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  • 51.
    Hang, Jian
    et al.
    epartment of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Sandberg, Mats
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    LI, Yuguo
    epartment of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
    Age of air and air exchange efficiency in idealized city models2009In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 44, no 8, p. 1714-1723Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wind can provide relevantly clean external (rural) air into urban street network, i.e. city ventilation. The local mean age of air denotes the time it takes for the external air to reach a location after entering the urban canopy layer. The air exchange efficiency denotes the efficiency of flushing the street network with external air. However, difficulties exist in calculating the local mean age of air in a city due to open boundaries. The traditional experimental homogeneous emission method is adapted here in a CFD method to predict the urban local age of air and analyze the air exchange efficiency for city ventilation. Three simple city models are considered, including a round city model, a square city model and a long rectangular city with one main street parallel to the approaching wind or with two crossing streets. The difference in the city shape results in significant difference in the local mean age of air. In the round city of one narrow street, two inflows through street openings converge close to the city centre and exits through the street roof, so the air close to the city centre is relatively old and the air exchange efficiency is low (30%). For a round city with two crossing streets, a slightly non-parallel wind to the main street generates younger air and the higher air exchange efficiency in the city.

  • 52.
    Hang, Jian
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, TheUniversity of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Sandberg, Mats
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Li, Yuguo
    University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong.
    Effect of urban morphology on wind condition in idealized city models2009In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 869-878Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wind conditions in urban environments are important for a number of reasons. They can serve to transport air pollutants out of the urban environment and to moderate urban microclimatic conditions if satisfactory, yet can compromise pedestrian comfort and safety if not. We aim to study experimentally and numerically the effects of urban morphology (e.g., overall city form (skyline), street orientation, and street configuration) on wind conditions in cities. This report considers our initial investigations of two idealized city forms that are coincidentally similar to ancient Roman cities that were organized on one or two primary streets - a main north-south street, the cardus maximus, and a secondary east-west street, the decumanus maximus - and contained within a well-defined perimeter. We first consider round and square city models with one main street set parallel to the approaching wind and a secondary street producing an intersection at city centre. Not surprisingly, wind conditions in the two city models are dissimilar due to their shape differences. We then consider a long rectangular city model with a fully developed steady flow region along the main street. If the main street of the round city model is narrow, the parallel approaching wind cannot blow through the entire street and a penetrating inflow exists at the leeward opening. For the round city model with two crossing streets, a slightly non-parallel wind to the main street generates a stronger wind level in the entire street volume.

  • 53. Hang, Jian
    et al.
    Sandberg, Mats
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Li, Yuguo Li
    Claesson, Leif
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Pollutant dispersion in idealized city models with different urban morphologies2009In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 43, no 38, p. 6011-6025Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanism of pollutant dispersion in idealized city models is investigated numerically by the introduction of a uniformly distributed pollutant source at street pedestrian level. We first study three short city forms with a single main street or two crossing streets, characterized by street length/street height ratios of L/H = 6 or 7 and a street height/street width ratio of H/W = 1, including a sharp-edged round city model, a smooth-edged round city model, and a sharp-edged square city model. For short city models with a single street and a parallel approaching wind, pollutant dilution mainly depends on the horizontal flow rate which decreases along the street. This decreasing rate is smallest for the smooth-edged round city model, which results in the lowest street concentrations. For city models with two crossing streets and the approaching wind parallel to the main street, the differences in overall city form result in different dispersion processes. For a sharp-edged round city model with two crossing streets, an approaching wind slightly non-parallel to the main street generates a lower pollutant concentration in the entire street volume. We also studied a sharp-edged round city model with one narrow street (L/H = 6; H/W = 6.7), finding that the uniformly distributed pollutants are transported from two street entries to the city centre, and are then removed out across the street roof. In contrast to the short city models we studied a single-street sharp-edged long rectangular city model (L/H = 21.7; H/W = 1) in which the horizontal flow rate remained nearly constant in a region far from the two entries. Within this region the turbulence across the street roof contributed more to the pollutant removal than vertical mean flows.

  • 54.
    Hansson, Peter
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Björling, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Stymne, Hans
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Permeation of the tracer gas SF6 through three common building materials with and without surface treatment2004In: Proceedings of Roomvent 2004: 9th International Conference on Air Distribution in Rooms, Coimbra, Portugal, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tracer gas sorption in and permeation through building materials influence tracer gas ventilation measurements. The permeation of the commonly used tracer SF6 through three different building materials (gypsum board, wood particle board and MDF-board) with and without paint has been experimentally investigated. The results show that the tracer diffuse through untreated boards and that gypsum board has the largest permeability towards SF6. However, the diffusion rate of tracer is effectively reduced when the boards are coated with two layers of latex paint. Caution should therefore be exercised when using tracer gas measurements in rooms with walls of untreated porous materials.

