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  • 51.
    Anjie, Nan
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    Lu, Zhang
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    Nursing interventions to glycemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes: A descriptive literature review2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 52.
    Anthony, Caroline
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Kiya, Fariba
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Klimakteriet Kvinnans upplevelse: Litteraturstudie2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The purpose of this descriptive literature study was to describe the climacteric experiences and expectations of women and the support provided by the public health sector especially from nursing staff. Knowledge gained from this study is aimed to be used in providing more comprehensive nursing care for women. The search for literature was done by using databases. English-language articles that presented relevant data were identified from 1995 to 2007. A total of twenty- two scientific articles were included in the study.

    The analysis resulted in two major categories of experiences: Confusion as well as insecurity and dissatisfaction with health service providers. Confusion and insecurity is rooted in the physical, psychological and social aspects of life. Women’s experiences and expectations differ from each other. Both positive and negative aspects are described. Society in general has a significant influence on how women experience climacteric. General dissatisfaction with health care providers was prominent and this applied across the board from nurses to doctors. Women experienced that health care providers lacked understanding to their needs and communication between them was far from satisfactory. The authors conclude that it is essential for nursing staff to understand the effects of climacteric in order to meet the needs of women.

  • 53.
    Antonsson, Camilla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Kavallin, Kjerstin
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Livskvalitet hos ungdomar En beskrivande och jämförande studie2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to describe how adolescents in the age of 16-19 experience

    their quality of life and to explore if there are any differences between the sexes.

    The study was carried out at a high school in Sweden during January 2008 and is an

    empirical, quantitative cross sectional study with a descriptive and comparative design. The

    final sum of participants were 90, 47 girls and 43 boys. The authors used the Life Satisfaction

    Questionnaire. The results of the study showed that the highest scores were found in physical

    symptoms. The teenagers scored lowest in the everyday life’s fun and meaningful activities.

    The result showed differences between the sexes, boys rated significantly higher quality of

    life than girls in physical symptoms, whereas girls rated their quality of life significantly

    higher in relations to family members and friends. The teenagers estimated their study result

    and their ability to manage their studies as rather good, in these subjects, the girls rated

    significantly higher scores than the boys. The majority of the students did not feel harassed. A

    third of the adolescents stated that they had felt depressed in some degree or higher. In this

    question, the boys rated significantly higher scores than the girls.

    Keywords: Quality

  • 54.
    Aptowitzer, Camilla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Berglund, Therese
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Föräldrars upplevelser av missfall2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Missfall innebär att en graviditet avslutas ofrivilligt. Vilket förekommer i mer än hälften av alla kända graviditeter. Missfall har ofta en negativ påverkan på hälsa. Även om missfallet fysiskt drabbar kvinnan är det viktigt att den tillhörande partnern ej glöms bort. Kvinnor som genomgått missfall och inte bearbetat förlusten löper stor risk att drabbas av psykisk ohälsa. Därav är det som sjuksköterska viktigt att bemöta dessa patienter med en professionell och empatisk omvårdnad.

     

    Syfte: Litteraturstudiens syfte var att beskriva föräldrars upplevelser av missfall samt vilka undersökningsgrupper som beskrivs i studierna.

     

    Metod: En deskriptiv design av tio artiklar med kvalitativ ansats har använts i litteraturstudien.  

     

    Huvudresultat: Ett missfall kan medföra stor sorg med emotionell och fysisk påverkan hos föräldrarna. I denna utmanade sorgeprocess finns ofta behov av vägledning och stöd som innebär att sjuksköterskans omvårdnadsroll blir ovärderlig genom att erbjuda stöd och bekräftelse till dessa patienter. Den metodologiska aspekten i studierna var undersökningsgrupper där majoriteten av deltagarna var kvinnor. Åldersspannet på deltagarna var 22–47 år och samtliga missfall inträffade före graviditetsvecka 20.

     

    Slutsatser: Missfall upplevdes vanligtvis som en svår händelse, emotionellt påfrestande för föräldrarna där sorg ofta infann sig. Därav sågs ett stort behov av emotionellt stöd hos de drabbade. Föräldrar som i sorgeprocessen blev bekräftade och fick stöd upplevde att de hade en förmåga att kontrollera sin sorg på ett bättre sätt än de som inte blev bekräftade eller där stöd uteblev. Sjuksköterskor bör således besitta god kunskap i att bemöta dessa patienter med empati, bekräftelse och vägledning.

  • 55.
    Arenhall, Eva
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science.
    Sexualitet och parrelation vid hjärtsjukdom2012In: Kardiologisk omvårdnad / [ed] Bengt Fridlund, Dan Malm, Jan Mårtensson, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2012, 2, p. 403-416Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 56.
    Arenhall, Eva
    et al.
    Örebro University Hospital, Department of Cardiology.
    Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Section of Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University; Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Malm, Dan
    School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University; County Hospital Ryhov, Jönkoping, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Ulrica
    Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Örebro University.
    The male partners' experiences of the intimate relationships after a first myocardial infarction2011In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, E-ISSN 1873-1953, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 108-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Stress in the intimate relationship is found to worsen the prognosis in women suffering from myocardial infarction (MI). Little is known about how male spouses experience the intimate relationship.

    Aim: This study aimed to explore and describe the experience of men’s intimate relationships in connection to and after their female partner’s first MI.

    Methods: An explorative and qualitative design was used. Interviews were conducted with 16 men having a partner who the year before had suffered a first MI. The data were analysed with qualitative content analysis.

    Results: Three themes emerged: masculine image challenged; life takes another direction; and life remains unchanged. The men were forced to deal with an altered image of themselves as men, and as sexual beings. They were hesitant to approach their spouse in the same way as before the MI because they viewed her to be more fragile. The event also caused them to consider their own lifestyle, changing towards healthier dietary and exercise habits.

    Conclusions: After their spouse’s MI, men experienced a challenge to their masculine image. They viewed their spouse as being more fragile, which led the men to be gentler in sexual intimacy and more hesitant to invite sexual activity. This knowledge about how male spouses experience the intimate relationship could be helpful for health personnel in hospitals and primary care when they interact with couples where the woman suffers from cardiac disease or other chronic disorders.

  • 57.
    Arenhall, Eva
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing science. Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Section of Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Hälsohögskolan Jönköping.
    Nilsson, Ulrica
    Örebro universitet.
    The female partners' experiences of intimate relationship after a first myocardial infarction2011In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 20, no 11-12, p. 1677-1684Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim.

    This study aimed to explore and describe women’s experience of intimate relationships in connection to and after their partner’s first myocardial infarction.

     

    Background.

    Support from partners is important for recovery, but little is known about partners’ experience of intimate relationships after myocardial infarction.

     

    Design.

    The study used an explorative, qualitative design.

     

    Methods.

    The first author interviewed 20 women having a partner who had suffered a first myocardial infarction during the preceding year. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data.

     

    Findings.

    Three themes emerged: ‘limited life space’, ‘sense of life lost’ and ‘another dimension of life’. The women described how their self-assumed responsibility led to a more stifling and limited life. Their sense of life lost was described in terms of deficits and feeling the loss. The women also described experiencing another dimension of life characterised by three subthemes: ‘uncertainty of life’, ‘certain of relationship’ and ‘share life more’.

     

    Conclusions.

    The partners’ myocardial infarction had an impact on the interviewees’ intimate relationships; they suffered a major loss and missed their ‘former’ partner, both emotionally and sexually. They struggled with the new asymmetry in their intimate relationship and felt compelled to adapt to their partners’ lack of sexual desire or function. Also, their partner controlled them, which lead towards a stifling, more limited life space.

     

    Relevance to clinical practice.

    Caregivers in hospital and primary care settings could apply the findings in their efforts to help couples recover or maintain intimate relationships following myocardial infarction.

