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  • 51.
    Larsson, Johan
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Ledarskap för hälsa och lönsamhet2005In: Kvalitetsmagasinet : tidningen för kvalitets- och verksamhetsutveckling, ISSN 1104-1579, p. 22-24Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur kan ledare arbeta för att stödja utvecklingen för en hållbar hälsa hos alla medarbetare i organisationen? Delegering av ansvar och befogenheter, insikten att alla människor är olika samt målet att ha kul på jobbet är några faktorer som bidragit till ett framgångsrikt ledarskap på Roxtec International.

  • 52.
    Larsson, Johan
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    The effect of leadership values, behaviors and methologies on quality and health2007Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Syftet med den forskning som presenteras i denna avhandling är att bidra till ökad kunskap om hur ledarskap kan praktiseras för att främja både medarbetarnas hälsa och organisationers kvalitetsarbete. Tre forskningsfrågor är ställda: 1.Hur relaterar ledarnas värderingar till ledarnas beteende samt aspekter av hälsa och kvalitet?2.Hur relaterar ledarnas beteende till aspekter av hälsa och kvalitet?3.Hur relaterar ledarnas arbetssätt till aspekter av hälsa och kvalitet?Forskningen baserar sig på två fallstudier. Fallstudie I berör tre framgångsrika arbetsplatser som fått utmärkelsen Sveriges bästa arbetsplats. Fokus i denna fallstudie är huvudsakligen på de arbetssätt som används. Fallstudie II avser åtta arbetsplatser i Jämtland och det är särskilt värderingar, beteenden och arbetssätt som har studerats. Rörande ledarskap är Teori X och Teori Y använd som teoribas för att studera ledarnas värderingar. Den tredimensionella ledarbeteendeteorin (förändring, uppgift, relation) är använd när ledarnas beteende mäts och diskuteras. Både kvalitativa och kvantitativa metoder är använda i forskningen. Ledare med X-inriktning på ledarvärderingarna har lägre resultat när medarbetarna värderar organisationens kvalitetsaspekter och samtliga tre dimensioner rörande ledarbeteendet. Vissa indikationer finns att organisationer med Y-orienterade ledare har medarbetare med bättre hälsa. Den ledarskapsprofil som har de bästa resultaten rörande kvalitetsaspekter och hälsoutfall har höga värden på alla tre dimensioner med högsta värdet på relation, följt av förändring på liknande nivå samt även uppgiftsorienteringen hög men lägre än de andra två dimensionerna. Gemen-samma arbetssätt hos framgångsrika organisationer har identifierats och presenterats. Mönster mellan framgångsrika organisationer i studie I och II har identifierats.

  • 53.
    Larsson, Johan
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Bäckström, Ingela
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Wiklund, Håkan
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Leadership and organizational behaviour: Similarities between three award-winning organizations2009In: International Journal of Management Practice, ISSN 1477-9064, E-ISSN 1741-8143, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 327-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to examine if healthy and successful organizations are working accordingly to Quality Management. The purpose is also to describe how the organizations are working.

     

    Methodology/Approach

    Three Swedish organizations that have shown excellence in leadership, internal partnership, working environment and profitability have been examined, to find out what methodologies they have been used for their success. To find out if the healthy and successful organizations are working accordingly to Quality Management, Deming’s 14 point list have been used as analysing tool.

     

    Findings

    Indentified methodologies used by the healthy and successful organisations are described.  Viewed through our analysis, a relationship between the three examined healthy and successful organizations and Quality Management is indicated.

     

    Practical implications

    Working with the methodologies described in the paper, the three organizations have improved co-worker health. Other organizations could probably adopt the identified and described methodologies to improve the health of their co-workers and effectiveness in the organization.

     

    Originality/value

    Concerning the performance evaluation and the continuous improvement component in Quality Management, substantial contributions could be made to the health area by applying the tools that the quality area have used for such a long time to improve the quality outcomes.

    Quality and health aspects have common success factors, and a focus on high quality could be seen as positive for health outcomes.

     

  • 54.
    Larsson, Johan
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Leadership behaviour in successful organisations: Universal or situation-dependent?: Universal or situational-dependent?2010In: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 317-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Leadership behaviour has a critical role in the creation of successful organisations. This article reviews dimensions of leadership behaviour theory and their relationship to effectiveness, productivity, quality, health and job satisfaction in organisations. The article has two purposes: (1) to identify and summarise leadership behaviours common among successful organisations; and (2) to use these common elements to discuss those theoretical implications which concern situational aspects of successful leadership behaviour. The successful organisations studied for this work were two manufacturing companies, one hospital and one retail operation. The case studies were performed in connection with two leadership research projects. They focused on quality work, effectiveness, working environment, subordinate health and perceptions of the leadership. The common leadership behaviours were explored using a comparative qualitative method. The identified common leadership behaviours were then analysed in relation to the three-dimensional leadership behaviour theory (change-, structure- and relation-orientation) to explore distributions between dimensions. Nine common groups of behaviours were identified and described. The qualitative analyses showed that the identified behaviours were in all three behaviour dimensions. Also evident was that relation-oriented leadership behaviour was by far the strongest of the three. The conclusion is that a successful leader uses high relation-orientation as a base. At the same time, this successful leader uses all three behaviour dimensions. The two additional dimensions of structure- and change-orientation can be altered by leaders according to situational factors. This conclusion implies that successful leadership behaviour includes both universal and contingency elements.

  • 55.
    Larsson, Johan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University , Östersund, Sweden.
    Vinberg, Stig
    National Institute for Working Life & Luleå University of Technology , Sweden.
    Wiklund, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University & Luleå University of Technology , Sweden.
    Leadership, quality and health: using McGregor's X and Y theory for analyzing values in relation to methodologies and outcomes2007In: Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 18, no 9-10, p. 1147-1168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has experienced an increase in sickness absenteeism, stress related health problems and a deterioration of psychosocial working conditions. Several researchers have emphasized that leadership with a focus on developing human resource practices is a necessary component of a high organizational performance. The purpose of this article is to explore whether there are patterns in leadership values and methodologies associated with subordinates´ views of leadership, health outcomes and quality aspects. Four public and four private organizations in northern Sweden were studied. McGregor´s X and Y hypotheses, plus three other hypotheses, were used as a base for the analyses. Data was gathered through in-depth interviews with the leaders, questionnaires (completed by leaders and co-workers), and assessment of selected human resource accounting data (sickness absenteeism). The leader views were mirrored with the co-worker views through a comparison of qualitative and quantitative results in a stepwise analysis process. The study´s main findings were that leaders with more X hypotheses get lower results concerning employee judged leadership and quality aspects and, to some extent, lower results concerning health outcomes. The explanatory analyses concerning leadership and health are complex with many influencing factors.

  • 56.
    Larsson, Johan
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Wiklund, Håkan
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Leadership Values for Quality and Health - How does McGregor's X and Y Theory Influences Methodologies and Outcomes?2005In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Quality Management for Organisational and Regional Development : QMOD 2005, Luleå, 2005, p. 691-702Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last years the Swedish working life has been characterized by increased levels of sickness absenteeism, stress related health problems and a deterioration of the psychosocial work conditions. Since there are clear local variations concerning health at different workplaces, it is often stated that differences in working environment and work organizational factors constitute an important explanation. Several researchers emphasizes that leadership with a focus on developing human resource practices is a necessary component of high organizational performance. The purpose of this article is to explore if there are patterns in leadership values and methodologies connected to health outcomes and quality aspects. McGregor�s X and Y hypotheses plus three other hypotheses are used as a base for the analyses. Data has been collected by in-deep interviews with the leaders, questionnaires to both leaders and all employees, and human resource accounting figures. The leader views are mirrored with the employee views, by comparing qualitative and quantitative results in a step wise analyses process. Case study organizations are four public and four private organizations in northern Sweden. The study main findings are that leaders with more X hypotheses get lower results concerning employee judged leadership and quality aspects, and to some extent also lower results concerning health outcomes. Clear differences between the studied organizations are noted. One interesting result is that one organization (C1) positively distinguishes concerning quality and health aspects. A conclusion in this study is that Y oriented leaders work more intense with the TQM values continuous improvements, base decisions on facts, co-worker commitment and leadership commitment.