  • 55. Havenith, George
    et al.
    Nilsson, Håkan O.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Correction of clothing insulation for movement and wind effects, a meta-analysis2004In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 92, no 6, p. 636-640Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A meta-analysis of the effect of body and air movement on the insulation provided by workwear and cold-weather clothing [1.22 clo (0.189 m 2 °C W –1) <I T<4.14 clo (0.642 m 2 °C W –1)] using data from different sources was performed. For the effect of walking, datasets could be merged and a single prediction equation produced (r 2=0.91). For the effect of wind, and interaction of movement and wind, separate equations were required for regular workwear (r 2=0.93) and cold-weather clothing (r 2=0.97). Differences were mainly due to the different amounts of nude surface area. An interaction between wind and walking effects was present (the size of the combined effects is less than the sum of the separate effects), and for cold-weather clothing an effect of clothing air permeability (p) was present (high pbigger effect). The resulting prediction equations will be proposed for inclusion in European and ISO standards on protective clothing to assist the user in determining the real-life clothing insulation value.

  • 56. Heiselberg, P
    et al.
    Jensen, JJ
    Sandberg, Mats
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Nielsen, PV
    Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Wind Driven Natural Ventilation in a Building Scale Model2004In: RoomVent 2004: 9th international conference in University of Coimbra : Portugal, 5-8th september 2004, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Airflow through openings in a cross ventilated building scale model was investigated in a wind tunnel and by numerical predictions. Predictions for a wind direction perpendicular to the building showed an airflow pattern consisting of streamlines entering the room, that originated from approximately the same upstream area in the undisturbed boundary layer and a direction of the flow into the room dependent on opening location with velocity vectors pointing away from the stagnation point. The measured internal pressure for various opening sizes was not the average pressure on the windward and leeward sides and the airflow rate was found to be a linear function of the local pressure difference across the building.

  • 57.
    Heiselberg, P.
    et al.
    Hybrid Ventilation Centre, Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Sandberg, Mats
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Evaluation of Discharge Coefficients for Window Openings in Wind Driven Natural Ventilation2006In: The International Journal of Ventilation, ISSN 1473-3315, E-ISSN 2044-4044, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 43-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the classical approach for calculation of wind driven airflow through large openings in buildings and discusses the fulfilment of the limiting assumptions. It is demonstrated that the limiting assumptions are not fulfilled for large openings in buildings for cross ventilation, and therefore, the classical approach is not appropriate for prediction of airflow through large openings in buildings in the cross ventilation case. Using the approach for real openings and estimating the discharge coefficient for window openings has also not been very successful. The discharge coefficient cannot be regarded as a constant and it is very difficult to estimate correct values resulting in less accuracy of prediction of natural ventilation.

  • 58. Holmberg, Sture
    et al.
    Sandberg, Mats
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Mattsson, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Nilsson, Håkan
    Holmér, Ingvar
    Indoor Air Quality and climate control parameters in office environment – CFD calculaions and measurements2000In: Roomvent 2000 Conference, 2000Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 59.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Classroom experiments on the effects of different noise sources and sound levels on long-term recall and recognition in children2003In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 17, no 8, p. 895-914Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A total of 1358 children aged 12-14 years participated in ten noise experiments in their ordinary classrooms and were tested for recall and recognition of a text exactly one week later. Single and combined noise sources were presented for 15 min at 66 dBA L-eq (equivalent noise level). Single source presentations of aircraft and road traffic noise were also presented at 55 dBA L-eq. Data were analysed between subjects since the first within-subjects analysis revealed a noise after-effect or a asymmetric transfer effect. Overall, there was a strong noise effect on recall, and a smaller, but significant effect on recognition. In the single-source studies, aircraft and road traffic noise impaired recall at both noise levels. Train noise and verbal noise did not affect recognition or recall. Some of the pairwise combinations of aircraft noise with train or road traffic, with one or the other as the dominant source, interfered with recall and recognition. Item difficulty, item position and ability did not interact with the noise effect. Arousal, distraction, perceived effort, and perceived difficulty in reading and learning did not mediate the effects on recall and recognition.

