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  • 51.
    Al-Fayadh Mean, Sophada
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Public Health and Sport Science.
    Hur motiverar Studenthälsan universitetsstudenter till minskad alkoholkonsumtion?: - En kvalitativ intervjuundersökning2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

     

    Mean, A.F. S. (2019). How Student Health Center motivate university students to reduce alcohol consumption? A qualitative interview study was carried out at three selected Swedish universities and four professionals employed were included in this empirical study. Bachelor thesis in Public Health Science. Department of Occupational and Public Health Science. Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies. University of Gävle, Sweden.

     

    Background: Universities and Student Health Centers are arenas that works with motivation methods to reduce student’s alcohol consumption during studies. Previous studies have discussed social norms, alcohol culture and pointed out that nearly half of all Swedes between 18-25 years are university students. Over the years, this age group has had a higher alcohol intake compared to other periods in life. High alcohol consumption can affect health and all three sustainable aspects: social, economic and environmental sustainability that according to SDGs is to be achieved at year end 2030.

    The Aim of study: was to investigate how Student Health Centers motivate students to reduce alcohol consumption. Method: A qualitative interview study was carried out at three selected Swedish universities and four professionals’ employees at Student health centers were included in this investigation. Result: The Student Health Centers used a number of different evidence-based methods and strategies with motivational interview to motivate university students to reduce their alcohol consumption. Motivational work was focused on both individuals and groups. Motivational work based on personal experiences and the implementation of motivational conversations with students were accordance with students´ health status and their alcohol issues.

    Discussion: Students search motivational counseling not because of perceived alcohol problem, but due to stress factors and similar problems. A change in attitudes towards less alcohol intake among young adults could be reached due to increased awareness and knowledge of alcohol harm and alcohol-free drinks alternatives.

    Conclusion: The main task of the student Health Service is to try to reach all university students by using different motivational methods and tools. The main goal is to increase health promotion, reduce alcohol risk, prevent alcohol abuse and injuries at universities and colleges. Further qualitative research is needed to be able to identify patterns of underlying stress factors and alcohol-related ill-health among university students on a larger number of Universities and Student Health Centers.

  • 52.
    Alfredsson, Elin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Kulturella aktiviteters betydelse för äldres känsla av sammanhang: En enkätundersökning på två äldreboenden i Mellansverige2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there was any association between participation in cultural activities and sense of coherence among seniors living in two nursing homes.

    Methods: A questionnaire based on Antonovskys SOC-13-questionaire was used, with added self-formulated questions including gender, age, level of physical function and participation in cultural activities. The questionnaire was distributed to 76 people 65 years and older without dementia at two nursing homes in central Sweden and 40 respondents answered the questionnaire. The material was processed and analyzed in the statistic computer program SPSS, where descriptive statistics were prepared and a chi-square analysis and logistic regression analysis was performed.

    Results: No statistically significant relationship between participation in cultural activities and sense of coherence could be seen. However, there was a correlation between the level of function and SOC scores. The lower level of function, i.e. the more help the respondent needed in everyday life, the lower sense of coherence.

    Conclusion: Functional level seems to have greater impact on an individual's sense of coherence than participation in cultural activities in the given study population.

  • 53.
    Al-hedr, Hkmat
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Palomera, Giordano
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Erfarenheter av egenvård hos vuxna personer med Diabetes typ 2: En litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Diabetes typ 2 ökar globalt, riskfaktorer för utvecklingen är bland annat ärftlighet och levnadssätt. Främsta behandlingen är egenvård i form av regelbunden motion och hälsosam kosthållning.

     

    Syfte: Syftet med litteraturstudien var att beskriva erfarenheter av egenvård hos vuxna personer med Diabetes typ 2.

     

    Metod: En beskrivande litteraturstudie som inkluderade 15 artiklar, vilka svarade på litteraturstudiens syfte. Genom databaserna MEDLINE via PubMed och CINAHL söktes artiklar fram systematiskt, varav en var manuell sökning.

     

    Resultat: Resultatet visade att personer kände oro vid diagnostisering av Diabetes typ 2. Oron minskade när personerna accepterade sjukdomen och tog ansvar genom egenvård. Personer förklarade att de behövde upprätthålla egenvårdsåtgärder för att det skulle ske en livsstilsförändring, dock beskrevs det som svårt. Även om personer påbörjat sin väg mot livsstilsförändring kunde de stöta på svårigheter att hantera sociala sammanhang, vilket var ett hinder i deras vardag. Närstående till personer kunde också upplevas som ett hinder, men främst ansågs de närstående vara ett stort stöd. Personer beskrev också sjuksköterskan som ett viktigt stöd, framförallt med motivation. Andra personer beskrev istället att sjuksköterskan endast utförde praktiska procedurer.

     

    Slutsats: Utifrån litteraturstudiens resultat kan sjuksköterskan få en uppfattning av personernas erfarenheter. Detta kan underlätta för sjuksköterskan att främja hälsa genom att ge anpassad information och vård. Om personer får en sådan hjälp kan de ta eget ansvar för sin behandling och därav påbörja sin egenvård. Genom att personerna upprätthåller sin egenvård kan de i längden förbättra sin livskvalitet.

  • 54.
    Alm, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Distriktssköterskors/Sjuksköterskors reflektioner kring omvårdnad av patienter och stöd till anhöriga inom palliativ vård i hemsjukvården: En intervjustudie med fokus på relationer2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe district nurses’/nurses’ reflections of providing nursing to patients and support to families receiving palliative care within home care. The study had a qualitative approach with a descriptive design. Data were collected using semi-structured interview questions and analyzed using qualitative content analysis.The overarching theme that emerged was: The valuable but limited time on the last trip and consisted of the two main categories: To overcome barriers to providing good care and See opportunities to create good nursing care. Factors that precluded that good nursing could be provided was when district nurses/nurses experienced resistance from patient or relatives, when language difficulties arose or when family relationships were disturbed. The participants described furthermore that good nursing could not be given when families did not accept support offered from district nurses/nurses in order to strengthen the families capacity to manage their situation or in cases when patients had no close relatives as caregivers who could participate in and facilitate care. Conditions to provide good care was experienced when patients were receptive to care and understood their situation, and when district nurses/nurses were able to get a good start with time to get to know the patient. The basis for being able to provide good care consisted of relatives´ willingness to participate in the care of the patient as well as of the nurses’ feeling secure in their role as a result of their long experience. Palliative care in the home is a complex area and is affected by individual circumstances of patients, relatives and the district nurse/nurse as well as structural work-related conditions. To provide good palliative care is one of the greatest challenges for district nurses/nurses in palliative home care.

  • 55.
    Alm, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Vorén, Rose-Marie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Upplevelse av palliativ vård hos patienter behandlade för obotlig cancer på hospice eller inom den slutna vården - en litteraturstudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the experiences of terminal cancer patients’ receiving palliative care in hospice or in an in-patient care unit, and illuminate what these patients believe that good palliative care involves. Method:  The Literature study had a descriptive design and was based on 14 scientific articles that were retrieved from the databases Cinahl, PubMed, PsycInfo and by manual search. The results of the analysis were compiled into 5 categories containing 23 subcategories. Main Result: Patients experienced that the issue of most importance in palliative care was to obtain adequate pain relief without reservation or delay. Good communication and interaction between the nurse and the patient was the basis for good health care to be developed. Trust in health professionals' skills and abilities were essential to patients' perceptions of security. Autonomy was central for the patients’ participation in their health care, and it created a sense of control and meaning. The environment at the hospice had a negative impact on the patients’ self-image and made them lose their identity. Finding meaning in their suffering helped the patients gradually to accept their situation in order to find peace in their knowing of the inevitable. Conclusion: The interpersonal communication and nursing skills is of crucial importance for patients' perceptions of good health care. More research is needed to meet the growing request of qualified professional palliative care.

