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  • 51.
    Kelson, Denean M.
    et al.
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, USA.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, USA.
    Trapezius muscle activity variation during computer work performed by individuals with and without shoulder-neck pain2019In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 81, article id 102908Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed at determining the extent to which individuals with neck-shoulder pain and non-symptomatic individuals differ in muscle activation patterns, when performing computer work, as quantified by exposure variation analysis (EVA). As a secondary aim, we also aimed to quantify the day-to-day reliability of EVA variables describing trapezius muscle activation in a non-symptomatic control group. Thirteen touch-typing computer users (pain: n=5, non-symptomatic: n=8) completed three pre-selected computer tasks in the laboratory.

    Upper trapezius muscle activity was recorded using electromyography and analyzed using EVA with five amplitude and five duration categories. Individuals with neck-shoulder pain spent less time at low amplitudes and exhibited longer uninterrupted periods of muscle activation compared to their non-symptomatic counterparts. Thus, non-symptomatic workers tended to switch between exposure levels more often than individuals with pain. For a majority of EVA variables, ICCs ranged from 0.6 to 0.9, and between-days coefficients of variation were between 0.4 and 2.2.

  • 52.
    Knez, Igor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Psychology.
    Hjärpe, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology.
    Bryngelsson, Mari
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology.
    Predicting Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Role of Work-Related Self2019In: SAGE Open, ISSN 2158-2440, E-ISSN 2158-2440, Vol. 9, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate the links between work-related identification, conceptualized, and operationalized as the work-related self (WS), and the “good soldier syndrome” (organizational citizenship behavior [OCB]). More precisely, we investigated the relationships between emotional and cognitive components of WS and OCB dimensions of altruism, conscientiousness, courtesy, civic virtue, and sportsmanship. A total of 147 subjects working within the Swedish public sector participated in this study. As hypothesized, WS significantly predicted OCB. A positive association was found between the emotional component of WS and OCB dimensions of altruism, conscientiousness, and civic virtue. This suggests that the “good soldier syndrome” might be, to some extent, accounted for by the psychological mechanisms of work bonding, especially, highlighting the importance of the emotional component of work-related identification. 

  • 53.
    Köping, Nadja
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Psychology.
    Mårtensson-Sturm, Isabell
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Psychology.
    Vad attraheras industrimedarbetare av vid val av arbetsgivare?: Skiljer det sig beroende på ålder?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to examine whether there was any difference between younger and older people regarding the attractiveness of an employer. The survey was conducted on an industrial organization in central Sweden, through a survey study five dimensions were examined; economy, social, interest, development and application based on the measuring instrument Employer Attractiveness Scale (EmpAt). Participants were divided into an age group of two depending on how old they were. Those who were between 18-39 years old were included in the group young and olderif they were 40 years and up. A total of 72 people participated in the study, of which 31 were youngand 41 were older. The result showed that there was no significant difference between the age groups and what they prioritized when choosing an employer. However, the dimension social value received the highest mean value regardless of age.

  • 54.
    Lindell, Emma
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Psychology.
    Stolt, Josefin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Psychology.
    Anställdas upplevelse av hur dagens gränslösa digitala arbete förskjuter balansen mellan privatliv och arbetsliv.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine whether and how employees feel that today's boundless digital work shifts the balance between work and family life. Through a qualitative method, the study was based on eight semi-structured interviews which was carried out at a company located in Central Sweden. The collected material was analyzed using an inductive thematic analysis where three themes were identified; control over the stream of  information, organizational culture with subcategory leadership and the final theme flexibility. The results indicated that the boundary between work and family life has shifted by today´s limitless digital work, since the respondents controlled their work-related stream of information mainly through email outside working hours. An organizational culture and leadership without expectations of permanent availability and the possibility to use flexible working hours has made it easier for the respondents to handle the diffuse boundary that emerged with the advanced technology and to create a good work - life balance.

  • 55.
    Lindhe, Felicia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Psychology.
    Tenlén Halvarsson, Victoria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Effektivt ledarskap och välbefinnande: Medarbetares subjektiva upplevelser om effektivt ledarskap och välbefinnande på en arbetsplats.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte var att undersöka vad en medarbetare upplever vad ett effektivt ledarskap är, hur en medarbetares välbefinnande upplevs på arbetsplatsen samt hur medarbetare upplever välbefinnande utifrån ett effektivt ledarskap på en arbetsplats med utgångspunkt från medarbetarnas subjektiva upplevelse. Syftet undersöktes genom en kvalitativ metod med en induktiv tematisk analys bestående av åtta semistrukturerade intervjuer. Resultatet visade att respondenterna upplever att ett effektivt ledarskap är av betydelse för en medarbetares välbefinnande på en arbetsplats. Respondenterna upplevde att en ledare måste vara lyhörd och lyssna på sina medarbetare, att ledaren anpassar sig till individerna samt att det finns en tydlighet och struktur för att ett effektivt ledarskap ska uppnås. För att uppnå välbefinnande på arbetsplatsen enligt resultatet är kollegorna av betydelse för medarbetarna. Arbetsbelastningen får inte vara för hög, medarbetarna får arbeta med frihet under ansvar samt att ledaren visar en tillit och förmedlar en trygghet till medarbetarna för att uppnå välbefinnande på en arbetsplats.