  • 60.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Dose-effect relationships between noise exposure and cognitive impairment2006In: 26th International Congress on Applied Psychology, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The traditional way set up noise dose-effect relationships is to rely on cross-sectional studies, where narrow bands of actual or projected noise exposure levels are plotted against an effect, e.g. self-reported annoyance. When there is an abundance of noise levels to compute from, and a common scale for the effect measures, this procedure is straightforward. Means and confidence intervals of e.g. annoyance at a given noise level can be presented. However, setting up dose-effect relationships can be approached from another point if view. If the focus is shifted away from generating levels of effect at different noises doses to the relative change in effect by lowering or increasing the noise dose, the relevant information is found in the slope or 1st derivative of the noise dose-effect relationship. Just plotting noise-effect slopes from different studies, will, if the grouping of the slopes come out in a coherent and orderly way, set a platform for statements about gains and losses in effects as a result of changes in levels. This was done in the present paper for a set of cognitive outcomes of noise exposure. The results showed that reading and recall memory were the cognitive outcomes with the steepest slopes.

  • 61.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Noise: effects on health2007In: Cambridge handbook of psychology, health and medicine / [ed] Susan Ayers, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007, 2, p. 137-141Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Noise: nature and measurement Noise is often defined as unwanted sound or sounds that have an adverse effect on humans. What is sweet music for one person may be noise to someone else. Thus, noise is a psychological construct influenced both by physical and psychosocial properties. Sound is created by the rapidly changing pressure of air molecules at the eardrum. A single tone, such as that from a tuning fork, can be depicted as a fixed wavelength sinusoidal pressure distribution across time. The number of pressure cycles per second, measured in hertz (Hz), is the basis for the sensation of pitch. A healthy young ear is sensitive to sounds between approximately 20 Hz and up to 20 kHz. The amplitude of the sine wave is perceived as loudness. To accommodate the wide dynamic power range of the human ear a logarithmic magnitude scale for sounds has been introduced. Its unit is the decibel (dB). Adding two independent sound sources of the same dB-level will yield a sum that is ≈3 dB higher than one of them alone. The subjective effect of a change in 3 dB amounts to a just perceptible change. A change of around 10 dB is needed to experience the sound as twice as loud. The hearing threshold for pure tones is lowest in the frequency range 500–4000 Hz, which also is the range where human speech has its maximum energy content.

  • 62.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Noise exposure and cognitive impairment: attempts to establish dose-effect relationships2006In: EuroNoise 2006, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 63.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Noise, memory and learning in children2006In: BNAM 2006, Baltic-Nordic Acoustics meeting, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 64.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Om ljud och inlärning2007In: Ljud och inlärning: texter från seminarium den 27 april 2007 arrangerat av Lyssnande Lund - Ljudmiljöcentrum vid Lunds universitet, Lund: Lyssnande Lund, Ljudmiljöcentrum vid Lunds universitet, Lunds universitet , 2007, p. 13-24Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 65.
    Hygge, Staffan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Boman, Eva
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    The effects of road traffic noise and meaningful irrelevant speech on different memory systems2003In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 13-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To explore why noise has reliable effects on delayed recall in a certain text-reading task, this episodic memory task was employed with other memory tests in a study of road traffic noise and meaningful but irrelevant speech. Context-dependent memory was tested and self-reports of affect were taken. Participants were 96 high school students. The results showed that both road traffic noise and meaningful irrelevant speech impaired recall of the text. Retrieval in noise from semantic memory was also impaired. Attention was impaired by both noise sources, but attention did not mediate the noise effects on episodic memory. Recognition was not affected by noise. Context-dependent memory was Dot shown. The lack of mediation by attention, and road traffic noise being as harmful as meaningful irrelevant speech, are discussed in relation to where in the input/storing/output sequence noise has its effect and what the distinctive feature of the disturbing noise is.

  • 66.
    Hygge, Staffan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    Boman, Eva
    University of Gävle, Department of Education and Psychology, Ämnesavdelningen för folkhälsovetenskap.
    A comparison of structural equation models of memory performance across noise conditions and age groups2008In: ICBEN 2008: Machantucket Connecticut, USA, July 21-25, 2008 : the 9th Congress of the International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise : Noise as a Public Health Problem : Proceedings (edited by Barbara Griefahn), Dortmund: IfADo , 2008, p. 387-394Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 67.
    Hygge, Staffan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Evans, Gary W
    Bullinger, Monika
    A prospective study of some effects of aircraft noise on cognitive performance in schoolchildren2002In: Psychological Science, ISSN 0956-7976, E-ISSN 1467-9280, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 469-474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Before the opening of the new Munich International Airport and the termination of the old airport, children near both sites were recruited into aircraft-noise groups (aircraft noise at present or pending) and control groups with no aircraft noise (closely matched for socioeconomic status). A total of 326 children (mean age = 10.4 years) took part in three data-collection waves, one before and two after the switch-over of the airports. After the switch, long-term memory and reading were impaired in the noise group at the new airport. and improved in the formerly noise-exposed group at the old airport. Short-term memory also improved in the latter group after the old airport was closed. At the new airport, speech perception was impaired in the newly noise-exposed group. Mediational analyses suggest that poorer reading was not mediated by speech perception, and that impaired recall was in part mediated by reading.