  • 57.
    Larsson, Mona
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Wallin, Andreas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Utformning av robotverktyg för hantering av icke-magnetiska kutsar på Borrstål 092016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sandvik Materials Technology (SMT) in Sandviken manufacture drilling rods for the mining industry. In a part of the process, cylindrical billets, so called “kuts”, are handled. Today the “kuts” are handled with a robotic controlled magnet. To increase the flexibility of the robotic cell, a new tool for handling “kuts” of a non-magnetic material was requested. The tool will handle the “kuts” with and without a core. Diameter of the tool varies between 105-188 mm and the length between 1330-1500 mm. The tool was restricted to weigh no more than 36 kg.

    After an investigation of already existing tools and a specification of the tool demand and assumptions, four different gripping functions were taken into consideration in an idea meeting. The gripping functions were evaluated in a Pugh-matrix. The function that seemed to be most suitable for handling “kuts”, was developed into eight different product suggestions where finally one product was chosen to further develop. When designing the tool, its griping function is the most central function. The product was divided into four main components to facilitate the development of the concept. As a complement to the calculation that were made by hand, a stress and strength analysis were made in Ansys Workbench to control the resistance of the tool. A hazard analysis was made to attentive the risk a person can be exposed to in contact with the tool during production or maintenance.

    The result of the work was a tool, designed for handling the cylindrical billets from its short side with help from a longitudinal power traverse. The longitudinal power traverse was made by a lifting eye bolt when handling “kuts” with a core and a dowel when handling “kuts” without a core. The tool maximum weight added up being 35 kg.

    A further development of the tool could be an optimization of the weight. One way of reducing the weight of the tool would be to handle both magnetic and non- magnetic “kuts” with only one tool. In this way the tool could be attached directly to the robot and the coupling from Schunk excluded. With a camera with sufficient accuracy to detect the position of the “kuts” the control function could be excluded from the design.

  • 58.
    Lazzarotti, Valentina
    et al.
    Carlo Cattaneo University (LIUC), Castellanza, Italy.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Manzini, Raffaella
    Carlo Cattaneo University (LIUC), Castellanza, Italy.
    Pellegrini, Luisa
    University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.
    Pierluigi, Rippa
    University of Naples Federico II, Napoli, Italy.
    Openness and innovation performance: an empirical analysis of openness determinants and performance mediators2017In: European Journal of Innovation Management, ISSN 1460-1060, E-ISSN 1758-7115, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 463-492Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Focusing on some relevant constructs defined by the open innovation (OI) literature (i.e. determinants of openness; openness choices operationalized in terms of collaboration depth with scientific and business partners; organizational and social context; innovation performance in terms of novelty and efficiency), this paper investigates the relationships among such constructs. More specifically, the purpose of this paper is to empirically analyse two types of relationships: between some contextual factors and firms’ openness choices; and among openness choices, a set of organizational-managerial and social factors, and OI performance outcomes.

    Design/methodology/approach The authors carried out a theory testing survey, involving four European countries (Finland, Italy, Sweden and the UK). The authors applied descriptive statistics and a series of regressions.

    Findings The authors analysed the impact exerted by external and internal variables on the collaboration depth with scientific and business partners: technological trends are relevant to move firms towards external collaborations, with both types of partners; efficiency goals pursued in collaborations are related to the collaboration depth with both types of partners, while an aggressive innovation strategy is positively related only to scientific-partner depth. Besides, collaboration depths with both partners are positively related to the both sides of innovation performance (i.e. novelty and efficiency), but the organizational-managerial and social contexts emerge as relevant mediator variables. Organizational-managerial and external relational social capital exert a beneficial role on the both types of innovation performance, while internal relational social capital benefits only novelty.

    Research limitations/implications The work shows important limitations such as the low level of the explanatory values in the regression models. Therefore, the results must be considered as preliminary explorative insights that may be useful to encourage further studies.

    Practical implications This work serves to raise managers’ awareness on the opportunity of developing organizational-managerial mechanisms, as well as on the importance of social capital to profit from collaborations.

    Originality/value Although during the last decade many researchers have claimed that we are in the era of OI, empirical works, which provide both a more comprehensive and detailed understanding of the phenomenon, are still few. Moreover, the specific action of the context (managerial, organizational and social) as possible mediator of the performance outcomes of openness is empirically under-studied. The authors’ work attempts to fulfil these gaps.

  • 59.
    Lei, Jieyi
    et al.
    University of Gävle. University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    Ou, Hui
    University of Gävle. University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    A Critical View on CSR in Different Business Environments: a comparison of CSR between Sandvik Sweden, and State Grid Corporation, China2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has emerged as a global trend in different countries with diverse policy, culture, and CSR perspective and development level. Thus, we want to analysis CSR in different business environments and find out the gap they have. That is the original idea of our research.

    This research mainly locates in Sweden and China, by comparing the temporal CSR development in a Swedish and a Chinese company—Sandvik and State Grid Corporation of China, the former as the advanced pioneer, and the latter as the dynamic learner, to gain an insight of the adaptability and feasibility of CSR in different business environments and countries.

    The thesis is based on case study and interview, and literature review. The method content analysis is applied when processing the data into figures. Besides, the 3C-SR model and Responsible Competitiveness Index (RCI) are adopted as the analysis model.

    The findings show that CSR is adaptable and feasible in whatever countries and business environments. Also, its core value and regulate guidelines are not changed, but the focal point in each stage of implementation will vary. In fact, CSR is not the ultimate goal, it’s a formula for transforming Responsible Competitiveness to a soft competence, lending the company to achieve sustainability. After the study, some recommendations and further study questions are given.

  • 60.
    Levin, Niklas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Analys och vidareutveckling av lyftok till Dendro Lift ABs lyftbock LB2.52016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Dendro Lift AB is a company that develops and manufactures lifting jacks for heavy lifting. Along with the construction company Mk3D, Dendro Lift AB introduces a new concept for a lifting trestle designed to lift stackers. The aim of the thesis is to further develop the yoke fitted in the lifting jack LB2.5 by reducing its material use and make way for a new dust and finger protection. The goal of the thesis is to develop manufacturing plans for the production of a new lifting yoke that meets the applicable requirements. In the implementation of the thesis there was a preliminary study on the design requirements, tension in bolted joints, evaluation of stresses in welds, finite element method analysis and sustainable development. The pilot study was followed by analysis and further development of the yoke with finite element analysis in software ANSYS Workbench 17.2. Models were developed in Autodesk Inventor Professional 2016. The results showed that the plate thickness could be reduced from 15 mm to 10 mm in the new yoke and thus reduced material usage by about 66 kg. The new yoke was also prepared for a new type of dust and finger protection. The conclusion was that the old yoke is oversized and less material can be used without compromising the operation of the lifting jack.

