years the development of spatial data infrastructure in Sweden has been influenced by two actions. The first was the European Directive in spatial data infrastructure namely Infrastructure for Spatial Information in Europe (INSPIRE), and the second action was the Swedish parliament's directive early in 2008 on e-Government. In a modern society, spatial data play major roles and have different applications such as information support during disaster prevention and management. These two milestones involving Geodata development have created huge demands and represent great challenges for researchers in the area of spatial data infrastructure. One of these challenges concerned the methodologies involved for testing proposed data specifications from INSPIRE. This paper addresses the above challenge and introduces a framework for testing Geodata. The testing of Geodata includes, the testing of the data specifications for different geographical themes and data structure, the performance testing of Opengeospatial Web Services (OWS) and the usability of Geoportals and services. The proposed methods were evaluated during a pilot test for a regional geoportal in Sweden, and the reported results in this paper show the feasibility and applicability of the methods used. The methods used assisted in the identification of the performance related defects and the bottleneck involved in relation to the response time, stress and load. The methods support the detection of different types of errors that occur during the testing time such as http error, timeout error, and socket error. During the pilot test of a geoportal, it was discovered that the response time was 30 seconds which is 6 times higher than the INSPIRE required time (Maximum 5 second), with 500 virtual users accessing the system and performing a specific task. A usability test was conducted which focused on the users' acceptance and the “think aloud” methods. The usability testing enabled the identification of user-interface related problems and the results were quantified to enable comparisons to be made with current results and those from the new test.

  • 88.
    Abukar, Ismahan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Wedin, Cecilia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Social work.
    Male social workers experiences of gender baises: A study of gender biases within the social service in Gävle2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate how men in the social service in Gävle experience gender biases within the social work profession. We conducted a qualitative research with five male social workers that we interviewed regarding gender biases. The main result ended up under three themes which are client influence and reinforcement; work culture; and lastly the unconscious experience. The conclusion is that male social workers experience gender biases accordingly through three themes.

  • 89.
    Abur, Diana
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology.
    Söderberg, Emma
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology.
    Fem pedagogers tankar kring matematikundervisningens utveckling i relation till styrdokumenten2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet var att studera matematikundervisningens utveckling genom att beskriva styrdokumentens, läroplanernas och kursplanernas påverkan på undervisningen. Bakgrunden till detta examensarbete är det faktum att många elever uppfattar skolmatematiken som komplicerad och ointressant och att de inte når de uppsatta målen. Metoden som användes var en litteraturgenomgång där matematikundervisningens utveckling studerades. Genom att även utföra en kvalitativ intervjuundersökning kunde fem yrkeserfarna pedagoger beskriva hur de uppfattar denna utveckling och hur det visar sig i deras matematikundervisning. Studien visar att i takt med att samhället utvecklas och förändras utvecklas också styrdokumenten. Historiskt sett har det visat sig att matematik haft andra ändamål än endast att undervisa och lära. Den har alltid kopplats ihop med något som ska uppfylla samhällets behov såsom att förbereda för fortsatta studier, ge en god grund för studier i andra ämnen och skapa dugliga samhällsmedborgare. De kvalitativa intervjuerna visar att lärarnas arbetsformer och undervisning påverkats av styrdokumentens skiftningar. Skolmatematiken har blivit mer kreativ och konkret och man vill komma utanför matematikboken genom att låta eleverna arbeta med vardagsmatematik och problemlösning. Litteraturgenomgången och intervjuerna visar att det inte finns något enkelt svar på när matematikundervisning utvecklas och hur man kan förändra arbetsmetoder i undervisningen därför att det finns andra faktorer som kan påverka. Det handlar inte bara om införandet av nya läroplaner, utan även om att hitta arbetsätt som anpassas efter elevernas förutsättningar för bästa möjliga resultat för både eleverna och samhället.

  • 90.
    Acheamong, Fredrick
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences.
    Decoupling Church-State Relation in Sweden: A Brief Post-Mortem2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Five decades’ process of breaking more than four centuries of Church-State ties saw a major break-through at the stroke of the new millennium (the year 2000), with the implementation of legislative reforms aimed at giving the Church of Sweden a greater degree of liberty, while extending greater freedom to other religious communities in Sweden. Almost a decade after this historic legislation most stakeholders claim the impact of the reform has been significant. Indeed the decision to server Church-State ties for whatever purpose or reason, after such a long standing relation between the two, will by all means have implications for the Church that is separated, the State and the so called free churches and other religions in Sweden. Thus, this field study seeks to investigate the resultant impact of delimiting governmental power in the religious domain on the now autonomous church and the implications the separation has had for other “non-state churches” as well as the secularized state government in Sweden almost ten years after the reforms.