  • 68.
    Hygge, Staffan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Hartig, Terry
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Noise in nature: Environmental stressor or constraint on restoration?2004In: 28th International Congress of Psychology, Beijing, 2004: Invited contribution to Symposium on Restoration and restorative environments., 2004Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Some conditions that people would not ordinarily appraise as demanding may constrain restoration when experienced in places sought out for restoration. The constraint of restoration by community noise exemplifies this phenomenon. Community noise regulations assume a moderating effect of context on noise annoyance, in that they impose stricter controls on sound levels in locations and at times normally dedicated to restoration. To further explore the constrained restoration phenomenon, in this paper we review research on reactions to human-produced sounds in natural settings, like parks, which many people particularly value for restoration. We also consider ambient sound qualities that promote restoration

  • 69.
    Hygge, Staffan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Effects of noise, heat and indoor lighting on cognitive performance and self-reported affect2001In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 291-299Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 70.
    Hygge, Staffan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Löfberg, Hans Allan
    POE Post occupancy evaluation of daylight in buildings: A report of IEA SHC TASK 21/ECBCS ANNEX 292000Report (Other academic)
  • 71.
    Hygge, Staffan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Rönnberg, J
    Larsby, B
    Arlinger, S
    Normal-hearing and hearing-impaired subjects' ability to just follow conversation in competing speech, reversed speech, and noise backgrounds1992In: Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, ISSN 0022-4685, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 208-15Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance on a conversation-following task by 24 hearing-impaired persons was compared with that of 24 matched controls with normal hearing in the presence of three background noises: (a) speech-spectrum random noise, (b) a male voice, and (c) the male voice played in reverse. The subjects' task was to readjust the sound level of a female voice (signal), every time the signal voice was attenuated, to the subjective level at which it was just possible to understand what was being said. To assess the benefit of lipreading, half of the material was presented audiovisually and half auditorily only. It was predicted that background speech would have a greater masking effect than reversed speech, which would in turn have a lesser masking effect than random noise. It was predicted that hearing-impaired subjects would perform more poorly than the normal-hearing controls in a background of speech. The influence of lipreading was expected to be constant across groups and conditions. The results showed that the hearing-impaired subjects were equally affected by the three background noises and that normal-hearing persons were less affected by the background speech than by noise. The performance of the normal-hearing persons was superior to that of the hearing-impaired subjects. The prediction about lipreading was confirmed. The results were explained in terms of the reduced temporal resolution by the hearing-impaired subjects.

  • 72.
    Johnsson, Christina
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Nursing, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Lagerström, Monika
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Nursing, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Evaluation of nursing students' work technique after proficiency training in patient transfer methods during undergraduate education2006In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 322-331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate if nursing students improved their work technique when assisting a simulated patient from bed to wheelchair after proficiency training, and to investigate whether there was a correlation between the nursing students' work technique and the simulated patients' perceptions of the transfer. METHOD: 71 students participated in the study, 35 in the intervention group and 36 in the comparison group. The students assisted a simulated patient to move from a bed to a wheelchair. In the intervention group the students made one transfer before and one after training, and in the comparison group they made two transfers before training. Six variables were evaluated: work technique score; nursing students' ratings of comfort, work technique and exertion, and the simulated patients' perceptions of comfort and safety during the transfer. The result showed that nursing students improved their work technique, and that there was a correlation between the work technique and the simulated patients' subjective ratings of the transfer. In conclusion, nursing students improved their work technique after training in patient transfer methods, and the work technique affected the simulated patients' perceptions of the transfer.

