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  • 51.
    Kabanshi, Alan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Yang, Bin
    Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Sandberg, Mats
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy system.
    Occupants’ perception of air movements and air quality in a simulated classroom with an intermittent air supply system2019In: Indoor + Built Environment, ISSN 1420-326X, E-ISSN 1423-0070, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 63-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study reported herein builds on occupant response to an intermittent air jet strategy (IAJS), which creates periodic airflow and non-isothermal conditions in the occupied zone.  Previous research has highlighted the benefits of IAJS on thermal climate and supports energy saving potential in view of human thermal perception of the indoor environment. In this study, the goal was to explore occupant acceptability of air movements and perceived indoor air quality, and to determine a way of assessing acceptable air movement conditions under IAJS. Thirty-six participants were exposed to twelve conditions: three room air temperatures (nominal: 22.5, 25.5 and 28.5 oC), each with varied air speeds (nominal: <0.15 m/s under mixing ventilation (MV), and 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 m/s under IAJS) measured at the breathing height (1.1 m). The results show that participants preferred low air movements at lower temperatures and high air movements at higher temperatures. A model to predict percentage satisfied with intermittent air movements was developed, and predicts that about 87% of the occupants within a thermal sensation range of slightly cool (-0.5) to slightly warm (+0.5), in compliance with ASHRAE standard 55, will find intermittent air movements acceptable between 23.7 oC and 29.1 oC within a velocity range of 0.4 – 0.8 m/s.  IAJS also improved participants’ perception of air quality in conditions deemed poor under MV. The findings support the potential of IAJS as a primary ventilation system in high occupant spaces such as classrooms. 

  • 52.
    Keidser, Gitte
    et al.
    National Acoustic Laboratories, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linnaeus Centre HEAD (HEaring And Deafness), Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Seeto, Mark
    National Acoustic Laboratories, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linnaeus Centre HEAD (HEaring And Deafness), Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    The Effect of Functional Hearing and Hearing Aid Usage on Verbal Reasoning in a Large Community-Dwelling Population2016In: Ear and Hearing, ISSN 0196-0202, E-ISSN 1538-4667, Vol. 37, no 1, p. e26-e36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Verbal reasoning performance is an indicator of the ability to think constructively in everyday life and relies on both crystallized and fluid intelligence. This study aimed to determine the effect of functional hearing on verbal reasoning when controlling for age, gender, and education. In addition, the study investigated whether hearing aid usage mitigated the effect and examined different routes from hearing to verbal reasoning.

    Design: Cross-sectional data on 40- to 70-year-old community-dwelling participants from the UK Biobank resource were accessed. Data consisted of behavioral and subjective measures of functional hearing, assessments of numerical and linguistic verbal reasoning, measures of executive function, and demographic and lifestyle information. Data on 119,093 participants who had completed hearing and verbal reasoning tests were submitted to multiple regression analyses, and data on 61,688 of these participants, who had completed additional cognitive tests and provided relevant lifestyle information, were submitted to structural equation modeling.

    Results: Poorer performance on the behavioral measure of functional hearing was significantly associated with poorer verbal reasoning in both the numerical and linguistic domains (p < 0.001). There was no association between the subjective measure of functional hearing and verbal reasoning. Functional hearing significantly interacted with education (p < 0.002), showing a trend for functional hearing to have a greater impact on verbal reasoning among those with a higher level of formal education. Among those with poor hearing, hearing aid usage had a significant positive, but not necessarily causal, effect on both numerical and linguistic verbal reasoning (p < 0.005). The estimated effect of hearing aid usage was less than the effect of poor functional hearing. Structural equation modeling analyses confirmed that controlling for education reduced the effect of functional hearing on verbal reasoning and showed that controlling for executive function eliminated the effect. However, when computer usage was controlled for, the eliminating effect of executive function was weakened.

    Conclusions: Poor functional hearing was associated with poor verbal reasoning in a 40- to 70-year-old community-dwelling population after controlling for age, gender, and education. The effect of functional hearing on verbal reasoning was significantly reduced among hearing aid users and completely overcome by good executive function skills, which may be enhanced by playing computer games.

  • 53.
    Keidser, Gitte
    et al.
    National Acoustic Laboratories, Sydney, Australia .
    Seeto, M
    National Acoustic Laboratories, Sydney, Australia .
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping university.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping university.
    Hearing status and mental health – data from UK Biobank2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 54.
    Keidser, Gitte
    et al.
    National Acoustic Laboratories, Sydney, Australia .
    Seeto, M
    National Acoustic Laboratories, Sydney, Australia .
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping university.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping university.
    Hearing status and verbal reasoning – data from UK Biobank2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 55.
    Keidser, Gitte
    et al.
    National Acoustic Laboratories, Australian Hearing Hub, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.
    Seeto, Mark
    National Acoustic Laboratories, Australian Hearing Hub, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Sweden.
    On the relationship between functional hearing and depression2015In: International Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1499-2027, E-ISSN 1708-8186, Vol. 54, no 10, p. 653-664Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To establish the effect of self-rated and measured functional hearing on depression, taking age and gender into account. Additionally, the study investigates if hearing-aid usage mitigates the effect, and if other physical health problems and social engagement confound it.

    DESIGN: Cross-sectional data from the UK Biobank resource, including subjective and behavioural measures of functional hearing and multifactorial measures of depressive episodes and symptoms, were accessed and analysed using multi-regression analyses.

    STUDY SAMPLE: Over 100 000 community-dwelling, 39-70 year-old volunteers.

    RESULTS: Irrespective of measurement method, poor functional hearing was significantly (p < 0.001) associated with higher levels of depressive episodes (≤ 0.16 factor scores) and depressive symptoms (≤ 0.30 factor scores) when controlling for age and gender. Associations were stronger for subjective reports, for depressive symptoms, and the younger participants. Females generally reported higher levels of depression. Hearing-aid usage did not show a mitigating effect on the associations. Other physical health problems particularly partially confounded the effects.

    CONCLUSION: Data support an association between functional hearing and depression that is stronger in the younger participants (40-49 years old) and for milder depression. The association was not alleviated by hearing-aid usage, but was partially confounded by other physical health problems.

  • 56.
    Keus van de Poll, Marijke
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Disruption of writing by background speech2018In: FALF KONFERENS 2018 Arbetet – problem eller potential för en hållbar livsmiljö?   10-12 juni 2018 Gävle: Program och abstracts / [ed] Lindberg, Per, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2018, p. 49-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this contribution is to review parts of the knowledge gathered so far about the effects of background speech on writing performance and to discuss the implications for open-plan offices.

    Background

    Irrelevant background speech is amongst the most often mentioned sources of annoyance at work and it can impair writing performance. Thus, performance and health are challenged when working in open-plan offices wherein background sound is commonplace. To investigate the effects of irrelevant background speech on writing in a more detailed way, five studies were done. Study one investigated whether the semantic properties of the irrelevant background speech contribute to disruption of writing processes. A follow-up study investigated the relationship between Speech Transmission Index and writing fluency. In study three, Experiment 1 explored the appreciation and effectiveness of several ways of masking background speech. Experiment 2 studied whether background speech from simultaneous talkers (i.e. 3, 5 and 7 talkers compared to 1 single talker) lead to distraction. Study four investigated the combined effects of task interruptions caused by task shifting and task interruptions caused by background speech. The fifth study investigated whether sound source location and inattention could modulate the relation between background speech and writing fluency.

    Methods

    All studies had experimental within-subject designs. Participants wrote stories while they were exposed to different sound conditions.

    Results

    Study one revealed that meaningful speech disrupted writing performance compared to meaningless rotated speech and quiet. Study two showed that disruption kicks in with relatively low speech intelligibility. In Experiment 1 in study three, the most effective and appreciated way of masking background speech was with multiple voices and Experiment 2 revealed that performance was worst with 1 background voice and best with 7 voices. Study four showed that it took 10-15 seconds to reach the same writing speed after an interruption as before. In study five, results showed that high inattentive individuals might profit from low intelligible background speech located behind them. Self-reports revealed that speech coming from the front was perceived as more distracting compared to speech coming from behind.

