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  • 51.
    Ding, Jie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Yu, Lin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    In search of continuous improvement implementation Tools: results of the 2Pnd international continuous improvement survey2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of this paper is to investigate the implementation of Continuous Improvement (CI) in companies from Sweden, Netherlands, Spain, Italy, Australia and United Kingdom.This paper used the 2nd international CI survey to analyze CI behavior. The analysis was made by comparing the tools in clusters defined by different CI abilities.The major finding is that different CI tool usage depends on the different CI ability

  • 52.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    In-House Delivery: An Analysis of a Materials Supply Model at Ericsson Corporation2008In: Proceedings of ICESAL 2008, 2008, p. 223-237Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives an account of and analyzes a concept for materials supply within Ericsson Corporation. The study is focused on the customer’s point of view. The concept, called by Ericsson In-House Delivery (IHD), could be identified as a manual form of the principle of Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI). In IHD the supplier has the responsibility for dimensioning the customer’s production store and also for physically replenishing the storeroom without any traditional purchase orders or transactions in IT systems regarding inventory control. This method contrasts with the more traditional Material Requirements Planning (MRP), which is more dependent on data than IHD is. IHD also differ to how VMI normally is implemented using IT-based solutions. IHD could be an uncomplicated method for manufacturing companies to manage non-critical purchased parts or standard parts with low economical importance, and its use could help the company achieve its logistics goals.

  • 53.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Mobile Inventory: An analysis of a materials supply model at Ericsson corporation2009In: Proceedings of the annual POMS conference, USA, May 2009, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study analyzes the telecom company Ericsson’s supply model, named Mobile Inventory by the author, focusing on the customer’s point of view. Mobile Inventory involves specially designed carts with electronic components required for production that circulate between a third-party logistics provider (3PLP) and Ericsson. The carts are transported by trucks and rolled out close to the assembly line at Ericsson, where they work as production storage sites. The inventory level inside the cart is kept at a certain maximum level, which covers the requirements until a new cart is delivered. The supply model works without a traditional purchase ordering process, operating instead as a variant of a periodic ordering system with fixed delivery days and where the 3PLP is responsible for the replenishment of the carts. The system runs to a large extent by itself. Mobile Inventory could be an uncomplicated supply model for manufacturing companies to manage some of their products like noncritical/standard and leverage parts, demanding only limited resources and providing a high level of customer service. This study intends to increase the knowledge of an alternative approach for materials supply that could be applied to manufacturing companies other than Ericsson.

  • 54. Fan, L. -B
    et al.
    Wu, Y. -C
    Zhao, Ming
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Structural system based on software reliability2008In: Beijing Gongye Daxue Xuebao / Journal of Beijing University of Technology, ISSN 0254-0037, Vol. 34, no SUPPL. 2, p. 73-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the software reliability, combined with the usage profile and functional profile of software, the reliability computing method of the software system is presented in this paper. The reliability is used for guide the designing of the system structure and showing how this designing to response the user demand changing. Lastly, an example is used to show the application of this method.

  • 55.
    Gay-Perret, David
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Tang, Jiaman
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    A veiled effect of Globalization: when Chinese companies seek to enter the European market2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The report is about globalization, when Chinese companies come to Europe. The aims are to sum up this phenomenon by answering three key questions thanks to the literature (why coming to Europe, how, what challenges may be encountered on the way), and then to update the challenges we found to make them more actual. We would like this report to be the reference in this field.

    In order to do so, we built up a model explaining the process of Chinese companies coming to Europe, and then took contact with Chinese and Swedish companies with deep knowledge of internationalization and interviewed them, starting with the challenges we found out after a literature review. They helped us to sort these challenges between “no longer relevant” (despite recent information from the literature) and “still relevant”, and also added some new ones.

    Then we updated our model: among the 16 challenges we had at the beginning, we kept 11 of them, removed 5 and added 2 new ones. The aims and means for coming to Europe remained unchanged.

    We conclude this report by giving possible further studies such as listing which culture differences matter when doing business, or finding solutions to the problems found.