  • 73. Johnsson, Christina
    et al.
    Kjellberg, Katarina
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    A direct observation instrument for assessment of nurses’ patient transfer technique (DINO)2004In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 35, no 6, p. 591-601Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project was to develop a direct observation instrument to assess the work technique of nursing personnel during patient transfers and to test the validity and reliability of the instrument. An expert group developed this instrument, called DINO (Direct Nurse Observation instrument for assessment of work technique during patient transfers), which contains 16 items divided into three phases of a transfer: the preparation, performance and result phases. To quantify the assessments a scoring system was constructed, giving an overall score for each transfer, depending on the level of musculoskeletal health and safety. Four observers assessed 45 patient transfers at hospital wards and showed in an evaluation that the inter-observer reliability and criterion-related validity of DINO was satisfactory. The assessments with the DINO instrument are done directly when the transfer occurs, without costly equipment. Therefore, it has a wide range of applications. For example, when evaluating training in work technique or when identifying an unsafe work technique as a risk factor for musculoskeletal problems in epidemiological studies. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 74.
    Karimipanah, Taghi
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö. Fresh AB, Sweden; University of Reading, UK.
    Awbi, Hazim
    University of Reading, United Kingdom .
    Sandberg, Mats
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Blomqvist, Claes
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Investigation of air quality, comfort parameters and effectiveness for two floor-level air supply systems in classrooms2007In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 647-655Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The method of distributing the outdoor air in classrooms has a major impact on indoor air quality and thermal comfort of pupils. In a previous study, ([11] Karimipanah T, Sandberg M, Awbi HB. A comparative study of different air distribution systems in a classroom. In: Proceedings of Roomvent 2000, vol. II, Reading, UK, 2000. p. 1013-18; [13] Karimipanah T, Sandberg M, Awbi HB, Blomqvist C. Effectiveness of confluent jets ventilation system for classrooms. In: Idoor Air 2005, Beijing, China, 2005 (to be presented).) presented results for four and two types of air distribution systems tested in a purpose built classroom with simulated occupancy as well as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling. In this paper, the same experimental setup has been used to investigate the indoor environment in the classroom using confluent jet ventilation, see also ([12] Cho YJ, Awbi HB, Karimipanah T. The characteristics of wall confluent jets for ventilated enclosures. In: Proceedings of Roomvent 2004, Coimbra, Portugal, 2004.) Measurements of air speed, air temperature and tracer gas concentrations have been carried out for different thermal conditions. In addition, 56 cases of CFD simulations have been carried to provide additional information on the indoor air quality and comfort conditions throughout the classroom, such as ventilation effectiveness, air exchange effectiveness, effect of flow rate, effect of radiation, effect of supply temperature, etc., and these are compared with measured data.

  • 75.
    Kihlberg, Steve
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Teknik och samhälle, Malmö.
    Franzon, Helena
    Arbetsmiljöverket, Stockholm.
    Fröberg, Jan
    Arbetslivsinstitutet, Ergonomiprogrammet, Stockholm.
    Hägg, Göran
    Arbetslivsinstitutet, Ergonomiprogrammet, Stockholm.
    Johansson Hanse, Jan
    Göteborgs Universitet, Psykologiska institutionen, Göteborg.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Belastningsskadecentrum.
    Medbo, Per
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola, avd för logistik och transport, Göteborg.
    Neumann, Patrick
    Lunds Tekniska Högskola, Inst för designvetenskap, Lund.
    Winkel, Jörgen
    Lunds Tekniska Högskola, Inst för designvetenskap, Lund.
    Ett produktionssystem under förändring: ergonomisk och teknisk utvärdering2005Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An evaluation of the impact of partial automation strategies on productivity and ergonomics at an electronics company was performed. This change included adoption of a serial line flow from a parallel batch flow strategy. The change process, which used both a project head group and a work organisation group, was also studied. The partial automation of assembly operations reduced the total repetitive assembly work at the system level and increased productivity. At the remaining assembly stations however, the repetitive assembly work increased due to the automation of the transportation functions and increased work-pace. The operators found the mental work load was higher in the new system. They also experienced the manual assembly station in the beginning of the line as the worst job in the system . Lack of management continuity at the department was identified as one of the largest process problems. The manager set his view on how the production and work environment goals should be met. Thus the manager set the work organisation without adopting the plan of work rotation that the work organisation group had presented. This contributed to dissatisfaction amongst the operators involved in the development process.

