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  • 51.
    Heiden, Marina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Zetterberg, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Trunk and upper arm postures in paper mill work2019In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 70, p. 90-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to assess postures andmovements of the trunk and upper arm during paper mill work, and to determinethe extent to which they differ depending on method of assessment. For each oftwenty-eight paper mill workers, postures and movements were assessed duringthree full shifts using inclinometer registration and observation from video. Summary metrics for each shift, e.g.,10th, 50th, and 90th posture percentile, were averagedacross shifts and across workers. In addition, the standard deviation between workers,and the standard deviation between shifts within worker were computed. The resultsshowed that trunk and arm postures during paper mill work were similar to otheroccupations involving manual materials handling, but the velocity of armmovements were lower. While postures determined by inclinometry and observationwere similar on a group level, substantial differences were found betweenresults obtained by the two methods for individual workers, particularly for extremepostures. Thus, measurements by either method on individuals or small groupsshould be interpreted with caution.

  • 52.
    Helgadottir, Bjorg
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Div Insurance Med, Berze Liusvag 3, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Narusyte, Jurgita
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Div Insurance Med, Berze Liusvag 3, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ropponen, Annina
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Div Insurance Med, Berze Liusvag 3, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.;Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland..
    Bergström, Gunnar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Intervent & Implementat Res Worker Hlth Unit, Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Gavle, Ctr Musculoskeletal Res, Dept Occupat & Publ Hlth Sci, Gavle, Sweden..
    Mather, Lisa
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Div Insurance Med, Berze Liusvag 3, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Blom, Victoria
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Div Insurance Med, Berze Liusvag 3, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.;Swedish Sch Sport & Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Svedberg, Pia
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Div Insurance Med, Berze Liusvag 3, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    The role of occupational class on the association between sickness absence and disability pension: A Swedish register-based twin study2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 45, no 6, p. 622-630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the association between long-term sickness absence (LTSA) due to mental disorders and musculoskeletal disorders and all-cause disability pension (DP) among blue- and white-collar workers. A secondary objective was to examine the influence of familial factors on the associations. Methods This was a prospective twin cohort study of 42 984 individuals (21-64 years at baseline), 3017 of whom had a new LTSA spell (>14 days) due to mental or musculoskeletal disorders in 2005-2006. Average follow-up time was 5.4 years. Survey data on occupational class and register data on LTSA and DP were used. Cox proportional hazards regression was applied to calculate hazards ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results During follow-up, 989 participants went on disability. LTSA due to mental disorders and musculoskeletal disorders led to similar HR for DP among both white- and blue-collar workers when compared to white-collar workers not on LTSA (reference group). LTSA >= 6 months due to musculoskeletal disorders was associated with a higher risk of DP for white-collar (HR 31.50, 95% CI 20.45-48.52) than blue-collar (HR 17.64, 95% CI 13.08-23.78) workers when compared to the reference group. HR were lower in the discordant twin pair models for LTSA due to mental disorders than in the whole cohort. Conclusions White-collar workers on LTSA due to musculoskeletal disorders are especially vulnerable to all-cause DP. This pattern was not present for LTSA due to mental disorders. Familial factors seem to influence the association between LTSA due to mental disorders and all-cause DP.

  • 53.
    Helgadóttir, Björg
    et al.
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svedberg, Pia
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mather, Lisa
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research for Worker Health, The Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Blom, Victoria
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The association between part-time and temporary employment and sickness absence: a prospective Swedish twin study2019In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 147-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sickness absence (SA) is becoming a major economic problem in many countries. Our aim was to investigate whether type of employment, including temporary employment or part-time employment, is associated with SA while controlling for familial factors (genetic and shared environment). Differences between men and women and across employment sectors were explored.

    Methods: This is a prospective twin study based on 21 105 twins born in Sweden 1959-85. The participants completed a survey in 2005 with follow-up of SA (≥15 days), using register data, until end of 2013. The data were analyzed with logistic regression, with results presented as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).

    Results: Temporary employment involved higher odds of SA (OR=1.21 95% CI=1.04-1.40) compared to full-time employment. Both part-time workers (OR=0.84 95% CI=0.74-0.95) and the self-employed (OR=0.77 95%CI=0.62-0.94) had lower odds of SA. Stratifying by sex showed lower odds for part-timers (OR=0.82 95% CI=0.73-0.94) and self-employed women (OR=0.65 95% CI=0.47-0.90), but higher odds for men in temporary employment (OR=1.33 95% CI=1.03-1.72). Temporary employees in county councils (OR=1.73 95% CI=1.01-2.99) and municipalities (OR=1.41 95% CI=1.02-1.96) had higher odds while part-timers employed in the private sector had lower odds (OR=0.77 95% CI=0.64-0.93). Familial factors did not confound the association between employment type and SA.

    Conclusions: Employment type is associated with SA, with temporary employment involving a higher risk compared to permanent full-time employment while both part-time employment and self-employment involved a lower risk. The associations vary between women and men and across sectors.

  • 54.
    Hellström, Madeleine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Psychology.
    Wallberg, Louise
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Psychology.
    Upplevelsen av arbetsmotivation bland unga vuxna 20-25 år.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to examine the experience of work motivation among young adults between the ages of 20-25 years old. Eight qualitative interviews were held with a semi-structured method. The guide for the interviews conducted work motivation as a theme with underlying questions based on themes, previously research and theoretical starting points, the aim of the study and issue. The guide for the interview contained eight main issues with general follow up questions. A thematic analysis were used to bring out four different themes which were the importance of having good colleagues, to develop, to get feedback and salary. The result of the study showed that young adults are motivated by both intern and extern motivational factors according to Herzberg’s motivation theory. This is something that previous studies did not show according to Inceoglu, Segers and Bartram (2012) who claims in their study that young adults are more motivated by intern motivational factors than extern motivational factors. This study therefore highlights the impact of age among individuals and that the age can have influence when it comes to the experienced work motivation.

  • 55.
    Hilläng Lindqvist, Julia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Psychology.
    Snetselaar, Alexandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Psychology.
    Ledarskapsstil och personalomsättning inom en offentlig verksamhet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine if the type of leadership could predict the personnel turnover. The leadership styles that were included in this study was transactional leadership and transformational leadership. A questionnaire was designed with 27 questions regarding leadership and were sent to employees with a chief position within a public organization. The questionnaire covered claims regarding different dimensions within transactional, transformational and laissez-faire leadership. Only one dimension was used within the transactional leadership which was contingent reward. The two dimensions that was excluded was active management by exception and passive management by exception. The two predictors contingent reward and transformational leadership correlated and therefore a simple regression was used with transformational leadership as predictor and personnel turnover as outcome variable. The outcome of the study showed a correlation between increased transformational leadership and decreased personnel turnover. The conclusion of the study was that transformational leadership could predict personnel turnover.