  • 58.
    Areteg, Marcus
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap.
    Utvärdering av postoperativ noninvasiv ventilationmed Bi-level Positive Airway Pressure av obesapatienter som genomgår elektiv gastric bypasskirurgi2009Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Obese patients have a higher risk for respiratory complications after general anesthesia related toreduced vital capacity (VC), functional residual capacity (FRC) and total lung capacity (TLC).Earlier studies have shown that postoperative treatment with Bi-level Positive Airway Pressureimproved forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1.0) andsaturation (SpO2) after elective gastric bypass surgery. Present study evaluates whether or not thesame postoperative treatment also shows differences in arterial blood gases, if compared with usualpostoperative treatment with nasal administered oxygen. A second aim was to describe how patientsexperienced the BIPAP treatment. Arterial blood gases from 18 patients were analyzed withanalytical statistics. The study showed that postoperative treatment whit BIPAP during 3 hoursresults in higher SpO2 and lower paCO2 than traditional postoperative treatment after electivegastric bypass surgery. Both treatments results in lower paO2 and unchanged pH. Several patientsexperienced discomfort during the BIPAP treatment.

  • 59.
    Arnells, Malin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Östergrens, Nancy
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Omvårdnadsproblem i samband med polyfarmaci hos äldre personer: En litteraturstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to describe the nursing problems that may arise in connection withpolypharmacy in the elderly. The literature review was done with descriptive design. Datacollection through PubMed and Cinahl. The result was based on 12 quantitative articles. Theresults showed that there was a correlation between polypharmacy and several specificnursing problems among older people. The nursing problems that occurred most among thestudied articles were falls and fractures. It was revealed that the number of used medicinescould be identified as a risk factor for falls and fractures, but also drug type could influence.The results also showed that dizziness and balance problems could be associated withpolypharmacy. Other nursing problems that could connect with polypharmacy was impairednutritional status, such as weight loss and malnutrition. There were also a connection betweengastrointestinal problems and usage of many drugs. The conclusion was that a correlationbetween polypharmacy and several nursing problems among older people were found. A totalof four categories of nursing problems were identified in the studied articles: falls andfractures, impaired nutritional status and malnutrition, gastrointestinal problems, dizzinessand balance problems.

  • 60.
    Arousell, Alida
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Östlund, Lizanne
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Att beskriva personers upplevelser av hur det är att leva med schizofreni, en litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 61.
    Arvidsson, Angelica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Spennare, Malin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter att vårda patienter med drogmissbruk i sjukvården: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Sjuksköterskor möter många olika individer. 780 000 individer över 18 år i Sverige uppskattades 2009 - 2011 ha ett drogmissbruk eller drogberoende. Alla har rätt till samma vårdkvalité oavsett livssituation och bakgrund. Människor med drogberoende känner sig ofta stigmatiserade av samhället. Vilket område Sjuksköterskan än jobbar inom kommer sjuksköterskan någon gång möta patienter med drogmissbruk.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att beskriva sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av att vårda patienter med drogmissbruk inom sjukvården samt beskriva de inkluderade artiklarnas datainsamlingsmetod.

    Metod: denna studie är en beskrivande litteraturstudie. Två stycken databaser användes under sökningen, 12 vetenskapliga artiklar användes i resultatet. Dessa granskades upprepade gånger och sammanställdes.

    Huvudresultat: Sjuksköterskor beskrev ofta negativa erfarenheter av att vårda patienter med drogmissbruk.  Sjuksköterskor beskrev att de ofta upplevde en rädsla och oro inför våldsamma och hotfulla situationer. Att patienter med drogmissbruk hade eget ansvar över sitt liv och hälsa beskrevs av en del av sjuksköterskorna. En del av sjuksköterskorna beskrev att de tyckte att det var viktigt att vara en förespråkare för patienter med drogmissbruk.

    Slutsats: Alla människor har samma rätt till vård och att uppleva hälsa oavsett livssituation och bakgrund. Att leva med drogmissbruk är inget som ska inverka på omvårdnadskvalitén som ges till patienterna. För att utveckla vården och minska patienternas upplevelse av stigmatisering behövs mer och regelbunden utbildning för sjuksköterskor och andra professioner.

  • 62.
    Arvidsson, Elisabet
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    BVC-sköterskors reflektioner av att arbeta med mammor med förlossningsdepression och deras barn: En intervjustudie2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: About 10–15% of new mothers are affected by Post Partum Depression. A new mother with depression means a higher risk of attachmentsproblem with her newborn child. The child health care nurse has a regular contact with newborns and their mothers. Therefor they can have an important role in the process of attachment. Aim: The aim of the study was to describe reflections of the child health care nurses in their work with mothers with Postpartum Depression and their newborn. Method: The present study had a descriptive design with a qualitative approach. Eight child health care nurses  were interviewed with semi-structured interviews. The material was analyzied using qualitative content analysis. Result: A underlying theme was; ”To have knowledge and to know your limitations, for a trustworthy interaction.” The theme had four descriptive categories; ” Ways to discover the mother with a postpartum depression”, ”The interaction with the mother” ”Strategies at work” and ”Challenges in work”. Conclusion: During the study it has been revealed that if guidelines and routines are to work optimally discovering the mother with Post Partum Depression, it requires a good communication. Already at the first meeting a journey began, that could mean a working interaction or not. It required in addition to formal knowledge of Postpartum depression also an ability to interact with the mother. It was about getting the mother´s confidence.

  • 63.
    Arvidsson, Lisa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Förstagångsmammors förväntningar på, erfarenheter och reflektioner av kontakten med sjuksköterskan på barnavårdscentralen: En intervjustudie2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 64.
    Askefjord, Nathalie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Eklind, Elin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Humor i omvårdnad: Sjuksköterskans verktyg och patientens upplevelse2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Humor har en multipel inverkan på människan både psykologiskt och fysiologiskt. Över 80 procent av observerade möten i sjukhusmiljö visades innehålla någon form av humor.

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att beskriva humor som ett verktyg i omvårdnaden, ur ett sjuksköterskeperspektiv. Syftet var också att utforska hur patienter upplever humor. Vidare var syftet att undersöka den metodologisk aspekten, undersökningsgruppen.

    Metod: En allmän litteraturstudie med beskrivande design som grundades på 12 vetenskapliga artiklar.

    Huvudresultat: Sjuksköterskor använde humor som ett verktyg att bygga relationer, skapa band och framkalla en känsla av gemenskap. Enkel vardaglig humor användes mest inom omvårdnad. Mottaglighet för humor hos patienter var individuellt och sjuksköterskan bör tillämpa, baserat på intuition och erfarenhet, rätt humor till rätt patient. Oerfarna sjuksköterskor kunde bära på en rädsla att framstå som oprofessionella vid användning av humor i vårdsituationer. Sjuksköterskor ansåg att stress hade en god inverkan på kvantiteten av humoranvändningen, dock blev de mindre mottagliga för humor från andra. Patienters upplevelse av humor var välvillig och de önskade humor i vårdrelationer.

    Slutsatser: Humor är en viktig del av omvårdnad. Humor kan bidra till ett bättre samspel, skapa lugn och ge ljus åt de mörkaste situationer. Missförstånd kan uppstå i användandet av humor mellan sjuksköterskor och patienter. Sjuksköterskor måste därför vara lyhörda i sin roll och kunna identifiera när och hur humor bör tillämpas. Sjuksköterskor, både nyutexaminerade och mer erfarna bör få mer kunskap om humorfenomenets för- och nackdelar. Detta för att sjuksköterskor ska lita på sin intuition och använda mer humor.