  • 56.
    Long, Jennifer
    et al.
    School of Optometry and Vision Science, UNSW Sydney 2052 AUSTRALIA.
    Richter, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Visual ergonomics on-the-go2019In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 63, no 3, p. 321-324Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 57.
    Masic, Admir
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Psychology.
    Karlsson Axelsson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Psychology.
    Konsulters komplexa förhållande till organisationslojalitet mellan konsultföretag och kundföretag2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to, examine how full-time temporary workers estimated their affective organizational commitment towards their temporary work agency and their client organizations. The study also examined whether the affective commitment competed or co-operated between the two companies and how temporary workers estimated the normative and continuance commitment. Furthermore, the study also examined if aspects such as age and contract duration had any impact on the temp workers' organizational commitment in the three commitment-scales. A total of 114 temporary workers from two global temporary work agencies participated by answering a web survey with two identical parts with 11 statements for each organization. In order to see if the presentation-order had any impact, 46 of the respondents started by answering the statements concerning their temporary agency organization and 68 started with the client organization. The result showed a difference on the affective and normative commitment between the temporary agency and the client organization. Temporary workers estimated these two commitment-scales higher for the client organization than for the temporary agency organization. The result also showed that the affective commitment co-operated between the temporary agency and the client organization and that the order of presentation had an impact on the affective commitment-scale. Age and contract duration did not have any impact on the temp workers' organizational commitment.

  • 58.
    Mather, Lisa
    et al.
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Narusyte, J.
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ropponen, A.
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
    Bergström, Gunnar
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Unit of Intervention and Implementation Research for Worker Health, The Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Blom, V.
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Helgadóttir, B.
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svedberg, P.
    Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sick leave due to mental disorders, morbidity and mortality: a prospective study of discordant twin pairs2019In: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To investigate if sick leave due to mental disorders increases the risk of morbidity measured by inpatient and specialized outpatient care, and mortality among women and men, independent of familial factors. Methods: An open cohort study of 4979 twin pairs discordant for sick leave due to mental disorders was conducted in 2005–2013. Twins were followed up in the cause of death and national patient registries until the end of study, emigration, death, and inpatient and specialized outpatient care. Conditional Cox proportional hazard regression, adjusting for the familial factors shared by the twins, was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). In case of non-proportional hazards, time-varying covariates were used. Results: Sick leave due to mental disorders increased the risk for inpatient care among men (HR: 1.90, CI 1.66–2.17) and women (HR: 1.39, CI 1.27–1.51). For men, the risk of outpatient care was higher the first 2 years (HR: 2.08, CI 1.87–2.31), after which it was attenuated (HR: 1.32, CI 1.02–1.70). For women, the HR was 1.57 (CI 1.47–1.68) for the whole study time. There was an increased risk of death among men (HR: 2.91, CI 1.70–4.99), but not among women (HR: 0.84, CI 0.53–1.35). Conclusions: Sick leave due to mental disorders was a risk factor for mortality for men only, and increased the risk of inpatient and specialized outpatient care among both women and men, but the risks were higher for men when stratifying for sex. 

  • 59.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science.
    Johansson, Elin
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science.
    Sitting, standing and physical activity among male and female office workers of different age: behaviours examined using compositional data analysis2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Excessive sitting is an increasing concern in working life. Negative health effects may, to some extent, be mitigated by interrupting prolonged sitting by standing or more active behaviours, like walking. Alternations between these behaviours may also influence variation in neck-shoulder-arm exposures, and thus musculoskeletal disorder risks. This study examined time spent sitting, standing and active among office workers, and determined the extent to which these behaviours differed by gender and age.

    Methods. Ninety-nine workers at a Swedish government agency (50/49 men/women; mean(SD) age 47.1(9.0) years) wore a thigh accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X) for five working days. Data were processed to give the percentage of time spent sitting in short (<30 min) and long (≥30 min) bouts, in standing, and in more active behaviours. In adding up to 100%, such data are constrained and inherently dependent. This requires further examination to be performed using Compositional Data Analysis (CoDA). Thus, Isometric Log-transformed Ratios were constructed, describing sitting vs. non-sitting (sit/nonsit), short-bout vs. long-bout sitting (shortsit/longsit), and standing vs. active (stand/active). These ratios were examined for pairwise correlations, and for associations with gender and age.

    Results. On average, workers spent 28.9%, 42.2%, 21.6%, and 7.3% time in shortsit, longsit, standing, and active. Sit/nonsit correlated negatively with shortsit/longsit (r=–0.49) and stand/active (r=–0.64); shortsit/longsit correlated positively with stand/active (r=0.19). Gender showed small associations with all three ratios (partial-ƞ2=0.01-0.03; p=0.08-0.43). Stand/active increased with increasing age (partial-ƞ2=0.07; p=0.01), while sit/nonsit and shortsit/longsit were very weakly associated with age (partial-ƞ2=0.01 and 0.01; p=0.26 and 0.40).

    Conclusions. Workers spending more time sitting also spent a larger part of that time in long, uninterrupted sitting bouts. However, when not sitting, these workers were more physically active than workers who sat less. These behaviours differed little by gender and age, besides older workers being relatively less active during non-sitting periods.