  • 76.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Effects of reverberation time on the cognitive load in speech communication: theoretical considerations2004In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 7, no 25, p. 11-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a theoretical analysis of possible effects of reverberation time on the cognitive load in speech communication. Speech comprehension requires not only phonological processing of the spoken words. Simultaneously, this information must be further processed and stored. All this processing takes place in the working memory, which has a limited processing capacity. The more resources that are allocated to word identification, the fewer resources are therefore left for the further processing and storing of the information. Reverberation conditions that allow the identification of almost all words may therefore still interfere with speech comprehension and memory storing. These problems are likely to be especially serious in situations where speech has to be followed continuously for a long time. An unfavorable reverberation time (RT) then could contribute to the development of cognitive fatigue, which means that working memory resources are gradually reduced. RT may also affect the cognitive load in two other ways: RT may change the distracting effects of a sound and a person's mood. Both effects could influence the cognitive load of a listener. It is argued that we need studies of RT effects in realistic long-lasting listening situations to better understand the effect of RT on speech communication. Furthermore, the effect of RT on distraction and mood need to be better understood.

  • 77.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Psykologiska aspekter på hörselskador hos musiker2007In: Musik, musiker och hörsel: en kunskapssammanställning om höga ljudnivåer och hörselskaderisker i musik- och underhållningssektorn, Stockholm: Arbetsmiljöverket , 2007, p. 65-71Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sedan länge har det hävdats att om man gillar musiken löper man inte risk att skadas av den. För detta finns inget stöd, men däremot finns visst stöd för att ljud som upplevs som obehagliga leder till större temporär hörselnedsättning än emotionellt neutrala eller positiva ljud. Att man tycker att ett ljud är obehagligt skulle alltså möjligen kunna öka risken för hörselpåverkan. Detta skulle i så fall kunna vara en effekt av att den fysiologiska stressreaktionen ökar känsligheten hos hörselorganet.

    Många aspekter av musikers arbetsförhållanden kan bidra till att göra arbetet stressande, men arbetsvillkoren skiljer sig mycket mellan olika musikergrupper.

    Inga studier har påvisat att risken för permanent hörselnedsättning påverkas av attityd till ljudet eller av stress.

    Samband har påvisats mellan psykiatriska symptom och förekomsten av tinnitus och besvärens styrka, och besvären är ofta mest påträngande i stresstillstånd. Inga studier har dock kunnat påvisa att psykologiska förhållanden har betydelse för uppkomsten av tinnitus. Hörselnedsättning, tinnitus och andra hörselskador kan få särskilt dramatiska konsekvenser för musiker och de upplevs därför också som ett särskilt stort hot av denna grupp.

  • 78.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Reverberation time, cognitive load and fatigue2004In: 28th International Congress of Psychology, Beijing, 2004: Invited contribution to Symposium on Noise and psychological theory, 2004Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Speech communication under unfavourable acoustic conditions means that a larger part of the limited working memory resources must be allocated to the phonological coding of the speech. Less resources therefore remain for the further processing of speech: integration of current information with previously presented parts of the speech and with permanently stored information and the more permanent storing of new information. Effects of reverberation time on the listener’s cognitive load and learning are discussed from this perspective. Studies are needed of reverberation effects in realistic long-lasting speech communication situations to better understand the effect of RT on speech communication.

  • 79.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    The effect of reverberation time on cognitive load in speech communication2004In: Internoise, Prague, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on the cognitive processing of speech indicates that the probability of correct identification of words is an insufficient indicator of how reverberation time (RT) affects speech communication. Speech communication under unfavourable reverberation conditions means that a larger part of the limited working memory resources must be allocated to the phonological coding of the speech. Less resources therefore remain for the further processing of speech: integration of current information with previously presented parts of the speech and with permanently stored information and the more permanent storing of new information. Even if reverberation conditions allow the identification of almost all words they may therefore have the effect that the spoken message is less well understood and remembered. Effects of the RT on the listener’s cognitive load, fatigue and learning are discussed from this perspective. It is argued that we need studies of reverberation effects in realistic long-lasting speech communication situations to better understand the effect of RT on speech communication.

  • 80.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Höra, förstå och minnas2007In: Audio-nytt, ISSN 0347-6308, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 16-17Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Dåliga lyssningsförhållanden innebär att en stor del av den tillgängliga kognitiva kapaciteten måste användas för att höra vad som sägs, och att en mindre del därför skulle kunna användas för att tolka och lagra informationen. Detta borde gälla även då lyssningsförhållandena inte är sämre än att allt som sägs kan uppfattas med en viss ansträngning. Detta har prövats i en en serie försök vars resultat stöder denna hypotes. Resultaten tyder också på att effekten blir större ju sämre arbetsminneskapacitet man har.