  • 61.
    Li, Guobin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Third party logistics development: An investigation of factors influencing third party logistics companies’ success in China based on two case studies2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    China has undergone rapid economic development. The growth has led to rapid development of logistics industries, especially the third party logistics (3PL) business. Many international 3PL companies have entered this market. Although some Chinese 3PL companies have used information technologies to effectively improve their financial performance, most of Chinese local providers are not competitive enough to increase their market share. With the increasing fierce competition, it is not enough for the Chinese 3PL companies to focus on cost, but also to improve their operational performance and added values. Therefore, it is important for these companies to learn from some competitive and successful companies so that they can explore a way to develop their business. This study focuses on two successful 3PL companies in China and explores the factors influencing these companies’ success. They are Anji logistics and APL logistics. Through conducting secondary and interview research, it is found that the first one has cost advantages and the second one has value advantages. Information technology systems and at least one competitive operations performance are both important to these companies’ success. Besides that, it is found that Anji Logistics’ success is also related to strategic alliance, while APL Logistics’ success is also related to customer service and human resource. These two companies should learn from each other because the industry will become more intensively competitive and both cost and value advantages are important to the success in the future.

  • 62.
    Lind-Löv, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Norman, Andreas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Utredning av den statiska friktionskoefficienten för hårdmetallstift i Sandvik Minings borrkronor2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 63.
    Lindström, Joakim
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Mechanical Engineering.
    Sundkvist, Henrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Mechanical Engineering.
    Hantering av komponenter till hydraulsystem2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Hudiksvall there is a company that manufactures and develops hydraulic grippers for handling wood, scrap and building materials. The company's proprietary hydraulic cylinder was analyzed by the Institute for Applied Hydraulics in Örnsköldsvik (ITH). Their analysis showed that the hydraulic system contained a large amount of impurities. Pollution from manufacturing and assembly remained in the gripper's hydraulic system in deliverable products, indicating that faults occur in handling and cleaning of components. Therefore, there was a need to investigate whether the cleaning equipment used was able to clean components to the level required. Handling of cleaned components needed to be investigated to ensure that the products kept the cleanliness required until final assembly. The aim of the work was to propose measures and procedures to reduce the number and amount of pollution through better washing and management methods.

    A theoretical reference frame was created by literature study of relevant scientific articles and publications, in order to create a greater understanding of how the hydraulics are affected by contamination and how they could be avoided when assembling hydraulic components, even cleaning methods were studied.

    During the work, methods have been combined to carry out a mapping of handling in the process flow. The methods that have been combined, within a case study at the company, are status report, observations and process flow charts.

    The result of the observations, is that the cleaning equipment used failed to deliver the cleanliness needed. That the company, in its process flow, has long rest periods for readymade components in a dirty environment. The measures proposed by the project team were to replace the washing equipment and to keep the dustprotected components.

    Despite the use of a case study, can this work be a guide for other companies in similar situations, which implies some generalization of the work when the company in which the case study is conducted is believed to be a typical production of hydraulic cylinders.

    The conclusion of the work was that after replacing the cleaning equipment and through better and dustprotected storage, the company will be able to deliver grippers with a high level of cleanliness.

  • 64.
    Liu, Ji
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Hou, Yuhui Röhstö
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Time based strategy in distribution logistics: gaining competitive advantages in IKEA2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Distribution logistics plays a critical role in international companies that want to have more competence in the complex and global market. Today, most customers care more about whether the products can be in hand of them within expected time instead of how company delivery the products. Hence, time can be significant measurable indictor in distribution logistics. This thesis is to describe the effects of time based strategy in distribution logistics and how IKEA can gain competitive advantages by the utilization of time based strategy. The authors identify key elements in distribution logistics and find competitive advantages through researching the single case study-IKEA, and they are: speed, dependability and flexibility. Besides, the authors would provide some proposals to IKEA in order to optimize time-based strategy and gain competitive advantages.

  • 65.
    Loikkanen, Joona
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Mechanical Engineering.
    Hemgren, Fredrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Mechanical Engineering.
    Utredning av erosionsnötning på material till bergborrningsverktyg2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sandvik Mining and Rock technology is a company that focuses on rock drilling. They offer a complete product line for mining and three specific products are top hammer-, down-the-hole- and rotary bits. These drill bits are subjects to erosion when drilling due to the discharge of rock cuttings out of the hole. The cuttings are removed with a fluid, often water or air which combined creates the erosive media. Erosion is a phenomenon that slowly wears materials and if not prevented can cause failures on the products. The main objective with this study is to identify how erosion resistant the steel materials, which the products are made of, are relative each other and what the damages can be in the microstructure. The goal with this study is to create a baseline with information so better material choices can be made in the future.

    The method used in this paper is an erosion test based on ASTM G76 standard. The test equipment used fulfilled the standard with minor deviations. Specimens from seven different steels were manufactured with sizes of 25·20·5 mm, and heat treated to get the correct hardness values. Five samples were manufactured for each type of steel to get a good reliability. The parameters that were used were particle velocity of 50 m s-1, a particle flow of 2.0 g·min-1, an impact angle of 30º and a test time of 10 minutes in total per sample. The weight loss was measured every two minutes. The erosive particles chosen were sieved angular aluminum oxide with a nominal size of 50 micrometers. The loss of weight was noted for each sample and a mean loss was calculated and later converted to volume loss per gram erosion media. One sample of each steel type was investigated in a scanning electron microscope, to identify what type of wear mechanism that occurred in the micro structure.

    The results showed that the steel type AISI 4140 had worn the least. EN36C had the highest loss of volume. This result is not ensured due to deviations in the results. AISI 4140 had among the lowest hardness values and EN36C the highest. That means that the hardness did not correlate with the erosion in this study. The mean erosion rate was even for all the steel types, and the erosion had created a pit in the surface that looked the same on all specimens. The scanning electron microscope showed that the wear mechanisms found were of plowing and cutting character which is typical for ductile materials such as steel. 

    The conclusion of this investigation is that AISI 4140 could be chosen when erosion is an issue. It needs however more testing time in the erosion tester to confirm the results.

  • 66.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. Organisational Sustainability, Ltd., Cardiff, UK.
    Merrill, Michelle Y.
    Independent Researcher and Consultant, Capitola, CA, USA.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Ceulemans, Kim
    Toulouse Business School, University of Toulouse, Toulouse, France.
    Lozano, Francisco J.
    Escuela de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Tecnologico de Monterrey, Monterrey, Mexico.
    Connecting Competences and Pedagogical Approaches for Sustainable Development in Higher Education: A Literature Review and Framework Proposal2017In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, no 10, article id 1889Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research into and practice of Higher Education for Sustainable Development (HESD) have been increasing during the last two decades. These have focused on providing sustainability education to future generations of professionals. In this context, there has been considerable progress in the incorporation of SD in universities’ curricula. Most of these efforts have focussed on the design and delivery of sustainability-oriented competences. Some peer-reviewed articles have proposed different pedagogical approaches to better deliver SD in these courses; however, there has been limited research on the connection between how courses are delivered (pedagogical approaches) and how they may affect sustainability competences. This paper analyses competences and pedagogical approaches, using hermeneutics to connect these in a framework based on twelve competences and twelve pedagogical approaches found in the literature. The framework connects the course aims to delivery in HESD by highlighting the connections between pedagogical approaches and competences in a matrix structure. The framework is aimed at helping educators in creating and updating their courses to provide a more complete, holistic, and systemic sustainability education to future leaders, decision makers, educators, and change agents. To better develop mind-sets and actions of future generations, we must provide students with a complete set of sustainability competences.