  • 56.
    Alm, Lena
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Sjöström, Anneli
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Att leva som barn till förälder med psykisk sjukdom2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this descriptive review was to elucidate how the literature describes how children of parents with mental illness experience and have knowledge about their parent’s illness. The aim was furthermore to describe how the children’s existence is affected, can be improved and why the children so often are invisible. Search through Medline (through PubMed) database and additional manual search was conducted. In total fourteen articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. The chosen method for analysis was qualitative and the results are presented on the basis of different subjects that elucidated the questions at issue. The study shows that children of parents with mental disorder often takes responsibility for the parents disease, a disease that has to be kept a secret and often lead to social isolation for the children. The children often have poor knowledge of the parent’s illness. Due to different obstacles these children are difficult to identify and thereby also difficult to help. The children themselves have clear opinions of what kind of help they want, mainly economic and domestic support, conversational support and information. One of the authors’ conclusions is that new research needs to be done regarding Swedish conditions.

  • 57.
    Almén-Åström, Eva
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    En jämförelse av patienters upplevelser av delaktighet, livstillfredsställelse, arbetssituation och sjukvårdskonsumtion efter Strokescreening respektive traditionell vård2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was that, with focus on experiences of participation and life satisfaction, work situation and consumtion of non institutional care, compare two groups that had participated versus not participated in a stroke program for Strokescreening. A questionnaire was sent retrospective to a consequetive group of people. The results were analyzed with Chi2-test, Mann Whitney-test, T-test, linear regression analyzes and multiple logistic analyze. No significant differences could be shown between the groups even though some tendences were noted. The group who participated in the Strokescreening program experienced less participation in personal care than the group who did not participate. The strokepatients that participated in this study experienced a significant lower level of life satisfaction than a reference group of a normal population of Swedes. There was a prominent difference between the groups about occupation before the stroke. In time of this study there where some higher percentes in the group who participated in the Strokescreening program that had returned to work. Several of the participants in the group that had not participated in the Strokescreening program had a regulary contact with the non institutional care. The results of the present study arouse some questions about the benefit with the Strokescreening program related to the expences. The method of a questionnairy study had some weekness, both in a relatively high level of reduction of participants and a question about the relevace of the questions asked. Therefore, it would be of great interest to make an interview study of this population. It would also be of great interest to examin if there are any differences in the frequency of how many of the participants who gets another stroke in respective group. The purpose of that would be to see if the Strokescreening program has any secondary preventive effect.

  • 58.
    Al-Sabti, Sarah
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Maycraft Kall, Mathilde
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskornas upplevelser av att ge omvårdnad till patienter inom palliativ vård i hemmet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Sjuksköterskorna behövde vara flexibla för att kunna hjälpa patienterna med sitt vardagliga liv. Det är viktigt att sjuksköterskan är redo att tillhandahålla palliativ vård på ett professionellt sätt och för att uppnå detta krävs det att sjuksköterskan har ett bra bemötande samt att patienten ges bästa möjliga omvårdnad. Sjuksköterskans arbete inom den palliativa vården är krävande och därför efterfrågas kunskap och erfarenhet hos sjuksköterskan. Syfte: Syftet med studien var att beskriva sjuksköterskors upplevelser av att ge omvårdnad till vuxna patienter som ges palliativ vård i hemmet, samt att beskriva hur de valda artiklarna beskriver undersökningsgruppen. Metod: En deskriptiv litteraturanalys. 11 artiklar granskades och sammanfattades.  Huvudresultat: Att handskas med ett arbete nära döden och anhöriga som ofta hellre vill ha sin egen röst hörd istället för patientens röst är svårt för sjuksköterskan. Sjuksköterskor upplevde palliativ vård som emotionellt påfrestande. Sjuksköterskor beskriver att de genom professionella gränser och kollegialt stöd hanterar arbetet. Slutsats: Att upprätthålla de professionella gränserna är viktigt för sjuksköterskan, samt att kunna få kollegialt stöd. Att få läkaren att förstå vikten av situationen är inte alltid lätt, men är viktigt för sjuksköterskan att kunna göra för att ge patienten den bästa vården och minska patientens lidande.  

  • 59.
    Alvesand, Caroline
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Linder, Charlotte
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Ungdomars upplevelse av att leva med Diabetes Mellitus typ 1.: En deskriptiv litteraturstudie.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 debuts in childhood and adolescence. The treatment is self-care that involves blood glucose control, drug treatment and following recommendations on diet and exercise. Nursing's professional area includes children and adolescents. Deviating from self-care activities and secrecy around the disease affects the quality of care for young people. Purpose: To describe the young people's experience of living with Diabetes Mellitus type 1 as well as describing the study groups of the studies examined. Method: Descriptive literature study with twelve scientific articles with qualitative as well as qualitative and quantitative approach. Consequences and differences in the results of the articles have been categorized and themes and subthemes have been identified. Results: Young people experienced difficulties in accepting their illness and wanted to have control over and take responsibility for their illness and increase independence. Young people experienced the feeling of being different and avoiding self-care in social contexts. Difficulties to follow dietary recommendations varied and blood glucose controls were exerted. Support from friends and peers facilitated the performance of self-care. It was positive that nurses showed interest in the lives of adolescents in addition to their DMT1. Nurses were found to fail to get into the situation of young people and to be an emotional support. Conclusion: There is a need for increased support and understanding from nurses. Through increased understanding, the nurse can help to facilitate the transfer of responsibility. This can lead to increased safety and sense of control among adolescents, which may help them dare to share their illness with the environment.

  • 60.
    Alvåg, Amanda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Anna, Ramberg
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Mödrars upplevelse av postpartumdepression: En litterturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 61.
    Alyass, Laila
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Finns det belägg för socialt stöd i arbetsplatsen?: Studie om en myndighet i Mellansverige som har i uppgift att fatta individuella beslut.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ohälsa på arbetsplatsen utgör en stor riskfaktor beträffande folkhälsa. Jag har valt att undersöka hur anställda på en myndighet beskriver dess innebörd av socialt stöd och hurvida det är en viktig faktor för arbetslivet att kunna uppleva någon form av socialt stöd. Tidigare forskning har visat att bristande socialt stöd på arbetsplatsen ger en ökad risk för stress, vilket kan resultera i att arbetsglädje och välmående försämras. Med hjälp av socialt stöd från arbetskollegor skapas det arbetsglädje och ett ökat välmående. Syftet: med denna uppsats var att undersöka hurvida handläggare på en myndighet upplever soicalt stöd i arbetet. Detta för att kunna se om sociala stödet har samband med arbetshälsan och hur det påverkar arbetstagarnes vämående. Metod: I studien har en kvalitativ ansats använts, där 4 respondenter intervjuvades på en myndighet i ett län i Mellansverige. I studien har data analyserats och styrkats från en deskriptiv innehållsanalys, där intervjuerna transkriberades och kategoriserades för att kunna få fram resultatet. 

    Resultat: visade att samtliga respondenter upplevde att socialt stöd på arbetsplatsen är något positivt och kan även fungera som ett hjälpmedel främst vid stressiga perioder. Studien har även visat att socialt stöd från arbetskollegor skapar trygghet i arbetet. Detta genom att man vid svåra situationer får stöd från kollegor för att finna lösningar på problem som kan uppstå. Slutsatsen: visar att med ett gott arbetsteam skapas det en förutsättning för en bättre arbetshälsa med ökad välbefinnande även vid stressiga situationer. 

  • 62.
    Amini Alikani, Amineh
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nygren, Sofia
    Upplevelse, livskvalitet och stöd från sjuksköterskor: en litteraturstudie om fatigue hos personer med MS2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: was to increase understanding of the experience of fatigue in people with MS and fatigues impact on quality of life and how the nurse can support and help people with MS in their everyday life.

    Method: Literature review with a descriptive design. Articles (n=15) were retrieved from Medline via PubMed and Cinahl and manual reference lists, six qualitative, eight quantitative and one with a combination of both approaches.

    Findings: it was found that fatigue in people with MS was an invisible symptom, lead to limitations in their everyday life, increased other symptoms and lead to social changes. People suffering from fatigue had lower quality of life than the general population. The findings showed what kind of support people with MS wanted from nurses. People with MS found their own strategies to manage and relieve fatigue, often without help from nurses.

    Conclusion: Fatigue in people with MS was a troublesome symptom which affected their everyday life and lowered their quality of life. Since fatigue was an invisible symptom it should be approached by nurses. More research is needed about how fatigue in people with MS should be treated and how nurses can best support people with MS to manage and relieve fatigue in their everyday life.