  • 60.
    Mixter, Susanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Alternations between physical and cognitive tasks in repetitive work – Effect of cognitive task difficulty on fatigue development in women2019In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 62, no 8, p. 1008-1022Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a context of job rotation, this study determined the extent to which the difficulty of a cognitive task (CT) interspersed between bouts of repetitive, low-intensity work (pipetting) influences recovery from fatigue. Fifteen participants performed three experimental sessions, each comprising 10 repeats of a 7 min + 3 min combination of pipetting and CT. The CT was easy, moderate or hard. Surface electromyography (EMG amplitude of the forearm extensor and trapezius muscles) and self-reports was used to assess fatigability. Perceived fatigue and trapezius EMG amplitude increased during sessions. CT difficulty influenced fatigue development only little, besides forearm extensor EMG increasing more in CT3 than in CT1 and CT2. During CT bouts, fatigability recovered, and to a similar extent irrespective of CT. Thus, CT difficulty influenced recovery of perceived as well as performance fatigability to a minor extent, and may not be a critical issue in job rotation comprising alternating physical and cognitive tasks.

  • 61.
    Mixter, Susanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lindfors, Petra
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dimberg, Kenth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Science, Biology.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Stress-related responses to alternations between repetitive physical work and cognitive tasks of different difficulties2019In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This experimental study aimed to determine the extent to which a repetitive physical task alternatingwith a cognitive task (CT) influences stress responses and whether the CT difficulty is important. Fifteen women performed three sessions of 10 consecutive work bouts, each including a seven-minutere petitive physical task and a three-minute CT at either of three difficulty levels. Stress-related responses were assessed using heart rate variability, blood pressure, salivary alpha-amylase, salivary cortisol, perceived stress and cognitive performance.The alternating work did not result in any marked increase in perceived stress or changes in stressresponses. CT difficulty did not influence stress responses (all p>0.05), apart from alpha-amylase which was higher during the easiest CT (F= 5.34, p= 0.02). Thus, introducing cognitive work bouts into repetitive physical work did not result in increased levels of stress, suggesting this approach to be viable in job rotation.

  • 62.
    Modin, Evelina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Psychology.
    Östlund, Angelica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Psychology.
    Kan organsationens kommunikation predicera upplevelsen av det psykologiska kontraktet?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether there was a difference between men and women how they perceive the fulfilment of the psychological contract and if any of the communication dimensions (personal feedback, relationship with supervisor, communication climate and organizational integration) can predict the psychological contract. Data was collected through a web-based survey that was answered by 62 respondents. The survey had three parts that included background questions, psychological contracts (questions from Psychological contracts across employment situations, PSYCONES) and communication satisfaction (Communications Satisfaction Questionnaire, CSQ). Through t-test and regression analysis in SPSS it was found that there was no difference between how men and women perceived the psychological contract and that participation in the organization predicts the experience of the psychological contract.

  • 63.
    Monnier, Andreas
    et al.
    Division of Physiotherapy, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden; Swedish Armed Forces, Military Academy Karlberg, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larsson, Helena
    Division of Physiotherapy, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; Swedish Armed Forces, Headquarters, Medical Services, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nero, Håkan
    Department of Orthopedics, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Djupsjöbacka, Mats
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Äng, Björn O.
    Division of Physiotherapy, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden; Center for Clinical Research, Uppsala University, Falun, Sweden.
    A longitudinal observational study of back pain incidence, risk factors and occupational physical activity in Swedish marine trainees2019In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 9, no 5, article id e025150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the occurrence of low back pain (LBP) and LBP that limits work ability, to identify their potential early risks and to quantify occupational physical activity in Swedish Armed Forces (SwAF) marines during their basic 4 month marine training course.

    DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study with weekly follow-ups.

    PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-three SwAF marines entering the training course.

    OUTCOMES: Incident of LBP and its related effect on work-ability and associated early risks. Occupational physical activity, as monitored using accelerometers and self-reports.

    RESULTS: During the training course, 68% of the marines experienced at least one episode of LBP. This yielded a LBP and LBP limiting work ability incidence rate of 13.5 (95% CI 10.4 to 17.8) and 6.3 (95% CI 4.2 to 10.0) episodes per 1000 person-days, respectively. Previous back pain and shorter body height (≤1.80 m) emerged as independent risks for LBP (HR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.3; HR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.3, respectively), as well as for LBP that limited work ability (HR 3.6, 95% CI 1.4 to 8.9; HR 4.5, 95% CI 2.0 to 10.0, respectively). Furthermore, managing fewer than four pull-ups emerged as a risk for LBP (HR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.0), while physical training of fewer than three sessions per week emerged as a risk for LBP that limited work ability (HR 3.0, 95% CI 1.2 to 7.4). More than 80% of the work time measured was spent performing low levels of ambulation, however, combat equipment (≥17.5 kg) was carried for more than half of the work time.

    CONCLUSIONS: Incidents of LBP are common in SwAF marines' early careers. The link between LBP and previous pain as well as low levels of exercise highlights the need for preventive actions early on in a marine's career. The role of body height on LBP needs further investigation, including its relationship with body-worn equipment, before it can effectively contribute to LBP prevention.