  • 56.
    Holmgren, Mattias
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Kabanshi, Alan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    Langeborg, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Psychology.
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Colding, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Deceptive sustainability: Cognitive bias in people's judgment of the benefits of CO2 emission cuts2019In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 64, p. 48-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People's beliefs in the actions necessary to reduce anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are important to public policy acceptability. The current paper addressed beliefs concerning how periods of small emission cuts contribute to the total CO2 concentration in the atmosphere, by asking participants to rate the atmospheric CO2 concentration for various time periods and emission rates. The participants thought that a time period with higher emission rates combined with a period of lower emission rates generates less atmospheric CO2 in total, compared to the period with high emission rates alone – demonstrating a negative footprint illusion (Study 1). The participants appeared to base their CO2 estimates on the average, rather than on the accumulated sum, of the two periods' emissions – i.e. an averaging bias (Study 2). Moreover, the effect was robust to the wordings of the problem presented to the participants (Study 3). Together, these studies suggest that the averaging bias makes people exaggerate the benefits of small emission cuts. The averaging bias could make people willing to accept policies that reduce emission rates although insufficiently to alleviate global warming.

  • 57.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    et al.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Straker, Leon
    School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Promoting health and physical capacity during productive work: the Goldilocks Principle2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 90-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    In spite of preventive efforts, organizations and employees face several challenges related to working life and occupational health, such as a substantial prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders, social inequality in health and physical capacity, multi-morbidity, an obesity epidemic and an aging workforce. We argue that a new approach for occupational ergonomics and health is required, going beyond prevention of harm caused by work. We propose the ´Goldilocks Principle´ as a new approach of how productive work can be designed to literally promote health and physical capacity.

    Methods                 

    Physical (in)activity profoundly influences health and physical capacity, with effects depending on the extent and temporal structure of the (in)activity. Like the porridge, chair and bed that needed to be ‘just right’ for Goldilocks in the fairy-tale of ´The Three Bears´, physical activity during productive work needs to be ‘just right’ for promoting rather than deteriorating health and capacity. In many jobs, physical activity is, however, either ’too much/high/frequent’ or ’too little/low/infrequent’ to give positive biomechanical and cardiometabolic stimuli.

    Results

    The paper presents the rationale, concept, development, application and prospects of the Goldilocks Principle for how productive work can be designed to promote health and physical capacity.

    Conclusions

    We envision a great potential to promote health and physical capacity by designing productive work according to the Goldilocks Principle, thus leading to benefits with respect to the current challenges related to working life and occupational health for society, organizations and employees.

  • 58.
    Huysmans, Maaike A.
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Public and Occupational Health, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam; Research Center for Insurance Medicine, AMC-UMCG-UWV-VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, USA.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Consistency of sedentary behavior patterns among office workers with long-term access to sit-stand workstations2019In: Annals of Work Exposures and Health, ISSN 2398-7308, Vol. 63, no 5, p. 583-591Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Sit-stand workstations are a popular intervention to reduce sedentary behavior (SB) in office settings. However, the extent and distribution of SB in office workers long-term accustomed to using sit-stand workstations as a natural part of their work environment are largely unknown. In the present study, we aimed to describe patterns of SB in office workers with long-term access to sit-stand workstations and to determine the extent to which these patterns vary between days and workers. METHODS: SB was objectively monitored using thigh-worn accelerometers for a full week in 24 office workers who had been equipped with a sit-stand workstation for at least 10 months. A comprehensive set of variables describing SB was calculated for each workday and worker, and distributions of these variables between days and workers were examined. RESULTS: On average, workers spent 68% work time sitting [standard deviation (SD) between workers and between days (within worker): 10.4 and 18.2%]; workers changed from sitting to standing/walking 3.2 times per hour (SDs 0.6 and 1.2 h-1); with bouts of sitting being 14.9 min long (SDs 4.2 and 8.5 min). About one-third of the workers spent >75% of their workday sitting. Between-workers variability was significantly different from zero only for percent work time sitting, while between-days (within-worker) variability was substantial for all SB variables. CONCLUSIONS: Office workers accustomed to using sit-stand workstations showed homogeneous patterns of SB when averaged across several days, except for percent work time seated. However, SB differed substantially between days for any individual worker. The finding that many workers were extensively sedentary suggests that just access to sit-stand workstations may not be a sufficient remedy against SB; additional personalized interventions reinforcing use may be needed. To this end, differences in SB between days should be acknowledged as a potentially valuable source of variation.

  • 59.
    Hägglund, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Englund, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Arbetstagares upplevelse av ledarskap under en organisationsförändring i en kommun i Mellansverige2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the employees' experience of the role leadership has had for their sense of affinity to the organization during an organizational change and the role the leadership has had for their attitude towards that change. The study is based on six interviews of employees who previously worked on two separate administrations and who, at the time of the interview, were merged into one sector. The study suggested that the respondents felt that the leadership has had a role in how they experienced affinity towards the organization and their attitude toward the organizational change. This was because the employees experienced an ambiguity in the objectives of the change, that communication between the managers and employees had been perceived as deficient and that the employees had not experienced participation in the change process. The study also suggested that it could be beneficial for the management to work on establishing a new collective identity in the merged sector in order to increase the sense of cohesion between the former two separate administrations.

  • 60.
    Jackalin, Ida
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Solander, Kristina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Vikten av arbetsmotivation och dess inverkan på arbetsengagemang hos tjänstemän inom industrisektorn2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Work engagement has been described as a positive work related state of mind. With understanding for work motivation work engagement may increase among coworkers and risks of negative stress can be avoided. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine which motivation types that most explain the dimensions in work engagement. A digital questionnaire was designed based on Work Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation Scale (WEIMS) and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9). The questionnaire was sent by e-mail to 199 white collar workers at a company in the industrial sector. The collected data included 124 answers and was analysed by three regression analysis. Our findings showed that intrinsic motivation and amotivation was the strongest predictors for all dimensions in work engagement. Integrated- and identified regulation showed significant importance for the dimension absorption while integrated regulation also showed significant importance for the dimension dedication. Employees who are self-determined and given own responsibility have both higher feeling of intrinsic motivation and work engagement than individuals who does not get the opportunity to make own decisions.  

  • 61.
    Jackson, Jennie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Umeå university.
    Olsson, David
    Umeå university.
    Burdorf, Alex
    Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam.
    Punnett, Laura
    University of Massachusetts Lowell.
    Järvholm, Bengt
    Umeå university.
    Wahlström, Jens
    Umeå university.
    Occupational biomechanical risk factors for radial nerve entrapment in a 13-year prospective study among male construction workers2019In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 76, no 5, p. 326-331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives The aim was to assess the association between occupational biomechanical exposure and the occurrence of radial nerve entrapment (RNE) in construction workers over a 13-year follow-up period. Methods A cohort of 229 707 male construction workers who participated in a national occupational health surveillance programme (1971-1993) was examined prospectively (2001-2013) for RNE. Height, weight, age, smoking status and job title (construction trade) were obtained on health examination. RNE case status was defined by surgical release of RNE, with data from the Swedish national registry for out-patient surgery records. A job exposure matrix was developed, and biomechanical exposure estimates were assigned according to job title. Highly correlated exposures were summed into biomechanical exposure scores. Negative binomial models were used to estimate the relative risks (RR) (incidence rate ratios) of RNE surgical release for the biomechanical factors and exposure sum scores. Predicted incidence was assessed for each exposure score modelled as a continuous variable to assess exposure-response relationships. Results The total incidence rate of surgically treated RNE over the 13-year observation period was 3.53 cases per 100 000 person-years. There were 92 cases with occupational information. Increased risk for RNE was seen in workers with elevated hand-grip forces (RR=1.79, 95% CI 0.97 to 3.28) and exposure to hand-arm vibration (RR=1.47, 95% CI 1.08 to 2.00). Conclusions Occupational exposure to forceful handgrip work and vibration increased the risk for surgical treatment of RNE.