    Conclusions

    The most important result is that writing fluency is highly sensitive to the intelligibility of background speech. This suggests that the designs of noisy work environments should be adjusted for the tasks that have to be executed. Writing should be done in a quiet environment with minimal risks for task interruptions.

  • 57.
    Keus van de Poll, Marijke
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Disruption of writing in noisy office environments2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of the four experimental studies included in this dissertation was to investigate the influence of background speech on writing performance. In Paper I, a manipulation of speech intelligibility of background speech, by using the Speech Transmission Index (STI), revealed disruptive effects at lower STI values (i.e. with relative low speech intelligibility) than expected, based on an earlier developed model. This showed that writing is more sensitive to disruption from background speech than previously thought.

    Experiment 1 in Paper II addressed the question whether the sound of babble, sound of water waves, or pink noise is the most effective and appreciated way of masking background speech to reduce its intelligibility and thereby its disruptiveness. Masking with babble was best. Experiment 2 in Paper II followed this finding up by showing that the disruption of writing by background speech is a function of the number of voices talking in the background—less voices, more disruption.

    Paper III investigated the combined impact of background speech and task interruptions on writing performance. Background speech (which was played during the whole condition) after an interruption was expected to prolong the time it took to resume the same writing speed as before the interruption. This hypothesis was not confirmed, but participants’ self-reports showed that the combination of task interruptions and background speech convey a particularly high workload.

    Paper IV explored what role sound source location and individual differences (inattention, noise sensitivity and working memory capacity) play in the disruption of writing by background speech. Self-reports showed that speech in front of the individual was perceived as more distracting compared to speech from behind. Other results in the same study showed that high inattentive individuals profit more from less intelligible speech located behind them than attentive individuals and high noise-sensitive individuals were more distracted by highly intelligible background speech than by less intelligible background speech.

    The most important and replicable finding in this dissertation is that writing fluency is very sensitive to disruption from background speech; a finding relevant for the design of open work environments. In work areas where writing is a common task, the aim should be to create quiet work areas.

  • 58.
    Keus van de Poll, Marijke
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Effects of different types of masking on performance and the potential of multiple-voice masking2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 59.
    Keus van de Poll, Marijke
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    The effects of background speech on word processed writing2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 60.
    Keus van de Poll, Marijke
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Braat-Eggen, Ella
    Eindhoven University of Technology.
    Effects of background speech on cooperation2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 61.
    Keus van de Poll, Marijke
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Carlsson, Johannes
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Marsh, John
    School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Odelius, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Schlittmeier, Sabine
    Catholic University of Eichstätt-Ingolstadt, Eichstätt, Germany .
    Sundin, Gunilla
    Norconsult AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Unmasking the effects of masking on performance: the potential of multiple-voice masking in the office environment2015In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 138, no 2, p. 807-816Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Broadband noise is often used as a masking sound to combat the negative consequences of background speech on performance in open-plan offices. As office workers generally dislike broadband noise, it is important to find alternatives that are more appreciated while being at least not less effective. The purpose of experiment 1 was to compare broadband noise with two alternatives—multiple voices and water waves—in the context of a serial short-term memory task. A single voice impaired memory in comparison with silence, but when the single voice was masked with multiple voices, performance was on level with silence. Experiment 2 explored the benefits of multiple-voice masking in more detail (by comparing one voice, three voices, fivevoices, and seven voices) in the context of word processed writing (arguably a more office-relevant task). Performance (i.e., writing fluency) increased linearly from worst performance in the one-voice condition to best performance in the seven-voice condition. Psychological mechanisms underpinning these effects are discussed.

  • 62.
    Keus van de Poll, Marijke
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Odelius, Johan
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. Linköpings universitet.
    Disruption of writing by background speech: the role of speech transmission index2014In: Applied Acoustics, ISSN 0003-682x, Vol. 81, p. 15-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Speech transmission index (STI) is an objective measure of the acoustic properties of office environments and is used to specify norms for acceptable acoustic work conditions. Yet, the tasks used to evaluate the effects of varying STIs on work performance have often been focusing on memory (as memory of visually presented words) and reading tasks and may not give a complete viewof the severity even of low STI values (i.e., when speech intelligibility is low). Against this background, we used a more typical office-work task in the present study. The participants were asked to write short essays (5 min per essay) in 5 different STI conditions (0.08; 0.23; 0.34; 0.50; and 0.71). Writingfluency dropped drastically and the number of pauses longer than 5 s increased at STI values above 0.23. This study shows that realistic work-related performance drops even at low STI values and has implications for how to evaluate acoustic conditions in school and office environments. 

  • 63.
    Keus van de Poll, Marijke
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Marsh, John E.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Kan arbetsminne förklara varför människor med schizotypy har uppmärksamhetsproblem?2017In: Best Practice, ISSN 1329-1874, no AprilArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är lätt att undvika att distraheras av det vi ser. Det räcker med att blunda. När det gäller ljud kan vi å andra sidan inte bara stänga av öronen för att slippa höra det. När vi sitter och jobbar, och inte vill höra ljud som finns i bakgrunden, registrerar hjärnan ljudet automatiskt.

    Bakgrundsljud, som kan komma från folk som pratar, telefoner som ringer och så vidare, fångar vår uppmärksamhet och gör att vi tappar fokus på den uppgift vi har framför oss. Detta kan i förlängningen leda till irritation och till försämrad prestation och hälsa.

    Att vara lättdistraherad har konsekvenser både för ens sociala beteende och för hur man fungerar på en arbetsplats eller skola. En lättdistraherad person som har sin arbetsplats i ett öppet kontorslandskap till exempel, där bakgrundsljud är mycket vanligt, presterar sämre än hen skulle göra på ett privat kontor där man generellt sett blir mindre störd. Vissa störs emellertid mer än andra. Varför är det så? En del av svaret på frågan är att människor varierar i något som kallas arbetsminneskapacitet. Arbetsminne är en minnesfunktion som används för att tillfälligt lagra och bearbeta information som vi har i medvetandet. Storleken på arbetsminnet (arbetsminneskapaciteten) kan variera mellan människor, och prestationen på många uppgifter, till exempel att läsa och skriva, beror på arbetsminneskapaciteten. Forskning har också visat att individer med låg arbetsminneskapacitet är mer lättdistraherade jämfört med individer med hög arbetsminneskapacitet.

    Distraktion, schizotypy och arbetsminne Att vara mer lättdistraherad än andra är något som människor med hög grad av schizotypy känner igen sig i. Detta gäller både för dem som har diagnosen schizofreni och för dem som inte har diagnosen men som ändå har symtomen. Människor med hög grad av schizotypy har svårare än andra att hålla kvar uppmärksamheten och förbli fokuserade på en uppgift i en bullrig miljö. Ofta har de även sämre arbetsminne än andra, vilket innebär prestationsförluster i många situationer. En hypotes har därför varit att sambandet mellan schizotypy och distraktion beror på det sämre arbetsminnet.

    I en nyligen publicerad studie1 testades denna hypotes, men det visade sig att variationer i arbetsminne inte kan förklara sambandet mellan schizotypy och distraktion. Individer som klassificerades ha ”hög grad av schizotypy” var mer distraherade av oväntade ljud under såväl en visuospatial som en verbal uppgift, jämfört med dem som klassificerades ha ”låg grad av schizotypy”. Samma mönster hittades för dem som klassificerades ha låg kontra hög arbetsminneskapacitet.

    Det intressantaste resultatet från studien var emellertid att schizotypy och arbetsminneskapacitet bidrog på olika sätt till hur lätt individerna distraherades av det överraskande ljudet. Detta innebär att olika mekanismer ligger bakom den uppmärksamhetsproblematik som är kopplad till schizotypy jämfört med den problematik som är kopplad till sämre arbetsminneskapacitet. Med andra ord verkar det som om variationer i arbetsminne inte kan förklara varför individer med hög schizotypy har uppmärksamhetsproblem.