  • 63.
    Amra, Olfat
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Larsson, Malin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Egenvårdens roll i förebyggandet av fotsår vid omvårdnaden av personer med diabetes mellitus typ 1 och typ 2: En litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 64.
    Amundsson, Ulrika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Larsson, Sofi
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Psykisk ohälsa bland ungdomar i Sverige2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Att beskriva vilka faktorer som bidrar till psykisk ohälsa bland ungdomar i Sverige.

    Metod: Litteraturstudie med en deskriptiv design. Studien är baserad på 14 vetenskapliga artiklar sökt i databaserna "PubMed" och "Cinahl".

    Resultat: Det visade sig i resultatet att skilda föräldrar är en stor bidragande faktor till ungdomars psykiska ohälsa. Ungdomar som lever med skilda föräldrar har en större risk att drabbas av depression, ångest och att börja utöva negativa beteenden som rökning, dricka alkohol och tidig sexdebut. Andra faktorer som bidrar till psykisk ohälsa var fetma hos ungdomar och låg socioekonomisk status hos föräldrar.

    Slutsats: Resultatet i föreliggande studie visade att ungdomar som lever med skilda föräldrar är en stark bidragande faktor till ungdomars psykiska ohälsa. Även fetma hos ungdomarna och dålig socioekonomisk status hos föräldrar kan leda till psykisk ohälsa hos ungdomar. Författarna till föreliggande studie önskar att riktlinjer utvecklas så att sjuksköterskan och andra professioner inom vården lättare ska fånga upp de ungdomar som lider av psykisk ohälsa, genom att ha dessa faktorer i åtanke. Ytterligare forskning inom området bör utföras för att få en tydligare bild av hur familjeförhållanden påverkar den psykiska ohälsan hos ungdomar i Sverige.

  • 65.
    Andarea, Jackline
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Örnblom, Jeanette
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Föräldrars upplevelser av att leva med ett barn 0–13 år, med diabetes typ 1.: En litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Today live about 450 000 people with diabetes in Sweden and it makes the disease one of the major diseases. Diabetes mellitus type 1 is a chronic autoimmune disease primarily affects young people. In Sweden live about 7000 children with the disease and fall ill every year approximately 700 children under 15 years. This makes the disease one of the most common chronic diseases in children in Sweden.

    Aims: The purpose of this study was to describe parents' experience of living with a child (0-13 years) with type 1 diabetes mellitus and to describe the data collection methods of the included articles.

    Methods: A descriptive literature study, which included 11 scientific articles, nine articles of qualitative approach, one quantitative and one mixed study. These were analyzed objectively by both authors. The searches took place in PubMed and Cinahl.

    Results: The results show that parents experienced stress and life adjustment when child get diabetes. They felt a sense of worry and they found it difficult to assign responsibility to someone else. Support and information perceived as flawed in different situations, but a healthcare team or a mentor perceived as positive. Data collection methods in the included articles were mostly interviews except one who applied the questionnaire.

    Conclusions: Parents experienced constant worry, lack of support and information. With the right support and information would reduce parents' anxiety and it could also strengthen the child's self-care ability.

  • 66.
    Andersson, Alexandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Den stickrädda patienten2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Studies show that about 10% of the world population suffer from needle fear. Consequences for the person with this phobia who knows needle fear is anxiety and avoidance of medical procedures involving injections. This can lead to health problems for the individual and in the worst case lead to the person avoiding all healthcare. It is important that the nurse has knowledge of the factors that can lead to needle fear and what the nursing interventions that can alleviate the suffering of the patient.

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to highlight nurses nursing care measures required to preclude the fear of needles in children. The aim was also to describe the selection groups in the included articles.

    Method: A literature review in which the results of the 12 articles reviewed, analyzed and compiled. Searches were conducted in PubMed, CINAHL and PsycINFO.

    Main Results: The result showed that the environment's design is important as children get injections, and how well the child was prepared for needle insertion. The result showed that even small children have the opportunity to benefit from training on needle insertion procedures. Adjusting the time it takes for a baby and a toddler to adapt must be allowed to steer healthcare. Distraction was used as a method before the needle insertion but that the best were of distraction was not needed.

    Conclusions: The environment´s design is important as children get injections and nurse can reduce the feeling of a hospital or clinic by adapting the environment and provide for distracting toys. It is important that children know what would happen at the needle insertion procedure and even smaller children can benefit from education about needle injection procedures and understand the importance of them. The nurse can by adjusting the session time for the child's needs and validate the child's feelings reduce anxiety and fear of the needle fearing children.

  • 67.
    Andersson, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Distriktssköterskors upplevelse av förskrivingsrätten: Ambivalens och variationer i möjligheter och utnyttjandegrad2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Bakgrund:

    Förskrivningsrätten för distriktssköterskor infördes 1994. Syftet var att förenkla och effektivisera hälso- och sjukvården. Det har framkommit att förskrivningsrätten använts i olika omfattning bland distriktssköterskorna. Syfte: Syftet med studien var att beskriva distriktssköterskors upplevelser av förskrivningsrätten. Metod: En kvalitativ ansats med en deskriptiv design användes. Tio distriktssköterskor från en hälsocentral och en distriktssköterskemottagning intervjuades. Resultat: Temat "Distriktssköterskorna är ambivalenta till sin förskrivningsrätt och varierar i synen på möjligheter och utnyttjandegrad" bildades ur sju kategorier. Resultatet visade att distriktssköterskorna upplevde att det var bra att ha möjligheten att förskriva men möjligheten och graden av utnyttjande varierade. De upplevde att det var meningslöst att förskriva receptfria läkemedel. Brist på uppdatering i förskrivningsrätten och av nya läkemedel försvårar förskrivningen. Distriktssköterskorna uppgav att förskrivningsrätten underlättade arbetet och förkortade vårdkedjan samt stärkte yrkesrollen. De upplevde att deras förskrivning var en stor fördel för patienten. Slutsats : Distriktssköterskorna upplever ambivalens till sin möjlighet att förskriva läkemedel och utnyttjar inte förskrivningsrätten i den utsträckning de skulle kunna. Det kan bero på att de upplever det meningslöst att förskriva receptfria läkemedel och att de inte har möjlighet att uppdatera sin kunskap. Det finns även de som menade att förskrivningsrätten underlättar, stärker yrkesrollen och är en fördel för patienten.

    Nyckelord:

    Distriktssköterska, läkemedelsförskrivning, förskrivningsrätt, upplevelser.

  • 68.
    Andersson, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Mammors upplevelse att ha ett barn med atopiskt eksem och deras upplevelse av stöd från BVC-sköterskan2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: En ökning har skett av atopiska eksem, hösnuva och astma i slutet av 1900-talet, sjukdomarna har klassats som ett folkhälsoproblem. Det går inte att bota atopiska eksem, förebyggande behandling mot torr hud och klåda är mest effektiva sättet att hantera sjukdomen och lindra den. Atopiska eksem kan leda till försämrad livskvalité både för barnet och familjen. Syfte: Syftet med studien var att beskriva hur mammor upplever att det är att ha ett barn med atopiska eksem samt hur de behandlar och lindrar barnets symtom. Syftet var ckså att beskriva vilket stöd de får från BVC-sköterskan och hur de upplever det stödet. Metod: Studien har en beskrivande design med en kvalitativ ansats. I studien har åtta mammor till barn med atopiska eksem från två förskolor intervjuats. Intervjuerna transkriberades och analyserades med kvalitativ innehållsanalys.  Huvudresultat: Analysen av intervjuerna resulterade i temat: Att ständigt vara orolig för sitt barn, analysen har också resulterat i tre kategorier som handlar om att mammorna beskrev det ständiga smörjande som ett stressmoment. Mammorna undvek kemikalier i vardagen som de trodde kunde påverka barnens känsliga hy. Mammorna kände sig dåliga som förälder då de inte kunde bota barnens atopiska eksem. Mammorna tyckte att BVC-sköterskans bemötande var bra, men att de inte fick tillräckligt stöd med atopiska eksemet hos barnen. Slutsatser: Atopiska eksem påverkar barn och familjers livssituation, barnet och familjen blir påminda om eksemet igenom det ständiga klådan, sömnlösa nätter och föräldrarnas ständiga oro över barnet. Mammorna tyckte att BVC-sköterskans stöd inte var tillräckligt.