  • 64.
    Möller, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Psychology.
    Den ofrivillige ledaren: -En uppsats om rollproblematik för flygpersonal2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 65.
    Nayeb, Laleh
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lagerberg, Dagmar
    Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Westerlund, Monica
    Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sarkadi, Anna
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lucas, Steven
    Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Mårten
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Psychology.
    Modifying a language screening tool for three-year-old children identified severe language disorders six months earlier2019In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 108, no 9, p. 1642-1648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: We examined if routine Swedish language screening for developmental language disorder (DLD) carried out at three years of age could be performed as effectively six months earlier. Methods: This study observed 105 monolingual Swedish-speaking children (53% boys) aged 29-31 months at three Swedish child health centres. We compared their ability to combine three words, as per the existing protocol, and two words. They also underwent a comprehension task. Speech and language pathologists clinically assessed the children for DLD and their results were compared with the nurse-led screening. Results: The results for the three-word and two-word criterion were the following: sensitivity (100% versus 91%) specificity (81% versus 91%), positive predictive (38% versus 56%) and negative predictive value (100% versus 99%). The three-word criterion identified 29 children with possible DLD, including 11 cases later confirmed, and the two-word criterion identified 18 possible cases, including 10 confirmed cases. DLD was overrepresented in the 10% of children who did not cooperate with the nurse-led screening. Conclusion: Changing the required word combinations from three to two words worked well. The three-word test identified one extra confirmed case, but resulted in 10 more false positives. Lack of cooperation during screening constituted an increased risk for DLD. 

  • 66.
    Nyström, Christine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Melander, Pernilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Arbetsrelaterat överengagemang predicerar utmattning på samma sätt för kvinnor och män2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte var att undersöka om arbetsrelaterat överengagemang positivt predicerade utmattning och om detta samband skiljde sig åt för män och kvinnor. Syftet var också att undersöka om överengagemang positivt predicerade alla sex dimensionerna av utmattning (kognitiv utmattning, störd sömn, trötthet, somatiska symtom, irritabilitet, känslomässig påverkan) och om dessa samband skiljde sig åt mellan män och kvinnor. Genom en kvantitativ studie skickades elektroniska enkäter ut till tre företag inom bank- och försäkringsbranschen i Mellansverige som innehöll en mätskala för överengagemang och en för utmattning. Resultaten analyserades med hjälp av enkla regressionsanalyser och modereringsanalyser och visade att arbetsrelaterat överengagemang positivt predicerade utmattning och att det inte fanns någon signifikant modereringseffekt av deltagarnas kön. Vidare visade resultatet att arbetsrelaterat överengagemang positivt predicerade alla de sex dimensionerna av utmattning och att det inte fanns någon signifikant modereringseffekt av deltagarnas kön.

  • 67.
    Olsson, Elin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Forsgren, Madeléne
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Det ideala ledarskapet - upplevelsen av att leda genom tillit2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was investigate, with a qualitative method, the municipal preschool managers' experience of having to adapt leadership to achieve the ideal image of a trust-based leadership in a municipality's forthcoming implementation of a new governance and leadership approach. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with five preschool managers and two assistant preschool managers in a municipality in central Sweden. The material was analyzed with an inductive thematic analysis. Themes that were analyzed were the hierarchical structure, the collegial leadership with the subtopic culture and the theme trust, listen and create participation.

    Overall, the study's results showed that respondents experienced a culture that promoted trust and that they already worked on the basis of a trust-based leadership. There was thus no perceived need to adapt the leadership, but there were elements of perceived challenges such as time and work with people. There was an idea that leaders with a great need for control can have difficulties in leading trust-based.

  • 68.
    Pedersen, Malin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Första linjen-chefers upplevelser av att arbeta emot sexuella trakasserier ifrån patienter på sjukhus: En kvalitativ studie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine first line managers experiences of working against sexual harassment from patients against clinicians in hospitals. The study was qualitative using mixed methods gathering data. The study was conducted in two substudies. The first by mapping out policys on sexual harassment from patients within a specific region, then analysed by using the policy analysis method What’s the problem represented to be? The second substudy was carried out by conducting interviews with ten first line managers in a hospital, and analysed by a qualitative content analysis. The results show that the analysed policy does not include sexual harassment to a great extent, and presents patients distrust to a workgroup characterized by diversity as a problem. First line managers experience some saturation in how much they can prevent sexual harassment from patients, and feel that most incidents are handled by the clinicians themselves. First line managers experience the policy as some what “black and white” but at the same time a good basic support tool, and therefore the managers experiences of preventing and handling sexual harassment from patients could give a more nuanced picture of the phenomenon. 

  • 69.
    Richter, Hans
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Long, Jennifer
    School of Optometry and Vision Science, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, AUSTRALIA.
    The pitfalls of the traditional office ergonomics model in the current mobile work environment:  Is visual ergonomic health literacy the remedy?2019In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assessment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 63, no 3, p. 447-456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile technology has revolutionised how we work. It is now relatively easy to work anywhere and anytime, but this has placed the onus on mobile (or flexible) workers to set up their own work environment for comfort and ease of use. Vision is an important driver of posture, and hence visual ergonomics principles are integral for setting up digital devices. If mobile workers do not have visual ergonomics knowledge, or are unable to apply visual ergonomics knowledge to appropriately set up their work environment, then they are at risk of developing visual-related occupational health issues due to exposure to adverse physical work environments.

    To address this potential health care issue, we propose the introduction of Visual Ergonomics Health Literacy. This would provide mobile workers (including school children) with the knowledge and skills to set up their work environment for comfort and ease of use, wherever they work. It is important to address this issue now before we have a widespread epidemic of discomfort and injury from not applying sound visual ergonomics principles to work environments.