    Exakt hur arbetsminneskapacitet och schizotypy skiljer sig åt är något som författarna till studien endast kunde spekulera om. En hypotes som är välgrundad i litteraturen är emellertid att variationer i arbetsminneskapacitet bidrar till distraherbarhet genom att påverka hur väl människor lyckas avgränsa uppmärksamhetens omfång till den uppgift de håller på med. Hög schizotypy bidrar å andra sidan genom att göra det svårare att ignorera saker i omgivningen, vilket skulle kunna bero på brister i habituering. Det innebär i det här fallet att hög schizotypy leder till svårigheter att vänja sig vid störningsfaktorn över tid, i takt med att man får allt mer erfarenhet av bakgrundsljudet.

    Slutsats

    Vi drar slutsatsen att arbetsminne och schizotypy tenderar att samvariera på ett sådant sätt att människor med hög grad av schizotypy också tenderar att ha låg arbetsminneskapacitet. Men det är inte den låga arbetsminneskapaciteten i sig som skapar uppmärksamhetsproblemen hos dessa individer. En viktig implikation av denna slutsats är att ”arbetsminnesträning” (det vill säga interventioner i form av träningsprogram som syftar till att öka arbetsminneskapaciteten) inte bör bidra till att minska uppmärksamhetsproblematiken för människor med hög grad av schizotypy.

  • 64.
    Keus van de Poll, Marijke
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Sjödin, Louise
    Gösta Ekman Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Gösta Ekman Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Disruption of writing by background speech: Does sound source location, working memory capacity, noise sensitivity, inattention and number of voices matter?2018In: Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of number of voices, sound source location, working memory capacity, inattention and noise sensitivity in the relation between background speech and writing was investigated. Participants wrote texts in silence or in background speech existing of one or seven voices talking simultaneously, located in front of or behind them. Overall, one voice was more disruptive than seven voices talking simultaneously. Some support was found indicating that sound from the front was more disruptive compared to sound from behind. High inattentive individuals and high noise sensitive individuals needed more pauses in one-voice background speech conditions and writing fluency was lower for high inattentive individuals. However, when seven voices came from behind writing fluency was higher for high compared to low inattentive individuals. Results are in line with theory of interference-by-process, attentional capture, the cross-modal theory of attention and the Moderate Brain Arousal Model. Results are of relevance in open-office environments.

  • 65.
    Keus van de Poll, Marijke
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Effects of task interruption and background speech on word processed writing2016In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 430-439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Task interruptions and background speech, both part of the everyday situation in office environments, impair cognitive performance. The current experiments explored the combined effects of background speech and task interruptions on word processed writing-arguably, a task representative of office work. Participants wrote stories, in silence or in the presence of background speech (monologues, halfalogues and dialogues), and were occasionally interrupted by a secondary task. Writing speed was comparably low during the immediate period after the interruption (Experiments 1 and 2); it took 10-15s to regain full writing speed. Background speech had only a small effect on performance (Experiment 1), but a dialogue was more disruptive than a halfalogue (Experiment 2). Background speech did not add to the cost caused by task interruptions. However, subjective measures suggested that speech, just as interruptions, contributed to perceived workload. The findings are discussed in view of attentional capture and interference-by-process mechanisms.

  • 66.
    Kjellberg, Anders
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Experimentell metodik för beteendevetare2015 (ed. 2)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Experimentet är den vetenskapliga metod som ger oss de bästa möjligheterna att ta reda på orsakerna bakom det vi vill studera. Alla vetenskapliga undersökningar har svagheter, så även de som är baserade på experiment. Skillnaden är att experimentet erbjuder unika möjligheter att komma runt svårigheterna. Det är om detta Experimentell metodik för beteendevetare handlar. Även de studenter och forskare som själva aldrig kommer att genomföra ett experiment behöver god kännedom om experimentell metodik.

  • 67.
    Lindegren, David
    et al.
    Ericsson Research, Sweden.
    Nykänen, Arne
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå Sweden.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    The AMR-NB voice codec reduces the listener’s capacity to recall speech2018In: Acta Acoustica united with Acustica, ISSN 1610-1928, E-ISSN 1861-9959, Vol. 104, no 3, p. 381-384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern telecommunication services generally use digital speech encoding. Speech encoding degrades the audio with compression and filters to make the data transmission more efficient. To keep conversations and on-line meetings productive and creative it is important that these digital services do not increase the cognitive load. Measuring effects on working memory is one way to estimate cognitive load of the listener. A test with 25 participants was performed to investigate the effects of using the AMR-NB codec, a standardized codec for mobile communication. The memory performance for spoken 12-word lists was measured and AMR-NB encoded speech was compared with unprocessed speech (LPCM 16 bit, 44.1 kHz). A within-subject analysis showed 9% lower recall rate for the AMR-NB coded speech. © 2018 The Author(s).

  • 68.
    Ljung, Robert
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Maccutcheon, Douglas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Pausch, Florian
    RWTH Aachen Institut für Technische Akustik, Aachen, Tyskland.
    Fels, Janina
    RWTH Aachen Institut für Technische Akustik, Aachen, Tyskland.
    Top-Down Cognitive Factors Influence Second-Language Word Identification in Noise2017In: Abstracts of the Psychonomic Society, 2017, Vol. 22, p. 291-291, article id 5109Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forty-four sequential bilingual children aged fifteen underwent assessments of speech-in-noise perception, first and second language vocabulary and auditory working memory (forward digit span). In order to investigate the signal driven processes might affect bilinguals’ “spatial release from masking” (SRM) a listening in spatialized noise paradigm was adapted for the bilingual context. A simple number and colour identification task presented in English and Swedish, and the talker was masked adaptively by speech-shaped noise and eight-talker babble under two spatialized conditions in simulated room acoustics; targets and maskers were either collocated at zero degrees azimuth or spatially separated at ninety degrees azimuth to either side. The resulting language and noise conditions were contrasted with existing research on bilingual adults and native-language speaking children, extending findings to a younger sample of sequential bilingual children. The results indicating a significant relationship between cognitive ability and second-language speech reception threshold.

  • 69.
    Ljung, Robert
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Marsh, John E.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, Lancashire UK .
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Distraction of Counting by the Meaning of Background Speech: Are Spatial Memory Demands a Prerequisite?2015In: Applied Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 0888-4080, E-ISSN 1099-0720, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 584-591Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reexamines the effects of background speech on counting. Previous studies have shown that background sound disrupts counting in comparison with silence, but the magnitude of disruption is no larger for spoken numbers compared with that for non-number speech (there is no effect of the meaning of background speech). The typical task used previously has been to count the number of sequentially presented visual events. We replicated the general finding in Experiment 1—that there is no effect of the meaning of background speech—in the context of the classic sequence counting task. In Experiment 2, the task was changed by having to-be-counted dots presented simultaneously and randomly across the visual field. Here, an effect attributable to the meaning of background speech emerged. Background speech that is similar in meaning to the focal task process contributes to the magnitude of disruption, but apparently only when spatial memory processes are a task prerequisite.

  • 70.
    MacCutcheon, Douglas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Hurtig, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Pausch, Florian
    Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Fels, Janina
    Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Second language vocabulary level is related to benefits for second language listening comprehension under lower reverberation time conditions2019In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 175-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The acoustic qualities of a room can have a deleterious effect on the quality of speech signals. The acoustic measurement of reverberation time (RT) has shown to impact second language (L2) speech comprehension positively when lower due to release from spectral and temporal masking effects as well as top-down processing factors. This auralization experiment investigated the benefits of better L2 vocabulary and executive function (updating) skills during L2 listening comprehension tests under shorter versus longer RT conditions (0.3 and 0.9 s). 57 bilingual university students undertook L2 vocabulary, number updating and L2 listening comprehension tests. After splitting groups into high/low vocabulary and updating groups, a mixed ANOVA was conducted. The high number updating group showed no significant differences or interactions in L2 listening comprehension than the lower number updating group across RT conditions. The high vocabulary group had 22% better L2 listening comprehension than the low vocabulary group in long RT, and 9% better in short RT. A significant benefit in L2 listening comprehension due to release from reverberation was only evident in the high vocabulary group. Results indicate that the benefit of good room acoustics for listening comprehension is greatest for those with better language (vocabulary) ability.