  • 69.
    Andersson, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Berglund, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Distriktssköterskors och sjuksköterskors erfarenheter om och reflektioner av arbetsmiljön i kommunaliserad hemsjukvård - En intervjustudie2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract (MB och AA)

    District and registered nurses work with various tasks and in different services includinghome care. The patient’s home becomes the nurse’s workplace. The aim of the study was to describe district nurses’/registered nurses’ perceptions and experiences of the work environment in municipalized home care, among those with short and long professional experience. Descriptive design and qualitative approach was used. Five participants with shortand six with long professional experiences were interviewed. The material was analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The results for participants with short work experience led to fivecategories: factors influencing workload, factors affecting collaboration, relationships and ethical dilemmas, organizational conditions and leadership, and lack of communicationreduce patient safety. The work was experienced physically diverse increased number ofpatients and time constraints led to stress. The work also felt joyful with good relationships to patients and families. Ethical dilemmas arose from divergent views of the patient’s health care needs. The results among participants with long professional experience revealed four categories: nursing in home environment, factors affecting communication and collaboration, tomunicipalize home care is a conversion process and a lack of leadership. The work was described as physically demanding but varied. Shortcomings of communication and information meant that important patient information was missing. District nurses felt theirspecialist competence undervalued. The conclusion is that regardless short or long professional experience, the participants witnessed of positive and negative aspects in their work environment. The work was perceived sensed but increased understanding and supportfrom managers about the work situation was desired. When working in home care, it can be difficult to affect work environment factors of importance because the work is performed inpatients’ homes.

  • 70.
    Andersson, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Öberg, Fia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Sjuköterskestudenters attityder till hivrelaterad sjukdom och hivpositiva patienter: En litteraturstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to describe nursing students' attitudes towards HIV- related illness and people living with HIV. A further aim was to examine the study groups on the basis of selection and non-response in the selected articles that were included in the study.  The study has a descriptive design and is based on 13 articles with both quantitative and qualitative approach. The results showed that negative attitudes were present in varying degrees among nursing students in all continents. This result was found, despite the fact that the majority of the participants in the studies were positive to nurse and treat people living with HIV- related illness.

    Factors that appeared to influence attitudes were age, work experience, knowledge of HIV - related disease and knowing someone living with HIV. There was also a connection between country, culture and nursing students' attitudes.

    The students were often found to have negative attitudes which were based on lack of awareness and fear which frequently led to stigmatization of the patient group. It turned out that there was a lack of knowledge among the students and that few had adequate knowledge of HIV - related disease and its transmission routes.

    The conclusion is that nursing students during their training does not get sufficient knowledge about HIV - related illness. This can result in difficulties to meet people living with HIV when the aspiring nurse may experience insecurity in meeting the patient.

  • 71.
    Andersson, Axel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Effektiviteten av högintensiv intervallträning som behandling för Typ 2 Diabetes: En litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund Det finns många olika varianter av diabetes men av alla personer som har diagnostiserats med sjukdomen så har 80-90% typ 2 diabetes (T2D). Sjukdomen kan uppstå av ärftliga faktorer och förekommer ofta i äldre åldrar men kan utvecklas i samband med en ohälsosam livsstil. Vid behandling av T2D är en livsstilsförändring viktigast och sker främst genom förändrade kost- och träningssvanor. Traditionellt har länge måttligt intensiv uthållighetsträning (MICT) i 150 min/vecka rekommenderats till målgruppen som träningsform. Syfte Syftet med studien är att undersöka effektiviteten av högintensiv intervallträning som behandling för vuxna människor med typ 2 diabetes eller prediabetes. Metod Studien är en deskriptiv systematisk litteraturöversikt som innebär att tillgänglig forskning sammanställs inom ett specifikt ämnesområde för att skapa förståelse för forskningsområdet. Sökningar har skett i databaserna PubMed och samlingsdatabasen Discovery där MeSH termer och friasökningar har kombinerats för att täcka en så stor del av forskningsfältet som möjligt. Resultat 11 artiklar valdes ut och resultatet delades upp i tre olika kategorier mellan glykemisk kontroll, högintensiv intervallträning (HIIT) i jämförelse med MICT och genomförbarheten av HIIT med self-efficiency theory som utgångspunkt. HIIT gav liknande eller bättre effekter på glykemisk kontroll (HbA1c) jämfört med MICT. I studier där genomförbarheten av ett HIIT protokoll nämns så visade samtliga positiva resultat oavsett interventionens längd. Slutsats Liknande eller bättre förbättringar på glykemisk kontroll går att uppnå genom en lägre träningsvolym än de traditionellt rekommenderade 150 min/vecka med måttlig intensitet och HIIT skulle kunna rekommenderas som behandlingsmetod för typ 2 diabetiker samt personer med prediabtes inom vården.

  • 72.
    Andersson, Benita
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Prague.
    Bjelke, B.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Syková, Eva
    Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Prague; Department of Neuroscience, Second Medical Faculty, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic .
    Temporal Profile of Ultrastructural Changes in Cortical Neurons after a Compression Lesion2006In: Physiological Research, ISSN 0862-8408, E-ISSN 1802-9973, Vol. 55, no 3, p. 339-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     We studied the occurrence of apoptosis and secondary delayed cell death at various time points in the penumbra zone, which is the target for therapeutic intervention after stroke. A compression lesion was induced in the right sensory motor cortex of rat brains. At 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after lesioning, motor functions were evaluated by behavioral tests, and cortical layers IV and V were examined by electron microscopy. Behavioral recovery was observed at 48 h after lesioning. At 0.5-1 h in the lesioned area, the neuropil was expanded and contained affected cells. Apoptotic cells were found between 0.5-72 h, and at 12 h, 47.3 % of the total cell number was apoptotic cells. On the contralateral side, cells showed an enlarged endoplasmic reticulum at 3 h, indicating secondary delayed cell death. Our results show that a compression lesion is a useful model for studying ultrastructural changes in injured cells. The lesion results in the penumbra zone with apoptotic cell death between 0.5-72 h. As secondary delayed cell death occurred on the contralateral side at three hours after lesioning might be the time period during which injured, but still viable, neurons can be targets for acute treatment.

  • 73.
    Andersson, Carola
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Pagard, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Distriktssköterskors/sjuksköterskors reflektioner kring kommunikation och informationsöverföringsprocessen mellan hemsjukvården och annan vårdgivare2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet till föreliggande studie var att beskriva distriktssköterskors/sjuksköterskors reflektioner kring kommunikation och informationsöverföringsprocessen mellan hemsjukvården och annan vårdgivare. Författarna till föreliggande studie fick fram att brister i kommunikationen såväl muntliga som skriftliga mellan distriktssköterskorna/sjuksköterskorna i hemsjukvården och annan vårdgivare förekom. Det medförde till extra arbete för distriktssköterskorna/sjuksköterskorna samt dålig kontroll av arbetssituationen och svårigheter att utföra deras arbetsuppgifter. Distriktssköterskornas/sjuksköterskornas beskrev en påtaglig känsla av maktlöshet i sin arbetssituation. Kanters teori handlar om det grundläggande behovet av att få egenmakt i sin organisation för att kunna utföra optimal omvårdnad. Författarna till föreliggande studie såg att problematik inom kommunikation och informationsöverföringsprocessen framkom tydlig från båda områdena trots att den ena organisationen bedrivits i 20 år och den andra var nystartad. Slutsatsen från föreliggande studie blev att vårdkedjan inte var starkare än svagaste länken när informationsöverföringsprocessen brustit. I samhällsläget idag med allt fler äldre som kan komma ifråga till att vara i behov av avancerad vård i hemmet och samtidigt bedrivas kostnadseffektivt, har vi inte råd med dessa misstag som medfört till ett onödigt lidande för patienterna och en komplicerad arbetssituation för distriktssköterskorna/sjuksköterskorna.