  • 70.
    Richter, Hans
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Sundin, Sofia
    Long, Jennifer
    School of Optometry and Vision Science, UNSW Sydney, Australia; Jennifer Long Visual Ergonomics, Katoomba, NSW, Australia.
    Visually deficient working conditions and reduced work performance in office workers: Is it mediated by visual well-being and health?2019In: International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, ISSN 0169-8141, E-ISSN 1872-8219, Vol. 72, p. 128-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The main purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether visual well-being and health act as a mediating factor between perceived visual ergonomic working conditions and self-rated visual performance among office workers who perform administrative tasks and computer-based work at the Swedish Tax Agency.

    Methods: A questionnaire was sent to 94 office workers addressing: 1) perceived visual quality of the visual display units; 2) prevalence of eye symptoms; and 3) self-rated visual performance. Eighty-six persons (54 women (63 %), 31 men (36 %), and 1 of unspecified sex) answered the questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis investigated the association between visual ergonomic working conditions and visual performance, with and without visual well-being and health as a mediator.

    Results: The group mean of the Indexed survey questions indicated reasonably good quality visual ergonomic working conditions, a relative absence of eye symptoms, and acceptable self-rated visual performance. Results from multiple regression analysis showed a significant association between perceived visual ergonomic working conditions and self-rated visual performance (r2 = 0.30, β = 0.327, p < 0.01). When visual well-being and health was used as a mediator, the association between perceived visual ergonomic working conditions and self-rated visual performance remained the same (r2 = 0.32, β = 0.315, p < 0.01).

    Discussion: It was surprising to discover that self-rated visual performance  was independent of visual health and well-being. Possible explanations include exposure factors not included in the current study, such as dry air and sensory irritation in eyes, psychosocial stress, time spent performing near work activities or time exposed to visually deficient working conditions. The strong connection between satisfaction with visual ergonomics work conditions and productivity found in this study has implications for workplace profitability and staff satisfaction. If productivity of office workers is improved by better visual ergonomics work conditions, then managers within workplaces may be able to improve work outcomes by optimizing the physical work environment.

  • 71.
    Sandberg, Camilla
    et al.
    Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Umeå University.
    Crenshaw, Albert G.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Elcadi, Guilherme H.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Christensen, Christina
    Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Hlebowicz, Joanna
    Department of Cardiology, Lund University.
    Thilén, Ulf
    Department of Cardiology, Lund University.
    Johansson, Bengt
    Heart center and Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University.
    Impaired skeletal muscle endurance in adults with complex congenital heart disease is associated with local muscle oxygenation2018In: International Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 0167-5273, E-ISSN 1874-1754Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 72.
    Sandberg, Camilla
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Crenshaw, Albert G.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Elcadi, Guilherme H.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Christersson, Christina
    Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hlebowicz, Joanna
    Department of Cardiology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Thilén, Ulf
    Department of Cardiology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Johansson, Bengt
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Impaired Skeletal Muscle Endurance in Adults With Complex Congenital Heart Disease is Associated With Local Muscle Oxygenation Kinetics2018In: Circulation: Abstracts From the American Heart Association's 2018 Scientific Sessions, 2018, Vol. 138, p. A15914-, article id Suppl. 1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Adults with complex congenital heart disease show reduced aerobic exercise capacity and impaired skeletal muscle function compared to healthy peers. Peripheral muscle factors are presumed to be important contributors, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Hypothesis: Muscle oxygenation is associated with reduced skeletal muscle endurance in adults with complex CHD. Methods: Sixty-four adults with complex congenital heart disease (mean age 36.9±14.8 years, females n=19) were recruited from centers specialized in congenital heart disease. Seventy-four age and gender matched healthy peers were recruited as controls. Muscle oxygen saturation was successfully determined on the anterior portion of the deltoid muscle using near-infrared spectroscopy for 57 patients and 71 controls. Measurements were made at baseline, during isotonic shoulder flexions (0-90°) to exhaustion and during 60 seconds of recovery. Results: The adults with complex CHD performed fewer shoulder flexions (38±15 vs. 69±40, p <0.001), had lower muscle oxygen saturation at rest (58±17% vs. 69±18%, p <0.001), a slower desaturation rate at exercise onset (-9.5±5.9%/sec vs. -15.1±6.5%/sec, p <0.001), and a slower resaturation rate post exercise (3.9±2.8%/sec vs. 5.4±3.6%/sec, p =0.008) compared to the controls. Conclusions: A distinct association was found between muscle oxygenation kinetics and early muscle fatigue for adults with complex CHD. Our findings may give insight to the underlying mechanisms for the reduced aerobic exercise capacity for these patients, and therefore provide implications for design of exercise training protocols in this population. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

  • 73.
    Sandberg, Camilla
    et al.
    Heart Center and Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Crenshaw, Albert G.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Elçadi, Guilherme H.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; School of Health Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Christersson, Christina
    Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hlebowicz, Joanna
    Department of Cardiology, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Thilén, Ulf
    Department of Cardiology, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Johansson, Bengt
    Heart Center and Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Slower Skeletal Muscle Oxygenation Kinetics in Adults With Complex Congenital Heart Disease2019In: Canadian Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 0828-282X, E-ISSN 1916-7075Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Adults with complex congenital heart disease (CHD) show reduced aerobic exercise capacity and impaired skeletal muscle function compared with healthy peers. Peripheral muscle factors are presumed to be important contributors to the aerobic capacity, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate differences between adults with CHD and controls in muscle oxygenation kinetics at rest, and during and after exercise.