  • 65.
    Aspgren, Emma
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Distriktssköterskors upplevelser av att arbeta med motiverande samtal som ett arbetsverktyg2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att beskriva distriktssköterskors upplevelser av att arbeta med motiverande samtal som arbetsverktyg. Studien hade en kvalitativ ansats med beskrivande design. Nio distriktssköterskor från fyra hälsocentraler i ett landsting i Mellansverige deltog. Data samlades in med semistrukturerade intervjuer och analyserades utifrån kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Tre huvudkategorier framkom (användningsområde, arbetsverktyg, och förändrat arbetssätt) och dessa bildade temat

    "Att förändra fokus i mötet och aktivera patienten". Huvudkategorin Användningsområde visade att motiverande samtal oftast användes i mottagningsarbetet. Vidare ansåg distriktssköterskorna att motiverande samtal fungerade bra inom barn – och skolhälsovården men att motiverande samtal var svårt att använda i palliativ vård. Huvudkategorin Arbetsverktyg visade hur distriktssköterskorna använde sig av motiverande samtal samt vilka delar de ansåg var viktiga för att utöva motiverande samtal. Viktigast var ett respektfullt bemötande av patienten och distriktssköterskorna visade detta genom att ställa öppna frågor. Distriktssköterskorna frågade patienterna om lov för att ge information och identifierade vart i förändringsprocessen som patienterna befann sig. En annan viktig del var att tydliggöra patientens egenansvar. I huvudkategorin Förändrat arbetssätt beskrev distriktssköterskorna hur arbetet hade förändrats sedan utbildningen i motiverande samtal. Den största skillnaden var att patienterna hade ett utökat ansvar nu jämfört med tidigare och att distriktssköterskorna nu fungerade som coach.

  • 66.
    Asplund, Sara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Distriktssköterskornas erfarenheter och reflektioner kring fysisk aktivitet på recept och motiverande samtal för att främja patientens fysiska aktivitet2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 67.
    Asylbekova, Gulmira
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences, Caring Science.
    Upplevelser av livskvalité hos patienter med bensår: Litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Omkring 100 000 svenskar beräknas lida av bensår vilka kräver långa behandlingstider och medför ekonomiska kostnader för samhället. Olika sjukdomstillstånd såsom trauma och försämrad blodcirkulation anses som riskfaktorer. Att leva med bensår kan ha negativ inverkan på människors dagliga liv. Det är viktigt för sjuksköterskor att informera patienterna kring behandlingen, ge stöd samt ha förmågan att bemöta dem med respekt och empati. Syfte: Syftet med föreliggande studie var att beskriva hur patienter med bensår upplever sin livskvalitet samt att beskriva undersökningsgrupperna som ingick i de inkluderade artiklarna. Metod: Beskrivande litteratur studie som inkluderade tolv vetenskapliga artiklar som söktes fram i databasen Cinahl. Huvudresultat: Patienterna beskrev smärta som påverkade deras dagliga liv både fysiskt och psykiskt. Sömnproblem påverkade det psykiska måendet negativt. Rädslan för att skada sig begränsade patienterna fysiskt och man beskrev även känslan av skam, missmod, ensamhet, oro, ångest, depression och förlust av hopp. Bensår upplevdes tidssamt energikrävande och brister i kunskap hos sjukvårdpersonalen hade negativ påverkan på patienternas livskvalité. Undersökningsgrupperna varierade i antal från 5 till 247 deltagare, majoriteten var kvinnor, åldern var mellan 18 till 99 år. De flesta deltagarna hade haft venösa bensår, vilka varade mellan 6 veckor till 43 år. Slutsats: Att leva med bensår påverkade livskvaliteten. Relationen mellan sjuksköterska – patient hade stort betydelse för sårläkningen och välbefinnande. Det är viktigt att sjuksköterskor har tillräcklig kunskap om denna patientgrupp samt att ge ett professionellt bemötande, stöd och information om en egenvård. 

  • 68.
    Axelsson, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Vängman, Johanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Patienter och vårdgivares upplevelser av djurterapi inom hälso- och sjukvården: En deskriptiv litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: In 1961, the doctor Boris Levinson discovered that animals could help people connect with others. The discovery came to inspire therapists to use animals within the therapeutic programs. However, the idea of ​​involving animals extends back to the 19th century and was advocated by Florence Nightingale. However, a great deal of research is lacking in the field of animal therapy, which highlights patients' and caregivers' experiences. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe patients and caregivers experiences of animal-assisted therapy in the context of healthcare settings. Methods: A descriptive literature study whose results were based on 13 scientific articles. The majority were qualitative articles (11), while two others were of quantitative or mixed approach. Main results: Animal-assisted therapy was found to provide experiences of reduced depression in patients and an improved well-being for both parties. The social interaction between caregivers and patients seemed to be facilitated by animal presence. Caregivers experienced both increased and reduced stress and worried that the animal could interfere with the patients care. Conclusion: Patients and caregivers had positive experiences of animal therapy. The common good was improved well-being and improved social interaction. The result could mean that the method can be used in several different areas of health care. Challenges and negative experiences have highlighted the need for a well-functioning collaboration on healthcare services. The expectation then becomes that the challenges can be remedied, and that the method can be used in a larger issue.

  • 69.
    Axelsson, Annica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans upplevelser att vårda barn i behov av palliativ omvårdnad: En litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: Palliative care of children becomes relevant in cases where the curative, medical, treatment is no longer sufficient. The nurse's role is to promote the child's best while at the same time it needs to involve and support relatives in the treatment.

    Purpose: The purpose of the present literature study was to describe nurses' experiences of caring for a child in need of palliative care.

    Method: The present study is a literature study with descriptive design. The study result uses eleven articles. The search of selected articles has been performed in PubMed and Cinahl. The selection methods in all articles have been reviewed.

    Main result: The emotional impact of nurses working with children and their relatives in palliative care is inevitable. This emotional impact made it difficult to find a balance between being professional and becoming too private with the affected family. Communication with the child and their related was one of the most important parts of the treatment as it creates a good relationship, which in turn leads to good care.

    The articles in the present study have used convenience sampling, purposive sampling and non-random sampling.

    Conclusion: It has been found to be almost impossible to be emotionally affected in the palliative care of children. To handle this requires experience, support and cooperation from colleagues, as well as good communication with the child and its related.

  • 70.
    Axlund, Elin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Forslin, Ina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Barns erfarenheter av att leva med förälder som har en psykisk sjukdom2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background About 2 % of children aged 0-15 years have at least one parent diagnosed in a psychiatric facility with any mental illness. Three common mental illnesses are schizophrenia, depression and bipolar disorder. Schizophrenia is a common form of psychosis, depression affects human behavior, thoughts and emotional life and bipolar disorder involves symptoms such as depression and mania. 

    Aim The aim of this literature study is to describe children's experiences of living with parent with a mental illness. The study also described the included articles data collection methods. 

    Method This study is a descriptive literature study and the scientific articles were searched in the Cinahl and PsycInfo databases. 

    Main results The result of the articles showed that the children felt different fears by living with the parent who has a mental illness. The fear was that the parent could commit suicide, if the illness was hereditary and that the mood was unstable. The children also felt ashamed of the parent so they found different ways that made them feel more “normal”. An adult responsibility was something the children occupied at an early age by taking care of households chores, their siblings and their sick parent. One wish that the children had was that they wanted more support from the environment, for example, adults from the health care. 

    Conclusion Feelings such as fear, shame and heavy responsibility is common in children of parent with mental illness. Also lack of support and information about the parents illness is experienced by the children and it is therefore important in the nurses work to be able to support these children and accommodate their needs. 

  • 71.
    Backlund, Kristina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Höök, Jessica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Erfarenheter av sjuksköterskeledd mottagning hos patienter med reumatoid artrit: En litteraturstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: Chronic arthritis rheumatism or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory joint disease and is the most common arthritis disease, in which headache is joint pain. RA is present in all populations, with varying prevalence. In Scandinavia, the prevalence is approximately 0.7%. The ethnology of RA is a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Living with RA affect the patient physically, emotionally, psychologically and socially, meaning that the whole life situation is affected.

    Aim: The purpose of the literature study was to describe the experiences of nurse-led clinics for patients with rheumatoid arthritis and to present the study groups described in the articles included.

    Methods: A descriptive literature study

    Main results: Patients' experiences of nurse-led clinics were encounters in a warm, friendly and familiar atmosphere. The care was described as person-centered and competent provided and based on each individual's special needs. The nursing specialist skills were highly valued and described to create a sense of security for the patient. The nurse-led clinic was reported readily available, flexible and to create stability in the care. The accessibility also meant that the patients were aware of when and how to contact the nurse. The patient's experience was that good communication with the healthcare staff provided a mutual respect and instilled an increased patient confidence.