  • 56.
    Gosztolai Eriksson, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Forsgren Stistrup, Michael
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Importflöden med container till mellansverige: Kartläggning av importflöden2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The function of port Gavle is to act as a hub in a logistic point of view within this region and so on in this territory commodity pass by or arrive by boat. A great deal of export spate contain steel and wood when mostly import consist of coffee and oil.

    The current situation is an uneven divided proportion import compare to export torrents by container. The reason is that our current location is dominated by large productive industries exporting a great deal of gods throughout the world. And so for that reason the share of import by port Gavle is 25% weight against 75% export. The problem been discovered in relation to this issue is the need of empty containers required and therefore needed to be shipped at port of Gavle to satisfy, in this current situation, the greater deal of export torrents. Shipping empty containers party costly and not to strive for. However it’s desirable to stimulate players within the market to explore port Gavle and subsequently even out the balance of torrents arriving and departing this region.

    Person X, at port Gavle acting as the director of market and continuously are working with issues as the ones mentioned above. The purpose is to make port Gavle more attractive to customers, when they aim to convince customers of the benefits of choosing port Gavle. Extensive investments has been made in order for port Gavle to be able to offer customers, the shipping companies, services and capacity which would result in increasing number of collaborations. For now, port Gothenburg is the leading player regarding container torrents in Sweden, and port Gavle is the third in order. 

    The task given to us by Person X to make a survey of import torrents in this region limited from Stockholm to Östersund as the northernmostly location. Précising this region has been done in consultation with Person X and its purpose is to include the most common destinations for goods passing port Gavle. Meanwhile a lot of goods are reaching this region from other ports in Sweden also.

    Person X was therefore interested in torrents of goods arriving in this region, and intend to use the result of this study for further investigation of the current situation and possibilities to place resources  with the objective to gain import through port Gavle, with containers. 

    Our conclusion is that import torrents is aligned with population and income. We also found out that in general import has increased through the last years.

  • 57.
    Grip, Katarina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Pålsson, Jennifer
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Hur lagerhanteringssystem och artikelidentifiering kan bidra till logistisk effektivitet: En fallstudie på Nefab i Runemo2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Warehouses are a key aspect of modern supply chains and play a vital role in the success or failure of businesses today. Figures from the USA indicate that the capital- and operating costs of warehouses represent about 22 % of a company’s logistics costs while figures from Europe indicate 25 % (Baker & Canessa, 2009). Because warehousing is such an important function within a company, the authors chose to focus on this in their thesis. The purpose of this thesis has been to examine the significance of a Warehouse Management System (WMS) and item identification with attention to logistic efficiency. With this as a starting point, the thesis also intends to examine the needs and possibilities with a WMS and some sort of item identification at a specific company and also present suggestions of how to move forward with this type of work.

  • 58.
    li, zhi
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    The competitive advantage of IKEA and IKEA in China2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

     

    Title:        The competitive advantage of IKEA and IKEA in China

     

    Author:      Zhi Li

     

    Supervisor:   Lars Steiner

     

    Purpose:     The main purpose of this master thesis is to describe the IKEA concept and discuss the application in China. After research the history of IKEA, interview with the manager of IKEA store, and find the information from the web and thesis, use the theory of competitive advantage to describe the IKEA concept and the competitive advantage which is the way that IKEA used to get the success. Secondly, discuss the application in China and give IKEA the suggestions to develop the competitive advantage in China market.

     

     

    Methods:     Because IKEA is not a public company, I cannot get too much data. I browsed the official website of IKEA to get much information about the introduction of IKEA’ corporate culture, strategies, copartner, history and the data of IKEA financial and work group. I find some English and Chinese books, thesis and reports try to find more data and more good ideas of Chinese scholars. Visit and observe the IKEA store and note my questions. I tried to have an interview with IKEA store in china, but failed. Fortunately, I got an interview with Hans Karlsson which is the logics manager of IKEA store in Gavle. He explained the competitive strategy of logistics, the competitive advantage about IKEA and the next step IKEA may do in china. Try to analysis the different culture and other problem that IKEA have to face. Analyze all the data and the idea I have got and use the theory of   Michael Porter to finish this thesis.