    Methods: Seventy-four patients with complex CHD (mean age 35.6 ± 14.3 years, female n = 22) were recruited. Seventy-four age- and sex-matched subjects were recruited as controls. Muscle oxygenation was successfully determined on the anterior portion of the deltoid muscle using near-infrared spectroscopy in 65 patients and 71 controls. Measurements were made at rest, during isotonic shoulder flexions (0-90°) to exhaustion, and during recovery.

    Results: The patients with CHD performed fewer shoulder flexions (40 ± 17 vs 69 ± 40; P &lt; 0.001), had lower muscle oxygen saturation (StO2) at rest (58 ± 18% vs 69 ± 18%; P &lt; 0.001), slower desaturation rate at exercise onset (−9.7 ± 5.9 vs −15.1 ± 6.5% StO2 × 3.5 s−1, P &lt;0.001), and slower resaturation rate post exercise (4.0 ± 2.7 vs 5.4 ± 3.6% StO2 × 3.5 s−1; P = 0.009) compared with the controls. Conclusions: In comparison with age- and sex-matched controls, adults with complex CHD had slower oxygenation kinetics. This altered skeletal muscle metabolism might contribute to the impaired skeletal muscle endurance capacity shown and thereby also to the reduced aerobic capacity in this population. 

  • 74.
    Sato, Tatiana
    et al.
    Physical Therapy Department, Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar), Brazil.
    Hallman, David
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kristiansen, Jesper
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Holtermann, Andreas
    National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    The association between multisite musculoskeletal pain and cardiac autonomic modulation during work, leisure and sleep - a cross-sectional study2018In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    The prevention and rehabilitation of multisite musculoskeletal pain would benefit from studies aiming to understand its underlying mechanism. Autonomic imbalance is a suggested mechanism for multisite pain, but hardly been studied during normal daily living. Therefore, the aim of the study is to investigate the association between multisite musculoskeletal pain and cardiac autonomic modulation during work, leisure and sleep.

    METHODS:

    This study is based on data from the "Danish Physical activity cohort with objective measurements" among 568 blue-collar workers. Pain intensity scales were dichotomized according to the median of each scale, and the number of pain sites was calculated. No site was regarded as the pain-free, one site was considered as single-site musculoskeletal pain and pain in two or more sites was regarded as multisite musculoskeletal pain. Heart rate variability (HRV) was measured by an electrocardiogram system (ActiHeart) and physical activity using accelerometers (Actigraph). Crude and adjusted linear mixed models were applied to investigate the association between groups and cardiac autonomic regulation during work, leisure and sleep.

    RESULTS:

    There was no significant difference between groups and no significant interaction between groups and domains in the crude or adjusted models for any HRV index. Significant differences between domains were found in the crude and adjusted model for all indices, except SDNN; sleep time showed higher values than leisure and work time, except for LF and LF/HF, which were higher during work.

    CONCLUSION:

    This cross-sectional study showed that multisite musculoskeletal pain is not associated with imbalanced cardiac autonomic regulation during work, leisure and sleep time.

  • 75.
    Strömberg, Annika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Hagerman, Heidi
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Skytt, Bernice
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    First-line managers dealing with different management approaches2019In: Leadership in Health Services, ISSN 1751-1879, E-ISSN 1751-1887Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to contribute new knowledge about how first line managers (FLMs) in elderly care perceive their situation, with a focus on differences in management approaches at the intersection of the central and local parts of the organization.

    Design/methodology/approach – The present study has a qualitative approach and is part of a larger project on FLMs in elderly care. The results presented here are based on a secondary analysis of 15 of the totalof 28 interviews carried out in the project.

    Findings – Themain results are twofold: the majority of FLMs perceived differences in management approaches between local and central management; the differences caused some struggle because FLMs perceived that the management system did not support the differences. The two main aspects that caused the FLMs to struggle were differences in the foci of the management levels and difficulties in influencing the conditions ofmanagement.

    Originality/value – The results contribute to the debate on what aspects are important to sustainable management of elderly care. It is common knowledge that FLMs have a complex position, intermediate to the central, upper level management and their subordinates at the local level – levels with different foci and interests. The study contributes new knowledge about what these differences consist of and the dilemmas they cause and offers suggestions as to what can be done to reduce both energy waste and the risk of low job satisfaction.

  • 76.
    Svensson, Jenny
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Zetterberg, Klara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Kvinnors upplevelser av sin arbetssituation i samband med föräldraskap: i förhållande till karriärmöjligheter, löneutveckling och det mentala hälsotillståndet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka om och hur kvinnor upplever att deras föräldraskap och föräldraledighet har påverkat deras arbetssituation i förhållande till tre förutbestämda huvudteman: löneutveckling, karriärmöjligheter och det mentala hälsotillståndet. Syftet var även att undersöka vad kvinnorna ansåg vara de bakomliggande faktorerna till deras upplevelser. Studien var av kvalitativ ansats då vi strävade efter att få en sådan djup förståelse och beskrivning av fenomenet som möjligt. Datainsamlingen bestod av semistrukturerade intervjuer med tio kvinnor som analyserades med en tematisk analys. Resultatet visade att upplevelserna var både negativ och/eller positiv och att kvinnor upplevde att deras arbetssituation kan påverkas negativt av föräldraskap och föräldraledighet. I studien uppmärksammas två specifika underteman som samtliga kvinnor ansåg vara de främsta bakomliggande orsakerna till deras upplevelser: förena arbete med föräldraskap och chefen