  • 67.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. Organisational Sustainability Ltd, Cardiff, UK.
    von Haartman, Robin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Reinforcing the Holistic Perspective of Sustainability: Analysis of the Importance of Sustainability Drivers in Organizations2018In: Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, ISSN 1535-3958, E-ISSN 1535-3966, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 508-522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although several sustainability drivers have been recognized for different organizations, there has been limited research on analyzing which are considered to be the most important. A survey was sent to more than 1,502 organizations, of which 108 completed all the questions. The survey responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics, rankings in order of importance, comparison between types of organizations, and analyses of the interlinkages between drivers. This paper provides depth to the sustainability drivers’ discussion by: (1) expanding it to the three types of organizations; (2) providing the importance of each driver; (3) offering a ranking of the drivers; (4) analyzing the relations between drivers to categorize them; and (5) assessing the relations between the drivers’ categories. This research highlights the importance of recognizing the drivers that have the highest importance and influence for each type of organization, in order to foster them and make organizations more sustainable.

  • 68.
    Lozano, Rodrigo
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    von Haartman, Robin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Resistance to sustainability in organisations: Analyses of the importance of sustainability barriers to change2018In: EurOMA 2018 Proceedings, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organisations in civil society, companies, and governments contexts have been instrumental in driving sustainability. Organisational change for sustainability aims to move an organisation from the current state to a more desirable one. An increasing body of literature has been focussed on organisational changes, including drivers for and barriers to sustainability. This paper focusses on analysing factors of sustainability resistance in organisations. A survey was sent to more than 1500 organisations to analyse sustainability barriers to change, of which 73 completed all the questions. The survey responses were analysed using descriptive statistics, rankings in order of importance, comparison between types of organisations, and analyses of the interlinkages between drivers. The statistical methods and tests used were Friedman, Kruskall-Wallis, Mann Whitney U, principal component analysis, and network analysis. The barriers to sustainability were ranked in order of importance within their category: individual-, group- and organisational. Most important barriers we found to be lack of information and awareness, sustainability not being prioritised highly, and simple cynicism. On a group level, the most important barrier was ‘ignoring group institutions’ . On the organisation level, barriers such as financial issues, and a lack of resources, incentives and accountability were considered very important. Although a very higher number of barriers were included in the survey, they numbers were reduced to 20 using a principal component analysis. The analysis shows that many barriers are highly interlinked within their categories. Further analysis shows that many of the barriers are highly interlinked across categories, indicating that efforts at overcoming the barriers should be done in a holistic way. This paper shows that barriers to change will affect organisations in different ways depending on their goals and contexts. This paper provides depth to the sustainability barriers to change discussion by: 1) expanding it to the three types of organisations; 2) providing the importance of each barrier; 3) offering a ranking of the barriers in general and for each type of organisation; 4) analysing the relations between barriers and grouping them according to their correlations; and 5) showing the relations between the barriers’ groups. This research highlights that it is important to recognise which barriers have the highest importance and influence for each type of organisation, in order to overcome them and make organisations more sustainable. Identifying the barriers to change can help to apply appropriate strategies to overcome them, thus helping to better incorporate and institutionalise sustainability in organisations.

  • 69.
    Lundén, Andreas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Mårtén, Jesper
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Utvärdering av tillgänglighet på Stora Ensos massabruk i Skutskär2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 70.
    Löfqvist, Lars
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Innovation and Design Processes in Small Established Companies2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines innovation and design processes in small established companies. There is a great interest in this area yet paradoxically the area is under-researched, since most innovation research is done on large companies. The research questions are: How do small established companies carry out their innovation and design processes? and How does the context and novelty of the process and product affect the same processes?

    The thesis is built on three research papers that used the research method of multiple case studies of different small established companies. The innovation and design processes found were highly context dependent and were facilitated by committed resources, a creative climate, vision, low family involvement, delegated power and authority, and linkages to external actors such as customers and users. Both experimental cyclical and linear structured design processes were found. The choice of structure is explained by the relative product and process novelty experienced by those developing the product innovation. Linear design processes worked within a low relative novelty situation and cyclical design processes worked no matter the relative novelty. The innovation and design processes found were informal, with a low usage of formal systematic design methods, except in the case of design processes for software. The use of formal systematic methods in small companies seems not always to be efficient, because many of the problems the methods are designed to solve are not present. Customers and users were found to play a large and important role in the innovation and design processes found and gave continuous feedback during the design processes. Innovation processes were found to be intertwined, yielding synergy effects, but it was common that resources were taken from the innovation processes for acute problems that threatened the cash flow. In sum, small established companies have the natural prerequisites to take advantage of lead-user inventions and cyclical design processes. Scarce resources were found to be the main factor hindering innovation, but the examined companies practiced several approaches to increase their resources or use existing scarce resources more efficiently in their innovation and design processes. Examples of these approaches include adopting lead-user inventions and reducing formality in the innovation and design processes.

  • 71.
    Löfqvist, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Product innovation in small companies: managing resource scarcity through financial bootstrapping2017In: International Journal of Innovation Management, ISSN 1363-9196, E-ISSN 1757-5877, Vol. 21, no 2, article id UNSP 1750020Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers have proposed that scarce resources are the main factor hindering product innovation in small companies. However, despite scarce resources, small companies do innovate, so the research question is: How do small companies manage resource scarcity in product innovation? To answer the research question a multiple case study of three small established companies and their product innovation was used, including interviews and observations over a period of five months. The small companies were found to use many different bootstrapping methods in combination within their product innovation. The methods can be classified into three different functional categories: bootstrapping methods for increasing resources, for using existing resources more efficiently, and those for securing a fast payback on resources put into product innovation. Due to their resource scarcity, the studied companies also favoured an innovation strategy only involving new products done with known technology and targeting existing markets. This strategy seems to avoid unsuccessful innovation but at the same time exclude technologically radical innovation.

  • 72.
    Löfqvist, Lars
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Renngård, Ivar
    Movexum AB.
    The creation of mutual benefit within innovation management research on small companies2015In: 16th International CINet Conference: Pursuing Innovation Leadership, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research and small company practice have a different logic. It is difficult to bring these two greatly differing activities together to create mutual benefit within a research project on innovation management. This is a problem especially if the researcher wishes to make a direct practical contribution to the companies involved in the research. This research aims to explore the difficulties in collaboration for mutual benefit, but also provides an example of a research approach which created mutual benefit for all involved. The conclusions build on an earlier PhD project on product innovation processes in small companies together with extensive reflections and discussions with the strategic manager at one of the involved companies. The study presents several major differences between research and small company practice and gives arguments for why more traditional research approaches in the innovation management field by themselves, such as survey and interview research, seem to be less suitable if mutual benefit is a goal. Finally, the study illustrates a research approach creating mutual benefit, knowledge creation, and knowledge transfer from academia to business practice and vice versa. This research approach includes concurrently giving the involved company valuable input and flexibility so as not to disturb the company’s cash flow.

  • 73.
    Madeleine, Wedlund
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Mechanical Engineering.
    Jonathan, Bergman
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Mechanical Engineering.
    Decision support model for selecting additive or subtractive manufacturing2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Additive manufacturing (AM), or 3D printing, is a manufacturing method where components are produced by successively adding material to the product layer by layer, unlike traditional machining where material is subtracted from a workpiece. There are advantages and disadvantages with both methods and it can be a complex problem to determine when one method is preferable to the other. The purpose of this study is to develop a decision support model (DSM) that quickly guides the end user in selecting an appropriate method with regards to production costs. Information is gathered through a literature study and interviews with people working with AM and CNC machining. The model takes into consideration material selection, size, times, quantities, geometric complexity, post-processing and environmental aspects.