     

    Conclusions:  IKEA should have many innovations to adapt to the China market. “At IKEA our vision is to create a better everyday life for the many people. Our business idea supports this vision by offering a wide range of well-designed, functional home furnishing products at prices so low that as many people as possible will be able to afford them.”(Our vision and business idea, http://www.ikea.com/ms/en_US/about_ikea/the_ikea_way/our_business_idea/index.html) It seems not achieved in China market yet. Firstly, IKEA should have greater cooperation with local suppliers to get more competitive advantage of cost leadership. Secondly, according to the specialty of China market, IKEA should have some more adjustment to satisfy so many China picky customers. Thirdly, IKEA should intensify propaganda work to let more customers understand and accommodate the IKEA model. As an outcomer, there is a long way to be the winner in this huge and potential market. After a long time to research the China market, IKEA already understand the China market more than before. With accelerating the speed of expand, the success of IKEA in China market is only the problem of time.

     

     

    Key words:  IKEA, competitive advantage, IKEA model, China market

     

  • 59.
    Ljungström, Martin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    A model for starting up and implementing continuous improvements and work development in practice2005In: TQM Magazine, ISSN 0954-478X, E-ISSN 1758-6887, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 385-405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to evaluate and further develop a model created to start-up the implementation of continuous improvements (CI) and work development (WD).

    Design/methodology/approach – The model is evaluated through action research at two different Swedish companies.

    Findings – The study indicates that companies using the model can be successful in the start-up of CI and WD and that the model creates opportunities to go further in both CI and WD issues. The study emphasizes the idea that facilitators are important for starting up and initiating a change in behaviour. The results also indicate the need for structural changes and a more profound competence in WD and coaching among managers to further develop a successful combination of CI and WD.

    Originality/value – The study shows that it is harder to implement daily CI activities in the administrative parts then at the shop floor.

  • 60.
    Ljungström, Martin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Sustainable continuous improvements and work development: important factors for theory and practice2005In: International Journal of Management Practice, ISSN 1477-9064, E-ISSN 1741-8143, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 330-344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many companies initiate programmes containing continuous improvements (CI) and work development (WD), but a lot of those fail in terms of sustainability. The paper identifies important factors that need to be considered urgently if one wants to reach a sustainable work with CI and WD. The factors include aspects such as basic ideas, personal interest, simplicity, active management, structured work, clear goals and adaptability. These factors are then illustrated by two engineering companies that have been working with CI and WD for two to three years. The outcome of this test confirms that the identified factors are important.

  • 61. Luzzini, Davide
    et al.
    Caniato, Federico
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    A proposal for research in Purchasing and Supply Management2009In: Proceedings of the 18th IPSERA conference in Oestrich-Winkel, Germany, 5 – 8 April., 2009, p. 1328-1346Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 62.
    Löfqvist, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Design processes and novelty in small companies: a multiple case study2009In: ICED 09 - THE 17TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ENGINEERING DESIGN: Proceedings, Vol. 1, Design processes, 2009, p. 265-278Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the design processes in small established companies and investigates how these design processes are executed. How two different kinds of novelty influence the design processes is further examined: the relative novelty of the product being developed and the relative novelty of design processes. The relative novelty of the product is high if it is a radically new product to develop.

    High relative novelty for design processes typically means no experience or knowledge about design processes. Based on an embedded multiple case study of three small established companies in Sweden, eight different design processes are described and analyzed. The results show that the design processes differ, even within the same company. The results also show that relative novelty affects the design process. If the relative novelty of both the product to be developed and of design processes is low, a linear, structured, and systematic design process was found to work. A design process that is cyclical, experimental, and knowledge-creating seems to work no matter the relative novelty.

  • 63.
    Löfqvist, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Innovation and Design Processes in Small Established Companies2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines innovation and design processes in small established companies. There is a great interest in this area yet paradoxically the area is under-researched, since most innovation research is done on large companies. The research questions are: How do small established companies carry out their innovation and design processes? and How does the context and novelty of the process and product affect the same processes?