  • 62.
    Jackson, Jennie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Consistent individual motor variability traits demonstrated by females performing a long-cycle assembly task under conditions differing in temporal organisation2020In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 85, article id 103046Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research suggests an association between motor variability (MV) during repetitive work and work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). However, whether MV is a consistent individual trait, even across working conditions or tasks, remains unknown. This study assessed whether individual MV traits were consistent during complex work performed under different temporal conditions. Fifteen women performed cyclic assembly under four conditions differing in pace and organisation (line-type, batch-type). MV of trapezius muscle activity and upper arm elevation was quantified and partitioned into variance components. For all MV metrics, a non-zero between-subjects variance was found, indicating consistent individual MV traits across conditions. Variance between subjects was higher for electromyography (EMG) MV metrics compared with kinematic metrics. Our results showed individuals exhibited consistent MV traits across working conditions differing in pace and production process. Further research is needed to understand whether MV is an individual predictive factor for MSD onset or progression.

  • 63.
    Jahncke, Helena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Keus van de Poll, Marijke
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Viktiga frågor glöms bort i debatten om kontorslandskap2019In: Göteborgs-Posten, ISSN 1103-9345, no 18-sepArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 64.
    Jaldemark, Ulrika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational Health Science.
    Företagshälsovårdens erfarenheter av förebyggande arbete mot arbetsrelaterad psykisk ohälsa: En intervjustudie av anställda vid en intern företagshälsovård i norra Sverige2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning Jaldemark Ulrika (2019). Företagshälsovårdmedarbetares erfarenheter av förebyggande arbete mot arbetsrelaterad psykisk ohälsa: En intervjustudie av anställda vid en intern företagshälsovård i norra Sverige. Projektkurs Arbetshälsovetenskap 15hp, Högskolan i Gävle.  Bakgrund: Långtidssjukskrivningar på grund av arbetsrelaterad psykisk ohälsa förekommer trots Arbetsmiljölagen och systematiskt företagshälsoarbete. Kunskap om hur arbetsrelaterad psykisk ohälsa kan förebyggas och motverkas är därför en viktig fråga för att minska sjukskrivningar hos yrkesverksamma.  Syfte: Syfte med denna studie var att undersöka och beskriva erfarenheter av förebyggande arbete mot arbetsrelaterad psykisk ohälsa hos anställda inom en intern företagshälsovårdsinstitution i norra Sverige. Metod: Studien utgick från en kvalitativ ansats och inkluderade fem stycken semistrukturerade intervjuer som analyserades med en kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Resultat: Ur resultatet lyftes tre kategorier och åtta underkategorier fram vilka ansågs ha en betydelse för det förebyggande arbetet mot arbetsrelaterad psykisk ohälsa. De tre huvudkategorier som framkom var; “Företagshälsans inre organisering av det förebyggande arbetet”, “Företagshälsans relation med kundföretagets chef” och “Företagshälsans relation med kunden”. De åtta subkategorierna som kom fram var; “holistisk människosyn, “arbeta i team”, “samarbete med externa aktörer”, chefens ansvar”, “använda rätt verktyg”, “skapa förtroende”, “fångar upp risker i arbetsmiljön tidigt” och “få snabb hjälp med redan uppkomna problem”.  Slutsats: Det främsta resultatet av att studera de anställdas erfarenheter av förebyggande arbete mot arbetsrelaterad psykisk ohälsa är betydelsen av att kombinera företagshälsans inre organisering av det förebyggande arbetet, företagshälsans relation med kundföretagets chef och företagshälsans relation med kunden. Nyckelord: Arbetsrelaterad psykisk ohälsa, förebyggande arbete, företagshälsovård.

  • 65.
    Januario, Leticia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science.
    Karstad, Kristina
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Dk.
    Rugulies, Reiner
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Dk.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Dk.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Association between psychosocial working conditions and perceived physical exertion among eldercare workers: a cross-sectional multilevel analysis of nursing homes, wards and workers2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 19, article id 3610Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This cross-sectional multilevel study aims at investigating the associations between psychosocial working conditions of different workplace levels and perceived physical exertion among eldercare workers. Data were obtained from the ‘Danish Observational Study of Eldercare work and musculoskeletal disorderS’ (DOSES) study, including 536 eldercare workers, nested in 126 wards and 20 nursing homes. Psychosocial working conditions were measured by the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ). The physical workload was measured with a self-administered scale (0–10) rating perceived physical exertion. Multilevel linear mixed models were used to determine associations of psychosocial conditions between nursing homes, wards, and workers with physical exertion. Most of the variance in the perceived physical exertion was explained by differences between workers (83%), but some variance was explained by wards (11%) and nursing homes (6%). Workers employed in nursing homes with low influence (p = 0.01) and poor leadership (p = 0.02), and in wards with high quantitative demands (p = 0.03), high work pace (p < 0.001), and low justice (p = 0.01) were at increased risk of reporting higher physical exertion. The strongest associations were found for low influence, low quality of leadership, and high work pace at nursing homes and ward levels. In conclusion, improving specific psychosocial working conditions at nursing home and ward levels may be of particular importance to reduce excessive physical workload in eldercare workers

  • 66.
    Jobark Wranéus, Therése
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology.
    Primärvårdsläkares upplevelser av sin mentala hälsa på vårdcentraler med olika organisationsstrukturer.: En kvantitativ tvärsnittsstudie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The increased ill-health of doctors in primary care is a major problem today with the highest possible reduction in the ability to influence their workplace. Although the individual physician can reduce his or her stress after individual actions, it is not sustainable in the long run. There is a risk that one must have a symptom among employees rather than identifying the underlying problem in the organizational structure. The purpose is to examine perceived health, job demands, control and support, job satisfaction and quality of care among doctors at health centers, and compare whether there is any difference in health centers that triage patients via direct booking to the appropriate institution according to the patient's needs in this study: physiotherapist, compared to health centers who always first book a doctor's time for the patient or refer to a physiotherapist. The method were quantitative, cross-sectional. The questionnaires were: - General Health Questinonnarire, which measures self-assessed mental health, - Demand Control Support Questionnarie, measures perceived control, demands, support, and the questionnaire - Satisfaction Work Questionnarie, which measures job satisfaction and quality of care. The result indicates no significant difference between the two types of health centers on the doctors' perceived health.

  • 67.
    Johansson, Elin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lund Rasmussen, Charlotte
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Compositional analysis of sedentary behavior and physical activity during work and leisure among male and female office workers2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To determine the extent to which male and female office workers differ in their time-use composition of sitting behaviors (SB) and physical activity (PA) during work and leisure.

    Methods: SB and PA was measured using thigh-worn accelerometers for up to 8 full days in 77 male and 104 female office workers. Daily time-use compositions during work and leisure were described in four exhaustive categories, i.e. sitting in short (<30  min) and long (≥30 min) bouts, standing, and active behaviors. Following a compositional data analysis procedure, isometric log-ratios (ilr) were calculated to express time in sitting relative to non-sitting, short relative to long sitting bouts, and standing relative to active behaviors. Differences between sexes (men and women) and domains (work and leisure) were examined on the basis of these ilrs using ANOVA.