  • 91.
    Ackerstierna, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Dagens arbetsmiljö för tjänstemän i norra Virginia, USA: en studie av ett amerikanskt företag.2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Describe a working climate a young professional can expect to face with a company in Northern Virginia, USA. Examine working conditions and the working environment through perspectives such as gender, culture, and leadership.

     

    Method: Qualitative research where one case study has been performed for collecting empirical data. Inductive logic and a constructivist approach have been used as strategy for parsing data.

     

    Result & Conclusions: There is a paradox between working hours and flexibility. Professionals work significantly more hours than stipulated in their job descriptions. The appropriate number of working hours is a gray zone issue and there is unspoken demand to stay and work late, especially at the higher levels within the organization. Finansa appears to be a flexible and understanding employer but only when missed hours are made up and added to with extra hours. The result is a false sense of employment security. There are no written contracts of employment and a manager and/or employer can fire you whenever they want to and without any reason. In addition, employees can leave the company without further notice. Finally, another important dimension to the work environment of the young professional is diversity. This is a demographic reality of professional life in Northern Virginia and it can present a significant challenge. It is extremely important for young professionals to understand that cultural differences influence the work environment; others may not think and act as you do and basic assumptions about conduct may differ greatly across cultures. The key for success in this diverse environment is to understand it exists in the workplace and to take action based on that knowledge. Tolerance of personal differences with co-workers is essential. Understanding how different ethnic groups deal with time, relations and environment could be the decisive key for success in the professional setting.

     

    Suggestions for future research: To perform a deeper study about working hours. To investigate how many hours white-collar workers in the US work outside stipulated working hours and how many hours they spend on volunteer hours. The gray zone of working hours is a large uninvestigated reality.

     

    Contribution of the thesis: Increase the understanding of challenges a young Swedish professional faces when working abroad and in particular with a company in Northern Virginia, USA.

  • 92.
    Ackerstierna, Eva
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics, Ämnesavdelningen för företagsekonomi.
    Serviceerbjudande: En jämförelse av skola och omsorg mellan Sverige och Virginia (USA).2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: My topic is based on my own experiences from living in the USA for a few years.  Eventually, I realized the differences between our cultures were greater than my expectations. With three children in school you are thoroughly exposed to the education system and it is natural to make comparisons. This study is a comparative assessment of services offered in the areas of education and child-care. The aim for the study was to describe and evaluate service offered to families in Sweden and Virginia by using theories in marketing and service management. The primary aim is to highlight and discuss where is the best place to live.

  • 93. Adams, Robin
    et al.
    Fincher, Sally
    Pears, Arnold
    Börstler, Jürgen
    Boustedt, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för datavetenskap.
    Dalenius, Peter
    Eken, Gunilla
    Heyer, Tim
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Lindberg, Vanja
    Molin, Bengt
    Moström, Jan-Erik
    Wiggberg, Mattias
    What is the word for 'Engineering' in Swedish: Swedish students conceptions of their discipline2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineering education in Sweden – as in the rest of the world – is experiencing a decline in student interest. There are concerns about the ways in which students think about engineering education, why they join an academic programme in engineering, and why they persist in their studies. In this context the aims of the Nationellt ämnesdidaktiskt Centrum för Teknikutbildning i Studenternas Sammanhang project (CeTUSS) is to investigate the student experience and to identify and support a continuing network of interested researchers, as well as in building capacity for disciplinary pedagogic investigation.

    The Stepping Stones project brings together these interests in a multi-researcher, multi-institutional study that investigates how tudents and academic staff perceive engineering in Sweden and in Swedish education. The first results of that project are reported here. As this study is situated uniquely in Swedish education, it allows for exploration of “a Swedish perspective” on conceptions of engineering. The Stepping Stones project was based on a model of research capacity-building previously instantiated in the USA and Australia (Fincher & Tenenberg, 2006).