    The thesis is built on three research papers that used the research method of multiple case studies of different small established companies. The innovation and design processes found were highly context dependent and were facilitated by committed resources, a creative climate, vision, low family involvement, delegated power and authority, and linkages to external actors such as customers and users. Both experimental cyclical and linear structured design processes were found. The choice of structure is explained by the relative product and process novelty experienced by those developing the product innovation. Linear design processes worked within a low relative novelty situation and cyclical design processes worked no matter the relative novelty. The innovation and design processes found were informal, with a low usage of formal systematic design methods, except in the case of design processes for software. The use of formal systematic methods in small companies seems not always to be efficient, because many of the problems the methods are designed to solve are not present. Customers and users were found to play a large and important role in the innovation and design processes found and gave continuous feedback during the design processes. Innovation processes were found to be intertwined, yielding synergy effects, but it was common that resources were taken from the innovation processes for acute problems that threatened the cash flow. In sum, small established companies have the natural prerequisites to take advantage of lead-user inventions and cyclical design processes. Scarce resources were found to be the main factor hindering innovation, but the examined companies practiced several approaches to increase their resources or use existing scarce resources more efficiently in their innovation and design processes. Examples of these approaches include adopting lead-user inventions and reducing formality in the innovation and design processes.

  • 64.
    Löfqvist, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Prerequisites for innovation in small companies: a multiple case study2008In: Proceedings of the 9th International CINet Conference in Valencia, 7-9 September, 2008., 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 65.
    Löfqvist, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Product and process novelty in small companies´design processes: A multiple case study2009In: 10th International CINet Conference: Enhancing the innovation environment, Brisbane, Australia, 6-8 September 2009, 2009, p. 1-16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the design processes in small established companies and investigates how these design processes are executed. How two different kinds of novelty influence the design processes is further examined: the relative novelty of the product being developed and the relative novelty of design processes. The relative novelty of the product is high if it is a radically new product to develop. High relative novelty for design processes typically means no experience or knowledge about design processes. Based on an embedded multiple case study of three small established companies in Sweden, eight different design processes are described and analyzed. The results show that the design processes differ, even within the same company. The results also show that relative novelty affects the design process. If the relative novelty of both the product to be developed and of design processes is low, a linear, structured, and systematic design process was found to work. A design process that is cyclical, experimental, and knowledge-creating seems to work no matter the relative novelty.

  • 66.
    Löfqvist, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    The use of methodology for product and service development in SME: an exploratory study of 18 small companies2007In: 8th International CINet conference, Gothenburg, Sweden, 9-11 September, 2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 67.
    Löfqvist, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    The use of methodology for product and service development in SME:s: an exploratory study of 18 small companies2007In: 8th International CINet Conference: Continuous Innovation - Opportunities and Challenges, Gothenburg, Sweden, 7-11 September 2007, 2007, p. 1-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the use of systematic methods in the product and service development process within small companies. The method used was semi structured interviews with persons involved in the product or service development process in the companies. The results show that almost all of the 18 companies examined in the study used no systematic methodology in their product or service development processes. The development processes were often ad hoc and inefficient and the companies were aware of this problem and suffered from it. They wanted to change their way of working but did not know how, yet expressed that a more systematic product or service development methodology could be a promising alternative to solve their problems. The small companies often had scarce resources for product or service development and had limited or no knowledge of systematic methods that could be used in their product and service development processes. Only one company in the study had a structured and effective product development methodology that suited the company’s characteristics. This case, however, shows that a structured and effective product or service development process is possible in a small company.

  • 68.
    Niss, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Project Becoming and Knowing Trajectories: An Epistemological Perspective on Human and Non-human Project Making2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 69.
    Nordström, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Söderström, Sandra
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Förutsättningar för optimal ställtidsreduktion genom SMED metoden2009Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 70.
    Nylén, Karl-Olof
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Funktionskrav i entreprenader vid järnvägsbyggande: slutrapportering av ett IVA projekt2003Report (Other academic)
  • 71.
    Nylén, Karl-Olof
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Funktionskrav i järnvägsprojekt: Hinder och möjligheter2000Report (Other academic)
  • 72.
    Ohlsson, Olof
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Möjligheter till effektivare lagerstyrning:  på Eco Log Sweden AB2009Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Small stores are one of the most important goals in business today, but if companies have small stores it can be issues that the production doesn’t run easy. Small store can create liquidity because less money is bind in the store, and the company can use this money to better investments.