  • 71.
    MacCutcheon, Douglas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Pausch, Florian
    Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Fels, Janina
    Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    The effect of language, spatial factors, masker type and memory span on speech-in-noise thresholds in sequential bilingual children2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 59, no 6, p. 567-577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study considers whether bilingual children listening in a second language are among those on which higher processing and cognitive demands are placed when noise is present. Forty-four Swedish sequential bilingual 15 year-olds were given memory span and vocabulary assessments in their first and second language (Swedish and English). First and second language speech reception thresholds (SRTs) at 50% intelligibility for numbers and colors presented in noise were obtained using an adaptive procedure. The target sentences were presented in simulated, virtual classroom acoustics, masked by either 16-talker multi-talker babble noise (MTBN) or speech shaped noise (SSN), positioned either directly in front of the listener (collocated with the target speech), or spatially separated from the target speech by 90° to either side. Main effects in the Spatial and Noise factors indicated that intelligibility was 3.8 dB lower in collocated conditions and 2.9 dB lower in MTBN conditions. SRTs were unexpectedly higher by 0.9 dB in second language conditions. Memory span significantly predicted 17% of the variance in the second language SRTs, and 9% of the variance in first language SRTs, indicating the possibility that the SRT task places higher cognitive demands when listening to second language speech than when the target is in the listener's first language.

  • 72.
    MacCutcheon, Douglas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Pausch, Florian
    RWTH Aachen University.
    Fels, Janina
    RWTH Aachen University.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    The relationship between working memory and second language speech reception thresholds in sequential bilingual children2017In: APCAM 2017: 16th Annual Auditory Perception, Cognition, and Action Meeting, 2017, p. 14-14Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study considers whether or not bilingual school children listening and learning in a second language are among those on which higher perceptual processing and cognitive demands are placed when classroom noise is present. Empirical substantiation for this theory would include elevated speech reception thresholds (SRTs) for second language speech in noise, and native or second language-specific correlations between SRTs and cognitive measures such as working memory (WM) or factors such as the age at which the second language was acquired (age of second language acquisition). Forty-four Swedish sequential bilingual children with no sensory or learning deficits took part in this study. Working memory and vocabulary assessments were conducted and language background data were collected. SRTs at 50 % intelligibility were obtained using an adaptive procedure under Language, Spatial and Noise conditions. The target sentence was presented in simulated room acoustics in Swedish and English, masked by either 8-talker babble or speech shaped noise (SSN) with identical long-term average speech spectra, and noise maskers were positioned either directly in front of the listener or spatially separated from the target at 90° azimuth to either side. Main effects in the Spatial and Noise conditions indicated that spatial release from masking favoured spatially separated conditions and a noise release from masking advantage for SSN conditions, indicated by significantly lower thresholds for those conditions. There were no significant interactions with Language. The age of second language acquisition did not significantly predict second language SRTs and was excluded from the regression model. However, WM significantly predicted 21% of the variance in the second language SRTs, and 9% of the variance in native language SRTs. WM predicted more of the variance in second language SRTs than first language SRTs, suggesting that cognition plays more of a role in second language perceptual processes than native language ones.

  • 73.
    Marois, Alexandre
    et al.
    Laval University, Quebec City, Canada.
    Dube, Francis-Loic
    Laval University, Quebec City, Canada.
    Marsh, John E.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Vachon, Francois
    Laval University, Quebec City, Canada.
    Is auditory distraction by changing and deviant sounds underpinned by the same mechanism?: Evidence from pupillometry2018In: Psychophysiology, ISSN 0048-5772, E-ISSN 1469-8986, Vol. 55, no 1, p. S112-S113, article id 4-005Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 74.
    Marois, Alexandre
    et al.
    Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
    Marsh, John E.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. University of Central Lancashire, Preston, United Kingdom.
    Vachon, François
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
    Is auditory distraction by changing-state and deviant sounds underpinned by the same mechanism?: Evidence from pupillometry2019In: Biological Psychology, ISSN 0301-0511, E-ISSN 1873-6246, Vol. 141, p. 64-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mere presence of task-irrelevant auditory stimuli is known to interfere with cognitive functioning. Disruption can be caused by changing auditory distractors (the changing-state effect) or by a sound that deviates from the auditory background (the deviation effect). The unitary account of auditory distraction explains both phenomena in terms of attentional capture whereas the duplex-mechanism account posits that they reflect two fundamentally different forms of distraction in which only the deviation effect is caused by attentional capture. To test these predictions, we exploited a physiological index of attention orienting: the pupillary dilation response (PDR). Participants performed visual serial recall while ignoring sequences of spoken letters. These sequences either comprised repeated or changing letters, and one letter could sometimes be replaced by pink noise (the deviant). Recall was poorer in both changing-state and deviant trials. Interestingly, the PDR was elicited by deviant sounds but not changing-state sounds, while a tonic increase in pupil size was found throughout changing-state trials. This physiological dissociation of the changing-state and the deviation effects suggests they are subtended by distinct mechanisms thereby procuring support for the duplex-mechanism account over the unitary account.

  • 75.
    Marois, Alexandre
    et al.
    École de psychologie, Université Laval, Québec, QC, Canada.
    Vachon, François
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. École de psychologie, Université Laval, Québec, QC, Canada.
    Can pupillometry index auditory attentional capture in contexts of active visual processing?2018In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 484-502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rare presentation of a sound that deviates from the auditory background tends to capture attention, which is known to impede cognitive functioning. Such disruption is usually measured using performance on a concurrent visual task. Growing evidence recently showed that the pupillary dilation response (PDR) could index the attentional response triggered by a deviant sound. Given that the pupil diameter is sensitive to several vision-related factors, it is unclear whether the PDR could serve to study attentional capture in such contexts. Hence, the present study aimed at verifying whether the PDR can be used as a proxy for auditory attentional capture while a visual serial recall task (Experiment 1) or a reading comprehension task (Experiment 2) ? respectively producing changes in luminance and gaze position ? is being performed. Results showed that presenting a deviant sound within steady-state standard sounds elicited larger PDRs than a standard sound. Moreover, the magnitude of these PDRs was positively related to the amount of performance disruption produced by deviant sounds in Experiment 1. Performance remained unaffected by the deviants in Experiment 2, thereby implying that the PDR may be a more sensitive attention-capture index than behavioural measures. These results suggest that the PDR can be used to assess attentional capture by a deviant sound in contexts where the pupil diameter can be modulated by the visual environment.

  • 76.
    Marsh, John
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Can intrinsic and extrinsic metacognitive cues shield against distraction in problem solving?2018In: Journal of cognition, E-ISSN 2514-4820, Vol. 1, no 1, article id 15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the capacity for two different forms of metacognitive cue to shield against auditory distraction in problem solving with Compound Remote Associates Tasks (CRATs). Experiment 1 demonstrated that an intrinsic metacognitive cue in the form of processing disfluency (manipulated using an easy-to-read vs. difficult-to-read font) could increase focal task engagement so as to mitigate the detrimental impact of distraction on solution rates for CRATs. Experiment 2 showed that an extrinsic metacognitive cue that took the form of an incentive for good task performance (i.e., 80% or better CRAT solutions) could likewise eliminate the negative impact of distraction on CRAT solution rates. Overall, these findings support the view that both intrinsic and extrinsic metacognitive cues have remarkably similar effects. This suggests that metacognitive cues operate via a common underlying mechanism whereby a participant applies increased focal attention to the primary task so as to ensure more steadfast task engagement that is not so easily diverted by task-irrelevant stimuli.

  • 77.
    Marsh, John
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Crawford, Jessica
    School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, Lancashire, UK.
    Pilgrim, Lea
    School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, Lancashire, UK.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hughes, Robert
    Department of Psychology, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey, UK.
    Trouble Articulating the Right Words: Evidence for a Response-Exclusion Account of Distraction During Semantic Fluency2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 58, no 5, p. 367-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely held that single-word lexical access is a competitive process, a view based largely on the observation that naming a picture is slowed in the presence of a distractor-word. However, problematic for this view is that a low-frequency distractor-word slows the naming of a picture more than does a high-frequency word. This supports an alternative, response-exclusion, account in which a distractor-word interferes because it must be excluded from an articulatory output buffer before the right word can be articulated (the picture name): A high, compared to low, frequency word accesses the buffer more quickly and, as such, can also be excluded more quickly. Here we studied the respective roles of competition and response-exclusion for the first time in the context of semantic verbal fluency, a setting requiring the accessing of, and production of, multiple words from long-term memory in response to a single semantic cue. We show that disruption to semantic fluency by a sequence of to-be-ignored spoken distractors is also greater when those distractors are low in frequency, thereby extending the explanatory compass of the response-exclusion account to a multiple-word production setting and casting further doubt on the lexical-selection-by-competition view. The results can be understood as reflecting the contribution of speech output processes to semantic fluency.