    Conclusion: The conclusion of this study was that nurse-led clinics could add value for the patient nursing care. This offered care represented familiarity, hope and confidence for the patients. To achieve added value, good communication and relationship are of the utmost importance, which in turn provide security and create a fundamental possibility in health-promoting care.

  • 72.
    Balazsi, Krister
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Karlstedt, Josefin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Faktorer som är av betydelse för långsiktigt viktminskningsresultat efter gastric bypass: En litteraturstudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att sammanställa och beskriva faktorer som är av betydelse för långsiktigt viktminskningsresultat, mer än tre år efter gastric bypass.

    Metod: För att besvara studiens syfte gjordes en litteraturstudie med deskriptiv design. Studien har baserats på fjorton vetenskapliga artiklar som har sökts fram via Medline samt genom manuell sökning.

    Resultat: Studien visade att faktorer som var av betydelse för långsiktigt viktminskningsresultat var kost, fysisk aktivitet, beteende, uppföljning, preoperativ viktnedgång samt medicinska faktorer såsom utvidgning av magsäck och gastrojejunal stomi. God kostkvalitet och utövande av fysisk aktivitet visade sig ha ett signifikant samband med långsiktig viktminskning. Beteenden såsom kontroll över matbegär och ätvanor var av stor betydelse. Hetsätning visade sig påverka viktresultatet negativt. Patienter som gick på uppföljning visade större viktminskning på lång sikt liksom patienter som lyckades minska i vikt före operationen.

    Slutsats: Långsiktigt viktresultat efter gastric bypass kan förbättras genom rätt kost, fysisk aktivitet, långsiktig uppföljning samt genom att tidigt upptäcka ohälsosamma ätbeteenden. Mer forskning krävs angående faktorer som påverkar viktresultatet på lång sikt och vad sjukvården kan göra för att påverka dessa.

  • 73.
    Barth, Olivia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Bäckström, Evelina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Livskvaliteten hos barn och ungdomar som lever med övervikt eller fetma: En litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Overweight and obesity among children and adolescents is an increasing societal problem all over the world and a serious risk factor of being affected by many of the welfare diseases that exists in present time. The main causes of being overweight or obese is a mix of living habits, genetic- social-, psychological- and cultural factors. Children who are overweight or suffer from obesity have a great risk of being in that condition for the rest of their lives. It is in the nurses tasks to promote health by a holistic viewpoint of the individual. An insight of each person’s perception of their quality of life is a fundamental starting point. 

    Aim: To describe children and adolescents quality of life when overweight or obese, estimated on personal and parent perspective. 

    Method: A literature study of descriptive design based on twelve articles wherein one article used a mixed-method and the remaining eleven used a quantitative approach. 

    Main result: Children and adolescents who were overweight or suffered from obesity often assessed a low quality of life. Prominently in the categories of physical- psychological- and social functioning where many declared a decrease in physical wellness and difficulties in participating in physical activities, experienced depression and a low self-esteem. Experiences of bullying and alienation were common in these children and adolescents. 

    Conclusion: A correlation between a low quality of life and an increase in weight were observed in the domains of physical-, psychological- and social functioning. Because of the global increase in overweight and obesity in children and adolescents, the nurse needs an understanding of the phenomenon in order to have a holistic approach to the individual and act as support system to strengthen these children and adolescents’ sense of coherence in order to promote health in the profession.

  • 74.
    Begum, Tiasha
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nyström, Valeria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans erfarenheter av barnmisshandel2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:  Reports of child abuse have increased recently and healthcare staff are obligated by law to report any possible suspicion of child maltreatment to the Social Services. There are a lot of risk factors involved concerning whether a child will be abused or not, factors related to the perpetrators but also factors related to the child itself. Statistically the majority of perpetrators are the child's own parents.

    Aim: To describe the registered nurses experiences of child abuse within healthcare and also to describe one methodological aspect of the articles that this study is based upon.  

    Method: A descriptive literature review based on nine qualitative and three quantitative articles, where the participating registered nurses have experience of children that have been abused. Results: It was found that the nurse’s own personal experiences, based upon their own feelings, the support they received and the actual environment affects how and indeed if child abuse will be reported. Although the registered nurses were aware that they are obliged to report all cases, some nurses failed to report child abuse to the Social Services. The nurses experienced a variety of emotions that arose when they were involved in child abuse cases. All nurses in this study experienced that they lacked knowledge concerning child abuse also a lot of nurses wished that they had had more support during child abuse cases.

    Conclusion: The experience of child abuse cases severely affected the nurses even to the extent that some ignored the signs and failed to report to the Social Services. The registered nurses experienced a need for more support from an experienced colleague and wanted to attain more knowledge and experience themselves. 

  • 75.
    Beihao, Liu
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Tingting, Chen
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Lishui University, China.
    Elderly people’s adjustment of transition to nursing homes: A descriptive literature review2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 76.
    Bell, Hege Therese
    et al.
    Fakultet for sykepleie og helsevitenskap, Nord universitet, Bodø, Norge.
    Granås, Anne Gerd
    Universitetet i Oslo, Oslo, Norge.
    Omli, Ragnhild
    Institutt for sykepleievitenskap, Norges teknisk-naturvitenskapelige universitet, Trondheim, Norge.
    Enmarker, Ingela
    Fakultet for sykepleie og helsevitenskap, Nord universitet, Bodø, Norge.
    Steinsbekk, Aslak
    UiT: Universitetet i Tromsø – Norges arktiske universitet.
    Nurses' and pharmacists' learning experiences from participating in inter professional medication reviews in primary health care: a qualitative study.2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Objective: Traditionally, drug prescription and follow up have been the sole responsibility of physicians. However, interprofessional medication reviews (IMRs) have been developed to prevent drug discrepancies and patient harm. What participating nurses and pharmacists learn from each other during IMR is poorly studied. The aim of this study was to investigate nurses’ and pharmacists’ perceived learning experience after participating in IMRs in primary health care for up to two years. Setting and Method: A qualitative study with semi-structured focus group interviews and telephone interviews with nurses and pharmacists with experience from IMRs in nursing homes and home based services. The data was analysed thematically by using systematic text condensation. Main outcome measures: A qualitative method is useful when looking at objects from the perspective of how they are experienced. Results: Sixteen nurses and four pharmacists were interviewed. The nurses’ perception of the pharmacist changed from being a controller of drug management routines towards being a source of pharmacotherapy knowledge and a discussant partner of appropriate drug therapy in the elderly. The pharmacists became more aware of the nurses’ crucial role of providing clinical information about the patient to enable individual advice. Increasingly the nurses learned to link the patient’s symptoms of effect and side effect to the drugs prescribed. With time both professions jointly spoke of an increased awareness of the benefit of working as a team and the perception of contributing to better and more individual care. Conclusion: IMRs in primary health care meet some challenges especially concerning how to ensure participation of all three professions and how to get thorough information about the patient. Possible solutions might be to use shared communication tools like Internet based communication programs and to introduce the patient as a participant at the IMRs.

  • 77.
    Bengtson, Sandra
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Iwermo, Mattias
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Närståendes upplevelser av vården av barn och ungdomar med autismspektrumtillstånd: En deskriptiv litteraturstudie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Att beskriva de upplevelser av vården som närstående till barn och ungdomar med autismspektrumtillstånd har haft.Metod: Litteraturstudie med beskrivande design. Data samlades in från databaserna PubMed, Cinahl och PsycINFO. Resultatet baserades på 14 artiklar.Resultat: Närståendes generella upplevelse av vården var till en stor del negativ.Diagnosprocessen upplevdes ta för lång tid samt vara för svår. Närstående upplevde också att tillgängligheten av information inte var tillräcklig och att vårdpersonalen inte besatt tillräckligt med kunskap. De upplevde även att det var svårt att få tillgång till hjälp och stöd samt att många kände ett utanförskap utan tillräcklig förståelse för deras livssituation och sorg.Närstående fick en mer positiv upplevelse av vården när diagnosen sattes tidigt och när de upplevde en personlig kontakt med vårdförmedlaren. Vårdpersonal som upplevdes som insatt och kompetent bidrog också till en positiv upplevelseSlutsats: Resultatet av denna litteraturstudie påvisar att det finns brister inom hälso- och sjukvården speciellt bland vårdpersonal som saknar specialistutbildning som till exempel allmänsjuksköterskan. Dessa brister visade sig vara okunskap kring AST och hur detta påverkar närstående samt informationsförmedling till närstående.Svårigheten att få en diagnos då vårdpersonal upplevdes att inte ta närståendes farhågor på allvar var även en brist.En grundläggande utbildning kring AST för allmänsjuksköterskor och läkare skulle sannolikt öka kvaliteten på omvårdnaden för denna grupp.