    The DSM was formulated in Microsoft Excel. The difference in costs between each method in relation to quantity and complexity was made and compared to the literature. The AM model is verified with calculations from the Sandvik Additive Manufacturing. The margin of error is low, around two to six percent, when waste material isn’t included in the calculations. Unfortunately, verification of the CNC model hasn’t been performed due to a lack of data, which is therefore recommended as future work.

    The conclusion of the study is that AM will not replace any existing manufacturing method anytime soon. It is, however, a good complement to the metalworking industry, since small, complex parts with few tolerances benefits from AM.

    An investigation of existing solutions/services related to the study was also performed with the ambition that the DSM can complement existing solutions. It was found that while there are many services that helps companies with implementing AM through consulting, few provides any software to assist the company. Regarding the question if AM is profitable for certain products, only one software fulfilled that demand, though it didn’t provide any actual costs. The DSM therefore fills a gap among the existing services and software.

  • 74. Malmquist, Claes
    et al.
    Vinberg, Stig
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Larsson, Johan
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik, fysik och matematik.
    Att styra med hälsa - Från statistik till strategi2007Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetsgivarens insikt om betydelsen av god arbetsmiljö och god hälsa hos sin personal är en viktig faktor i strävan efter att skapa en effektiv och långsiktigt hållbar verksamhet. I boken Att styra med hälsa från statistik till strategi resovisas resultat, erfarenheter och forskning från en studie om "Hälsofrämjande verksamhetsstyrning" på åtta jämtländska arbetsplatser. De verktyg som tillämpats är hälsobokslut, ekonomiska analyser, organisationsdiagnos samt nätverksträffar och processtöd. Studien har varit både praktisk och forskningningsinriktad. Boken ger konkreta råd främst till ledare, men även till andra intressenter, om hur hälsoperspektivet kan integreras i den traditionella verksamhetsstyrningen. Boken innehåller även tips om hur förändringsarbete med fokus på hälsa och arbetsmiljö kan bedrivas. Kapitelrubriker: · Varför styra med hälsa? · Vad är hälsa? · Vad är styrning? · Hälsofrämjande verksamhetsstyrning i praktiken · Resultat och analys · Forskning · Våra erfarenheter och råd Dessutom ingår ett komplett hälsobokslut, delar av verktyget organisationsdiagnos, referenser samt litteraturtips. Författare: Claes Malmquist Konsult, föreläsare och författare inom det personalekonomiska området. Stig Vinberg Forskare med lång erfarenhet av förändringsarbete på arbetsplatser. Johan Larsson Doktorand som forskar kring ledarskap, verksamhetsstyrning, kvalitet och hälsa.

  • 75.
    Mickelsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Nordin, Roger
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Omkonstruktion av bärande ram till Cibes Lift modell A52013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The company Cibes Lift AB manufactures screw-driven platform lifts in different sizes for loads up to a thousand kilogram. Platform lifts are a less space consuming alternative to usual standard elevators and subjected to the EU Machinery Directive. Mass consumption and pricing is forcing companies to develop new strategies to handle greater flexibility and lower their manufacturing costs. Since also Cibes are continuously working with cost efficiency of their products the work had the aim to make a redesign of the supporting frame to their standard model A5. The new frame design would be developed in terms of cost reduction, modern manufacturing techniques and high production efficiency. Through a literature review on the subject of cost-effective production a model for the design process were identified and applied in the process of the redesign.

     

    The redesign started with a practical load test and a finite element analysis of the existing frame in which critical points were identified and boundary conditions was confirmed. The product development method the House of Quality where used to create a technology specification and target values for the redesign. To identify the available production resources and develop a design appropriate to the available resources two possible subcontractors were visited in an early state. Together the analysis of current frame, the technical specification and the available production resources generated a concept model. The concept model was evaluated by the theory of deflection and analyze of various possible cross-sections for the bearing profiles. Profiles and other components were dimensioned trough finite element analyses against the strength requirements according to applicable standards and cost requirements in order to create an optimal solution.

     

    The result of this work is a standardized supporting frame that fits all the company's three brands. The frame is constructed entirely of steel and cold-formed sections designed for a more automated production. In comparison with the current design the weight has been reduced by more than three percent, the expected purchase cost has been reduced by approximately 15 percent and the deflection of the supporting frames floor was reduced by around 33 percent. We make the conclusion by this work that the model used for the redesign is well suited to generate cost-effective products.

  • 76.
    Mirbashiri, Amir
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Jaurell, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    Nå nya kunder med E-handel2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    BT is a global company within the lift truck industry. The main office is located in Mjölby. In Europe all sales and service activities are carried out by fully owned sales companies. I North America, BT RAYMOND develop and distribute trucks under a different brand. For the rest of the world BT works together with a distributor network, most of them are fully independent others BT has a small ownership in. BT is today own by TOYOTA material handling.

    This report is a study about BT’s possibilities to start an Electronic Commerce sales channel. At the beginning BT will most likely aim for a pilot project for Electronic Commerce for the Division Hand Trucks. The main reason is that the hand pallet truck is well suited for the web since it is rather standardized. This study can be an embryo for BT Europe to reach new customers who may discover BT’s products on-line. The goal for the future is to cover these customers in a better way and the Internet and Electronic Commerce could be one way of doing just that.

    We are not proposing a turnkey solution to BT. Instead this report aims to increase the knowledge within BT itself in this area. In addition we also try to highlight a number of important areas BT needs to address before an official launch of E-Commerce.

    Since a new on-line sales channel would impose major changes within BT we have also chosen to analyse important factors during a possible implementation phase. Together with our project company we have also decided to explore the CRM perspective with a new channel on the web. There seems to be possibilities for BT to improve their methods in this area and E-Commerce may be one tool to use.

    The authors focus on four important areas in this thesis. These are, Price, Sales and Marketing, Design of EC portal and Logistics. We also show several theoretical models like Key factors during a project process, Business Process Reeingineering and the

    Six-step model. The authors also discuss different forms of data collection methods.

    One key element of this report is the results of the questionnaire given to key people working for BT in Europe. There are also interviews from another company (SECTRA) about organisational change which can give the readers other perspectives in this area.

    At the end of this report (chapter 11) the readers could study our recommendations for BT in the event they will go through with implementing an E-Commerce channel. Those recommendations are summarized in both a long term and a short term perspective

  • 77.
    Niesten, Eva
    et al.
    Alliance Manchester Business School, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom.
    Stefan, Ioana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. Department of Industrial Economics and Management, School of Industrial Engineering and Management, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Embracing the Paradox of Interorganizational Value Co-creation–Value Capture: A Literature Review towards Paradox Resolution2019In: International journal of management reviews (Print), ISSN 1460-8545, E-ISSN 1468-2370, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 231-255Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reviews literature on paradoxical tensions between value co-creation and capture in interorganizational relationships (IORs). The purpose of this review is to make a re-evaluation of the literature by engaging a paradox theory lens, thereby identifying factors that render tensions salient and factors that lead to virtuous or vicious cycles. This review of 143 articles reveals factors that make tensions salient; these relate to plurality (e.g. coopetition), scarcity (e.g. lack of experience with IORs), change (e.g. changes in collaboration scope) or combinations thereof (e.g. IORs in weak appropriability regimes). Results also uncover factors that resolve paradoxical tensions of value co-creation and capture, thus spurring virtuous cycles (e.g. carefully mixing trust and contracts), as well as factors that promote vicious cycles, owing to the emphasis on either value co-creation or capture (e.g. myopia of learning). This review also uncovers a new category of factors that may stimulate either virtuous or vicious cycles, depending on the extent to which they are enforced. This finding expands the value co-creation–capture paradox resolution, and brings to light new dynamics in the paradox framework of dynamic equilibrium. The authors thus contribute by: (1) reassessing the existing literature and applying paradox theory to the well-known hazard of value co-creation and capture; (2) highlighting factors that amplify paradoxical tensions related to this hazard; and (3) outlining factors that solve the paradox by embracing its contradictory poles and factors that hinder paradox resolution by emphasizing either value co-creation or appropriation. 