  • 78.
    Marsh, John E.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, United Kingdom .
    Campbell, Tom A.
    Neuroscience Center, University of Helsinki, Finland .
    Processing complex sounds passing through the rostral brainstem: The new early filter model2016In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 10, article id 106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rostral brainstem receives both “bottom-up” input from the ascending auditory system and “top-down” descending corticofugal connections. Speech information passing through the inferior colliculus of elderly listeners reflects the periodicity envelope of a speech syllable. This information arguably also reflects a composite of temporal-fine-structure (TFS) information from the higher frequency vowel harmonics of that repeated syllable. The amplitude of those higher frequency harmonics, bearing high frequency TFS information, correlates positively with the word recognition ability of elderly listeners under reverberatory conditions. Also relevant is that working memory capacity, which is subject to age-related decline, constrains the processing of sounds at the level of the brainstem. Turning to the effects of a visually presented sensory or memory load on auditory processes, there is a load-dependent reduction of that processing, as manifest in the auditory brainstem responses evoked by to-be-ignored clicks. Wave V decreases in amplitude with increases in the visually presented memory load. A visually presented sensory load also produces a load-dependent reduction of a slightly different sort: The sensory load of visually presented information limits the disruptive effects of background sound upon working memory performance. A new early filter model is thus advanced whereby systems within the frontal lobe (affected by sensory or memory load) cholinergically influence top-down corticofugal connections. Those corticofugal connections constrain the processing of complex sounds such as speech at the level of the brainstem. Selective attention thereby limits the distracting effects of background sound entering the higher auditory system via the inferior colliculus. Processing TFS in the brainstem relates to perception of speech under adverse conditions. Attentional selectivity is crucial when the signal heard is degraded or masked: e.g., speech in noise, speech in reverberatory environments. The assumptions of a new early filter model are consistent with these findings: A subcortical early filter, with a predictive selectivity based on acoustical (linguistic) context and foreknowledge, is under cholinergic top-down control. A limited prefrontal capacity limitation constrains this top-down control as is guided by the cholinergic processing of contextual information in working memory.

  • 79.
    Marsh, John E.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Hughes, Robert W.
    Royal Holloway University of London, Department of Psychology, Egham, United Kingdom .
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Beaman, Charles P.
    University of Reading, School of Psychology and Clinical Language Sciences, Reading, United Kingdom.
    Jones, Dylan M.
    Cardiff University, School of Psychology, Cardiff, United Kingdom.
    Erroneous and Veridical Recall Are Not Two Sides of the Same Coin: Evidence From Semantic Distraction in Free Recall2015In: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition, ISSN 0278-7393, E-ISSN 1939-1285, Vol. 41, no 6, p. 1728-1740Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two experiments examined the extent to which erroneous recall blocks veridical recall using, as a vehicle for study, the disruptive impact of distractors that are semantically similar to a list of words presented for free recall. Instructing participants to avoid erroneous recall of to-be-ignored spoken distractors attenuated their recall but this did not influence the disruptive effect of those distractors on veridical recall (Experiment 1). Using an externalized output-editing procedure-whereby participants recalled all items that came to mind and identified those that were erroneous-the usual between-sequences semantic similarity effect on erroneous and veridical recall was replicated but the relationship between the rate of erroneous and veridical recall was weak (Experiment 2). The results suggest that forgetting is not due to veridical recall being blocked by similar events.

  • 80.
    Marsh, John E.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Labonté, Katherine
    Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
    Skelton, Faye C.
    Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, Storbritannien.
    Patel, Krupali
    University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Threadgold, Emma
    University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Fodarella, Cristina
    University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Thorley, Rachel
    University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Battersby, Kirsty L.
    University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Frowd, Charlie D.
    University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Ball, Linden J.
    University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Vachon, François
    Université Laval, Quebec, Canada.
    Chatting in the Face of the Eyewitness: The Impact of Extraneous Cell-Phone Conversation on Memory for a Perpetrator2017In: Canadian journal of experimental psychology, ISSN 1196-1961, E-ISSN 1878-7290, Vol. 71, no 3, p. 183-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cell-phone conversation is ubiquitous within public spaces. The current study investigates whether ignored cell-phone conversation impairs eyewitness memory for a perpetrator. Participants viewed a video of a staged crime in the presence of 1 side of a comprehensible cell-phone conversation (meaningful halfalogue), 2 sides of a comprehensible cell-phone conversation (meaningful dialogue), 1 side of an incomprehensible cell-phone conversation (meaningless halfalogue), or quiet. Between 24 and 28 hr later, participants freely described the perpetrator's face, constructed a single composite image of the perpetrator from memory, and attempted to identify the perpetrator from a sequential lineup. Further, participants rated the likeness of the composites to the perpetrator. Face recall and lineup identification were impaired when participants witnessed the staged crime in the presence of a meaningful halfalogue compared to a meaningless halfalogue, meaningful dialogue, or quiet. Moreover, likeness ratings showed that the composites constructed after ignoring the meaningful halfalogue resembled the perpetrator less than did those constructed after experiencing quiet or ignoring a meaningless halfalogue or a meaningful dialogue. The unpredictability of the meaningful content of the halfalogue, rather than its acoustic unexpectedness, produces distraction. The results are novel in that they suggest that an everyday distraction, even when presented in a different modality to target information, can impair the long-term memory of an eyewitness.

  • 81.
    Marsh, John E.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    MacCutcheon, Douglas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Pausch, Florian
    Institute of Technical Acoustics, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Ball, Linden J.
    School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK 3.
    Vachon, François
    École de psychologie, Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
    Why are background telephone conversations distracting?2018In: Journal of experimental psychology. Applied, ISSN 1076-898X, E-ISSN 1939-2192, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 222-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Telephone conversation is ubiquitous within the office setting. Overhearing a telephone conversation-whereby only one of the two speakers is heard-is subjectively more annoying and objectively more distracting than overhearing a full conversation. The present study sought to determine whether this "halfalogue" effect is attributable to unexpected offsets and onsets within the background speech (acoustic unexpectedness) or to the tendency to predict the unheard part of the conversation (semantic [un]predictability), and whether these effects can be shielded against through top-down cognitive control. In Experiment 1, participants performed an office-related task in quiet or in the presence of halfalogue and dialogue background speech. Irrelevant speech was either meaningful or meaningless speech. The halfalogue effect was only present for the meaningful speech condition. Experiment 2 addressed whether higher task-engagement could shield against the halfalogue effect by manipulating the font of the to-be-read material. Although the halfalogue effect was found with an easy-to-read font (fluent text), the use of a difficult-to-read font (disfluent text) eliminated the effect. The halfalogue effect is thus attributable to the semantic (un)predictability, not the acoustic unexpectedness, of background telephone conversation and can be prevented by simple means such as increasing the level of engagement required by the focal task. 