  • 78.
    Bengtsson, Inger
    et al.
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg.
    Lissner, Lauren
    The Sahlgrenska School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Public Health Epidemiology Unit (EPI), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ljung, Thomas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Medical science.
    Rosengren, Annika
    Department of Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Thelle, Dag
    Institute of Basic Medical Science, Department of Biostatistics, Oslo, Norway.
    Währborg, Peter
    Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg.
    The cortisol awakening response and the metabolic syndrome in a population-based sample of middle-aged men and women.2010In: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, ISSN 0026-0495, E-ISSN 1532-8600, Vol. 59, no 7, p. 1012-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was to explore the relationship between the cortisol awakening response (CAR) and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) as defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria. The final study sample consisted of 91 women (14 with MetS) and 84 men (15 with MetS), aged 45 to 70 years, from a general population sample. The only exclusion criteria were no consent, pregnancy, or insufficient cortisol testing. On the day of measurement (weekday), salivary cortisol was sampled at awakening and 15 minutes after awakening. Relative CAR (CAR%) and the MetS were the main variables studied. Results showed that, in women with the MetS, cortisol at awakening was significantly lower (mean, 8.92 vs 12.33 nmol/L; P = .05) and the CAR was significantly higher (91.4% vs 36.5%, P < .001) than in women without the syndrome. Significant difference in the relative CAR was also present between men and women with MetS (38.5% and 91.4%, respectively; P = .02). No difference was seen in the awakening response comparing men with and without the MetS. In a regression model, the response to awakening was dependent on the MetS in women (F1,89 = 13.19, P < .001); but the model was not significant in men. Furthermore, the awakening response was associated with more depressive symptoms in women (F1,80 = 8.12, P = .01) and with weekday/weekend cortisol sampling in men (F1,82 = 4.63, P = .03). The association between the relative CAR and the MetS remained significant but somewhat attenuated after adjusting for depressive symptoms (P = .01). Results indicate a sex difference in the CAR% in the presence of the MetS independent of depressive symptoms, a known correlate of the MetS.

  • 79.
    Bengtsson, Sebastian
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Fa, Joakim
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av stress inom akutsjukvård2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund:

    Akutsjukvård är en varierande arbetsplats där högt patientflöde, tidsbrist och påfrestande situationer är vanligt förekommande, sjuksköterskor vårdar människor som lider av en kritisk skada eller sjukdom där utgången kan bli fatal. Sjuksköterskan måste ha full kontroll och överblick för alla patienter för att snabbt uppmärksamma om en patients tillstånd försämras. Den ofta stressfulla situationen ställer höga krav på sjuksköterskan både fysiskt och psykiskt. Sjuksköterskor försöker vara tidseffektiva genom att fokusera på den medicinska vården vilket kan leda till att patientens behov av att bli bekräftad och att bli lyssnad till brister i de akuta situationerna.

    Syfte:

    Att beskriva sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av stress inom akutsjukvård.

    Metod:

    Litteraturstudie med beskrivande design där tio artiklar användes. En artikel var av kvantitativ ansats och en använde mixed method, de resterande artiklarna var av kvalitativ ansats.

    Huvudresultat:

    Sjuksköterskorna beskrev hur brister i organisationen medförde högre arbetsbelastning och ledde till att stress upplevdes som oundvikligt inom akutsjukvård. Sjuksköterskorna beskrev arbetsmiljön som oförutsägbar och påfrestande och medförde fysiska såväl som psykiska konsekvenser. Detta till följd av en brist på strategiska verktyg och resurser för att hantera den upplevda stressen. Sjuksköterskorna upplevde att på grund av tidsbrist kände de sig otillräckliga i sitt holistiska arbetssätt och att de under bättre omständigheter hade kunnat ge en bättre omvårdnad till patienterna. Det totala antalet deltagare i studierna var 333 sjuksköterskor och majoriteten var kvinnor i åldrarna 20-62 år.

    Slutsatser:

    Genom förbättrade arbetsförhållanden och kunskap om copingstrategier kan vården och hälsan hos sjuksköterskorna förbättras vilket gynnar omvårdnaden och patienten.

  • 80.
    Bergabo-Lundqvist, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lindkvist, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans erfarenheter av att arbeta med triage på en akutmottagning: litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Triage is a tool used to carry out assessments and priorities of patients in emergency rooms. The assessment of the patients is divided into different levels according to their health needs. The purpose of the assessments is to ensure that those who have the greatest need of assistance are taken care of first. A registered nurse performs this assessment.

    Aim: To describe the nurse´s experience working with triage in a emergency department and to describe the data collection method used in the articles included in the result.

    Method: A literature study with descriptive design, were ten scientific articles were included. A search for scientific material was carried out ant retrieved from the University of Gävle databases Cinahl and PubMed and through a manual search of the two databases.

    Results: It emerged that nurses describes causes like lack of education, a lack of experience and factors that affect the work environment has been shown to be important for their experience in working with triage. Selected items data collections methods consisted of interview studies, surveys, observational studies and a web-based survey.

    Conclusion: The results reveled three main factors affecting nurse´s experience of triage: Clinical experience, work environment and education. The factors, each individually is important for nurse’s occupation, not just in emergency care, but also in other areas in healthcare. Despite the great variety influx of patients in emergency rooms the nurse’s professional satisfaction is but if more emphasis was placed on creating a more enjoyable working environment, providing training and reviewing clinical significance of professional experience at the triage then work satisfaction migh be even higher.

  • 81.
    Berger, Frida
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nilsson, Kim
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Betydande aspekter för sjuksköterska och patient i det preventiva arbetet mot venösa bensår: En litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background; 3 % of the world’s population suffers from venous leg ulcers. Women and elderly are most affected. Compression therapy and physical activity is the most common self-care treatment for patients with venous leg ulcers and the nurse has a great responsibility to motivate patients to self-care. Aim; The aim of this study was to describe difficulties venous leg ulcer patients’ may experience performing self-care, to describe the nurses essential factors to motivate patients to adhere to self-care and to examine the quality of sampling methods in the studies included. Methods; A descriptive design was used and this study included four qualitative studies, three quantitative studies and three studies with both qualitative and quantitative design and was published between 2004-2014. The scientific articles were found in the database PubMed and the content of the articles was examined of their resemblance. Quality, similarities and differences were examined in the methodological aspect selection method. Results; Seven themes were identified and three of them described patients difficulties to adhere to self-care. Knowledge and belief in the treatment and themselves was found to be essential and the next two themes described patients’ difficulties to adhere to compression therapy and physical activity. The residual themes described the nurses’ essential factors to motivate patients to adhere to self-care, knowledge and information, the patients’ attitude towards self-care, organizational problems and the relationship between the nurse and patient. Regarding the review of the articles selection method, a varying quality was found. Conclusions; There are many factors influencing venous leg ulcer patients’ adherence to self-care. The nurses’ and the patients’ knowledge and attitude towards self-care activities is an important part of a functional self-care needed to reduce the prevalence of venous leg ulcers.