  • 78.
    Nilsson, Erik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Bergstrand, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Proposing an assessment tool for Knowledge Management: A case study at an EMS in South East China2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, terms as “knowledge economy” and “knowledge society” have appeared in contemporary management literature. The rhetoric has been that technology-based advantages alone are transient and that knowledge is the reason companies are able to gain and sustain competitive advantages. This has led to extensive research, and knowledge management has gained the reputation of a legitimate research field.This thesis aims at proposing a feasible approach and tool for an initial knowledge management assessment, using the case of an electronics manufacturer in South East China. By an extensive literature review and analyzing reasoning, a knowledge management assessment tool has been developed through a combination of a well-known model for knowledge creation and a globally wide-spread set of criteria for knowledge management. A pilot assessment, conducted to evaluate a management process in the case company, proved the assessment tool applicable.In that pilot assessment, it was shown that all stages of the dynamic knowledge creation process were supported to some extent even though there was a lack of support for some categories in the evaluation criteria. The trial evaluation is however to be viewed as successful since the assessment tool was proven to serve its purpose. The assessed process at the case company was considered to contribute a great deal to the department’s and organization’s knowledge management performance.Geographic location or maturity of knowledge management is not regarded to have any significant influence and the proposed assessment tool is considered as useful to various organizations, thus enjoying a high external validity.

  • 79.
    Niss, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Project Becoming and Knowing Trajectories: An Epistemological Perspective on Human and Non-human Project Making2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 80.
    Nylén, Karl-Olof
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Funktionskrav i järnvägsprojekt: Hinder och möjligheter2000Report (Other academic)
  • 81.
    Ohlsson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Kartläggning av ventiler innehållande Stellite i reaktornära vattensystem på Forsmark 22017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the process of a boiling water reactor, high-levels of waste and radiation occur, where almost all the dose per person of the radiation in Forsmark are due to the radioactive iso-tope cobalt-60. The reason is that the stable isotope cobalt-59 is converted to the radioac-tive isotope cobalt-60 due to neutron irradiation in the reactor. Since 2012, unusually high levels of cobalt-60 have been observed at Forsmark 2 which occurs from the material Stel-lite and is a very common sealant in valves. The major disadvantage of the material Stellite in nuclear power is the high concentration of cobalt-59. When grinding alloy surfaces con-taining Stellite, cobalt-59 is released in the form of abrasive dust if the effectiveness of sub-sequent Stellite alloys is poor. The consequences lead to increased radiation levels, which implies major financial costs and a difficult work environment in, for example, mainte-nance work.Today, there is no mapping of valves containing Stellite, which may result in the decon-tamination of Stellite not being requested and missing when a maintenance action in the form of, for example, grinding is performed. The completed mapping of valves containing Stellite is thus the first that has been carried out within Forsmarks Kraftgrupp AB for the priority systems 313, 321, 331 and 415.In this work, valves containing Stellite have been mapped along main lines in systems that come into contact with reactor water without passing ion exchange filters. Furthermore, the effects of how the grinding of valves alloy surfaces in the seat / cone affects the feeding of cobalt-59 into the reactor and the effectiveness of subsequent decontamination of Stel-lite after grinding was investigated.The work has been divided into two main moments; Status analysis and Mapping, which in turn is divided into several sub-moments. The status analysis gathered the information re-quired to perform the mapping. With the gathered information from the status analysis, mapping was then carried out and valves were inventoried in the priority systems.A total of 45 valves containing Stellite were found whose water flow is likely to end up in the reactor without passing ion exchange filters. A total of 13 valves containing Stellite were found, which are not detected by the chemical departments measurement points and whose waterflow did not pass ion exchange filters before the reactor for systems 321 and 331.During a decontamination of Stellite in a valve, only alloy surfaces in the valves are con-trolled and cleaned, which results in dust from grinding remaining in the other surfaces of the valve as well as in the pipe ends when the valve has been assembled prior to commis-sioning. Of the 45 valves containing Stellite which have been inventoried, grinding in theseat/cone have occurred in eight of the valves, but only two of the valves have been de-contaminated since 2010-01-01. Since no decontamination of Stellite has occured six of eight times after grinding, and only alloy surfaces are checked as well as decontaminated, the effectiveness of subsequent decontamination of Stellite after grinding is very low.Based on the results of the work, a number of improvement proposals have been present-ed for continued work to reduce the feeding of cobalt 59 to the reactor water and eventu-ally reduce the radiation levels at Forsmark's nuclear power plant.

  • 82.
    Olsmats, Carl
    et al.
    Lund University, Faculty of Engineering, LTH at Lund University, Departments at LTH, Department of Design Sciences, Packaging Logistics.
    Dominic, Chris
    Lund University, Faculty of Engineering, LTH at Lund University, Departments at LTH, Department of Design Sciences, Packaging Logistics.
    Packaging Scorecard - A Packaging Performance Evaluation Method2003In: Packaging technology & science, ISSN 0894-3214, E-ISSN 1099-1522, Vol. 16, p. 9-14Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To support a more holistic approach to the contribution of packaging to efficiency and value creation in the product supply chain, a systematic evaluation method Packaging Scorecard - has been developed and tested in two case studies. The Packaging Scorecard is based on research of functional criteria of packaging and the theories of Balanced Scorecard, a general management approach to evaluating organisational performance using different perspectives. The results of the case studies indicate that the method can be very useful to get a systematic overview of packaging performance throughout the product supply chain.

  • 83.
    Qi, Yiwen
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Xu, Amin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    How to apply inventory management in a PC company: A case study of Lenovo Company2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, Inventory management has become one of the most importantparts in a company supply chain management. For a company, how to get effectiveand reasonable inventory management to reduce production costs becomes animportant topic in today's enterprise management.The development of inventory management in China is still at start-up stage.This thesis chose Lenovo as case study Company and analyzed the problem inLenovo’s inventory management process. By comparing with Lenovo’s previous andcurrent inventory management model, this thesis presents reasonable measurements ofimplementing vendor management inventory in Lenovo. Vendor managed inventory isan integrated approach for retailer–vendor coordination (Darwish & Odah, 2010).In this case study, in order to get the basic information about Lenovo, interviewshave been used. Other data were colleted from literature review and Lenovo annualreport. The VMI technology's impact on Lenovo was gradually revealed throughlong-term practice. It improved production flexibility, the core competitiveness of theentire supply chain and even corporate brand image. The VMI also helped Lenovo toreduce inventory and logistics operating costs and improve management capabilitiesand operational efficiency. Several features of Lenovo's VMI model have beenpresented in this thesis. They are information sharing, cost saving, sales forecasting,customer service level, quick response, and suppliers work all of which together toachieve a win-win situation and coordination of product supply and demand.