    Results: At work, time spent sitting in short bouts, long bouts, standing, and active was, on average, 34%, 36%, 22% and 8% among men and 31%, 37%, 24% and 8% among women. Corresponding proportions during leisure were 34%, 25%, 28% and 13% among men and 29%, 28%, 31% and 12% among women. Time spent sitting relative to non-sitting differed significantly between work and leisure (ilr sitting-vs-non-sitting, partial eta squared=0.09, p<0.01). During leisure, men used proportionally more time than women in short sitting bouts (ilr short-vs-long, partial eta squared=0.06, p<0.01) and spent more time in active behaviors relative to standing (ilr standing-vs-active, partial eta squared=0.04, p<0.01). No significant sex differences were observed during work (p>0.05).

    Conclusions:  The leisure behavior observed among men is probably more beneficial for health than that observed for women. However, both men and women spent a major proportion of their time sitting, both at and outside their office work, and they were, in general, only little active. Thus, both men and women could benefit from interventions to reduce SB and increase PA both at work and during leisure.

  • 68.
    Johansson, Elin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lund Rasmussen, Charlotte
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Sedentary and physical activity behaviours during work and leisure among male and female office workers of different age: A compositional analysis2019In: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, ISSN 1479-5868, E-ISSN 1479-5868Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 69.
    Johansson, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology.
    Ambulanssjuksköterskors syn på möjliga åtgärder för att minska arbetsrelaterad psykisk stress: En kvalitativ studie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Problem: Mental illness is common in ambulance nurses due to traumatic events, irregular working hours, pressure and lack of time for recovery. The result of these factors can be long-term sick leave. There are som actions already taken in todays ambulance service but the problem with work-related mental stress is still present. Method: Six ambulance nurses were interviewed to see what actions they thought could be used to reduce the work-related mental stress. The interviews were then analyzed by using a qualitative content analysis. Several themes were revealed that then were used in the result. Result: Several possible actions where was considered as useful to reduce the work-related mental stress. Social relationships, a good leadership, control over scheduling, education, experience and leisure time activities were areas where possible actions could be taken. In som cases there were new methods to reduce stress and in others there were already existing ones that could be expanded. Conclusion: Work related mental stress in ambulance nurses is something that will not disappear. But this study showed that there are possible methods that could help reduce and manage the mental stress. A good leadership seemed essential to create a good working environment were work-related mental stress was not common. More qualatative studies needs to be done regarding this subject and then there is a possibility to learn more methods wich can help ambulance nurses deal with the problem of work-related mental stress.

  • 70.
    Jonsson, Carina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Psychology.
    Föreligger ett samband mellan sociala medier och självkänsla?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study aims to investigate whether there was a connection between individuals' self-esteem and social media in relation to age. The study also sought to answer whether individuals sought confirmation through social media. In addition, it was examined whether there was a correlation between activity and age on social media. Social media was defined in connection with this study for Instagram and Facebook. Data was collected through a quantitative survey. Self-esteem was measured by Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). Collected data was handled in SPSS and analyzed by correlations and intergroup ANOVA. There was a significant difference in self-esteem between the groups younger and older. There was no significant correlation between self-esteem and activity on social media. There was a significant negative correlation between age and need for confirmation. One conclusion from this study is that young people seem to seek confirmation via social media but that they do not seem to receive any higher self-esteem through their presence in social media.

  • 71.
    Kaltenbrunner, Monica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    A staff perspective on Lean maturity, well-being, and quality in primary care2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract
  • 72.
    Kaltenbrunner, Monica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lean maturity and musculoskeletal complaints among primary care staff. A longitudinal studyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 73.
    Kaltenbrunner, Monica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Lean maturity and quality in primary care2019In: Journal of Health Organisation & Management, ISSN 1477-7266, E-ISSN 1758-7247, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 141-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to 1) describe Lean maturity in primary care using a questionnaire based on Liker’s description of Lean, complemented with observations, and 2) determine the extent to which Lean maturity is associated with quality of care measured as staff-rated satisfaction with care and adherence to national guidelines. High Lean maturity indicates adoption of all Lean principles throughout the organization and by all staff.

    Design/methodology/approach - Data were collected using a survey based on Liker’s four principles, divided into 16 items (n = 298 staff in 45 units). Complementary observations (n = 28 staff) were carried out at four units.

    Findings - Lean maturity varied both between and within units. The highest Lean maturity was found for ‘adhering to routines’ and the lowest for ‘having a change agent at the unit’. Lean maturity was positively associated with satisfaction with care and with adherence to national guidelines to improve healthcare quality. 

    Practical implications - Quality of primary care may benefit from increasing Lean maturity. When implementing Lean, managers could benefit from measuring and adopting Lean maturity repeatedly, addressing all Liker’s principles and using the results as guidance for further development.

    Originality/value - This is one of the first studies to evaluate Lean maturity in primary care, addressing all Liker’s principles from the perspective of quality of care. The results suggest that repeated actions based on evaluations of Lean maturity may help to improve quality of care.

  • 74.
    Kaltenbrunner Nykvist, Monica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Högberg, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Staff perception of Lean, care-giving, thriving and exhaustion: a longitudinal study in primary care2019In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 652Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Lean is commonly adopted in healthcare to increase quality of care and efficiency. Few studies of Lean involve staff-related outcomes, and few have a longitudinal design. Thus, the aim was to examine the extent to which changes over time in Lean maturity are associated with changes over time in care-giving, thriving and exhaustion, as perceived by staff, with a particular emphasis on the extent to which job demands and job resources, as perceived by staff, have a moderated mediation effect.

    Method

    A longitudinal study with a correlational design was used. In total, 260 staff at 46 primary care units responded to a web survey in 2015 and 2016. All variables in the study were measured using staff ratings. Ratings of Lean maturity reflect participants’ judgements regarding the entire unit; ratings of care-giving, thriving, exhaustion and job demands and resources reflect participants’ judgements regarding their own situation.

    Results

    First, over time, increased Lean maturity was associated with increased staff satisfaction with their care-giving and increased thriving, mediated by increased job resources. Second, over time, increased Lean maturity was associated with decreased staff exhaustion, mediated by decreased job demands. No evidence was found showing that job demands and job resources had a moderated mediation effect.

    Conclusion

    The results indicate that primary care staff may benefit from working in organizations characterized by high levels of Lean maturity and that caregiving may also be improved as perceived by staff.

  • 75.
    Karlsson, Kristina P.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sikström, Sverker
    Department of Psychology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Fredrik U.
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Willander, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Psychology.
    Gender differences in autobiographical memory: females latently express communality more than do males2019In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 31, no 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gender differences have been found in several aspects of autobiographical memory (i.e. personally experienced events). For example, previous studies have shown that females’ autobiographical memories contain more communal and emotional expressions than do males. However, an important question concerns whether these differences can be observed both in the manifest content (i.e. what is actually said) and in the latent content (i.e. the underlying meaning of what is said). In the present exploratory study, we extended the current knowledge concerning gender differences in autobiographical memory by investigating the manifestly expressed words, as well as the latently expressed words in autobiographical memory descriptions. We observed an overall gender difference in the latent content of the autobiographical memories. Furthermore, females latently described their memories in more communal terms than males did. No other gender differences were found. Our results indicate that females’ autobiographical memories are more communally oriented than male's.