  • 82.
    Berggren, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Öberg, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Eutanasi: vad anser sjuksköterskor?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Eutanasi är idag en förbjuden handling i de flesta länder. Frågan debatteras ofta och är ett omtvistat ämne. En utmaning för många sjuksköterskor är att bemöta patienter som efterfrågar eutanasi. Att besitta kunskap inom detta område kan följaktligen bidra till att sjuksköterskor lättare kan förhålla sig till de moraliska problem som kan uppstå i samband med arbetet både före och efter en patients bortgång. Syfte: Att beskriva vad sjuksköterskor anser om eutanasi, samt beskriva metodologiska aspekter i de artiklar som ligger till grund för resultatet. Metod: En beskrivande litteraturstudie har genomförts där elva artiklar, funna i databaserna PubMed och Cinahl, har granskats. Artiklarna, som var av både kvalitativ och kvantitativ ansats, analyserades och resultatet presenterades i tre subkategorier. Resultat: Eutanasi uppfattades som en sista utväg, och att en god palliativ vård skall vara det primära alternativet. Olika faktorer har har betydelse för sjuksköterskornas åsikter angående eutanasi, bland annat utbildningsnivå, religion och moraliska inställningar. Genomgående ansåg sjuksköterskor att legalisering av eutanasi kan medverka till ett öppnare klimat, där frågor vid livets slut kan få en större plats. Slutsats: Sjuksköterskornas känslor inför eutanasi var ambivalenta, dock ansåg de överlag att patienter som uttrycker en önskan om att få avlida ofta gick att behandla på andra sätt. Exempelvis genom bra smärtlindring.

  • 83.
    Berggren, Sonja
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Isroth, Jelena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kvinnornas upplevelse av att leva med typ 2-diabetes2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many women with type 2 diabetes fail in their efforts with self care management. The consequence are medical complications. The purpose of this paper is to look at a number of research articles describing women’s experiences relating to their diabetes diagnosis. These experiences affect the woman's ability to self care but also guides the nurse in her profession on how to best support the woman. Orem's self care deficit theory is tied to the diabetic woman and her self care but also to the role of the nurse. There is also an analysis of the sampling methods used in each of the articles.

    This study was done as a descriptive litterature study based on ten qualitative research articles.

    The result from the analysis of the articles shows that the experiences of the diabetic women can be sorted into five categories.

    1.     Self-care and lifestyle change

    2.     Coping with ones own feelings and emotions

    3.     Motivation and engagement

    4.     The surrounding support 

    5.     The interaction with the caregiver/medical expertise.

    The conclusion that can be made from this study is that women with type 2 diabetes have a lot of emotional experiences relating to the diagnosis that affects their self care management. The analysis of the sampling methods used in each of the articles show that it is critical for the result how the sampling was done and care should be exercised before drawing any conclusions from the results.

  • 84.
    Bergkvist, Linnea
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Leljewahl, Jenny
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Attityder till psykisk ohälsa hos vårdpersonal som arbetar inom psykiatrisk verksamhet2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate and describe attitudes towards mental illness among mental health workers and to investigate differences in attitudes within the background factors of gender, age and educational level. This study is a part of the project ‘Psykisk ohälsa’. A descriptive and comparative design with quantitative approach was used. Data were collected from 216 returned surveys. The questionnaire ‘New CAMI-S’ with 29 items were used. Data were analyzed with SPSS to describe the frequency and chi 2-test was used to measuring the differences. The results showed that the mental health workers in general had a positive attitude towards mental illness. Most negative attitudes were seen in the item about most persons who were once patients in a mental hospital can be trusted as babysitters. Three significant differences were seen between ages. The older group had more positive attitudes towards mental illness. One significant item was found between gender, men had more negative attitudes. No significance was found between education levels. The conclusions showed that most of the staff had positive attitudes, however, negative attitudes were found in some areas. Further research and education in this topic could lead into more positive attitudes in the future.

  • 85.
    Berglund, Desirée
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Dufva, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Funktionella magtarmsymtom och nervösa besvär. Förekomst, samband och könsskillnader.: En kvantitativ studie2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte var att undersöka i vilken utsträckning magtarmsymtom förekommer hos könen med funktionella magtarm sjukdomar (FGID). Syftet var även att undersöka om det fanns någon könsskillnad hos deltagarna som upplevde sig vara oroliga/spända samt ha nervösa besvär, och om samband kunde hittas mellan olika magtarmsymtom och dessa två grupper. Detta var en kvantitativ studie där en korrelativ och komparativ design användes. Datan kom ifrån en uppföljningsstudie från 2008 med 136 deltagare i en kommun i Mellansverige. Respondenterna var diagnostiserade med FGID och fick fylla i ett databaserat frågeformulär. Huvudresultatet visade att ingen signifikant skillnad fanns i förekomsten av nervösa besvär eller orolig/spänd mellan män och kvinnor med FGID. Ett signifikant samband hittades mellan orolig/spänd och diarré vilket var oberoende av kön. Hos männen som angav sig oroliga/spända fanns ett signifikant samband med buksmärta och hos kvinnorna med gaser och diarré. I gruppen med nervösa besvär sågs ett signifikant samband med förstoppning och gaser vilket var oberoende av kön. Hos männen i denna grupp hittades ett signifikant samband med buksmärta och hos kvinnorna fanns signifikanta samband med gaser, diarré och halsbränna. Förekomsten av symtom hos patienter med och utan nervösa besvär skiljde sig inte signifikant, men det fanns en tendens att patienter utan nervösa besvär generellt låg något lägre i symtomfrekvens.

  • 86.
    Berglöv, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Holmberg, Tilda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kostrelaterade egenvårdsmetoder och dess effekter för patienter med Irritable Bowel Syndrome & Funktionell Dyspepsi: En litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and Functional Dyspepsia (FD) are two syndromes that many people suffers from and that has no curing treatment. Since the syndromes only has a symptomatic treatment many people that suffers from it uses self-care methodes that often includes diet. Support and guidance in patiens self-care are a main task for nurses in general and especially for these patients since no curing treatment is available. Aim: The aim of the present study was to describe dietary self-care practices for patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome and/or Functional Dyspepsia where the perceived and/or observed effects was described. The aim was also to describe the selected studies data collection methods. Method: A literature review with descriptive design. Data has been collected from the databases PubMed and CINAHL. Main Results: Thirteen studies were included. From these, it has been found that patients suffering from IBS and/or FD may use a variety of dietary self-care methods. Effects of these have been shown to prevent and/or alleviate physical symptoms from the gastrointestinal tract and therefore provide better quality of life. The data collection methods described have been found to vary between questionnaires and rating scales, diaries, physical markers and group interviews. Conclusion: Patients with IBS and/or FD can make use of many diet related self-care methods to prevent and/or relieve their symptoms from the gastrointestinal tract. Many different data collection methods can be used to identify diet related self-care practices and its effect on the symptoms of IBS and/or FD.

  • 87.
    Berglöv, Maria
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Eriksson, Alexandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Homosexuella personers upplevelser av bemötanden i hälso- och sjukvården2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Homosexual individuals are, according to National Institute of Public Health, in a greater need of care than heterosexuals. The historical overview of homosexuals show several difficulties they’re subjected to within healthcare, however a positive development is shown. Healthcare professionals have different encounters that are influenced by individual factors.

    Aim: The aim of the study was to describe how homosexual individuals experience encounters given by health care professionals, and to describe the included articles study sample.

    Method: The present study was a descriptive literature riview based on 12 scientific articles with a qualitative approach. The material was gathered through searches of the MEDLINE database.

    Main Results: The result showed a repetitive pattern that homosexual individuals experienced a poor encounter from healthcare professionals, which was considered to be affected by lack of compassion, heteronormative assumptions, and not to be seen for who they are. In contrast, good treatment was experienced when good communication, acceptance and kind words and deeds were present. All of the studies reported the number of participants and the majority of the articles presented inclusion criterias and age. Half of the studies were conducted in the Nordic countries and 95.4% of the participants were women.

    Conclusions: With the descriptions made by homosexual individuals, the experiences was revealed regarding the encounters from healthcare professionals. These experiences showed unsatisfactory and unprofessional encounters, further influenced by heteronormative assumptions. These experiences also showed openness and generosity which had been received. Through knowledge of the encounters that homosexual individuals experiences, nurses can in their professional work towards the improvement of homosexual peoples’s health and wellbeing.