  • 84.
    Reitsma, E.
    et al.
    Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Hilletofth, Per
    Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Critical success factors for ERP system implementation: A user perspective2018In: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 285-310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate critical success factors (CSFs) for the implementation of an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system from a user perspective. Design/methodology/approach: The research was conducted in two successive steps. First, a literature review was conducted to derive CSFs for ERP system implementation. Second, a survey was conducted to evaluate the importance of these CSFs from a user perspective. Data were collected through a questionnaire that was distributed within a German manufacturer and was developed based on the CSFs found in the literature. Gray relational analysis (GRA) was used to rank the CSFs in order of importance from a user perspective. Findings: The findings reveal that users regard 11 of the 13 CSFs found in the literature as important for ERP system implementation. Seven of the CFSs were classified as the most important from a user perspective, namely, project team, technical possibilities, strategic decision-making, training and education, minimum customization, software testing and performance measurement. Users regarded 2 of the 13 CSFs as not important when implementing an ERP system, including organizational change management and top management involvement. Research limitations/implications: One limitation of this study is that the respondents originate from one organization, industry and country. The findings may differ in other contexts, and thus, future research should be expanded to include more organizations, industries and countries. Another limitation is that this study only evaluates existing CSFs from a user perspective rather than identifying new ones and/or the underlying reasons using more qualitative research. Practical implications: A better understanding of the user perspective toward CSFs for ERP system implementation promises to contribute to the design of more effective ERP systems, a more successful implementation and a more effective operation. When trying to successfully implement an ERP system, the project team may use the insights from the user perspective. Originality/value: Even though researchers highlight the important role users play during ERP system implementation, their perspective toward the widely discussed CSFs for ERP system implementation has not been investigated comprehensively. This study aims to fill this gap by evaluating CSFs derived from the literature from a user perspective.

  • 85.
    Reitsma, Ewout
    et al.
    Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Hilletofth, Per
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Mukhtar, Umer
    Department of Management Sciences, GIFT University, Punjab, Pakistan.
    Enterprise resource planning system implementation: A user perspective2018In: Operations and Supply Chain Management, ISSN 1979-3561, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 110-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate critical success factors (CSFs) for the implementation of an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system from a user perspective. Users play a vital role when implementing an ERP system, but their perspective has been neglected in the literature. A better understanding of their perspective promises to contribute to the design of more effective ERP systems, its implementation, and management. In order to identify the user perspective, a survey was conducted within three organizations from Pakistan that have recently implemented an ERP system. The questionnaire was developed based on thirteen CSFs deduced from literature. Based on each CSF’s level of importance, they are ranked in order of importance and divided into three groups: most important, important and not important. Findings reveal that users of the three organizations in Pakistan believe that the implementing organization should prioritize the following four CSFs when implementing an ERP system: education and training, strategic decision-making, communication, and business process alignment.

  • 86.
    Renström, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. KTH.
    Halling, Bengt
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. KTH.
    Cross-functional Alignment for Lean Development Obstacles and Facilitators for Organizational Learning2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To see and understand Lean as a management system, as well as a willingness within management to practice the desired approach, are often described as central for Lean implementation and development. To achieve this, a strategic, system-wide approach to Lean development may be required. Such an approach would require cross-functional cooperation in driving improvements that affect organizational interdependencies. Cross-functional operation is a key factor for organizational learning, where learning is said to require individuals interacting for a specific purpose, learning together by trying to solve tasks and to improve performance. This goes beyond “team learning,” since by its organizational focus it addresses the management of interdependencies between organizational functions as well as among departments and hierarchical levels. Toyota, a company linked to the Lean concept, can often be found described as a learning organization. Its success is said to be closely linked to its ability to generate and manage organizational learning. Organizational learning emphasizes cross-functional social practice as the way to learn and develop. This paper, based on an explorative case study at a global manufacturing company, assesses prerequisites for cross-functional alignment and cooperation within a larger international production company. The question for the study was how managers describe obstacles and facilitators for cross-functional interaction for Lean development. Descriptions of obstacles and facilitators for cross-functional interaction given by managers point to the importance of a controlled management turnover and induction training, as well as formally established target conditions and collective performance management. Further conclusions are that organizational learning theory can be used to further understand requirements for Lean management by highlighting the importance of how and by whom daily steering or performance management and deviation handling is set up and performed. The results stress the importance of routines and composition of local management teams and their approach to shared responsibility and target achievement.

  • 87.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi. Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Developing TQEM in SMEs: Management System Approach2001Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 88.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Environmental management systems – a way towards sustainable development in universities: ”It was difficult at first … then we started talking with our colleagues and we saw it in a longer perspective”2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The economic development in the world today makes increased consumption of goods and travelling available for more people around the world than ever before. This results, however, also in increased production and spreading of substances that are hazardous both to human health and to the ecosystem globally. Therefore, education to increase knowledge, awareness, motivation, and action competence on all levels is important in the strategy for a sustainable development, which satisfies the basic human needs for all people without damaging the life support system of our planet.

    The challenge for universities is how to assure that their students are exposed to the questions that are relevant for sustainable development from the various disciplinary perspectives so that they will be able to make professional and private “sustainability-promoting” decisions in the future.

    The overall purpose of this thesis is to contribute to the knowledge and understanding of the implementation of environmental management systems in universities and how the systems can be a tool in integrating sustainable development in higher education. The research is motivated by the fact that many Swedish universities have implemented environmental management systems and although there are many studies of environmental management systems in industry and some in public organisations, many features of their use in the university context are still poorly understood.

    The thesis presents an in-depth evaluation study of the implementation of environmental management systems (EMS) in Swedish universities with comparisons to industry. Based on the evidence from the studies the main argument of the thesis is that the environmental management systems can indeed function as an effective means to integrate sustainable development in all university activities, including education. The regular audits required by a certified environmental management system keep the activities on the university agenda and provide opportunities for follow-up, for feedback and for further development. The emerging research on sustainable development can contribute to lifting sustainable development the on the academic agenda from different disciplinary perspectives. The study suggests also that, although internal factors are essential in the EMS implementation, without external follow-up and feedback, sustainable development risks remaining a policy among others without a real change in universities.

  • 89.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för industriell ekonomi.
    Brorson, Torbjörn
    International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics, IIIEE, Lund University, Sweden.
    Training and communication in the implementation of environmental management systems (ISO 14001): A case study at the University of Gävle, Sweden.2008In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 299-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Training and communication are essential elements in the implementation of environmental management systems (EMS). This study is based on two main questions: (i) What methods for training and communication will support the implementation of EMS at a university? and, (ii) How did faculty and staff perceive the training and communication activities? The study includes a literature review, a case study of methods for training and communication, and results of a semi quantitative survey of the perception of training and communication. All activities took place at the University of Gävle (Sweden). The University of Gävle was certified according to ISO 14001 in 2004. Practical experiences from the implementation of EMS in industry were used as reference.

    The literature review indicates that training is a key factor during implementation of EMS, and that training may change attitude and behaviour among managers and employees. Similar conclusions can be drawn from this study. The case study, and practical experiences from industry, indicate that similar methods of EMS training and communication can be shared by industry and universities. However, “academic freedom” and “critical thinking” may result in the need for more interactive training methods at a university than in industry. The results of the survey indicate that the training and communication have increased awareness of environmental issues. A deeper understanding of the personal role in the EMS was also observed. It can be concluded that the EMS training and communication team has a demanding task to introduce the concept of indirect environmental aspects at a university. Lecturers and researchers should be convinced that the greening of a college involves more than, for example, reducing the consumption of paper. The main role of EMS at a university should be to focus on indirect environmental aspects, for example, to introduce environmental and sustainability issues in courses and research.