     

    The purpose of the examination work was to give Eco Log condition to keep their store small and still make the production run without problems. Since I have worked at Eco Log for one and a half year I had good insight in the company.

     

    First I created a theoretic reference frame, with this and my insight in the company I discovered one thing that was very interesting. This thing was that all the parts in Eco Log store were controlled in the same basics.

     

    The biggest task was to divide all parts in the different groups, which could be controlled different to keep the value of the store, as low as possible. From that I created an ABC-analysis based on the parts volume-worth. The ABC-analysis showed which parts had the most effect on the value of the store and which had the less effect. Three different classes were made A, B and C. For these three classes different types of planning were suggested. The suggestions that were made have created from the company possibility.

     

    To make things easier for Eco Log in the future some suggestions were made how to keep the ABC-analysis correct in the future.

  • 73.
    Raihle, Erik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Wigsten, Sebastian
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Vikman, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Inköpsbeslut, samarbeten och relationer: En fallstudie på 4 organisationer inom Gävleborg2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We have chosen to write our essay in the purchasing area. The paper aims to examine how outsourcing, relationships and technology partnerships works primarily in the public sector. We have also chosen a privet company as a reference. The importance of purchasing has grown over the past decades, a lot more material is now bought in ready to be mounted together into a finished product. Much money can therefore be gained by improving the work of the purchasing department. The aim of this paper is to investigate the importance of purchasing to companies and to see in what ways the companies work with purchasing differs from the theory. In this paper we have chosen to perform qualitative study with an inductive approach because this will give us a better image of how companies work with their purchasing process. Therefore we have chosen to perform a case study with the interviews of four purchasing managers as material for the study. The conclusion we have made after studying the companies motives to use outsourcing is foremost the lack of competence that made them outsource some of their activities. We have also seen as we expected that the public companies that apply partnering consider them self to add to little resources to maintain their relationship but they have now started to or begun adding more recourse to maintain them. This is something that Lyson and Gillingham (2003) implies is the driving force within companies that has implemented partnering. According to Van Weele (2002) IT is highly prioritized in many organizations, however the work with the implementation may take longer then what the it appears. The will to change exist within the companies but many factors slows down the development. We have also noticed that the price of the services/product is the main reason that makes companies purchases it. There is many interesting aspects to explore as subjects in future papers for example how outsourcing effects companies overall knowledge, economic situation and how technologic cooperation’s will be in the future.  It would also be interesting to quantify the importance of supplier relationships to companies.

  • 74.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi. Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Developing TQEM in SMEs: Management System Approach2001Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 75.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Drivers and strategies for education for sustainable development2007In: International Advanced Research Workshop on Higher Education and Sustainable Development, HESD: Maribor, Slovenia, March 29-30, 2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 76.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Education for sustainable development (ESD) in Swedish universities2007In: First European workshop for implementation of UNECE strategy, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 77.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Environmental management systems – a way towards sustainable development in universities: ”It was difficult at first … then we started talking with our colleagues and we saw it in a longer perspective”2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The economic development in the world today makes increased consumption of goods and travelling available for more people around the world than ever before. This results, however, also in increased production and spreading of substances that are hazardous both to human health and to the ecosystem globally. Therefore, education to increase knowledge, awareness, motivation, and action competence on all levels is important in the strategy for a sustainable development, which satisfies the basic human needs for all people without damaging the life support system of our planet.

    The challenge for universities is how to assure that their students are exposed to the questions that are relevant for sustainable development from the various disciplinary perspectives so that they will be able to make professional and private “sustainability-promoting” decisions in the future.

    The overall purpose of this thesis is to contribute to the knowledge and understanding of the implementation of environmental management systems in universities and how the systems can be a tool in integrating sustainable development in higher education. The research is motivated by the fact that many Swedish universities have implemented environmental management systems and although there are many studies of environmental management systems in industry and some in public organisations, many features of their use in the university context are still poorly understood.