  • 76.
    Kelson, Denean M.
    et al.
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, USA.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, USA.
    Trapezius muscle activity variation during computer work performed by individuals with and without shoulder-neck pain2019In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 81, article id 102908Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed at determining the extent to which individuals with neck-shoulder pain and non-symptomatic individuals differ in muscle activation patterns, when performing computer work, as quantified by exposure variation analysis (EVA). As a secondary aim, we also aimed to quantify the day-to-day reliability of EVA variables describing trapezius muscle activation in a non-symptomatic control group. Thirteen touch-typing computer users (pain: n=5, non-symptomatic: n=8) completed three pre-selected computer tasks in the laboratory.

    Upper trapezius muscle activity was recorded using electromyography and analyzed using EVA with five amplitude and five duration categories. Individuals with neck-shoulder pain spent less time at low amplitudes and exhibited longer uninterrupted periods of muscle activation compared to their non-symptomatic counterparts. Thus, non-symptomatic workers tended to switch between exposure levels more often than individuals with pain. For a majority of EVA variables, ICCs ranged from 0.6 to 0.9, and between-days coefficients of variation were between 0.4 and 2.2.

  • 77.
    Keus van de Poll, Marijke
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Intervention and Implementation Research in Worker Health.
    Nybergh, L
    Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Intervention and Implementation Research in Worker Health.
    Lornudd, C
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics (LIME).
    Kwak, L
    Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Intervention and Implementation Research in Worker Health.
    Lohela Karlsson, M
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Science.
    Hagberg, J
    Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Intervention and Implementation Research in Worker Health.
    Torgén, M
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Science.
    Jensen, I
    Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Intervention and Implementation Research in Worker Health.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Intervention and Implementation Research in Worker Health.
    Preventing sickness absenteeism among employees with common mental disorders or stress-related symptoms at work: A cluster RCT conducted at the occupational health services2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 78.
    Keus van de Poll, Marijke
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science. Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Intervention and Implementation Research in Worker Health.
    Nybergh, L
    Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Intervention and Implementation Research in Worker Health.
    Lornudd, C
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics (LIME).
    Kwak, L
    Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Intervention and Implementation Research in Worker Health.
    Lohela Karlsson, M
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Science.
    Hagberg, J
    Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Intervention and Implementation Research in Worker Health.
    Torgén, M
    Uppsala University, Department of Medical Science.
    Jensen, I
    Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Intervention and Implementation Research in Worker Health.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Division of Intervention and Implementation Research in Worker Health.
    Preventing sickness absenteeism among employees with common mental disorders or stress-related symptoms at work: A cluster RCT conducted at the occupational health services2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 79.
    Knez, Igor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Psychology.
    Hjärpe, Daniel
    Bryngelsson, Mari
    Predicting Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Role of Work-Related Self2019In: SAGE Open, ISSN 2158-2440, E-ISSN 2158-2440, Vol. 9, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate the links between work-related identification, conceptualized, and operationalized as the work-related self (WS), and the “good soldier syndrome” (organizational citizenship behavior [OCB]). More precisely, we investigated the relationships between emotional and cognitive components of WS and OCB dimensions of altruism, conscientiousness, courtesy, civic virtue, and sportsmanship. A total of 147 subjects working within the Swedish public sector participated in this study. As hypothesized, WS significantly predicted OCB. A positive association was found between the emotional component of WS and OCB dimensions of altruism, conscientiousness, and civic virtue. This suggests that the “good soldier syndrome” might be, to some extent, accounted for by the psychological mechanisms of work bonding, especially, highlighting the importance of the emotional component of work-related identification. 

  • 80.
    Kwak, Lydia
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Lornudd, Caroline
    Karolinska institutet.
    Björklund, Christina
    Karolinska institutet.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Karolinska institutet.
    Nybergh, Lotta
    Karolinska institutet.
    Schäfer Elinder, Liselotte
    Karolinska institutet.
    Stigmar, Kjerstin
    Lunds universitet.
    Wåhlin, Charlotte
    Linköpings universitet.
    Jensen, Irene
    Karolinska institutet.
    Implementation of the Swedish Guideline for Prevention of Mental ill-health at the Workplace: study protocol of a cluster randomized controlled trial, using multifaceted implementation strategies in schools2019In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 19, article id 1668Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Given today’s high prevalence of common mental disorders and related sick leave among teachers, an urgent need exists for a more systematic approach to the management of social and organizational risk factors within schools. In 2015, we launched the first Swedish occupational health guideline to support a structured prevention of these risks at the workplace. The existence of guidelines does however not guarantee their usage, as studies show that guidelines are often underused. Knowledge is therefore needed on effective implementation strategies that can facilitate the translation of guidelines into practice. The primary aim of the randomized waiting list-controlled trial described in this study protocol is to compare the effectiveness of a multifaceted implementation strategy versus a single implementation strategy for implementing the Guideline for the prevention of mental ill-health at the workplace within schools. The effectiveness will be compared regarding the extent to which the recommendations are implemented (implementation effectiveness) and with regard to social and organisational risk factors for mental ill-health, absenteeism and presenteeism (intervention effectiveness).

  • 81.
    Köping, Nadja
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Psychology.
    Mårtensson-Sturm, Isabell
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Psychology.
    Vad attraheras industrimedarbetare av vid val av arbetsgivare?: Skiljer det sig beroende på ålder?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to examine whether there was any difference between younger and older people regarding the attractiveness of an employer. The survey was conducted on an industrial organization in central Sweden, through a survey study five dimensions were examined; economy, social, interest, development and application based on the measuring instrument Employer Attractiveness Scale (EmpAt). Participants were divided into an age group of two depending on how old they were. Those who were between 18-39 years old were included in the group young and olderif they were 40 years and up. A total of 72 people participated in the study, of which 31 were youngand 41 were older. The result showed that there was no significant difference between the age groups and what they prioritized when choosing an employer. However, the dimension social value received the highest mean value regardless of age.

  • 82.
    Leandersson, Ylva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology.
    Lokalvårdares upplevelser av möjligheter att återhämta sig under arbetsdagen: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim was to examine cleaners' experiences of opportunities to recover during the workday.

    Method: The study was conducted by interviewing eleven cleaners within hospital cleaning service. The interviews were analyzed using manifest quality content analysis.

    Results: Cleaners experienced that opportunities to recover during the workday depended on several factors. Task assignments could vary and experiences of prerequisites regarding recovery shifted between the participants. Common stressors were workload, stress and heavy, painful tasks. The workload affected the possibilities of resting. Besides breaks, organizational efforts and routines promoting recovery were experienced as few and unclear. Recovery could be discussed during meetings, but this shifted between organizations. Experiences of opportunities to recover during work changed over time. Suggestions to increase opportunities to recover included more breaks, meeting colleagues, workout during work, positive feedback and management of regular stressors. Common strategies to recover were taking breaks and pauses, talking with colleagues, trying to calm down, planning work and recover outside work.

    Conclusions: Cleaners' experiences of opportunities to recover during work vary depending on tasks, individual experiences of prerequisites and regular stressors. Organizational efforts regarding recovery are often experienced as unclear and there is room for increasing opportunities to recover during work.