  • 82.
    Marsh, John E.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Nöstl, Anatole
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Threadgold, Emma
    City University London, UK.
    Campbell, Tom A.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Failing to get the gist of what’s being said: background noise impairs higher-order cognitive processing2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, article id 548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A dynamic interplay is known to exist between auditory processing and human cognition. For example, prior investigations of speech-in-noise have revealed there is more to learning than just listening: Even if all words within a spoken list are correctly heard in noise, later memory for those words is typically impoverished. These investigations supported a view that there is a “gap” between the intelligibility of speech and memory for that speech. Here, the notion was that this gap between speech intelligibility and memorability is a function of the extent to which the spoken message seizes limited immediate memory resources (e.g., Kjellberg et al., 2008). Accordingly, the more difficult the processing of the spoken message, the less resources are available for elaboration, storage, and recall of that spoken material. However, it was not previously known how increasing that difficulty affected the memory processing of semantically rich spoken material. This investigation showed that noise impairs higher levels of cognitive analysis. A variant of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott procedure that encourages semantic elaborative processes was deployed. On each trial, participants listened to a 36-item list comprising 12 words blocked by each of 3 different themes. Each of those 12 words (e.g., bed, tired, snore…) was associated with a “critical” lure theme word that was not presented (e.g., sleep). Word lists were either presented without noise or at a signal-to-noise ratio of 5 decibels upon an A-weighting. Noise reduced false recall of the critical words, and decreased the semantic clustering of recall. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  • 83.
    Marsh, John E.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. University of Central Lancashire, School of Psychology, Lancashire, England.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Hughes, Robert
    University of London, Department of Psychology, London, England.
    Dynamic cognitive control of irrelevant sound: increased task engagement attenuates semantic auditory distraction2015In: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, ISSN 0096-1523, E-ISSN 1939-1277, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 1462-1474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two experiments investigated reactive top-down cognitive control of the detrimental influence of spoken distractors semantically related to visually-presented words presented for free recall.  Experiment 1 demonstrated that an increase in focal task-engagement—promoted experimentally by reducing the perceptual discriminability of the visual target-words—eliminated the disruption by such distracters of veridical recall and also attenuated the erroneous recall of the distracters. A recall instruction that eliminates the requirement for output-monitoring was used in Experiment 2 to investigate whether increased task-engagement shields against distraction through a change in output-monitoring processes (back-end control) or by affecting the processing of the distracters during their presentation (front-end control). Rates of erroneous distracter-recall were much greater than in Experiment 1 but both erroneous distracter-recall and the disruptive effect of distracters on veridical recall were still attenuated under reduced target-word discriminability. Taken together, the results show that task-engagement is under dynamic strategic control and can be modulated to shield against auditory distraction by attenuating distracter-processing at encoding thereby preventing distracters from coming to mind at test.

  • 84.
    Marsh, John E.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Vachon, Francois
    Ecole de psychologie, Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Increased distractibility in schizotypy: independent of individual differences in working memory capacity?2017In: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, ISSN 1747-0218, E-ISSN 1747-0226, Vol. 70, no 3, p. 565-578Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals with schizophrenia typically show increased levels of distractibility. This has been attributed to impaired working memory capacity (WMC), since lower WMC is typically associated with higher distractibility and schizophrenia is typically associated with impoverished WMC. Here, participants performed verbal and spatial serial recall tasks that were accompanied by to-be-ignored speech tokens. For the few trials wherein one speech token was replaced with a different token, impairment was produced to task scores (a deviation effect). Participants subsequently completed a schizotypy questionnaire and a WMC measure. Higher schizotypy scores were associated with lower WMC (as measured with operation span [OSPAN]), but WMC and schizotypy scores explained unique variance in relation to the mean magnitude of the deviation effect. These results suggest that schizotypy is associated with heightened domain-general distractibility, but that this is independent of its relationship with WMC.

  • 85.
    Marsh, John
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Darwin Building, Preston, Lancashire, United Kingdom.
    Perham, Nick
    Department of Applied Psychology, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, United Kingdom .
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. Linneaus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Jones, Dylan
    School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom .
    Boundaries of semantic distraction: dominance and lexicality act at retrieval2014In: Memory & Cognition, ISSN 0090-502X, E-ISSN 1532-5946, Vol. 42, no 8, p. 1285-1301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three experiments investigated memory for semantic information with the goal of determining boundary conditions for the manifestation of semantic auditory distraction. Irrelevant speech disrupted the free recall of semantic category- exemplars to an equal degree regardless of whether the speech coincided with presentation or test phases of the task (Experiment 1), and this occurred regardless ofwhether it comprised random words or coherent sentences (Experiment 2). The effects of background speech were greater when the irrelevant speech was semantically related to the to-be-remembered material, but only when the irrelevant words were high in output dominance (Experiment 3). The implications of these findings in relation to the processing of task material and the processing ofbackground speech are discussed.

  • 86.
    Marsh, John
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Röer, Jan
    Department of Experimental Psychology, Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, Dusseldorf, Germany.
    Bell, Raoul
    Department of Experimental Psychology, Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, Dusseldorf, Germany.
    Buchner, Axel
    Department of Experimental Psychology, Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, Dusseldorf, Germany.
    Predictability and distraction: does the neural model represent postcategorical features?2014In: PsyCh Journal, ISSN 2046-0260, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 58-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two experiments examined the role of predictability within the elements of a task-irrelevant auditory sequence on the disruption produced to visual-verbal serial recall. Experiment 1 showed that participants did not benefit from having a long-term representation of the irrelevant sequence: A highly predictable, canonical sequence (“1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9”) produced as much disruption as a repeated random sequence (which was the same on each trial) and an unpredictable, random sequence (which differed on each trial), as compared with quiet. In line with this finding, there was also no difference between a predictable canonical and an unpredictable random sequence in Experiment 2. However, a deviant within the predictable, canonical sequence (“1 2 3 4 5 5 7 8 9”) produced greater disruption than a deviant within an unpredictable, random sequence (“4 8 2 9 5 5 7 3 1”). This effect was confined to early trials within the block. The results showed that long-term knowledge about the order of the individual elements in the sequence did not help attenuate the effect of auditory distraction on serial recall. Nevertheless, attentional capture was amplified when a deviant violated a well-known, canonical sequence, providing evidence that the neural model represents postcategorical sequential information.

  • 87.
    Marsh, John
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. University of Central Lancashire, Preston, United Kingdom.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. Linköping University.
    Hodgetts, Helen
    École de psychologie, Université Laval, Canada; Cardiff Metropolitan University, UK.
    Beaman, Philip
    University of Reading, UK.
    Jones, Dylan
    Cardiff University, UK.
    Distraction control processes in free recall: benefits and costs to performance2015In: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition, ISSN 0278-7393, E-ISSN 1939-1285, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 118-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How is semantic memory influenced by individual differences under conditions of distraction? This question was addressed by observing how participants recalled visual target words—drawn from a single category—while ignoring spoken distractor words that were members of either the same or a different (single) category. Working memory capacity (WMC) was related to disruption only with synchronous, not asynchronous, presentation, and distraction was greater when the words were presented synchronously. Subsequent experiments found greater negative priming of distractors among individuals with higher WMC, but this may be dependent on targets and distractors being comparable category exemplars. With less dominant category members as distractors, target recall was impaired—relative to control—only among individuals with low WMC. The results highlight the role of cognitive control resources in target–distractor selection and the individual-specific cost implications of such cognitive control.

  • 88.
    Marsh, John
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, England.
    Yang, Jingqi
    School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, England.
    Qualter, Pamela
    School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, England.
    Richardson, Cassandra
    School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, England.
    Perham, Nick
    Department of Applied Psychology, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, Wales.
    Vachon, François
    School of Psychology, Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
    Hughes, Robert W.
    Department of Psychology, Royal Holloway, University of London, London, England.
    Post-Categorical Auditory Distraction in Serial Short-Term Memory: Insights from Increased Task-Load and Task-Type2018In: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition, ISSN 0278-7393, E-ISSN 1939-1285, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 882-897Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Task-irrelevant speech impairs short-term serial recall appreciably. On the interference-by-process account, the processing of physical (i.e., precategorical) changes in speech yields order cues that conflict with the serial-ordering process deployed to perform the serial recall task. In this view, the postcategorical properties (e.g., phonology, meaning) of speech play no role. The present study reassessed the implications of recent demonstrations of auditory postcategorical distraction in serial recall that have been taken as support for an alternative, attentional-diversion, account of the irrelevant speech effect. Focusing on the disruptive effect of emotionally valent compared with neutral words on serial recall, we show that the distracter-valence effect is eliminated under conditions—high task-encoding load—thought to shield against attentional diversion whereas the general effect of speech (neutral words compared with quiet) remains unaffected (Experiment 1). Furthermore, the distracter-valence effect generalizes to a task that does not require the processing of serial order—the missing-item task—whereas the effect of speech per se is attenuated in this task (Experiment 2). We conclude that postcategorical auditory distraction phenomena in serial short-term memory (STM) are incidental: they are observable in such a setting but, unlike the acoustically driven irrelevant speech effect, are not integral to it. As such, the findings support a duplex-mechanism account over a unitary view of auditory distraction.