  • 74.
    Andersson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Englund, Kerstin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Omvårdnadspersonalens beskrivning av sina upplevelser av möter med utåtagerande personer med demenssjukdom och betydelsen av bemötandet2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to describe how care givers experience working with people who suffer from dementia and acting out behaviour and to illustrate the importance of the care givers approach. Sixteen caregivers were interviewed from different nursing homes in the middle of Sweden. The interviews were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. The result is divided into two content areas. The analysis of the first content area, care givers experiences of meeting people with dementia and acting out behaviour, resulted in three categories, which deals with the approach. The categories were; to be insecure, to feel a challenge and to be secure. To have co-workers nearby resulted in feeling secure. A challenge was to make the person suffering from dementia feel well once again. To be inexperienced resulted in insecurity among the care givers. The second area of content was, the care givers description of the value of a good approach when meeting people suffering from dementia and acting out behaviour. The analysis of that content area resulted in four categories; to be clear, to be calm, to be experienced and to be accepted. To be calm and use few words was successful. To have knowledge and to be appreciated made the care giving work easier. The result of the study illustrates different approaches from care givers in their contact with patients with dementia and how care givers experienced that contact.

  • 75.
    Andersson, Ellinor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Har ett idrottsmedlemskap som barn någon betydelse för den fysiska aktiviteten som vuxen?2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether students' memberships in sports clubs has affected their attitudes towards physical activity and physical activity level. It was a qualitative descriptive survey based on individual interviews. Results showed that there was a pattern between the former sports membership and current patterns of physical activity.  For instance, those who liked playing football at a young age, continue to adopt the same type of exercise today. This pattern applies to other types of physical activity, with or without club membership. In addition, many respondents thought that a club membership at a young age could have an impact on their physical activity as adults. This was mainly due to the positive feeling that sportsmen perception, that physical activity was something good and fun. Social cohesion in sport was the one thing that many of those interviewed believed was a major reason why sports, was perceived as positive.

  • 76.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Christina, Lindberg
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans vårdande på akutmottagningen – ur ett patientperspektiv: En deskriptiv litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The emergency department has a high patient inflow and this results in increased waiting times for patients with low priority injuries and diseases/conditions. The confidentiality in health care prevents the nurse from giving information on why other patients are prioritized over them. Nurses can with the knowledge of patients' experiences of care in the emergency department, get a better understanding and through this provide more individualized care and increased satisfaction of patients.

    Aim: To describe patients' experiences of care from nurses in the emergency department. Furthermore, the aim of this study was to examine the data collection method of the included articles.

    Methods: A literature study with descriptive design. The twelve included scientific articles were sought out in the databases CINAHL and PubMed. The approaches of these are quantitative, qualitative or mixed.

    Results: Many patients felt that the treatment they received by the nurse in the emergency department was good. The good hospitality, ability to listen and the high competence of the nurse brought a mutual respect between nurse and patient. During the waiting time, however, the patients sometimes felt as a burden on nurses and in some cases even felt ignored. The lack of contact with the nurses during the waiting time meant that the patients did not receive the information they deemed necessary. Patients described that the nurse communication was adequate and that they used an easy to understand language.

    Conclusion: Most patients were satisfied with the care they received by the nurse in the emergency department. They felt that the nurse had a high level of competence and communication was adequate. However, there were patients who felt that the information was inadequate.

  • 77.
    Andersson, Gabriella
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Johansson, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Vårdpersonalens erfarenheter av hot och våld inom demensvård och somatisk vård på särskilt boende: Litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att beskriva vårdpersonalens erfarenheter av hot och våld inom demensvård och somatisk vård på särskilt boende. Ett annat syfte var att undersöka vilka förebyggande åtgärder vårdpersonal kan använda sig av vid dessa situationer. Föreliggande studie är en litteraturstudie med deskriptiv design.  Artiklar söktes i databasen Cinahl vilket resulterade i tolv inkluderande artiklar av kvalitativ och kvantitativ ansats. Författarna har valt att granska artiklarnas undersökningsgrupp och bortfall. Resultatet visade att hot- och våldsituationer är vanligt på särskilt boende och ofta uppkommer i samband med hjälp vid personlig hygien, påklädning och toalettbesök. Vårdpersonalens upplevelse av våld beror på deras tidigare erfarenheter och attityder. Varje vårdpersonal har en egen tolkning av vad våld innebär samt att graden av tolerans skiljer sig mellan olika individer. Genom att ha ökad kunskap, förmåga att kommunicera samt en professionell attityd och viljan att konsultera med andra i vårdteamet kan personalen förebygga ett aggressivt beteende på sin arbetsplats. Vårdpersonalen antog flera olika strategier för att hantera hot- och våldsituationer hos personer med aggressivt och utåtagerande beteende, t.ex. distraktion, personcentrerat förhållningssätt och kommunikation. Läkemedelsbehandling ansågs inte vara en förstahandsåtgärd. Inom det kliniska arbetet kommer vårdpersonalen på särskilt boende att stöta på svåra situationer och utåtagerande beteenden hos äldre och äldre med demenssjukdomar. Därför är det viktigt att som vårdpersonal ha kunskap om bemötande samt kommunikation för att kunna hantera dessa situationer.

  • 78.
    Andersson, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Äldre motionärers upplevelser av motionsträning: en beskrivande intervjuundersökning2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Older people's experiences of exercise training: a survey based on a descriptive design.

    Course: Public Health: Theory and method of application and degree, 30 credits. University of Gävle, health education program.

    Author: Helena Andersson

    Purpose: According to earlier research the western population is aging. This may affect, the older peoples`s physical disability in one form or another. The consequences may be that the need off care can increase. However elderly can prevent a variety of age-related diseases by being physically active. The study will examine how older people view physical activity and participation of other social activities. This is to improve understanding of older people's health and what can be done in the future.

    Method: The study was conducted using a qualitative approach, in which four semi-structured interviews were conducted with older adults who exercise regularly. The interviews were based on a thematic interview guide with specific themes that gave informants space to talk freely about the issues raised. The sample consisted of three women and one man where the youngest was 63 and the oldest 74 years old.

    Results: Exercise was the highest priority of this group of people. It was in the connection with social interaction that the exercise became complete according to the informants. The place for exercise was found to be important; to train with others, seemed to generate joy, power, energy and motivation. This meant that all informants were rarely sick, which also was something that was pointed out. They exercise to obtain more healthy years.

  • 79.
    Andersson, I.
    et al.
    Obesity Unit, Huddinge University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Swedish Dairy Association, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rössner, Stefan
    Obesity Unit, Huddinge University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Meal pattern and risk factor evaluation in one-year completers of a weight reduction program for obese men - the "Gustaf" study2000In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 247, p. 30-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To evaluate changes in meal patterns and in obesity related risk factors after 1 year of treatment in obese men. Design: Data from two 24-h dietary recalls, performed at base-line and after 1 year of treatment, were related to changes in medical risk factors. Setting: Academic obesity unit. Subjects: Sixty-three men, aged 44 (eight) years (mean [SD]) and Base- line Body Mass Index (BMI) 37.4 (4.6) kg m-2, who had completed 1 year of treatment. The men were subdivided by tertiles according to weight change: tertile I (n = 21), mean +0.3 kg, tertile II (n = 21), mean -5.8 kg and tertile III (n = 21), mean -14.2 kg. Main outcome measures: Weight loss, changes in meal patterns and in obesity related medical risk factors. Results: The reported mean energy intake decreased after treatment in tertiles II and III by 700 (1300) kcal (P < 0.05) and 700 (900) kcal (P = 0.001), respectively. In tertile III the energy-% from fat decreased (P < 0.05) with a reciprocal increase in energy-% from protein (P < 0.05). The frequency of snacks of a low nutritional quality decreased (P < 0.01) in tertile III together with an increase in energy-% from 'hot meals of good quality' (P < 0.05). Obesity related risk factors (anthropometry, blood pressure, serum lipid concentrations, blood glucose and plasma insulin) improved in a beneficial way only in tertile III. Conclusions: The weight loss in the successful tertile III men was to a great extent explained by fewer low quality snacks but more energy from high quality meals. These changes reflected the behaviour modification strategy recommended.