    The thesis presents an in-depth evaluation study of the implementation of environmental management systems (EMS) in Swedish universities with comparisons to industry. Based on the evidence from the studies the main argument of the thesis is that the environmental management systems can indeed function as an effective means to integrate sustainable development in all university activities, including education. The regular audits required by a certified environmental management system keep the activities on the university agenda and provide opportunities for follow-up, for feedback and for further development. The emerging research on sustainable development can contribute to lifting sustainable development the on the academic agenda from different disciplinary perspectives. The study suggests also that, although internal factors are essential in the EMS implementation, without external follow-up and feedback, sustainable development risks remaining a policy among others without a real change in universities.

  • 78.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    From Government Directive to Sustainable Development in Swedish Universities2004In: Environmental Management for Sustainable Universities Conference in Monterrey, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 79.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Higher Environmental Education and Environmental Labour Market in Sweden1999Report (Other academic)
  • 80.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Hur studenter upplever högskolornas miljöambitioner1999Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 81.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    MINT - National initiative to promote greening of curriculum2002In: EMSU conference, Grahamstown, south Africa, September 2002, 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 82.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Quality auditors and environmental auditors: Can these two roles be combined?1995In: Eco-Management and Auditing, ISSN 0968-9427, E-ISSN 1099-0925, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 57-64Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The possibilities of integrating the functions of quality and environmental auditors are explored. The various standards for quality and environmental management systems are presented and the different requiremens they place on an audtior are summarized. The effects of the integration of the auditor function are considered. It is noted that an integration of these management systems and an integration of the auditor function would be most feasibel in small- and medium-sized companies with limited sizes and resources. The integration could cause some conflicts, but these could be overcome by a strong commitment form the auditor and strong support from company management.

  • 83.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Where do green engineers come from?1996Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 84.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Arvidsson, Karin
    Environmental Management in Swedish Higher Education. Directives, driving forces, hindrances, environmental aspects and environmental co-ordinators in Swedish universities2005In: International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, ISSN 1467-6370, E-ISSN 1758-6739, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 18-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This study of environment management systems implementation in Swedish universities contributes to the dialogue about the role of management systems as tools in developing sustainability in higher education.

    Design/methodology/approach – The empirical study is based on Government directives that make environmental management systems implementation compulsory for all public organisations in Sweden, annual environmental reports of Swedish universities for the years 1997-2002, their internet home pages, and a survey.

    Findings – Many universities focus only on direct environmental aspects like paper use and waste handling, even though the main tasks of the universities, namely education, research and co-operation with the surrounding society, that is the indirect aspects, are likely to have a considerable environmental impact. The organisation of the environmental work and the placement of the environmental coordinator also vary. Two main patterns appear; the coordinator has a function in the service department or an administrative function in the president's office. The goal of certification increases the likelihood of the environmental coordinator being placed in the president's office.

    Originality/value – The aim is to increase the understanding of why and how a concept that was first introduced in industry is applied to institutions of higher education.

  • 85.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Brorson, Torbjörn
    International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics, IIIEE, Lund University, Sweden.
    Training and communication in the implementation of environmental management systems (ISO 14001): A case study at the University of Gävle, Sweden.2008In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 299-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Training and communication are essential elements in the implementation of environmental management systems (EMS). This study is based on two main questions: (i) What methods for training and communication will support the implementation of EMS at a university? and, (ii) How did faculty and staff perceive the training and communication activities? The study includes a literature review, a case study of methods for training and communication, and results of a semi quantitative survey of the perception of training and communication. All activities took place at the University of Gävle (Sweden). The University of Gävle was certified according to ISO 14001 in 2004. Practical experiences from the implementation of EMS in industry were used as reference.

    The literature review indicates that training is a key factor during implementation of EMS, and that training may change attitude and behaviour among managers and employees. Similar conclusions can be drawn from this study. The case study, and practical experiences from industry, indicate that similar methods of EMS training and communication can be shared by industry and universities. However, “academic freedom” and “critical thinking” may result in the need for more interactive training methods at a university than in industry. The results of the survey indicate that the training and communication have increased awareness of environmental issues. A deeper understanding of the personal role in the EMS was also observed. It can be concluded that the EMS training and communication team has a demanding task to introduce the concept of indirect environmental aspects at a university. Lecturers and researchers should be convinced that the greening of a college involves more than, for example, reducing the consumption of paper. The main role of EMS at a university should be to focus on indirect environmental aspects, for example, to introduce environmental and sustainability issues in courses and research.