  • 94.
    Adan Issack, Ibrahim
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Ivanova, Ekaterina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Integration of unemployed immigrants into the labor market in Gävle.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Integration of unemployed immigrants into the labor market in Gävle

    Authors: Ibrahim Adan Issack and Ekaterina Ivanova

    The aim of this study was to investigate unemployed immigrant’s description of how they perceive the labor market in Gävle. Qualitative method face-to-face interviews were used to gather data. The results of this study shows that an unemployed immigrant seems to encounter hinders and opportunities in the labor market. The following five issues were described as being most important in influencing immigrants’ employment opportunities in Gävle: Swedish language knowledge, previous education, discrimination, social network and family situation. Ecological system theory and previous research were used to analyze the gathered results. 

    Key words: integration, immigrant, labor market.

  • 95.
    Adeboye, Taiyelolu
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Robot Goalkeeper: A robotic goalkeeper based on machine vision and motor control2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report shows a robust and efficient implementation of a speed-optimized algorithm for object recognition, 3D real world location and tracking in real time. It details a design that was focused on detecting and following objects in flight as applied to a football in motion. An overall goal of the design was to develop a system capable of recognizing an object and its present and near future location while also actuating a robotic arm in response to the motion of the ball in flight.

    The implementation made use of image processing functions in C++, NVIDIA Jetson TX1, Sterolabs’ ZED stereoscopic camera setup in connection to an embedded system controller for the robot arm. The image processing was done with a textured background and the 3D location coordinates were applied to the correction of a Kalman filter model that was used for estimating and predicting the ball location.

    A capture and processing speed of 59.4 frames per second was obtained with good accuracy in depth detection while the ball was well tracked in the tests carried out.

  • 96.
    Adebäck, Julia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Eriksson, Ludvig
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Påverkar äktheten i socialt ansvarstagande den finansiella lönsamheten i företag?: En kvantitativ studie av 280 europeiska bolag2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Todays’ companies are facing an increased demand from society that they need to shift their priorities from just making money to being socially responsible. Due to the increased demand, the importance of the concept Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has also increased in the last decades. A popular branch in prior CSR studies has been to investigate if CSR-investments affects the Corporate financial performance (CFP) which has shown conflicting results. However, previous research has identified an authentic gap between what companies are promising and what they implement in reality. Therefore the aim with this study is to investigate how authentic investments in CSR, with regard to how a CSR committee and consistent CSR, influence corporate financial performance (CFP).

    Method: The study is based on the philosophy of positivism with a hypothetical deductive approach. Secondary data has been collected from Thomson Reuters Datastream with a quantitative approach. A longitudinal design has been used where data has been collected over a period of six years and the final sample has been processed and analyzed with regression analysis in IBM SPSS.

    Result & Conclusions: This study shows that companies’ financial performance is higher in the presence of a CSR-committee, which indicates that a company by engaging in authentic CSR-activities gets a higher financial performance. Management preferences to communicate the company's social responsibility results in a better financial performance due to a better relationship with the stakeholders

    Suggestions for future research: Suggestions for future research may investigate how the consistency of companies CSR is influenced by the new legislation over a longer period of time. Since the CSR-committee is influential for the financial performance we would also like to see further studies involving factors that might weaken or strengthen this relationship.

    Contribution of the thesis: From a theoretical perspective this study contributes to the accounting literature by investigating the relationship between financial performance and authentic CSR motives. From a practical perspective this study can be of interest for companies that are planning to implement a CSR-committee since this is an influential factor for the financial performance.

  • 97.
    Adebäck, Sara
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Norman, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies.
    Innovationsförmågans påverkan på varumärket: En vindlande resa om redovisningens svårighet att informera om det mest väsentliga2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Developing an strong brand is a way for companies to stand out of the crowd, which today is necessary to conquer on the competitive market. The brand value is one of the most important assets in annual reports, but there are difficult to estimate an reliable value. It depends on the fact that the brand value is affected by few different factors, including innovativ-eness. Due to the thesis background the purpose enunciate: The purpose of this thesis is to investigate it there is a correlation between companies brand value and innovation capacity.

    Method: We have done a secondary data analysis, with help from the database Retriever. The combination of faint information and lack of quality in Retrievers capacity it contributed that we had to use semi-structured interviews as an complement to full follow the purpose. The paper per- form at Stockholm Nasdaq OMX and included de 250 largest companies that at least had one registered brand value. Companies with inapplicable data for the purpose of the study was elimi- nated. As a final the data was analysed by dint of linear regression, Pearsons correlation analysis, and interviews thru ”well-grounded theory”.