  • 89.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Can cognitive activities during breaks in repetitive manual work accelerate recovery from fatigue? A controlled experiment2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 11, article id e112090Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neurophysiologic theory and some empirical evidence suggests that fatigue caused by physical work maybe more effectively recovered during “diverting” periods of cognitive activity than during passive rest; a phenomenon of great interest in working life. We investigated the extent to which development and recovery of fatigue during repeated bouts of an occupationally relevant reaching task was influenced by the complexity of a cognitive activity between these bouts. Eighteen male volunteers performed three sessions, consisting of six 7-min bouts of reaching alternating with 3minutes of a memory test differing in complexity between sessions. Throughout the session, recordings were made of upper trapezius muscle activity using electromyography (EMG), heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) using electrocardiography,arterial blood pressure, and perceived fatigue (Borg CR10 scale and SOFI). A test battery before, immediately after and 1 hour after the work period included measurements of shoulder elevation strength (MVC), pressure pain threshold (PPT) over the trapezius muscles, and a submaximal isometric contraction. As intended, perceived fatigue, HRV, and EMG amplitude increased during the physical work bouts. Recovery did occur between the bouts, but fatigue accumulated throughout the work period. Neither EMG changes nor recovery of perceived fatigue during breaks were influenced by cognitive task complexity, while heart rate and HRV recovered the most during breaks with the most difficult task. Recovery of perceived fatigue after the 1 hour work period was also most pronounced for the most difficult cognitive condition, while MVC and PPT showed ambiguous patterns, and EMG recovered similarly after all three cognitive protocols. Thus, we could confirm that cognitive tasks between bouts of fatiguing physical work can,indeed, accelerate recovery of central components of fatigue, even if benefits may be moderate. Our results encourage further research into combinations of physical and mental tasks in an occupational context.

  • 90.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mixter, Susanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kombination av fysiska och mentala arbetsuppgifter: en modell för effektiv arbetsrotation?2018In: FALF konferens 2018 Arbetet – problem eller potential för en hållbar livsmiljö?: Program och Abstracts / [ed] Lindberg, Per, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2018, p. 56-57Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Fysisk variation i arbetet anses allmänt av både forskare och praktiker att vara en förutsättning för god hälsa. Både för hög och för låg belastning kan med tiden leda till sämre välbefinnande och prestation. Den gällande föreskriften om belastningsergonomi (AFS 2012:2) anger specifikt att problem med repetitivt, styrt och bundet arbete ska förebyggas genom ökad variation, ”till exempel genom arbetsväxling, arbetsutvidgning eller pauser.” Samtidigt visar flera aktuella forskningsöversikter om variation och arbetsrotation att det vetenskapliga stödet för att dessa initiativ verkligen leder till bättre hälsa är otillräckligt. En anledning kan vara att de idéer till ökad variation som studerats har varit ineffektiva, till exempel därför att de arbetsuppgifter man växlat mellan har varit snarlika till sin belastning, eller att man, som i många studier av pauser, endast kunnat intervenera under en mindre del av arbetsdagen av hänsyn till produktionen. En modell för arbetsrotation med potential för att både säkra en hållbar produktion och leda till god fysisk och mental variation skulle kunna vara att kombinera fysiskt belastande arbets-uppgifter med produktiva uppgifter som ställer mentala krav, men inte är fysiskt krävande. Vid Forte-centret har vi under ett antal år arbetat med denna modell ur olika perspektiv.Det här symposiet ger en överblick över vår forskning. Vi kommer att sammanfatta det internationella forskningsläget, både om variation i stort och specifikt om kombinationer av fysiskt och mentalt belastande arbetsuppgifter. Vi kommer även att presentera en ny princip för hur man kan arbeta med belastning, variation och återhämtning: Guldlocks-principen. Vi kommer att visa resultat från våra egna studier av förekomsten av omväx-lande fysiska och mentala arbetsuppgifter i detaljhandel och industri, och vilka mönster av omväxling de anställda föredrar. Vidare kommer vi att gå igenom våra studier av stress och trötthetsutveckling då man kombinerar repetitivt fysiskt arbete med en mental uppgift av olika svårighetsgrader. Sammantaget kommer symposiet att visa både vilken forskning vi och andra bedrivit på området och vilka forskningsbehov som kvarstår för att svara på om en arbetsrotation som kombinerar fysiska och mentala arbetsuppgifter kan vara effektiv, både vad gäller hälsoeffekter och produktion.

  • 91.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Ergonomics observation: development of efficient methods based on cognitive psychology2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 92.
    Nykänen, Arne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden .
    Lindegren, David
    LM Ericsson AB-Ericsson Research, Luleå, Sweden .
    Wruck, Louisa
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden .
    Ljung, Robert
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Odelius, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden .
    Möller, Sebastian
    Quality and Usability Lab., Telekom Innovation Labs., TU Berlin, Berlin, Germany .
    Memory of AMR coded speech distorted by packet loss2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have shown that free recall of spoken word lists is impaired if the speech is presented in background noise, even if the signal-to-noise ratio is kept at a level allowing full word identification. The objective of this study was to examine recall rates for word lists presented in noise and word lists coded by an AMR (Adaptive Multi Rate) telephone codec distorted by packet loss. Twenty subjects performed a word recall test. Word lists consisting of ten words were played to the subjects. The subjects repeated each word immediately after it had been played, to ensure that the words were heard correctly. After the complete list had been played the subjects wrote down all words remembered. In this way, both word identification and recall rates were measured. Three distorted conditions were compared with an undistorted control condition using a within-subject design: speech spectrum weighted noise at 4 dB SNR, and AMR coded speech with two levels of packet loss, one mild and one severe. The results confirmed the disruptive effect of noise on free recall of words, while no significant impairment was found for the AMR distortions. The noise and the AMR coding with mild packet loss gave approximately the same impairment of word identification. The AMR coding with severe packet loss gave a larger impairment of word identification, even though the word recall rate was unaffected. This result suggests that packet loss in AMR coded speech causes distortions which disrupt recall of words less than noise at levels resulting in the same change of word identification rates. Since impairment of word identification rates did not correlate with impairment of word recall rates models for quality prediction of speech reproductions should not be based on identification rates alone.

  • 93.
    Nöstl, Anatole
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Habituation to distraction from deviant sound: does predictability matter?2015In: Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 94.
    Nöstl, Anatole
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    How memory of the past, a predictable present and expectations of the future underpin adaptation to the sound environment2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    By using auditory distraction as a tool, the main focus of the present thesis is to investigate the role of memory systems in human adaptation processes towards changes in the built environment. Report I and Report II focus on the question of whether memory for regularities in the auditory environment is used to form predictions and expectations of future sound events, and if violations of these expectations capture attention. Collectively the results indicate that once a stable neural model of the sound environment is created, violations of the formed expectations can capture attention. Furthermore, the magnitude of attentional capture is a function of the pitch difference between the expected tone and the presented tone.

    The second part of the thesis is concerned with, (a) the nature (i.e. the specificity) of the neural model formed in an auditory environment and, (b) whether complex cognition in terms of working memory capacity modulates habituation rate. The results in Report III show that the disruptive effect of the deviation effect diminishes with the number of exposures over time, and also as a function of working memory capacity. The aim of Report IV was to investigate the nature (and specificity) of the neural model formed in an auditory environment. If the neural model is fashioned around a specific stimulus then an observable increase of response latency should occur in conjunction with the deviant change. The results in Experiment 1 in Report IV, however, show that the habituation rate remained the same throughout the experiment. To further test the specificity of the neural model the modalityof the deviant event was switched (from auditory to visual and vice versa) in Experiment 3 in Report IV. The collective findings indicate that the formed neural model may be of a more general nature than previously suggested. The aim of Experiment 2 in Report IV was to investigate what properties of the sound environment underpin habituation rate, more specifically if predictability of a deviant trial facilitates the habituation process. The finding that the habituation rate was similar whether there was a fixed temporal interval between the deviant trials or a random interval suggests that the amount of occurrences (i.e. number of deviant trials) determines habituation rate, not the predictability of a deviant trial.