  • 90.
    Sammalisto, Kaisu
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Sundström, Agneta
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Holm, Tove
    Sykli Environmental School of Finland, Finland; Department of Biology, University of Turku, Finland; Novia University of Applied Sciences, Finland .
    Yao, Zhilei
    Development of students´ sustainability knowledge, awareness and actions during university education2015In: : , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 91.
    Stefan, Ioana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. KTH, Industriell ekonomi och organisation.
    Disentangling the nature of tensions in Arrow’s paradox of disclosureManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 92.
    Stefan, Ioana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. KTH, Industriell ekonomi och organisation.
    Exploring Tensions between Appropriability and Openness to Collaboration in Innovation2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers, policy makers and practitioners alike have in recent years acknowledged a growing tendency towards opening up the innovation process by combining internal organizational assets with external actors’ resources. However, opening up the innovation process usually also entails revealing ideas, which may result in misappropriation. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate tensions related to the openness-appropriability relationship; this is done in three studies. The first study concerns a specific contextual factor that is likely to stress the openness-appropriability tensions: the location of external partners in innovation. The second study relates to the way managing openness-appropriability tensions affects performance, and the third study involves a theoretical discussion about the nature of the tensions occurring in the openness-appropriability relationship, i.e. paradoxical, dilemmatic, or dialectical. The first two studies apply quantitative methods, using survey data, while the third is a conceptual paper. The findings from the first study indicate that the use of different groups of appropriability mechanisms varies across various types of openness and that the location of external partners in innovation refines these linkages even more. The second study’s main takeaway is that the higher appropriability intensity, i.e. the extent to which appropriability mechanisms are put into practice, explains higher performance outcomes. The third study suggests that the tensions between openness and appropriability are more likely of paradoxical nature. From a theoretical perspective, findings indicate that paradoxical tensions between openness and appropriability may have a spatial dimension, and that these tensions should also be investigated in regards to performance. Managerial implications point out that opening up to innovation partners located abroad is likely to require more costly appropriability mechanisms.

  • 93.
    Stefan, Ioana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    If it looks like a paradox and walks like a paradox: an attempt to disentangle openness- and appropriability-related tensions2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 94.
    Stefan, Ioana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Illustrating and managing paradoxical tensions between openness and appropriability2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 95.
    Stefan, Ioana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. KTH, Industriell ekonomi och organisation .
    Knowing the Ropes in Open Innovation: Understanding Tensions through a Paradox Lens2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The fundamental paradox of disclosure suggested by Kenneth Arrow represents a challenge in contemporary open innovation settings. Potential negative outcomes of this paradox – e.g. misappropriation of ideas – are still not fully avertable. Researchers, practitioners and policy makers strive to untangle tensions related to this paradox, because failure to manage such tensions might entail lost jobs and hampered economic and technological growth.The purpose of this thesis is to provide a deeper understanding of this paradox by combining three perspectives on tensions in open innovation and applying a paradox lens. The overarching perspective is of value co-creation–value capture. The thesis comprises of five papers that are based on quantitative, qualitative and conceptual studies. The findings reveal: 1) characteristics of tensions; 2) factors that create tensions; and 3) possible solutions and pitfalls to managing said tensions. Findings show that tensions may be managed as paradoxical, dilemmatic or dialectical, depending e.g. on the need to be open or on the overlap between a product’s solution and its characteristics. Moreover, tensions could be spurred by a variety of factors, which may be categorized as: plurality of views, scarcity of resources, change, and combinations thereof (compound factors).Possible solutions to managing tensions include e.g. increasing staff awareness about intellectual property issues or improving collaboration contracts. Possible pitfalls are linked to over-focusing on either co-creating or on capturing value, and also to subsequent tensions. Findings also reveal a category of factors with dual role, which depending on their intensity, may lead to either solutions or to pitfalls. This hints towards additional layers of complexity concerning the paradox of disclosure. The findings contribute to theory on open innovation, appropriability and organizational paradox, and have important implications for practitioners and policy makers.

  • 96.
    Stefan, Ioana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. KTH royal Institute of Technology.
    Through paradox lens: Disentangling paradoxical tensions between appropriability and openness2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 97.
    Stefan, Ioana
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Appropriability: a key to opening innovation internationally?2016In: International Journal of Technology Management, ISSN 0267-5730, E-ISSN 1741-5276, Vol. 71, no 3-4, p. 232-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on the tense appropriability-openness relationship, defined by some as paradox. Based on an international survey of 415 manufacturing firms, we investigate how the use of different kinds of intellectual property protection mechanisms (IPPMs) affects interfirm R&D collaboration while considering partner location in the analysis as well. Our results show that the use of formal, semi-formal or informal IPPMs has different effects on openness in terms of partner variety and depth of collaboration with academic partners, value chain partners and competitors. Moreover, when considering location we uncover previously hidden appropriability-openness liaisons showing that semi-formal or informal IPPMs are mainly valid in relation to national partners, whereas formal appropriability explains international collaborations. One implication of the study is that to better understand the appropriability-openness relationship it is imperative to differentiate between national and international settings. We further suggest that the potential paradox delineating this relationship has a geographical dimension.

  • 98.
    Stefan, Ioana
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production. KTH.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    The whole nine yards: the moderating effects of appropriability intensity on the relationship between external search and performance2016Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 99.
    Stefan, Ioana
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Unravelling appropriability mechanisms and openness depth effects on firm performance across stages in the innovation process2017In: Technological forecasting & social change, ISSN 0040-1625, E-ISSN 1873-5509, Vol. 120, p. 252-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is to date abundant evidence about the way openness-performance liaisons are shaped, yet parallel streams of research point towards an intricate relationship between appropriability and openness. Accordingly, while openness may reveal ample opportunities, risks of e.g. misappropriation should also be accounted for in open innovation processes, as they might affect performance. Recent research highlights the scarcity of studies investigating openness, appropriability and performance, and suggests a further need to analyze this in different stages of the innovation process. This study therefore aims to investigate the effects of three groups of intellectual property protection mechanisms (formal, semi-formal and informal) and openness (in terms of collaboration depth with eight types of partners) on two types of innovation performance (efficiency and novelty) across innovation phases. The analysis is based on a sample of 340 manufacturing firms from three European countries. Findings show that in early stages of the innovation process, efficiency is positively linked to the use of semi-formal appropriability mechanisms, such as contracts, yet negatively related to the use of formal ones, such as patents. The latter potentially illustrates the high uncertainty and increased risks of imitation or misappropriation in early innovation phases. Informal appropriability mechanisms contribute to novelty in earlier as well as later stages. Results further indicate novelty is explained by university collaboration throughout the innovation process, while competitor collaboration positively associates with novelty in later innovation stages. Vertical collaborations with supplier and customers reveal contrasting effects, which could also have implications linked to imitation risks. Furthermore, the negative effects of formal appropriability mechanisms and supplier collaboration on innovation performance in distinct stages of the innovation process might have implications for the so-called paradox of disclosure.

  • 100.
    Stefan, Ioana
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Niss, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Exploring the paradox of openness in high tech and low tech industries2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Firms relying on external sources of knowledge for innovation may encounter a paradox of openness concerning the need to both share and protect knowledge in collaborations. Based on an international survey of manufacturing firms this study attempts to illustrate various forms of the paradox by investigating the effects firms’ openness has on appropriability and performance in high and low tech industries. Findings reveal that the paradox is more likely to occur in the high tech industry cluster, thus hinting towards additional challenges firms in this cluster face in practice and underlining the need to include the technological dimension when researching the paradox. Moreover, in the majority of openness-appropriability combinations where we find a potential paradox of openness, firms do not succeed to overcome the paradox. The one exception in our sample is for the high tech firms when collaborating with suppliers and using formal appropriability. By pinpointing the different forms of the paradox this study also contributes to the ongoing debate concerning the role of intellectual property mechanisms in inbound open innovation.

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