  • 80.
    Andersson, Izabelle
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Är Instagram en pådrivande faktor till utvecklande av Ortorexi?: En kvalitativ innehållsanalys om hur flödet av bilder på Instagram påverkar unga kvinnors kroppsuppfattning, fysiska aktivitet och matvanor i relation till fenomenet ortorexi.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore if young women aged 18-20 years experienced that Instagram affected their body image, their physical activity and their eating habits in relation to the phenomenon orthorexia. The method for the study was a qualitative content analysis based on semi-structured interviews with four young women with the age of 18-20 years old. The results showed that Instagram affected young women's body image, their physical activity and their eating habits. Primarily body image and physical activity were most affected, eating habits were less affected. The results showed that there were both a positive and a negative impact, but by far a negative impact. Respondents experienced feelings like anxiety and guilt when, for example, a training session did not go as planned or after they had eaten an unhealthy meal. Their mindset and emotions that came forward in the results were partly linked to the phenomenon of orthorexia. The young women were adversely affected by the pictures and videos on Instagram and also by other social media. They exposed themselves to develop mental and physical ill health. Society should consider prioritizing the young women to prevent them from falling into the mindset that is similar to the phenomenon of orthorexia. 

  • 81.
    Andersson, Jennifer
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Kvällspigg eller morgonpigg? Mat-, sömn- och motionsvanor hos gymnasieelever år 1 i förhållande till dygnstyp: En tvärsnittsstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Andersson. J (2015). Morningness or Eveningness? Food-, sleep-, and physical activity habits among high school students in relation to Chronotype. Bachelor thesis in Public Health science. Department of work- and public Health science. Academy of health and Occupational Studies. University of Gävle, Sweden.

     

    Aim: The aim of the study was to compare food-, sleep-, and physical activity habits among high school students in relation to morning- or evening type (Chronotype). Methods: In a cross-sectional study data were collected by use of a questionnaire comprising 24 questions concerning the participants´ food-, sleep-, and physical activity habits. The questionnaire was distributed to 77 students. A total of 77 (100%) individuals, 41 males and 36 females, participated in the study. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and comparative chi-square test. Results: Students were divided into two groups; morningtypes (n= 23) and evening types (n= 54). Morningness was associated with sufficient sleep and sleep of good quality during weekdays compared with eveningness. Morning types also tend to eat breakfast more often before school than evening types. Evening types showed a higher physical activity level. Conclusions: Chronotype was associated lifestyle among students in vocational secondary school year one. Early school start does not benefit adolescents that are evening types and it has a negative impact on sleep- and food habits. 

  • 82.
    Andersson, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Att arbeta som jourtjej: krav och rekrytering2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 83.
    Andersson, Josefine
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Rosén, Caroline
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Upplevelser av att vårda en närstående med demenssjukdom: En deskriptiv litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Today, approximately 160,000 people live with dementia in Sweden and globally, the number of affected people is approximately 50 million. Dementia is a collective name for a variety of brain diseases that occur from brain damage. As dementia often materializes gradually overtime, it tends to lead to a family member becoming the caregiver of the person who is sick.

    Aim: The aim of this literature study was to illustrate the experience of those caring for a relative with dementia as well as to describe the study groups in the included studies.

    Method: This study is a literature review with descriptive design consisting of twelve scientific articles with a qualitative approach.

    Main results: Becoming a caregiver to a relative with dementia was rarely a choice but it was a role in which the family member grows into. Many people experienced the role as a caregiver as complex and it was common to experience feelings of insecurity, isolation, fatigue and frustration. The approach and method for managing the disease differed significantly for each caregiver analyzed during this study, however humor, acceptance and religion were often employed as coping mechanisms. The result was compiled with seven subheadings: From family to family caregiver, Support in care, Insecurity, ignorance and difficult situations, More than a full time job, Loss and fear of the future, Coping strategies, and Methodological aspect – study groups.

    Conclusion: Being a family caregiver was a challenge to most people. Many have expressed the gravity of receiving both societal support and help from other family members to obtain relief within their role, but in spite of this, the caregiver often took the greater responsibility. Therefore, a critical change in the support is necessary to enable them to want, and be able, to continue to fulfill the important work they do. 

  • 84.
    Andersson, Kajsa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Jansson, Linnea
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nyutexaminerade sjuksköterskors upplevelser av arbetsrelaterad stress samt stressens konsekvenser: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to describe newly graduated nurses' experiences of work-related stress and to describe their experiences of what consequences stress can lead to. A descriptive interview study with qualitative approach was used. Data collection was performed by eight semi-structured interviews. The collected data was analyzed using qualitative manifest content analysis. The main result demonstrates that newly graduated nurses experienced stress in the beginning of their profession, partly because it is a time of uncertainty. Newly graduated nurses have described a decreased experience of stress with increased knowledge and experience, and reduced demands on herself in the professional role. Nursing is described to be stressful due to a variety of causes but there are measures that can be used to reduce stress. Stress has been described to cause consequences both for the nurse as an individual and for the care of patients, which has been described to result in feelings such as frustration and inadequacy. In line with Benner's theory it can be stated that newly graduated nurses undergo a professional development which lead to a experience of decreased stress. Stress in the nursing profession is a complex problem that must be dealt with on several fronts. For the newly graduated nurse it is very important that she is gentle with herself in the professional role by not having too high demands on herself to be able to practice her profession, that is carry out optimal patient-focused nursing.

  • 85.
    Andersson, Karin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Arbetsrelaterad stress och dess inverkan på möjligheten till att vara fysiskt aktiv, hos ett urval av grundskolelärare: Intervjuundersökning2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 86.
    Andersson, Karin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Hedlund, Petra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Sjuksköterskans kunskaper om kvinnovåld: en litteraturstudie2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    År 2007 anmäldes 19600 fall av våld mor kvinnor där förövaren var en manlig bekant till kvinnan. Mörkertalet är stort och våldet är ofta väl dolt bakom hemmets väggar. Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att belysa vilka kunskaper sjuksköterskan behövde för att kunna identifiera/urskilja kvinnor utsatta för våld i nära relation samt ge en god omvårdnad till dessa när de sökte till hälso- och sjukvården. Ur de granskade artiklarna utläste författarna fem teman "Urskilja kvinnor utsatta för våld i nära relation", "Att möta våldsutsatta kvinnor", "Våldsutsatta kvinnors erfarenheter av vården", "Sjuksköterskans behov av riktlinjer och utbildning" och " Sjuksköterskans inställning till att ställa frågan". Det framkom att sjuksköterskor behövde riktlinjer och utbildning/erfarenhet för att kunna identifiera och ge en god omvårdnad till kvinnor utsatta för våld i nära relation. En god omvårdnad för dessa kvinnor innebar att sjuksköterskan vågade fråga om deras situation, vågade ta emot svaret och förmedla vidare kontakt.

    En slutsats författarna drar efter denna litteraturstudies genomförande är att forskning om sjuksköterskors kunskaper inom detta område bör undersökas ytterligare. Vidare bör det även forskas om vilken kunskap om detta ämne sjuksköterskestudenter erhåller i sin utbildning till sjuksköterska.

  • 87.
    Andersson, Katarina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Den självskattade stressen och energin bland dag- och skiftarbetare på ett skogsindustriföretag i Mellansverige.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 88.
    Andersson Kraft, Emelie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Distriktsköterskans arbete med och reflektioner kring behandlingen av vuxna patienter med övervikt och fetma: En kvalitativ intervjustudie med distriktssköterskor på landstingsdrivna vårdcentraler i Uppsala län2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Övervikt och fetma är ett växande problem i Sverige och delar av världen. Det är en riskfaktor för andra somatiska sjukdomar och har en negativ inverkan på livskvalitén. Syftet med denna studie var att beskriva distriktsköterskors arbete med och reflektioner kring behandlingen av vuxna patienter med övervikt och fetma. Studien var av kvalitativ ansats med deskriptiv design och genomfördes genom semistrukturerade intervjuer med åtta distriktssköterskor på landstingsdrivna vårdcentraler i Uppsala län. Resultatet av studien visade att mätvärden och samtal var viktiga verktyg för att distriktssköterskorna ska kunna identifiera patientens övervikt eller fetma. I behandlingen av övervikt och fetma var motiverande samtal, tvärprofessionellt arbete, fysisk aktivitet på recept och kostråd centrala delar. Liksom de stöd som distriktssköterskan utgjorde för patienten i beteendeförändringen. Patientens brist på motivation eller vilja kunde försvåra samarbetet mellan patient och distriktssköterska. Slutsatsen av studien visade att distriktssköterskorna hade en betydande roll i patientens beteendeförändring mot en hälsosammare livsstil och viktminskning. Distriktssköterskorna hade kunskap och kompetens att hjälpa patienten i arbetet med beteendeförändringen men mer kunskap behövdes för att kunna utveckla vården. Riktlinjer för hur övervikt och fetma ska tas om hand och behandlas inom vården var viktiga och hjälpte distriktssköterskorna att motivera sitt arbete hos verksamhetschefer. Distriktssköterskorna följde delvis vårdprogrammet för fetma hos vuxna i Uppsala län.