  • 83.
    Lidegaard, Mark
    et al.
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    Fritz Lerche, Anders
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    Kold Munch, Pernille
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    Greby Schmidt, Kathrine
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    Lund Rasmussen, Charlotte
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    Nørregaard Rasmussen, Charlotte Diana
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Straker, Leon
    School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen.
    Can childcare work be designed to promote moderate and vigorous physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and health? Study protocol for the Goldilocks-childcare randomised controlled trial2020In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Despite extensive efforts, issues like obesity and poor physical capacity remain challenges for a healthy work life in several occupations. The Goldilocks work principle offers a new approach, encouraging design of productive work to promote physical capacity and health. This paper presents the protocol for the Goldilocks-childcare study, a randomised controlled intervention trial aiming to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing the Goldilocks work principle in childcare. The primary aim of the intervention is to increase time in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) by having the childcare workers act as active role models for children in daily playful physical activities, and thereby improve cardiorespiratory fitness and health of the workers.

    Methods/ design: The study is a cluster-randomised trial with a usual-practice wait-list control group. The 10-week intervention consists of two phases. In the first, the childcare workers will participate in two participatory workshops aiming, a) to develop playful physical activities (‘Goldilocks-games’) for children in which childcare workers participate as active role models at MVPA intensity, and b) to develop action plans for implementation of the Goldilocks-games in daily work routines. In the second phase, childcare institutions will implement the Goldilocks-games. The primary outcome is working time spent in MVPA, and secondary outcomes are cardiorespiratory fitness, sleeping heart rate, perceived need for recovery, and productivity. Primary outcome and process evaluation will be based on direct measurements of physical activity and heart rate, determination of cardiorespiratory fitness, and questionnaires.

    Discussion: If proven effective, the Goldilocks work principle has a large potential for promoting sustainable health and working lives of childcare workers.

  • 84.
    Lindell, Emma
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Psychology.
    Stolt, Josefin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Psychology.
    Anställdas upplevelse av hur dagens gränslösa digitala arbete förskjuter balansen mellan privatliv och arbetsliv.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine whether and how employees feel that today's boundless digital work shifts the balance between work and family life. Through a qualitative method, the study was based on eight semi-structured interviews which was carried out at a company located in Central Sweden. The collected material was analyzed using an inductive thematic analysis where three themes were identified; control over the stream of  information, organizational culture with subcategory leadership and the final theme flexibility. The results indicated that the boundary between work and family life has shifted by today´s limitless digital work, since the respondents controlled their work-related stream of information mainly through email outside working hours. An organizational culture and leadership without expectations of permanent availability and the possibility to use flexible working hours has made it easier for the respondents to handle the diffuse boundary that emerged with the advanced technology and to create a good work - life balance.

  • 85.
    Lindh, Jayesh
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology.
    Våra viktigaste arbeten och arbetsplatser i livet: En självbiografisk minnesstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to investigate our most important positive and negative autobiographical work-related memories of managers and non-managers related to work-related identity and workplace memory phenomenology. The study included 194 people, 124 men and 70 women in the age span 25-65. Measuring instruments for the study consisted of a survey in three parts which contained questions based on previous research. The positive work-related memories (80%) mainly contained two themes, work environment and my working duties, while the negative workplace memories (20%) showed more clearly that a majority of the memories were linked to leadership and work environment. The design for the analyzes of the quantitative data was a between-subject-design, with two independent variables Work-related memories (positive/negative) and Position (manager/non-manager) and two dependent variables Work-related self (emotion/cognition) as well as the ten phenomenological dimensions of the autobiographical memory. The results showed that managers compared to nonmanagers experienced a stronger work-related self on both the emotional and cognitive components. Furthermore, the results showed significant differences between the positive and negative work-related memories in three out of the total ten phenomenological dimensions. An interaction between Positive/Negative work-related memories and Manager/Non-manager on three out of the ten phenomenological dimensions was also red out.

  • 86.
    Lindhe, Felicia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Psychology.
    Tenlén Halvarsson, Victoria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Effektivt ledarskap och välbefinnande: Medarbetares subjektiva upplevelser om effektivt ledarskap och välbefinnande på en arbetsplats.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte var att undersöka vad en medarbetare upplever vad ett effektivt ledarskap är, hur en medarbetares välbefinnande upplevs på arbetsplatsen samt hur medarbetare upplever välbefinnande utifrån ett effektivt ledarskap på en arbetsplats med utgångspunkt från medarbetarnas subjektiva upplevelse. Syftet undersöktes genom en kvalitativ metod med en induktiv tematisk analys bestående av åtta semistrukturerade intervjuer. Resultatet visade att respondenterna upplever att ett effektivt ledarskap är av betydelse för en medarbetares välbefinnande på en arbetsplats. Respondenterna upplevde att en ledare måste vara lyhörd och lyssna på sina medarbetare, att ledaren anpassar sig till individerna samt att det finns en tydlighet och struktur för att ett effektivt ledarskap ska uppnås. För att uppnå välbefinnande på arbetsplatsen enligt resultatet är kollegorna av betydelse för medarbetarna. Arbetsbelastningen får inte vara för hög, medarbetarna får arbeta med frihet under ansvar samt att ledaren visar en tillit och förmedlar en trygghet till medarbetarna för att uppnå välbefinnande på en arbetsplats.

  • 87.
    Long, Jennifer
    et al.
    School of Optometry and Vision Science, UNSW Sydney 2052 AUSTRALIA.
    Richter, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Visual ergonomics on-the-go2019In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 63, no 3, p. 321-324Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 88.
    Masic, Admir
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Psychology.
    Karlsson Axelsson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Psychology.
    Konsulters komplexa förhållande till organisationslojalitet mellan konsultföretag och kundföretag2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to, examine how full-time temporary workers estimated their affective organizational commitment towards their temporary work agency and their client organizations. The study also examined whether the affective commitment competed or co-operated between the two companies and how temporary workers estimated the normative and continuance commitment. Furthermore, the study also examined if aspects such as age and contract duration had any impact on the temp workers' organizational commitment in the three commitment-scales. A total of 114 temporary workers from two global temporary work agencies participated by answering a web survey with two identical parts with 11 statements for each organization. In order to see if the presentation-order had any impact, 46 of the respondents started by answering the statements concerning their temporary agency organization and 68 started with the client organization. The result showed a difference on the affective and normative commitment between the temporary agency and the client organization. Temporary workers estimated these two commitment-scales higher for the client organization than for the temporary agency organization. The result also showed that the affective commitment co-operated between the temporary agency and the client organization and that the order of presentation had an impact on the affective commitment-scale. Age and contract duration did not have any impact on the temp workers' organizational commitment.

  • 89.
    Mather, Lisa
    et al.
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Narusyte, J.
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ropponen, A.
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research for Worker Health, The Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Blom, V.
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Helgadóttir, B.
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svedberg, P.
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sick leave due to mental disorders, morbidity and mortality: a prospective study of discordant twin pairs2020In: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285, Vol. 55, p. 25-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To investigate if sick leave due to mental disorders increases the risk of morbidity measured by inpatient and specialized outpatient care, and mortality among women and men, independent of familial factors. Methods: An open cohort study of 4979 twin pairs discordant for sick leave due to mental disorders was conducted in 2005–2013. Twins were followed up in the cause of death and national patient registries until the end of study, emigration, death, and inpatient and specialized outpatient care. Conditional Cox proportional hazard regression, adjusting for the familial factors shared by the twins, was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). In case of non-proportional hazards, time-varying covariates were used. Results: Sick leave due to mental disorders increased the risk for inpatient care among men (HR: 1.90, CI 1.66–2.17) and women (HR: 1.39, CI 1.27–1.51). For men, the risk of outpatient care was higher the first 2 years (HR: 2.08, CI 1.87–2.31), after which it was attenuated (HR: 1.32, CI 1.02–1.70). For women, the HR was 1.57 (CI 1.47–1.68) for the whole study time. There was an increased risk of death among men (HR: 2.91, CI 1.70–4.99), but not among women (HR: 0.84, CI 0.53–1.35). Conclusions: Sick leave due to mental disorders was a risk factor for mortality for men only, and increased the risk of inpatient and specialized outpatient care among both women and men, but the risks were higher for men when stratifying for sex. 