  • 77.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Langeborg, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Psychology.
    Hurting the world you love2019In: New scientist (1971), ISSN 0262-4079, Vol. 241, no 3221, p. 24-25Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 78.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Environmental Science.
    Langeborg, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Psychology.
    Why People Harm the Environment Although They Try to Treat It Well: An Evolutionary-Cognitive Perspective on Climate Compensation2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate changes stress the importance of understanding why people harm the environment despite their attempts to behave in climate friendly ways. This paper argues that one reason behind why people do this is that people apply heuristics, originally shaped to handle social exchange, on the issues of environmental impact. Reciprocity and balance in social relations have been fundamental to social cooperation, and thus to survival, and therefore the human brain has become specialized by natural selection to compute and seek this balance. When the same reasoning is applied to environment-related behaviors, people tend to think in terms of a balance between ‘environmentally friendly’ and ‘harmful’ behaviors, and to morally account for the average of these components rather than the sum. This balancing heuristic leads to compensatory green beliefs and negative footprint illusions—the misconceptions that ‘green’ choices can compensate for unsustainable ones. ‘Eco-guilt’ from imbalance in the moral environmental account may promote pro-environmental acts, but also acts that are seemingly pro-environmental but in reality more harmful than doing nothing at all. The current paper suggests strategies for handling this cognitive insufficiency.

  • 79.
    Widar, Linda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science.
    Boman, Eva
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Psychology.
    Wiitavaara, Birgitta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science.
    Heiden, Marina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science.
    Psychophysiological reactions, stress and recuperation among telecommuting academics2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychophysiological reactions, stress and recuperation among telecommuting academics

    Linda Widar*, Eva Boman, Birgitta Wiitavaara and Marina Heiden

    Department of Occupational Health Sciences and psychology, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies  

    *corresponding author: linda.widar@hig.se

    Telecommuting is a working arrangement that is highly adopted among academic staff. This may be a cause or a consequence of expanding demands on productivity, efficiency and availability of academic staff. A previous study on white-collar workers at a government authority showed higher cardiovascular arousal during work at the office, but less recovery after working from home. To our knowledge, these findings have not been confirmed or refuted in other populations. As part of an ongoing study, we aimed to determine whether there is a difference in perceived stress and psychophysiological reactions during work at the central workplace (CW) compared to work performed away from the central workplace (OCW) among academic staff. In addition, recuperation after work performed at the two locations were compared. For each subject, saliva cortisol was collected regularly throughout each of two working days in the same work week (i.e., one full day CW and one full day OCW). Before and after each working day, the subjects rated their stress and fatigue on 100 mm Visual Analogue Scales (VAS) where higher values imply more stress and fatigue, and the difference in ratings within a day (i.e., after-before) was calculated. In the morning after each of the working days, the subjects rated how recuperated they felt on VAS where higher values imply more recuperation. Cortisol values were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance with Day (2 days) and Time of day (6 time points) as within-subjects effects. Self-ratings were compared using paired-samples T test. In all tests, the level of significance was p=0.05. Preliminary results show no significant differences between days in cortisol curves (F=0.62; p=0.685), stress (Dstress=2 for CW and -1 for OCW; p=0,604), fatigue (Dfatigue=7 for CW and 6 for OCW; p=0,837) and recuperation (51 for CW and 61 for OCW; p=0,094).

  • 80.
    Wiitavaara, Birgitta
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Rissén, Dag
    Region Gävleborg.
    Högberg, Hans
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science.
    Nilsson, Annika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science. Uppsala universitet.
    Psychometric testing of a short form questionnaire for measurement of health experiences among people with musculoskeletal disorders undergoing multimodal rehabilitation2019In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 9, no 5, article id e025103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of present study was to assess if a previously suggested short-form questionnaire tested among women with non-specific neck-shoulder pain is suitable also for use among men and women with non-specific musculoskeletal disorders in any part of the body, by testing its construct validity by a confirmatory factor analysis. If not, the secondary aim was to investigate the evolving factor structure when performing an explorative factor analysis of data in the expanded sample.

    Methods

    Questionnaire data was collected in three different contexts, in primary care via eight different multimodal rehabilitation teams, in specialised care via two different specialist care centres. The sample consisted of 116 participants, male (n=29) and female (n=87) with non-specific musculoskeletal disorders.

    Data was analysed using confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis and a visual comparison between the result of the Principal Component Analysis in present study, and the results attained in a previous study with a similar aim and design.

    Results

    The confirmatory factor analyses did not end up in a model with acceptable measures for validity. Three models were tested, none of them met the criterion for an acceptable model and the goodness-of-fit statistics were not fully acceptable. The exploratory factor analysis had an only partly comparable result, compared to previous study.

    Conclusion

    The results of present study did not prove the suggested short form questionnaire to be suitable for evaluation of symptoms among men and women with non-specific musculoskeletal disorders in any part of the body. Further studies including larger samples are recommended.