    Result & Conclusion: The result of the study indicated that there are positive relation between brand value and R&D. The complemented interviews contributed that the authors observed diff- erences between practitioners and researchers on the perception of between essential accounting information and the opportunities to provide principles to circumvent the recommendations. The conclusion of the study is that companies brand value are positively affected by the innovativeness.

    Suggestions for future research: Due to the lack of resources and qualitative database it wasn’t possible to satisfy the purpose of the study. Consequently our suggestion for future research will contain the recommendation to do the study on another stock exchange.

    Contribute of the thesis: Mainly this study contributes to illuminate the fact of accounting information: companies doesn't inform sufficient information to increase knowledge for there own business innovativeness and immaterial assets. Which can be seen as a problem. Second contribute comprises that there is, hence small or implicit, relation between brand value and their companies innovativeness at the researched companies. Consequently the results gets difficult to draw general conclusion from.

  • 98.
    Ader, Weronica
    University of Gävle, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för kultur- och religionsvetenskap.
    Den icke-konfessionella religionskunskapen: en studie om lärares upplevelser kring religionskunskapen och det kristna arvet2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här uppsatsen är att undersöka om religionslärare på grundskolans senare år upplever en konflikt mellan läroplanens mål om en icke-konfessionell, saklig och allsidig undervisning och den tradition som finns inom religionskunskapen med en nära koppling till kristendomen. Undersökningen bygger dels på litteraturstudier, där jag ger en bakgrund till och en definition av relevanta begrepp som icke-konfessionell undervisning, saklig och allsidig undervisning, sekularisering, religionsfrihet samt mångkultur, dels intervjuer med tio religionslärare i Jönköpings kommun. Resultatet visar att lärarna inte upplever någon konflikt kring detta något motsägelsefulla, men att de är mycket medvetna om problematiken som finns kring dessa begrepp och kopplingen till undervisningen i religionskunskap.

  • 99.
    Adis, Kurtalic
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Linkfire2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Planen var att konstruera en PCI-Express-till-PCI brygga för fyra MoCA radiokort. Problem uppstod då det visade sig att PLC8112 inte kunde hantera fyra PCI samtidigt som var utlovat från tillverkaren av bryggan. För att lösa problemet fick PCI6152 läggas till i designen. Det är en PCI-till-PCI brygga som också ska klara att hantera upp till fyra PCI enligt tillverkaren. Fyra MoCA radiokort förbrukar mycket ström. Två spänningsregulatorer lades till i designen för att kunna leverera de strömmar som krävs. För att säkerställa att radiokorten som ansluts till Linkfire inte blir för varma så placeras en temperatursensor under ett radiokort. Temperatursensorn har endast av/på lägen och till den ansluts två fläktar, därmed så betraktas dem som en fläkt då de inte är individuellt styrda.

  • 100.
    Adolfsson, Jenny
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Philipsson, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Faktorer som kan påverka sjuksköterskans följsamhet till basala hygienrutiner2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Health-related infections (HRI) are the most frequent occurring care damages in inpatient care. HRI’s does not only impact the individual patient, but it also creates high costs and causes high levels of stress at the organization, as well as the community level. Nurses’ application of and compliance with evidence-based guidelines regarding basic hygiene routines is the most effective way to prevent HRI. An examination of the various factors that contributes to the lack of compliance with the different guidelines are crucial in order to increase the theoretical and practical knowledge amongst nurses. This automatically leads to the performing of a safer patient care.

    Aim: The purpose of this literature study was to identify and describe the various factors that may impact the nurse's compliance with basic hygiene routines in the prevention of healthcare related infections and to describe the data collection methods in the academic literature.

    Method: A descriptive literature study with results from 12 scientific articles. The literature research was performed in the databases PubMed and Cinahl. The articles were also reviewed based on their data collection method.

    Main results: Several factors contributed to how the nurses followed evidence-based guidelines regarding basic hygiene routines. The accessibility that nurses had to hygiene products was a primary cause. Lack of knowledge, time shortage, and high workload were additional causes as to why the basic hygiene routines were not properly performed. Contrary to this, good colleagues, good communication, and a safe workplace proved to be factors with a positive impact on preventive work. Surveys, observations and combined data collection methods were used in the included scientific articles.

    Conclusion: There are several factors that affect nurses compliance with guidelines regarding basic hygiene routines. By creating awareness among nurses regarding these factors, they are given the possibility of improving the preventive work against HRI.

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