  • 90.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bolin, Malin
    Department of Social Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Olofsdotter, Gunilla
    Department of Social Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Johansson, Elin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Equal health at work? Protocol for an observational study of work organisation, workload and musculoskeletal complaints among women and men in grocery retail2020In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 10, article id e032409Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Women generally report more work-related musculoskeletal complaints than men and have higher rates of sickness absence, even within occupations. One likely reason is that work tasks within the occupation are gendered, i.e. women and men have different tasks, even when sharing the same job title. Retail is an appealing sector for studying working conditions and work environment in a gender context. The prevalence of work-related complaints is high, physical loads may differ considerably between tasks, and the distribution of tasks is likely gendered. The overall aim of this study in retail is to examine factors at the organisational and individual level that may, in a gender perspective, explain working conditions, work tasks, workloads, and musculoskeletal health.

    Methods and analyses Data will be collected in two grocery stores, each with 50-70 workers, at two occasions interspersed by about one year. In each of these four waves, data collection will include a web-based questionnaire to all workers addressing, e.g. work tasks, psychosocial factors, fatigue and pain; semi-structured interviews with managers and around 10 workers addressing, e.g. competences and decision levels; and technical measurements of postures, movements and heart rate in about 30 workers. The study is novel in combining an organisational gender perspective addressed through qualitative methods with a quantitative analysis of tasks, workload and health. The design allows an examination of both how genders may differ, and why they may differ, as well as analyses of the extent to which gendered working conditions change over time in the two participating stores.

    Ethics and dissemination Approval of the study by the Swedish Ethical Review Authority (reference number 2017/404) has been obtained. This work will be disseminated by publication of peer-reviewed papers in scientific journals, presentations at scientific conferences, and in meetings with representatives from Swedish retail, including unions and employers’ organisations.

  • 91.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Johansson, Elin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bolin, Malin
    Forum för genusvetenskap, Mittuniversitetet i Sundsvall.
    Olofsdotter, Gunilla
    Forum för genusvetenskap, Mittuniversitetet i Sundsvall.
    Jämställd arbetshälsa? Genus, arbetsorganisation och fysisk belastning inom detaljhandeln2019In: Arbetsmiljö och ohälsa i ett genusperspektiv: Uppdragsforskning med relevans för tillsynsverksamheten, Stockholm: Arbetsmiljöverket , 2019, p. 22-42Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 92.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Johansson, Elin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Sitting, standing and physical activity among male and female office workers of different age: behaviours examined using compositional data analysis2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Excessive sitting is an increasing concern in working life. Negative health effects may, to some extent, be mitigated by interrupting prolonged sitting by standing or more active behaviours, like walking. Alternations between these behaviours may also influence variation in neck-shoulder-arm exposures, and thus musculoskeletal disorder risks. This study examined time spent sitting, standing and active among office workers, and determined the extent to which these behaviours differed by gender and age.

    Methods. Ninety-nine workers at a Swedish government agency (50/49 men/women; mean(SD) age 47.1(9.0) years) wore a thigh accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X) for five working days. Data were processed to give the percentage of time spent sitting in short (<30 min) and long (≥30 min) bouts, in standing, and in more active behaviours. In adding up to 100%, such data are constrained and inherently dependent. This requires further examination to be performed using Compositional Data Analysis (CoDA). Thus, Isometric Log-transformed Ratios were constructed, describing sitting vs. non-sitting (sit/nonsit), short-bout vs. long-bout sitting (shortsit/longsit), and standing vs. active (stand/active). These ratios were examined for pairwise correlations, and for associations with gender and age.

    Results. On average, workers spent 28.9%, 42.2%, 21.6%, and 7.3% time in shortsit, longsit, standing, and active. Sit/nonsit correlated negatively with shortsit/longsit (r=–0.49) and stand/active (r=–0.64); shortsit/longsit correlated positively with stand/active (r=0.19). Gender showed small associations with all three ratios (partial-ƞ2=0.01-0.03; p=0.08-0.43). Stand/active increased with increasing age (partial-ƞ2=0.07; p=0.01), while sit/nonsit and shortsit/longsit were very weakly associated with age (partial-ƞ2=0.01 and 0.01; p=0.26 and 0.40).

    Conclusions. Workers spending more time sitting also spent a larger part of that time in long, uninterrupted sitting bouts. However, when not sitting, these workers were more physically active than workers who sat less. These behaviours differed little by gender and age, besides older workers being relatively less active during non-sitting periods.

  • 93.
    Mixter, Susanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Alternations between physical and cognitive tasks in repetitive work – Effect of cognitive task difficulty on fatigue development in women2019In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 62, no 8, p. 1008-1022Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a context of job rotation, this study determined the extent to which the difficulty of a cognitive task (CT) interspersed between bouts of repetitive, low-intensity work (pipetting) influences recovery from fatigue. Fifteen participants performed three experimental sessions, each comprising 10 repeats of a 7 min + 3 min combination of pipetting and CT. The CT was easy, moderate or hard. Surface electromyography (EMG amplitude of the forearm extensor and trapezius muscles) and self-reports was used to assess fatigability. Perceived fatigue and trapezius EMG amplitude increased during sessions. CT difficulty influenced fatigue development only little, besides forearm extensor EMG increasing more in CT3 than in CT1 and CT2. During CT bouts, fatigability recovered, and to a similar extent irrespective of CT. Thus, CT difficulty influenced recovery of perceived as well as performance fatigability to a minor extent, and may not be a critical issue in job rotation comprising alternating physical and cognitive tasks.

  • 94.
    Mixter, Susanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bjärntoft, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Alternations between physical and cognitive tasks – does temporal pattern and cognitive task difficulty influence fatigue development?2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Some evidence suggests that alternations between physical and cognitive work tasks may be a viable option for job rotation, since production can be maintained without excessive fatigue. Effects on fatigue and pain of the temporal distribution of physical and cognitive tasks are, however, uncertain. The aim of this study was to examine development of fatigue and pain during physical and cognitive work tasks of different difficulties, alternating in different temporal patterns.

    Methods

    Fifteen women performed alternating bouts of a physical task (phys) and a cognitive task (CT) for a total of 100 minutes. Four experimental conditions were tested in a repeated-measures design. Conditions 1 and 2 consisted of five long-cycle sequences (phys+CT, 14+6 minutes), and in conditions 3 and 4, 10 short-cycle sequences (7+3 minutes) were performed. Each temporal pattern was completed with an easy or a difficult CT. Muscle fatigue was assessed using surface electromyography (EMG) from the right trapezius, and perceived fatigue and pain in the right shoulder was assessed using CR-10 ratings. Effects of time and experimental condition on these outcomes were tested using ANOVA.