  • 88.
    Bergman, Sanne
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ess, Madelen
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av den vårdande relationen till patienter med anorexia nervosa och/eller bulimia nervosa: En litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 89.
    Bergqvist, Marika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Andersson, Carola
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Individanpassad omvårdnad för det för tidigt födda barnet: En litteraturstudie2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe the meaning of individual care according to Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment programs (NIDCAP) to the early born child. The care around the early born child has shown a big importance. NIDCAP incorporates many care aspects that give structure for an individual tailored care. A fast care planning within three days and night after the birth according to NIDCAP has a positive effect for the cognitive development. The early child has showed that the surroundings environment has an important role for their development. To support the early born child´s development thus the brain can mature in its rate to achieve self-check and to handle it sensory rise to respect the early born child on the basis of their maturity's degree is the goal of NIDCAP model. Through reducing sounds and light levels on the incubator room has it been seen that the early born child can few a better control on its new life. It is important that the nurse makes the parents believe on them self and to actively attend the care, that they dare to be alone with the child. Focus on individual care according to NIDCAP model is to support the parents to understand the early born child's neurodevelopment. If the nurse creates a good relationship with the parents, creates a better condition to developing parent role.

  • 90.
    Bergroth, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Eriksson, Maja
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Påverkan på familjen när ett barn har typ 1 diabetes: En litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that primarily affects children. It is one of Sweden's most commonly occurring diseases. Which means that approximately 700 children between the ages of 0–15 years are affected annually. The cause of type 1 diabetes is still unknown to this date.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the family's impact of having a child (0–18 years) with type 1 diabetes as well as describing the groups in the articles.Method: A literature study with a descriptive design. The search for articles that were used were conducted in Cinahl where the authors found 11 articles; nine with a qualitative approach and two with a quantitative approach. Both authors reviewed the articles objectively.Main result: The results showed that the parents were adversely affected by the child's disease. The parents had a great concern of the child's misery. It was mainly the mothers who suffered, while the father was not aware at the same level. The mothers suffered from physical, mental, emotional, social and cognitive negative feelings. The siblings of the affected child felt outside and forgotten by the parents.Conclusion: All family members are affected by a family member having diabetes type 1. Both positive and negative feelings can occur within the family. The most common feelings that the parents experienced when the child is given type 1 diabetes is stress and anxiety. While the siblings of the children felt forgotten and lonely.

  • 91.
    Bergstedt,, Lovisa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Woggart, Amanda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Familjers upplevelser av att leva med ett cancersjukt barn.: En litteraturstudie.2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: I Sverige insjuknar ungefär ett barn i cancer varje dag. Många av barnen med cancer kunde uppleva att deras föräldrar inte berättade allt om sjukdomen för att inte göra dem ledsna. Många familjer kände att livet förändrades när barnet fick en långvarig sjukdom, det kunde vara att de kände chock, rädsla eller oro. I mötet med barn och deras familjer är det viktigt att som sjuksköterska vara lyhörd. Syfte: Att beskriva familjers upplevelser av att leva med ett cancersjukt barn, samt att studera artiklarnas undersökningsgrupp. Metod: En litteraturstudie med beskrivande design som grundade sig på elva vetenskapliga artiklar med kvalitativ ansats. Huvudresultat: Resultatet presenterades med huvudrubrikerna “Föräldrars upplevelser” och “Syskons upplevelser”. Föräldrarna upplevde ofta maktlöshet men ansåg att det var viktigt att hopp fanns. Relationen mellan föräldrarna försämrades när barnet fick cancer och även syskonet blev påverkat på det sätt att syskonet hamnade i skymundan. Stöd från andra var viktigt och ett bra stöd kunde föräldrarna få från andra föräldrar i samma situation och från vårdpersonal. Undersökningsgrupperna i studierna var oftast väl beskrivna då bland annat kön, ålder och diagnos redovisades i många av artiklarna. Den vanligaste diagnosen i studierna var leukemi. Slutsats:Vikten av stöd från vårdpersonal som gav information och vägledning ansågs som viktigt. Som sjuksköterska anser författarna att det är viktigt att veta hur och när information ska ges och hantera situationer som kan uppstå, samt att lära sig hur relationen till familjerna ska hanteras. 

  • 92.
    Bergström, Charlotta
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Englin, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Föräldrars erfarenheter av stöd från sjukvårdspersonal när deras barn diagnostiserats med Downs syndrom under det första levnadsåret: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Down syndrome (DS) is the most common cause of intellectual disability in children. The child has an extra chromosome in the 21st chromosome pair. It is important that the nurse is comfortable within their own field of knowledge in order to give every individual the specific care they need. Becoming a parent is a major event in people's lives and it can be fraught with joy and anxietya bout the future.

    Aim: The aim of this literature review was to describe parents' experiences of support from the health care professionals when the child is born with DS and the experiences of support during the child's first year. The aim was further more to describe the included articles data collections methods.

    Method: A literaturere view with descriptive design. The literature contains ten scientific articles with both qualitative and quantitative approach. The articles were collected through PubMed and Cinahl. The authors reviewed articles and looked for similarities and differences that could form the basis of the result.

    Main result: The literature review shows that parents of children with DS are concerned about the future when support and information from nurses and health care professionals is inadequate. The parents feel unprepared for the parent hood. The results of this review were based on both qualitative and quantitative articles. Interviews, surveys and questionnaires were used as data collection methods in these articles.   

    Conclusion: This literature demonstrates the importance of good communication between parents and health care professionals. The lack of informative and emotional support creating anxiety and fear among parents. Having a child with DS is something that can change the lives of the entire family. The nurse has an important role in providing adequate support to the whole family.

  • 93.
    Bergström, Emma
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kärvin, Linnéa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Att vara ett syskon till en bror eller syster med cancer2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Varje år insjuknar ca 320 barn mellan 0-18 år av cancer i Sverige vilket innebär att många syskon kan få en förändrad vardag. Cancer orsakas av att celler i kroppen börjar dela sig okontrollerat samt ökar i storlek, vilket resulterar i en cancertumör. Hur ett syskon reagerar när en bror eller syster får sin cancerdiagnos är beroende på ålder och tidigare erfarenheter. I mötet med ett sjukt barn och dess familj är det viktigt att som sjuksköterska stötta och hantera hela familjens upplevelser i den rådande situationen. Syfte: Syftet med studien var att beskriva syskons upplevelse av att ha en bror eller syster med cancer samt att studera de inkluderade artiklarnas undersökningsgrupp. Metod: En deskriptiv litteraturstudie som inkluderar elva vetenskapliga artiklar som söktes via databasen Medline via PubMed. Artiklarna analyserades med hjälp av Polit och Becks niostegsmodell för ett objektivt urval. Huvudresultat: Syskon som hade en bror eller syster med cancer upplevde många omställningar i livet, både emotionellt, fysiskt och psykiskt. Resultatet visar tre centrala stora upplevelser som syskonen upplevde, ”Känslosamma ögonblick”, “Att rätt information skapar trygghet” samt “Att leva i en förändrad tillvaro”. Undersökningsgrupperna i de inkluderade artiklarna var individer mellan 6-22 år och både pojkar och flickor samt att antalet varierade mellan 6-125 deltagare. Slutsats: Ett syskon till en bror eller syster med cancer upplever många känslor och förändringar samt påverkas av den nya tillvaron som uppstår efter cancerbeskedet. Detta innebär att familjesituationen, relationer och skolan påverkas på olika sätt.  

  • 94.
    Bergström, Filippa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Granevåg, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hjärtsviktspatienters följsamhet till, samt beskrivningar och upplevelser av, att följa icke-farmakologiska behandlingsriktlinjer – en litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Heart failure is a common disease among the Swedish population today and it is also the number one cause of hospitalisation. A lack of compliance with the pharmacological treatment for heart failure is a big issue within the medical services today. This significantly contributes to increased hospitalisation as well as higher mortality rates among Heart failure patients. However, non-pharmacological treatments have been found to be a rather good complement to the pharmacological treatment. 

    Aim: The purpose of this literature study was to describe patients’ compliance with, as well as their experiences and accounts of, following non-pharmacological guidelines in connection to heart failure. An examination of the included studies’ focus groups and their quality was done as well.