  • 95.
    Nöstl, Anatole
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Marsh, John
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. University of Central Lancashire.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University.
    What we expect is not always what we get: Evidence for both the direction-of-change and the specific-stimulus hypotheses of auditory attentional capture2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 11, p. e111997-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Participants were requested to respond to a sequence of visual targets while listening to a well-known lullaby. One of the notes in the lullaby was occasionally exchanged with a pattern deviant. Experiment 1 found that deviants capture attention as a function of the pitch difference between the deviant and the replaced/expected tone. However, when the pitch difference between the expected tone and the deviant tone is held constant, a violation to the direction-of-pitch change across tones can also capture attention (Experiment 2). Moreover, in more complex auditory environments, wherein it is difficult to build a coherent neural model of the sound environment from which expectations are formed, deviations can capture attention but it appears to matter less whether this is a violation from a specific stimulus or a violation of the current direction-of-change (Experiment 3). The results support the expectation violation account of auditory distraction and suggest that there are at least two different expectations that can be violated: One appears to be bound to a specific stimulus and the other would seem to be bound to a more global cross-stimulus rule such as the direction-of-change based on a sequence of preceding sound events. Factors like base-rate probability of tones within the sound environment might become the driving mechanism of attentional capture - rather than violated expectations - in complex sound environments.

  • 96.
    Perham, Nick
    et al.
    Department of Applied Psychology, Cardiff Metropolitan University, United Kingdom.
    Marsh, John E.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, Lancashire UK .
    Clarkson, Martin
    Department of Applied Psychology, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, United Kingdom.
    Lawrence, Rosie
    Department of Applied Psychology, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, United Kingdom.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Distraction of mental arithmetic by background speech: Further evidence for the habitual-response priming view of auditory distraction2016In: Experimental psychology (Göttingen), ISSN 1618-3169, E-ISSN 2190-5142, Vol. 63, no 3, p. 141-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When solving mental arithmetic problems, one can easily be distracted by someone speaking in the background and this distraction is greater if the speech comprises numbers. We explored the basis of this disruption by asking participants to solve mental addition problems (e.g., "45 + 17 = ?") in three different conditions: background speech comprising numbers in ascending order (e.g., "61, 62, 63, 64, 65"), background speech comprising numbers in descending order (e.g., "65, 64, 63, 62, 61"), and quiet. Performance was best in quiet, worse in the descending numbers condition, and poorest in the ascending numbers condition. In view of these findings, we suggest that disruption arises as a by-product of preventing the primed, but inaccurate, candidate responses from assuming the control of action. Alternative explanations are also discussed.

  • 97.
    Richter, Hans
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Elcadi, Guilherme H.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Sports science.
    Brautaset, R.
    School of Optometry, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Marsh, John E.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology. School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, United Kingdom.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Prefrontal cortex activity evoked by convergence load under conflicting stimulus-to-accommodation and stimulus-to-vergence eye-movements measured by NIRS: Prefrontal cortex oxygenation and visual fatigue2018In: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5161, E-ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 12, article id 298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To extend our knowledge of the functional linkages between visual fatigueand regional cerebral prefrontal cortex (PFC) oxygenation, we measured time related hemodynamic changes over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) duringconvergence load under conflicting stimulus-to-accommodation and stimulus-tovergence eye movements with and without concurrent mental load.

    Methods: Twenty healthy participants with a median age of 28 years (range:18–44 years) fixated upon a vertical bar presented separately to the left andright eyes, using polarized filters, during four counterbalanced 10-min periods:(i) no accommodation/vergence conflict (Control, Ctrl); (ii) added convergenceload and accommodation/vergence conflict (Conv); (iii) added cognitive load only(Cog) and; (iv) a combination of added cognitive and convergence load andaccommodation/vergence conflict (Cc). Viewing distance was 65 cm. Non-invasivemeasurements of hemodynamic activity over the dlPFC were quantified by functionalnear-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). During the two-convergence load conditions, thehorizontal disparity of the two bars varied dynamically from no disparity to a disparityset 20% below the individual threshold for diplopia. Cognitive load was induced by then-back-2 test which required the subject to memorize and recall the changing colorsof the horizontal bars and decide when a given color was the same as that occurring two colors previously. fNIRS data were averaged over 10-s windows centered at 0, 2,4, 6, 8, and 10 min of each task, subtracted from a 20-s baseline window immediatelypreceding the visual task, and then represented as changes in oxygenated hemoglobin(ΔHbO2); deoxygenated hemoglobin (ΔHHb) and total hemoglobin (ΔtHb).

    Results: Linear mixed model analyses showed that hemodynamic activity wassystematically influenced by time (p < 0.001). The group-averaged time-related levelof change across the viewing conditions did not differ when compared with one another(p > 0.05). Larger convergence eye-movement responses under conflicting stimulus-to accommodation,and stimulus-to-vergence over time, increased ΔHbO2 and ΔtHb onlyin condition Cc and after 8 min of task time (p < 0.10 for min-6 and min-8: p < 0.05 for min-10).

    Discussion: Collectively, our data suggest that HbO2, HHb, and tHb, recorded over the dlPFC with fNIRS, can be used to assay the degree to which supervisory oculomotorcontrol processes are activated during visually deficient near work.

  • 98.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Keidser, Gitte
    National Acoustic Laboratories, Sydney, Australia.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Better visuospatial working memory in adults who report profound deafness compared to those with normal or poor hearing: data from the UK Biobank resource2016In: Ear and Hearing, ISSN 0196-0202, E-ISSN 1538-4667, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 620-622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental work has shown better visuospatial working memory (VSWM) in profoundly deaf individuals compared to those with normal hearing. Other data, including the UK Biobank resource shows poorer VSWM in individuals with poorer hearing. Using the same database, the authors investigated VSWM in individuals who reported profound deafness. Included in this study were 112 participants who were profoundly deaf, 1310 with poor hearing and 74,635 with normal hearing. All participants performed a card-pair matching task as a test of VSWM. Although variance in VSWM performance was large among profoundly deaf participants, at group level it was superior to that of participants with both normal and poor hearing. VSWM in adults is related to hearing status but the association is not linear. Future study should investigate the mechanism behind enhanced VSWM in profoundly deaf adults.

  • 99.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    et al.
    Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Dept. of Behavioral Sciences and Learning, Linköping University.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Keidser, Gitte
    National Acoustic Laboratories, Sydney, Australia .
    Rudner, Mary
    Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Dept. of Behavioral Sciences and Learning, Linköping University.
    The effect of functional hearing loss and age on long- and short-term visuospatial memory: evidence from the UK biobank resource2014In: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, ISSN 1663-4365, E-ISSN 1663-4365, Vol. 6, article id 326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The UK Biobank offers cross-sectional epidemiological data collected on > 500 000 individuals in the UK between 40 and 70 years of age. Using the UK Biobank data, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of functional hearing loss and hearing aid usage on visuospatial memory function. This selection of variables resulted in a sub-sample of 138 098 participants after discarding extreme values. A digit triplets functional hearing test was used to divide the participants into three groups: poor, insufficient and normal hearers. We found negative relationships between functional hearing loss and both visuospatial working memory (i.e., a card pair matching task) and visuospatial, episodic long-term memory (i.e., a prospective memory task), with the strongest association for episodic long-term memory. The use of hearing aids showed a small positive effect for working memory performance for the poor hearers, but did not have any influence on episodic long-term memory. Age also showed strong main effects for both memory tasks and interacted with gender and education for the long-term memory task. Broader theoretical implications based on a memory systems approach will be discussed and compared to theoretical alternatives.

  • 100.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    et al.
    Linköping university.
    Hygge, Staffan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental psychology.
    Keidser, Gitte
    National Acoustic Laboratories, Sydney, Australia .
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping university.
    The negative effect of hearing loss on visuospatial memory functions2014Conference paper (Refereed)
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