  • 81.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Recall of words heard in noise2008In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 1088-1098Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to explore if recall of words and recognition of sentences orally presented was affected by a background noise. A further aim was to investigate the role of working memory capacity in performance in these conditions. Thirty-two subjects performed a word recall and a sentence recognition test. They repeated each word to ensure that they had heard them. A reading span test measured their working memory capacity. Performance on the word recall task was impaired by the background noise. A high reading span score was associated with a smaller noise effect, especially on recall of the last part of the word list.

  • 82.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Wadman, Cecilia
    Department for Health Behaviours, Swedish National Institute of Public Health, Östersund, Sweden.
    The role of the affective stress response as a mediator of the effect of psychosocial risk factors on musculoskeletal complaints - Part 1: Assembly workers2007In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 367-374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This cross-sectional study of a group of assembly workers (n=289) tested the hypothesis that affective stress responses mediate the effect of psychosocial work conditions on musculoskeletal complaints (MSCs). Self-reported work demands, control, social support, stress, energy, and MSCs were analysed in hierarchical logistic regression analyses. High work demands were related to a higher risk of shoulder problems. Work demands and social support, but not control, were related to stress; and more musculoskeletal complaints were found in the group with high stress than in the low-stress group. The analyses supported the hypothesis that the effects of work demands on shoulder problems were mediated by the affective stress response, whereas this did not seem to be the case for the effect of social support and control conditions on neck problems. A weaker relation to psychosocial work conditions was shown for back problems than for shoulder and neck problems. Relevance to industry: Psychosocial work conditions have repeatedly been shown to be related to risk of musculoskeletal complaints. Individual subjective stress responses may help to identify those who are at risk with respect to shoulder complaints.

  • 83.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    A model of artificial biotope and organism: Luminous environment and gender : effects upon mood and cognition.1993Report (Other academic)
  • 84.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Allmän kontorsbelysning: Effekter på sinnesstämning och intellektuellt arbete1994Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 85.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Attachment and identity as related to a place and its perceived climate2005In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 207-218Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 86.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Autobiographical memories for places2006In: Memory, ISSN 0965-8211, E-ISSN 1464-0686, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 359-377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     The purpose of the present exploratory study was to investigate operations and contents of a naturally occurring reminiscence for physical places in 26 Swedish participants. Using Conway and Pleydell-Pearce's (2000) model of autobiographical memory as a framework, two main questions were examined. First, in what sense are physical places ingredients of our selves-that is, of our self-knowledge-and, if so, how are they and their characteristics organised in the autobiographical knowledge base? Second, what form do personal memories for places take and what kinds of meanings and emotional contents do we bind to this type of reminiscence? The results showed that the Swedish participants' most important places in their lives were mainly childhood- and cottage-related rural types of milieus, and mostly categorised as summarised events; that is, frequently revisited. The personal recollections of the place-related event-specific knowledge were mostly of the generic imagery type, comprising semantic, perceptual, and emotional contents related to the "self'', "others'', and the "environment''. The memories mainly reflected on the participants' growth period and feelings of activation and pleasantness. This was more pronounced in older (M = 59) than in younger (M = 35) participants. All this indicates that physical places can serve as thematic pathways guiding reminiscence and self-knowing consciousness as we recollect details of perceptual, semantic, and emotional characters of periods in our lives.

  • 87.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Effects of colour of light on nonvisual psychological processes2001In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 201-208Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 88.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Emotionella effekter av ljusfärg.1996Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 89.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Estimation of the hypothesis hierarchy in probabilistic inference tasks.1992In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 47-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Is there a hierarchical order among the hypotheses about functional rules in probabilistic inference tasks, i.e. what is the construction and the procedure of the "hypothesis sampling mechanism" employed by the subjects in this kind of task? According to the hypothesis sampling model initially proposed by Brehmer ( 1974) there should be a hierarchical order among the hypotheses in the subject's hypothesis pools. The procedures of hypothesis sampling and testing ought to follow this strict data independent order (see e.g. Sniezek, 1986; Brehmer, 1987). Knez (199]a,b) showed, however, that this assumption may be incorrect. As a follow up to these results the question regarding the construction of the subject's hypothesis pools was reapproached in the present study. The results indicated a consistency with the hierarchical assumption (Brehmer, 1974) only regarding the relation between the linear and nonlinear rules but not within these types of rules.