  • 81.
    Wijk, Katarina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Centre for Research and Development, Region Gävleborg/Uppsala University, Gävle, Sweden; Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Åberg Jönsson, Fredrik
    Centre for Research and Development, Region Gävleborg/Uppsala University, Gävle, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Science, Caring Science. Centre for Research and Development, Region Gävleborg/Uppsala University, Gävle, Sweden; Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Perceived enabling factors and barriers for the implementation of improvements in health care in order to achieve patient-centred care: A case report from Sweden2019In: Journal of Evaluation In Clinical Practice, ISSN 1356-1294, E-ISSN 1365-2753Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Rationale, aim, and objectives More knowledge is needed regarding the complex factors and perceptions that enable the implementation of change in health care. The study aimed to examine the enabling factors and barriers encountered in the implementation of improvements in health care in order to achieve patient-centred care (PCC) and to study if there was a correlation in the extent the improvements were perceived to be implemented and the preconditions that were considered to affect them. Methods Using a mixed method design, data were gathered via a questionnaire and individual interviews with health care personnel, clinic managers, and first-line managers. The data collection and analyses were based on the framework for Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARiHS). Correlations between PCC improvements and preconditions for improvements were performed. Results A high level of involvement, knowledge, and adequate resources were considered important to achieve an implementation of PCC with joint responsibility. Leadership and management need to be explicit and promote continuous follow-up and feedback. Preconditions for improvement had a linear correlation with the perceived level of implementation. Knowledge-related preconditions had greatest impact on implementation. Conclusions The PARiHS framework was appropriate to use since the three components of evidence, context, and facilitation present different important preconditions in the implementation process. Evidence was the highest rated contributor since evidence-based practices in health care are necessary. It is vital that the important role of the context and facilitators is acknowledged in the implementation process to enable a successful implementation of change. There is a need to incorporate a clear strategy involving all levels in the organization. Furthermore, leaders play an important role in the implementation by facilitating communication and support and by having trust in facilitators and health care personnel. The results are applicable to other interventions implementing change in health care.

  • 82.
    Winkler, Petra
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Östman, Emilia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Predicerar delaktighet, arbetstrivsel och organisationsidentitet hur väl den anställde talar om organisationen?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether it is possible to predict how well the employee speaks about the organization (measured by Employee Brand Equity Scale) based on the predictors of job satisfaction (measured by The Generic Job Satisfaction Scale), organizational identity (measured by Identification With a Psychological Group Scale) and participation (measured by Communication Satisfaction Questionnaire). A quantitative study was conducted on an organization in the steel industry. A survey was sent out and answered by 279 employees. A multiple linear regression analysis showed that the higher the participation, job satisfaction and organizational identity, the more increase regarding how well the employee speaks about the organization. The predictors together explained 61% of the response variable (how well the employee talks about the organization). How well the employee speaks about the organization could be explained most strongly by the predictor of job satisfaction followed by the predictors of organizational identity and participation.

  • 83.
    Zecevic, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational Health Science.
    Företagsägares uppfattningar om arbetsmiljöarbete i mikroföretag2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate and describe business owners perceptions of occupational health and safety management in micro enterprises. The data collection was conducted through qualitative interviews and the material from the interviews has been analyzed with a phenomenographic method. The similarities of the study's result are: "necessary for companies and employees", "time consuming" and "important to get help from someone who can". The differences that emerged are: "occupational health and safety management starts with the premises", "costs a lot of money", "not adapted for micro-enterprises", "occupational health and safety management is about leadership", "occupational health and safety management is complex", "occupational health and safety management does not feel amusing" and "occupational health and safety management only consists of requirements". Based on the results that have emerged from the study, the informants who work with the working environment seem to have a positive view while those who do not work with the work environment seem to have a negative view of it. The informants who work and do not work with the environment seem to work in different ways and have different priorities in the occupational health and safety management.

  • 84.
    Österlund, Catharina
    et al.
    University of Umeå, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Evelina
    University of Umeå, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hellström, Fredrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Häger, Charlotte K.
    University of Umeå, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Umeå, Sweden.
    Häggman-Henrikson, Birgitta
    University of Malmö, Faculty of Odontology, Orofacial Pain and Jaw Function, Malmö, Sweden.; Scandinavian Center for Orofacial Neurosciences (SCON), Malmö, Sweden.
    Jaw-Neck Movement Integration in 6-year old Children Differs from that of Adults2019In: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, ISSN 0305-182X, E-ISSN 1365-2842Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A functional integration between the jaw and neck regions during purposive jaw movements is well described in adults, but there is a lack of knowledge of such integration during jaw function in children.; Objectives: To determine the movement integration between the jaw and neck during jaw motor tasks in 6-year-olds, whether there is a difference between children and adults.; Methods: Jaw and neck movements were recorded with an optoelectronic 3D system in 25 healthy 6-year-olds (12 girls, 13 boys) and 24 healthy adults (12 women, 12 men) during paced jaw opening-closing and self-paced gum chewing. Jaw and neck movement amplitudes, intra-individual variation in movement amplitude, ratio between neck-jaw movement amplitudes, and movement cycle time were analysed. Differences between children and adults were evaluated with Mann-Whitney U test for independent samples.; Results: Compared to adults, 6-year old children showed larger neck movement amplitudes (P=0.008) during chewing, higher intra-individual variability in amplitudes of jaw (P=0.008) and neck (P=0.001) movements, higher ratio between neck-jaw movement amplitudes for jaw opening-closing (P=0.026) and chewing (P=0.003), and longer jaw movement cycle time (P≤0.0001) during the jaw opening-closing task.; Conclusion: Despite integrated jaw-neck movements in 6-year old children, the movement pattern differs from that of adults and may be interpreted as an immature programming of jaw-neck motor behavior. The well-integrated movements observed in adults most likely develop over years, perhaps into adolescence, and needs further research including well controlled longitudinal studies to map this development in order to provide appropriate age-related clinical treatment for functional disorders. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.; This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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