  • 86.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Lindhqvist, Thomas
    Lunds universitet.
    Integration of sustainability in higher education: a study with international perspectives2008In: Innovative Higher Education, ISSN 0742-5627, E-ISSN 1573-1758, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 221-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the impact of a procedure implemented and used at one Swedish university to promote integration of the concept of sustainability into courses. The study is based on a literature study and a case study at the University of GÀvle in Sweden, where faculty members are asked to classify their courses and research funding applications regarding the contributions thereof to sustainable development. The results of the study indicated that this procedure can indeed stimulate faculty members to integrate sustainable development in their courses. It is clear that the reported changes in courses were also influenced by other factors such as the increased general awareness of environmental issues. © 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  • 87.
    Stjernström, Susanne
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Knowledge creation in collaborative product development2006Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 88.
    Stjernström, Susanne
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Supplier perspective on business relationships: Experiences from six small suppliers2004In: Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, ISSN 1478-4092, E-ISSN 1873-6505, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 137-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the suppliers’ contributions to their customers’ processes are analysed from the perspective of the supplier, and the conditions for mutual learning are discussed. The study is based on case studies of six suppliers connected to three lift truck companies. The case studies reveal that collaboration is not fully developed, and the reasons for this are analysed. The barriers to mutual learning seem to relate to the customers’ demands for price reductions, the customers’ lack of interest in co-operating, unequal relations between customer and supplier, and constraints regarding co-operation with the customers’ competitors.

  • 89.
    Söderberg, Lennart
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Lönar sig Supply Chain Management för mindre företag?2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - To analyze the relationship between supply chain management maturity, supply chain performance and financial performance in small and medium-sized enterprises (SME:s).

    Design/methodology/approach - The data comprises 15 SME:s that participated in a local logistic study in Gävleborgs län. The levels of supply chain mature within these firms were based upon an interview study and the financial performance of the firms was then examined using financial reports-based data.

    Findings -The results of this study indicate that there is a strong relationship between SCM maturity and SC performance in SMEs, some relationships between SCM maturity and financial performance, as well as some relationships between SC performance and financial performance. This means that if firms use maturity indicators in the SCOR areas to improve their processes, they will most likely achieve a positive effect on supply chain performance and probably also on financial performance. The result implies that the supply chain maturities in these firms are higher than expected with no one at the adHoc level.

    While this study is based on a rather small number of participating firms, it would be valuable to further test the significance of the indicated correlations between SCM maturity and performance in a large-scale survey.

    Research limitations/Implications - The research is an attempt to understand supply chain maturity and it´s implication on financial performance. Developing supply chain maturity is an opportunity for a company to gain superior performance. The use of this approach has been validated in several previous research studies. The research limitation of this study is the small number of participating firms.

    Practical implication - Maturity models could be valuable frameworks for corporate management. This study provides statistical evidence that a SME firm that has achieved a higher maturity level in their supply chain management also can achieve higher SC performance and financial performance as well. The study further confirms the maturity model from Lockamy and McCormack (2004) as a very reliable tool for this purpose, even in extremely small firms.

    Originality/Value - This study is one of very few to focus on supply chain maturity of SME:s and analyze the linkage between financial performance and supply chain maturity in SME:s. This is particularly significant since earlier research implicate that SME:s has a very low maturity and in addition to that a high potential of improvements in this area. Maybe the findings of this study can be a starting point for these SME:s to take their maturity to a higher level and improve their financial performance. These findings might be valuable for further research in the linkage between maturity and superior performance in SME:s.

    Key words - Supply Chain Management, Supply Chain Performance, Supply Chain Maturity, Financial Performance, Logistic Performance.