  • 89.
    Andersson, Kristoffer
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans arbetsmiljö och patientsäkerhet: En litteraturstudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med litteraturstudien var att beskriva hur sjuksköterskans arbetsmiljö påverkar patientsäkerheten. Metoden som användes var en litteraturstudie som baserade sig på tretton artiklar. Resultatet pekade på att kvalitén på vården som sjuksköterskorna gav var signifikant associerad med sjukhusets arbetsmiljö och antalet anställda. Det fanns ett starkt samband mellan antalet patienter per sjuksköterska och patientsäkerheten. Det visade sig även att om en arbetsplats har en dåligt organiserad arbetsmiljö så kan det motverka fördelarna med att ha mycket personal. Sjuksköterskor måste vara flexibla då patienternas behov och vårdkedjor var mycket komplexa och ständigt varierande. Det kan finnas starka kopplingar mellan patienternas säkerhet i vården och sjuksköterskornas arbetsmiljö samt flera faktorer som påverkar denna arbetsmiljö: bemanning, organisation, arbetsansvar, höga krav, arbetsledning, patienternas tillstånd, arbetsrelationer, lagarbete, arbetsvillkor, sjuksköterskans professionella inställning, kommunikation, resurser, stress, utmattningssyndrom, stora mängder administration, telefonarbete, hanterande av svåra situationer och övriga icke sjuksköterskeuppgifter. Sjuksköterskeyrket beskrivs som mycket komplext, att det förväntas mycket och att det ställs stora krav på våra sjuksköterskor. Hög arbetsbelastning, konflikter mellan kollegor, dålig ledning och emotionell börda kopplades till utmattningssyndrom bland sjuksköterskor. Slutsatsen blev att låg bemanning och dålig arbetsmiljö kan påverka vårdkvalitén och patientsäkerheten.

  • 90.
    Andersson, Lina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Lärares tankar och idéer kring musik i idrottsundervisningen2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur och varför lärare i ämnet idrott och hälsa på gymnasiet använder sig utav musik som ett pedagogiskt verktyg samt varför de inte använder musik. Syftet är även att undersöka om gymnasielärarna i ämnet idrott och hälsa blir påverkade av några yttre faktorer som kan resultera i att de använder musiken i sin undervisning. Studien är baserad på kvalitativa intervjuer med åtta lärare i ämnet idrott och hälsa på gymnasiet. Resultatet visar att lärarnas tankar och idéer kring användandet av musik samt hur de upplever att eleverna agerar till musik stämmer bra överens med tidigare forskning som visar många fördelar med att arbeta till musik. Resultatet visar även att de yttre faktorer som påverkar lärarna mest, när det gäller hur det använder sig utav musik i deras undervisning, är eleverna och deras musikintresse. Slutsatsen av studien är att lärarna upplever att musik motiverar och inspirerar elever till rörelseglädje samt en högre prestationsnivå. Hur de använder musiken är antingen som bakgrundmusik eller som ett hjälpmedel.

  • 91.
    Andersson, Linda
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hellgren, Frida
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Distriktssköterskors erfarenheter av samt förutsättningar till preventivt arbete2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrunden till studien var att i takt med en ökad kunskap om att en stor andel sjukdomar går att påverka med förändrad livsstil ökar kraven på hälso- och sjukvårdspersonalen att kunna motivera patienter att förändra levnadsvanor. Syftet med studien var att beskriva distriktssköterskors erfarenheter av samt vilka förutsättningar de har till att arbeta preventivt inom det dagliga arbetet i primärvården. Metoden för studien var kvalitativ studie med deskriptiv design. Semistrukturerade intervjuer genomfördes med öppna frågor och tio distriktssköterskor inom primärvården deltog. Intervjuerna analyserades med hjälp av kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Huvudresultatet som framkom i studien var att deltagarna försökte arbeta preventivt i allt de gjorde, att det var något som fanns inom dem och att det var primärvårdens huvudsyfte. Det preventiva arbetet försvårades med att deltagarna inte hade tid eller resurser för utförandet. Något mer deltagarna beskrev försvårade det preventiva arbetet var när patienten inte var motiverad till livsstilsförändringar eller att deltagarna blev begränsade i att de upplevde att ämnet var känsligt att ta upp. För att underlätta det preventiva arbetet önskade deltagarna i studien mer utbildning för att öka kompetensen och höll dem uppdaterade. En osäkerhet framkom gällande arbetsrutiner för preventivt arbete då deltagarna inte alltid visste vilka arbetsrutiner som gällde, vart de kunde hitta dessa samt att de inte följdes. Slutsatsen är att deltagarna i studien beskrev hur de arbetade preventivt i allt de gjorde men det hanns inte med p.g.a. tids- och resursbrist. Till följd av otydliga arbetsrutiner arbetade inte deltagarna på samma sätt

  • 92.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Not getting used to the smell – Chemical intolerance as lack of habituation2017In: Biological Psychology, ISSN 0301-0511, E-ISSN 1873-6246, Vol. 129, no Suppl. C, p. 377-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Chemical intolerance is a prevalent, medically unexplained symptom characterized by diverse symptoms following weak chemical exposure. The symptom-eliciting exposures are often odorous, and include perfume, fabric softeners and fragrant flowers. Several explanatory mechanisms have been proposed, but empirical data is scarce. By reanalyzing data from previous studies, we aimed to find a criterion for chemical intolerance based on reactions to actual chemical exposure.

    Method:

    We grouped participants from six previous studies based on their pattern of habituation to weak olfactory (amylacetate and n-butanol) and trigeminal (CO2 and acrolein) compounds. In two studies utilizing event-related potentials, and one functional magnetic resonance imaging study, stimuli were presented intranasally using a dynamic olfactometer. An exposure chamber that allowed full body exposure was used in the remaining three studies.

    Results:

    Individuals who did not habituate to weak chemical exposure, compared with those who did, reported (1) increasing symptoms during the course of the exposure, (2) greater problems with odors in everyday life, and (3) greater levels of everyday distress. They (4) performed worse on cognitively demanding tasks during exposure, and differed in measures of (5) the autonomic nervoussystem(respiratoryrateandpulseratevariability),(6)low-level inflammation and oxidative stress, and (7) the so called pain matrix of the brain.

    Discussion:

    Lack of habituation to weak chemical exposure may be a fruitful method of defining a sub-group of chemical intolerance.

  • 93.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz
    Danish Research Centre for Chemical Sensitivities, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte, Gentofte, Denmark; Department of Systems Biology, Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Skovbjerg, Sine
    Danish Research Centre for Chemical Sensitivities, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Lind, Nina
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nordin, Steven
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Chemosensory perception, symptoms and autonomic responses during chemical exposure in multiple chemical sensitivity2016In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 89, no 1, p. 79-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a prevalent medically unexplained symptom characterized by symptom reactions to everyday chemical exposure below hygienic thresholds. The aim of this study was to investigate the expressions of hyper-reactivity in MCS during whole-body exposure to low concentrations of the odorant n-butanol.

    METHODS: We exposed 18 participants with MCS and 18 non-ill controls to a low concentration of the odorant n-butanol using an exposure chamber. The first 10 min constituted blank exposure, after which the n-butanol concentration increased and reached a plateau at 11.5 mg/m(3).

    RESULTS: MCS participants, compared with controls, reported greater perceived odor intensities, more unpleasantness to the exposure and increasing symptoms over time. MCS participants also expressed higher pulse rate and lower pulse rate variability than controls did. No group differences were found for breathing rate or tonic electrodermal activity responses.

    CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that MCS sufferers differ from healthy controls in terms of autonomic responses, symptoms and chemosensory perception during chemical exposure.