  • 90.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Interaction of data and hypotheses in probabilistic inference tasks: Rejection of the hypothesis sampling model?1991In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 57-69Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 91.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Non-visual effects of colour temperature and illuminance: Some practical implications.1995In: Proceedings of Commission Internationale de l´Eclairage 23rd session, Vienna: Central Bureau of CIE , 1995, p. 180-183Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 92.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Subjects´ inferential performance and the interaction of data and hypotheses in probabilistic inference tasks.1992In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 56-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a recent paper, Knez (1991) showed an interaction of data and hypotheses in probabilistic inference tasks. The results illustrated two, earlier not obtained, significant main effects on subjects' hypothesis sampling, viz. the effect of different forms of data presentation and subjects' execution of cognitive control over their hypothesis pool throughout the series of trials. The present paper followed up these results in that the subjects' hypothesis testing, in Knez (1991) was subjected to an analysis. Hence, to see if the effects mentioned above significantly influenced the subjects' hypothesis testing. as they did for subjects' hypothesis sampling. The results showed a consistency with Knez (1991), i.e. the results emphasize the interaction of data and hypothesis in probabilistic inference tasks, as well as the subjects' execution of cognitive control over their hypothesis pool concerning both the subjects' hypothesis sampling and testing.

  • 93.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Towards a non-visual psychology of light.2001Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 94.
    Knez, Igor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    El-Nasr, M.S.
    Niedenthal, S
    Almeida, P
    Zupko, J
    Dynamic Lighting for Tension in Games2007In: Game Studies, ISSN 1604-7982, E-ISSN 1604-7982, Vol. 7, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 95.
    Knez, Igor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Effects of office lighting on mood and cognitive performance, and a gender effect in work-related judgement1998In: Environment and Behavior, ISSN 0013-9165, E-ISSN 1552-390X, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 553-567Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study presents an investigation of the effects of the recommended office lighting on subjects' mood and cognitive performance in the physical setting of an office. In addition, a gender effect in the performance appraisal task was examined, both as a between- and within-subject factor. The results showed no significant effect of the lighting on the performance of cognitive tasks. However, an interaction between gender and color temperature on mood showed that 3000K (more reddish) and 4000K (more bluish) office lighting may communicate different affective loadings or meanings to each gender. The cognitive workload induced by almost 2 hours of intellectual work diminished the subjects' positive mood and augmented a negative mood. Moreover, independently of their gender, the raters evaluated the neutral female significantly different from the neutral male ratee. Implications of these findings for the mood effects of indoor lighting and the gender effect in work-related judgment are discussed.

  • 96.
    Knez, Igor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Irrelevant speech and indoor lighting: effects on cognitive performance and self-reported affect2002In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 709-718Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 97.
    Knez, Igor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    The circumplex structure of affect: a Swedish version2001In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 389-398Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 98.
    Knez, Igor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Kers, Christina
    Effects of indoor lighting, gender, and age on mood and cognitive performance2000In: Environment and Behavior, ISSN 0013-9165, E-ISSN 1552-390X, Vol. 32, no 6, p. 817-831Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 99.
    Knez, Igor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Löfberg, Hans-Allan
    Underlag till kvalitetskriterier för inomhusbelysning: Ett urval1995Book (Other academic)
  • 100.
    Knez, Igor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Thorsson, Sofia
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö. Physical Geography, Department of Earth Sciences, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Influences of culture and environmental attitude on thermal, emotional and perceptual evaluations of a public square2006In: International journal of biometeorology, ISSN 0020-7128, E-ISSN 1432-1254, Vol. 50, no 5, p. 258-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of the present quasi-experimental study was to examine the influence of culture (Swedish vs Japanese) and environmental attitude (urban vs open-air person) on participants' thermal, emotional and perceptual assessments of a square, within the PET (physiological equivalent temperature) comfortable interval of 18-23 degrees C. It was predicted that persons living in different cultures with different environmental attitudes would psychologically evaluate a square differently despite similar thermal conditions. Consistent with this prediction, Japanese participants estimated the current weather as warmer than did Swedish participants and, consistent with this, they felt less thermally comfortable on the site, although participants in both countries perceived similar comfortable thermal outdoor conditions according to the PET index. Compared to the Japanese, the Swedes estimated both the current weather and the site as windier and colder, indicating a consistency in weather assessment on calm-windy and warm-cold scales in participants in both cultures. Furthermore, Swedish participants felt more glad and calm on the site and, in line with their character (more glad than gloomy), they estimated the square as more beautiful and pleasant than did Japanese participants. All this indicates that thermal, emotional and perceptual assessments of a physical place may be intertwined with psychological schema-based and socio-cultural processes, rather than fixed by general thermal indices developed in line with physiological heat balance models. In consequence, this implies that thermal comfort indices may not be applicable in different cultural/climate zones without modifications, and that they may not be appropriate if we do not take into account the psychological processes involved in environmental assessment.

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