    Paper type - Thesis/research paper

  • 90.
    Söderberg, Lennart
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Supply Chain Management Maturity and Performance in SME2009In: Proceedings of the 16th International Annual EurOMA Conference, 14-17 June 2009, Göteborg., 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 91.
    von Haartman, Robin
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    External integration and the need for manufacturing competence2007Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For a number of years, manufacturers have increasingly focused on their perceived core competencies and outsourced activities not seen as such. In doing so there are an increasing number of competencies that fall outside the ‘core’ domain but are nonetheless required for effective product and process development. The proposed solution to this problem has been external integration with an emphasis on collaborative product or process development and also the wider concept of supply chain management. It is, however, not always easy to substitute internal competencies with customers’ and suppliers’ capabilities. Many authors have focused on finding the prerequisites for effective external integration and particularly on areas such as trust and power.

    This thesis contributes to the literature by extending the concept of absorptive capacity into the manufacturing domain and in the context of external integration. A conceptual framework is developed, where different streams of the literature have been merged into one coherent model. Integral parts of this framework are the concept of absorptive capacity as well as a model of competitive priorities. Competitive priorities have been taken into account as firms differ; what contributes to competitive advantage for one firm may be irrelevant for another.

    Three papers are included in the thesis. The first one uses survey data, from a representative sample of the Swedish manufacturing industry, in order to validate the concept of absorptive capacity in the manufacturing sector. The second paper also uses survey data but aims to shed some light on competitive priorities’ impact on both the extent and the outcome of internal and external integration. The third paper describes a case study of a first-tier supplier and aims to illustrate how absorptive capacity in a manufacturing firm may look in practice.

    The thesis concludes that the conceptual framework is indeed useful for understanding the challenges of effective external integration. Internal manufacturing competencies may allow a firm to integrate more effectively external sources, but the required competencies may vary from firm to firm. This implies a need for a fit between companies’ competitive priorities, external integration and absorptive capacity. It also implies that companies may struggle to achieve competitive advantage by utilising their customers and suppliers if they do not simultaneously develop appropriate competencies in-house.

  • 92.
    von Haartman, Robin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Boosting New Product Development Efficiency by Leveraging Firms' Manufacturing Absorptive Capacity2009In: Proceedings of the 16th International Annual EurOMA Conference, 14-17 June 2009, Göteborg, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 93.
    von Haartman, Robin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Boosting new product development efficiency by leveraging firms' manufacturing absorptive capacity2008In: Proceedings of the 9th International CINet Conference in Valencia, 7-9 September, 2008., 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 94.
    von Haartman, Robin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Competitive priorities and the need for internal and external integration2006In: Proceedings of 7th International CINet conference, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 95.
    von Haartman, Robin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Internal and external integration and its effect on manufacturing firms competitiveness2006In: Proceedings of EurOMA Conference 2006 in Glasgow, June, 2006, and at the 7th International CINet Conference in Lucca, Italy, 10-12 September, 2006, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 96.
    von Haartman, Robin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Manufacturing competence – the key to successful supplier integration2005In: Proceedings of the 12th International EurOMA Conference on Operations and Global Competitiveness, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 97.
    von Haartman, Robin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Manufacturing competence: A key to successful supplier integration2009In: International Journal of Manufacturing Technology and Management (IJMTM), ISSN 1368-2148, E-ISSN 1741-5195, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 283-299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extensive involvement of suppliers in new product development and manufacturing development has often been associated with superior performance. Some authors have also alleged that companies need comprehensive internal competencies, or absorptive capacity, in order to fully benefit from external expertise. This paper analyses this relationship on an operational level in manufacturing companies. Based on a large-scale survey it is shown that companies with greater internal manufacturing competencies gain significantly from supplier involvement in terms of most performance indicators, whereas those with lesser internal competencies have little to gain from such external cooperation.

  • 98.
    von Haartman, Robin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Manufacturing competence and external integration: absorptive capacity in a first tier supplier2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 99.
    von Haartman, Robin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Manufacturing competence: the key to successful customer integration2005In: Proceedings of the 6th International CINet Conference in Brighton, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 100.
    von Haartman, Robin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Produktionsutveckling lönar sig - och ger förutsättningar för extern samverkan2005In: Alternativ till outsourcing / [ed] Lars Bengtsson, Christian Berggren, Johnny Lind, Malmö: Liber , 2005, p. 114-130Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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