  • 94.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Department of Integrative Medical Biology and Physiology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Radiation Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nordin, Steven
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Short-term olfactory sensitization involves brain networks relevant for pain, and indicates chemical intolerance2017In: International journal of hygiene and environmental health (Print), ISSN 1438-4639, E-ISSN 1618-131X, Vol. 220, no 2, p. 503-509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical intolerance is a medically unexplained affliction that implies deleterious reactions to non-toxic everyday chemical exposure. Sensitization (i.e. increased reactivity to repeated, invariant stimulation) to odorous stimulation is an important component in theoretical explanations of chemical intolerance, but empirical evidence is scarce. We hypothesized that (1) individuals who sensitize to repeated olfactory stimulation, compared with those who habituate, would express a lower blood oxygenated level dependent (BOLD) response in key inhibitory areas such as the rACC, and higher signal in pain/saliency detection regions, as well as primary and/or secondary olfactory projection areas; and (2) olfactory sensitization, compared with habituation, would be associated with greater self-reported chemical intolerance. Moreover, we assessed whether olfactory sensitization was paralleled by comparable trigeminal processing – in terms of perceptual ratings and BOLD responses. We grouped women from a previous functional magnetic imaging study based on intensity ratings of repeated amyl acetate exposure over time. Fourteen women sensitized to the exposure, 15 habituated, and 20 were considered “intermediate” (i.e. neither sensitizers nor habituaters). Olfactory sensitizers, compared with habituaters, displayed a BOLD-pattern in line with the hypothesis, and reported greater problems with odours in everyday life. They also expressed greater reactions to CO2 in terms of both perceived intensity and BOLD signal. The similarities with pain are discussed.

  • 95.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Petra
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Highlighting the large variation in perceived properties of odors over time2017In: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 42, no 2, p. E26-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals differ considerably when rating the perceived properties of odors, especially over time. A second glance at previously published data-sets from our laboratory revealed that the same invariant exposure often produced both floor and roof effects. An odor that at the end of the exposure ses-sion was regarded as non-existent by one participant, could border the “absoulte maximum” rating category in another. We provide re-analyses from four exposure studies where we illustrate the perceptual variability over time, and outcomes associated with such ratings. We note that high, compared with low ratings of odor intensity over time is associated with ratings of unpleasantness and symptoms, but also with everyday distress, cognitive performance, autonomous nerv-ous system activity and deviating responses in the so-called pain or saliency matrix of the brain. We bring an open ques-tion to ECRO regarding how this considerable variability should be interpreted, and what the consequenced are for research and for setting exposure limits.

  • 96.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research. Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Petra
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nordin, Steven
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Effects of Task Demands on Olfactory, Auditory, and Visual Event-Related Potentials Suggest Similar Top-Down Modulation Across Senses2018In: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 129-134, article id bjx082Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A widely held view is that top-down modulation of sensory information relies on an amodal control network that acts through the thalamus to regulate incoming signals. Olfaction lacks a direct thalamic projection, which suggests that it may differ from other modalities in this regard. We investigated the late positive complex (LPC) amplitudes of event-related potentials (ERP) from 28 participants, elicited by intensity-matched olfactory, auditory and visual stimuli, during a condition of focused attention, a neutral condition, and a condition in which stimuli were to be actively ignored. Amplitudes were largest during the attend condition, lowest during the ignore condition, with the neutral condition in between. A Bayesian analysis resulted in strong evidence for similar effects of task across sensory modalities. We conclude that olfaction, despite its unique neural projections, does not differ from audition and vision in terms of task-dependent neural modulation of the LPC.

  • 97.
    Andersson, Lisa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Hammarqvist, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelser och erfarenheter av att arbeta med psykiatrisk tvångsvård2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Health care in Sweden shall be conducted with the patients’ autonomy in center. However, in some cases in the psychiatric care, patients can be treated against their will. A nurse shall work towards increasing patient autonomy and participation. The use of involuntary treatment can due to this cause ethical dilemmas. To describe how nurses cope with using involuntary treatment is important since it can increase the understanding of a complicated situation, and in the long run increase the quality of the health care services.

    Aim: To describe the experiences of a nurse working with involuntary treatment and to describe how the chosen articles presents their selection groups.

    Method: The study was conducted as a descriptive literature review. Articles was searched in the databases Medline and Cinahl with a ten-year age limit. A total of fourteen articles was selected and processed into four subcategories and a methodological aspect to answer to the study’s aim.

    Results: The results show that nurses experience mostly negative feelings like anxiety, fear and vulnerability while working with involuntary treatment. The use of involuntary treatment was justified by the thought that the practice was a part of the nurses’ job and duty. The use of involuntary treatment was describes as damaging on the nurse-patient relationship and caused ethical conflicts. The result was described in four subcategories Feelings about the use of involuntary treatment, Justifying involuntary treatment, Involuntary treatment and the effects on the nurse-patient relationship and Ethical conflicts due to involuntary treatment. The articles varied in their descriptions of their selection groups. Most described the participants gender, age and work experience. Most of the articles had 11-50 participants.   

    Conclusions: This study has found that nurses experience involuntary treatment as having mostly negative effects. It has been shown that the nurses’ level of education has an effect on both the execution and the handling of involuntary treatment. The writers of this study have come to the conclusion that nurses wish to decrease the use of involuntary treatment, and that research should be focused on finding alternative methods of treatment.    

  • 98.
    Andersson, Magdalena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies.
    Förskolan som hälsofrämjande arena: En studie om pedagogens betydelse för goda kostvanor hos barn på förskola2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Övervikt och fetma beror främst på dåliga kost- och motionsvanor, vanor som grundläggs i tidig ålder. Eftersom cirka 80 procent av svenska barn går i förskolan och spenderar mycket av sin tid där, äter de även många av dagens måltider i förskolan. Detta innebär att förskolan har en betydelsefull roll när det gäller att skapa goda matvanor hos barnen.

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka på vilket sätt ett antal förskolor i en kommun i mellersta Sverige ar-betade för just detta. Syftet var även att se hur pedagogerna såg på sin egen roll för att främja goda kostvanor hos barnen. Den metod som användes var kvantitativ genom enkäter som delades ut till trettiofyra pedagoger på fyra olika förskolor i kommunens innerstad. Enkäten var strukturerad och innehöll både öppna och slutna frågor. Det resultat som framkom var att de flesta pedagoger ansåg att de hade en betydelsefull roll när det gällde barns lärande om mat och matvanor, och de ansåg att maten är en viktig del i förskolan. Trots detta behöver en del arbete göras för att förskolan ska vara en främjande arena för att skapa goda matvanor hos barnen, framförallt då barnens matvanor skilde sig mycket åt förskolorna emellan. Slutsatsen blir då att trots att pedagogerna själva anser sig ha stor betydelse för att ge barnen ett positivt förhållningssätt till mat, skulle kommunens förskolor kunna arbete för att förbättra måltiderna och måltidssituationen i förskolan.

  • 99.
    Andersson, Malin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Intensivvårdssjuksköterskors upplevelser av psykiskt påfrestande situationer, hantering och stöd samt förslag på förbättring av stöd från arbetsplatsen: en intervjustudie2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Intensive care nurses are exposed daily to psychologically demanding situations that can be difficult to process without adequate support from the workplace. Previous research indicates that intensive care nurses lack support in these mentally challenging situations. However, there is also a lack in current research on how support can be improved.

    Purpose: The purposewas to describe the intensive care nurse's experiences of distressingsituations, how they handle these situations,how they experience the support and suggestions for improvements in the workplace.

    Method: This study has used a descriptive design along with a qualitative approach. Semi-structured interviews were held with 8 intensive care nurses and a content analysis was made.

    Result: The intensive care nurses experiences of mentally demanding situations were subjective. There could be difficult situations with patients, but also difficulties regarding personnel-related circumstances. The majority of intensive care nurses used problem-focused coping, were they actively sought out support from people they trusted. There were shared opinions regarding the support from colleagues, management and the workplace. Additionally, the intensive care nurses gave suggestions on how this support could be improved. The suggestions included that both the colleagues and the management could be more attentive and responsive to each others needs.

    Conclusion: Situations that are experienced as mentally demanding showed to vary from each individual. The support at the workplace and the support from management are experienced both as well and less well. The support can be improved by being responsive towards colleagues needs. The collegiate support was experienced as well. However, the support can be improved further by showing more compassion for one and another.

  • 100.
    Andersson, Malin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Matvanor och sömn hos vårdpersonal vid nattarbete2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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