    Results

    Perceived fatigue and pain in right shoulder after pipetting work bouts increased in all four conditions (long-cycle, fatigue F=5.68, p<0.001, pain F=4.12, p=0.01; short-cycle, fatigue F=10.59, p<0.001, pain F=5.45, p<0.001). Trapezius EMG did not change significantly across work bouts (long-cycle, F=2.14, p=0.09; short-cycle, F=1.03, p=0.42). Irrespective of the temporal alternation pattern, neither EMG nor fatigue and pain were influenced by CT difficulty (CT main effect and CT×time interaction: EMG, all F≤2.5, p≥0.1; fatigue and pain, all F≤2.0, p≥0.7).

    Conclusions

    The temporal pattern of alternations between a repetitive physical task and a CT did not influence fatigue development, and the difficulty level of the CT did not significantly influence fatigue and pain, irrespective of the temporal alternation pattern.

  • 95.
    Mixter, Susanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dimberg, Kenth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Stress-related responses to alternations between repetitive physical work and cognitive tasks of different difficulties2019In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This experimental study aimed to determine the extent to which a repetitive physical task alternatingwith a cognitive task (CT) influences stress responses and whether the CT difficulty is important. Fifteen women performed three sessions of 10 consecutive work bouts, each including a seven-minutere petitive physical task and a three-minute CT at either of three difficulty levels. Stress-related responses were assessed using heart rate variability, blood pressure, salivary alpha-amylase, salivary cortisol, perceived stress and cognitive performance.The alternating work did not result in any marked increase in perceived stress or changes in stressresponses. CT difficulty did not influence stress responses (all p>0.05), apart from alpha-amylase which was higher during the easiest CT (F= 5.34, p= 0.02). Thus, introducing cognitive work bouts into repetitive physical work did not result in increased levels of stress, suggesting this approach to be viable in job rotation.

  • 96.
    Modin, Evelina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Psychology.
    Östlund, Angelica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Psychology.
    Kan organsationens kommunikation predicera upplevelsen av det psykologiska kontraktet?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether there was a difference between men and women how they perceive the fulfilment of the psychological contract and if any of the communication dimensions (personal feedback, relationship with supervisor, communication climate and organizational integration) can predict the psychological contract. Data was collected through a web-based survey that was answered by 62 respondents. The survey had three parts that included background questions, psychological contracts (questions from Psychological contracts across employment situations, PSYCONES) and communication satisfaction (Communications Satisfaction Questionnaire, CSQ). Through t-test and regression analysis in SPSS it was found that there was no difference between how men and women perceived the psychological contract and that participation in the organization predicts the experience of the psychological contract.

  • 97.
    Monnier, Andreas
    et al.
    Division of Physiotherapy, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden; Swedish Armed Forces, Military Academy Karlberg, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larsson, Helena
    Division of Physiotherapy, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; Swedish Armed Forces, Headquarters, Medical Services, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nero, Håkan
    Department of Orthopedics, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Djupsjöbacka, Mats
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Äng, Björn O.
    Division of Physiotherapy, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden; Center for Clinical Research, Uppsala University, Falun, Sweden.
    A longitudinal observational study of back pain incidence, risk factors and occupational physical activity in Swedish marine trainees2019In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 9, no 5, article id e025150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the occurrence of low back pain (LBP) and LBP that limits work ability, to identify their potential early risks and to quantify occupational physical activity in Swedish Armed Forces (SwAF) marines during their basic 4 month marine training course.

    DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study with weekly follow-ups.

    PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-three SwAF marines entering the training course.

    OUTCOMES: Incident of LBP and its related effect on work-ability and associated early risks. Occupational physical activity, as monitored using accelerometers and self-reports.

    RESULTS: During the training course, 68% of the marines experienced at least one episode of LBP. This yielded a LBP and LBP limiting work ability incidence rate of 13.5 (95% CI 10.4 to 17.8) and 6.3 (95% CI 4.2 to 10.0) episodes per 1000 person-days, respectively. Previous back pain and shorter body height (≤1.80 m) emerged as independent risks for LBP (HR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.3; HR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.3, respectively), as well as for LBP that limited work ability (HR 3.6, 95% CI 1.4 to 8.9; HR 4.5, 95% CI 2.0 to 10.0, respectively). Furthermore, managing fewer than four pull-ups emerged as a risk for LBP (HR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.0), while physical training of fewer than three sessions per week emerged as a risk for LBP that limited work ability (HR 3.0, 95% CI 1.2 to 7.4). More than 80% of the work time measured was spent performing low levels of ambulation, however, combat equipment (≥17.5 kg) was carried for more than half of the work time.

    CONCLUSIONS: Incidents of LBP are common in SwAF marines' early careers. The link between LBP and previous pain as well as low levels of exercise highlights the need for preventive actions early on in a marine's career. The role of body height on LBP needs further investigation, including its relationship with body-worn equipment, before it can effectively contribute to LBP prevention.

  • 98.
    Montgomery, William
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Psychology.
    Montgomery, Henry
    Stockholms universitet; Uppsala universitet.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Göteborgs universitet.
    How situational activation of values evokes positive and negative feelings: Theory and experimental findings2020In: Motivation and Emotion, ISSN 0146-7239, E-ISSN 1573-6644Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a theory of how situational activation of values evokes positive and negative feelings. In conjunction we present a re-conceptualization of Schwartz’ et al. (J Personal Soc Psychol 103:663–688, 2012. https://doi.org/10.1037/a029393) value set including additional values. In our new value set, we posit contrastive values having opposite values and central values having no opposite values. As a consequence, balanced access to salient opposite contrastive values and maximal access to central values evoke the strongest positive and weakest negative feelings. Study 1 shows, as hypothesized, that contrastive values form a circumplex structure with central values located inside its periphery. Study 2 supports theoretically derived hypotheses of how positive and negative feelings are evoked by different degrees of access to values, salience of opposite values, and centrality of values.

  • 99.
    Möller, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Psychology.
    Den ofrivillige ledaren: -En uppsats om rollproblematik för flygpersonal2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 100.
    Nayeb, Laleh
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lagerberg, Dagmar
    Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Westerlund, Monica
    Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sarkadi, Anna
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lucas, Steven
    Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Psychology.
    Modifying a language screening tool for three-year-old children identified severe language disorders six months earlier2019In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 108, no 9, p. 1642-1648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: We examined if routine Swedish language screening for developmental language disorder (DLD) carried out at three years of age could be performed as effectively six months earlier. Methods: This study observed 105 monolingual Swedish-speaking children (53% boys) aged 29-31 months at three Swedish child health centres. We compared their ability to combine three words, as per the existing protocol, and two words. They also underwent a comprehension task. Speech and language pathologists clinically assessed the children for DLD and their results were compared with the nurse-led screening. Results: The results for the three-word and two-word criterion were the following: sensitivity (100% versus 91%) specificity (81% versus 91%), positive predictive (38% versus 56%) and negative predictive value (100% versus 99%). The three-word criterion identified 29 children with possible DLD, including 11 cases later confirmed, and the two-word criterion identified 18 possible cases, including 10 confirmed cases. DLD was overrepresented in the 10% of children who did not cooperate with the nurse-led screening. Conclusion: Changing the required word combinations from three to two words worked well. The three-word test identified one extra confirmed case, but resulted in 10 more false positives. Lack of cooperation during screening constituted an increased risk for DLD. 

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