    Method: A descriptive literature study where twelve scientific articles were included. The articles were found on the databases Pubmed and Cinahl. Parts of the study’s results were selected and analysed. These were then divided into categories and subcategories that suited the literature study’s research questions.

    Result: The compliance with the non-pharmacological treatment guidelines was generally inadequate. The most obstacles were found concerning the guidelines the patients got regarding the restrictions on salt. Thirst, forgetfulness, and physical symptoms were also big obstacles for complying with a non-pharmacological treatment. The biggest advantages of complying with the treatment that were identified were an increased sense of well-being and decreased hospitalisation.

    Conclusion: A general lack of compliance with the non-pharmacological treatment guidelines concerning the restrictions on salt and fluid, regular weigh-ins, and exercise occur among heart failure patients. Many obstacles to complying with treatment were identified, but the advantages of complying with non-pharmacological treatment guidelines were also described in the study.

  • 95.
    Bergström, Filippa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Granevåg, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hjärtsviktspatienters följsamhet till, samt beskrivningar och upplevelser av, att följa icke-farmakologiska behandlingsriktlinjer– en litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Hjärtsvikt är vanligt förekommande i den svenska befolkningen och är den vanligaste orsaken till sjukhusinläggning. Bristande följsamhet till den farmakologiska hjärtsviktbehandlingen är idag ett stort problem inom sjukvården. Detta bidrar till ökade sjukhusinläggningar samt ökad dödlighet hos hjärtsviktspatienterna. Icke-farmakologisk behandling har dock kunnat ses som ett komplement till den farmakologiska behandlingen.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att beskriva patienters följsamhet till, samt beskrivningar och upplevelser av, att följa icke-farmakologiska riktlinjer i samband med hjärtsvikt. En granskning av kvaliteten beträffande de inkluderade studiernas undersökningsgrupp utfördes även.

    Metod: En beskrivande litteraturstudie där 12 vetenskapliga artiklar inkluderades. Artiklarna söktes vid databaserna Pubmed och Cinahl. Delar från studiernas resultat plockades ut och analyserades. Dessa delades sedan upp under kategorier och underkategorier passande för att svara till litteraturstudiens frågeställningar.

    Resultat: Generellt var följsamheten till de icke-farmakologiska behandlingsriktlinjerna bristande. Flest antal hinder identifierades beträffande riktlinjer gällande saltrestriktioner. Törst, glömska, samt fysiska symtom var även de stora hinder till en följsam icke-farmakologisk behandling. De största fördelarna som identifierades till en följsam behandling var ökat välmående samt minskade sjukhusinläggningar.

    Slutsats: En generellt bristande följsamhet till de icke-farmakologiska behandlingsriktlinjerna gällande salt- och vätskerestriktioner, regelbunden vägning samt träning förekommer bland hjärtsviktspatienter. Många hinder till en följsam behandling identifierades, men även fördelar till att vara följsam till icke-farmakologiska behandlingsriktlinjer beskrevs i studierna.

  • 96.
    Bergström, Martina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Schilke, Jeanette
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Personers erfarenheter av att leva med bipolär sjukdom2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Having a bipolar disorder means to live with changes in the level of activity in the form of depression, mania or hypomania. The disease leads to difficulties and challenges for those affected as well as their families. To be able to guide and give good care to a person with bipolar disorder, the nurse has to have a good understanding of their situation. Aim: The aim of this review was to describe peoples experiences of living with bipolar disorder and to describe the methods of data collection in the included studies. Method: This review has a descriptive design. The data bases PubMed and PsycINFO were used to collect the data, which resulted in ten qualitative studies for this review. Main result: People with bipolar disorder describe their experiences of getting the diagnosis as a turbulent time with difficulties to accept the diagnosis. Stigma was experienced. They described an effect on life as feelings of lost autonomy, limitations and a change of identity. A good daily structure, awareness of signs of warning, triggers and the need of support were important to cope with the disease. Interviews were mostly used as a method of collecting data in the included studies. Conclusion: To live with a bipolar disorder means difficulties. It is important for people with bipolar disorder to receive support and to know how to handle the changing course of the disease to avoid a new episode. Nurses need knowledge about people’s experiences of having a bipolar disorder to be able to give the best possible care.

  • 97.
    Bergström, Pernilla
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    Öberg, Linda
    Anestesi- och intensivvårdssjuksköterskors erfarenhet av att perioperativt vårda patienter med långvarig smärta: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: Patients with persistent pain is in need of a structured treatment. Studies showed insufficient postoperative pain treatment.

    Aim: This study aimed to describe nurse anesthetists and critical care nurses experience in caring perioperative nursing patients with long term pain.

    Methods: Semistructured interviews with 15 nurse anesthetists and critical care nurses, based on clinical vignettes. Data was analysed with qualitative content analysis.

    Findings: The study results revealed five categories being prepared, that healthcare is complex and knowledge-intensive, to have a professional collaboration, to feel inadequate and to respond to the patient. The nurse anesthetists and the critical care nurses experiences showed that a clear plan and clear pharmaceutical prescriptions gave the nurse anesthetists and the critical care nurses the opportunity to prepare. This together with a more informed and involved patient improved postoperative pain treatment. By giving extra time to patients with persistent pain, their experience of pain, worry and anxiety diminished. The nurse anesthetists and the critical care nurses asked for training in pain treatment and a better contact with the pain clinic. The nurse anesthetists and the critical care nurses argued that it was important to have a good collaboration with the doctors to optimize and start the pain treatment on time. Specialist nurses experienced that patients with long-term pain were at risk of being undertreated. In cases where pain relief failed, feelings of frustration and powerlessness were described.

    Conclusion: Throughout all the nurse anesthetists and the critical care nurses experiences of caring for patients with persistent pain, it was necessary to have a clear and detailed plan for the patient's pain treatment which would extend perioperative and further to the care department or home care. With planning and preparation, the conditions for a better care of patients with persistent pain increased.

     

     

     

     

    Keywords: nurse anesthetists, experience, critical care nurse, persistent pain, long lasting pain, postoperative care.

  • 98.
    Bergström, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    Murén, Saana
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences.
    Distriktssköterskors reflektioner kring sin roll och förutsättningar att ge god omvårdnad vid palliativ hemsjukvård2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

     

    Bakgrund: Allt fler palliativt sjuka patienter vårdas i hemmen vilket leder till ett ökat behov av palliativ vård i hemsjukvården. Distriktssköterskan har ett övergripande ansvar över dessa svårt sjuka patienter och deras närstående.

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur distriktssköterskor som arbetar i den kommunala hemsjukvården reflekterar kring sin roll och förutsättningar att ge god omvårdnad vid palliativ hemsjukvård.

    Metod: Semistrukturerade intervjuer med tio distriktssköterskor. En kvalitativ innehållsanalys användes.

    Huvudresultat: Distriktssköterskorna såg arbetet med palliativ vård som sin mest prioriterade arbetsuppgift och kände ett stort ansvar över dessa patienter. Att bygga upp en relation med patienten och närstående tidigt i vårdförloppet samt kontinuitet var en förutsättning för god vård. Distriktssköterskorna beskrev ett väl fungerande samarbete med palliativa teamet, något som ofta saknades från hälsocentralerna. Arbetet var tidskrävande och i kombination med kravet på tillgänglighet ledde detta till en känsla av stress och otillräcklighet. Stöd från kollegor ansågs värdefullt då regelbunden handledning saknades. Kunskapsbrist hos omsorgspersonal försämrade omvårdnaden och försvårade distriktssköterskans arbete. Samtliga distriktssköterskor såg behovet av förbättring inom den palliativa vården och en önskan om ett speciellt palliativt team samt ett hospice framkom.

    Slutsats: Slutsatsen av studien är att det ansvarsfyllda och tidskrävande arbetet ledde till en känsla av otillräcklighet hos deltagarna. Det framkom en stark önskan från samtliga deltagare om förbättring i den palliativa vården i form av special team och hospice.

     

  • 99.
    Berthilson, Marie
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Eriksson, Caroline
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Avledande icke farmakologiska metoder och metodernas effekter vid procedursmärta hos barn 2-12 år: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Children sometimes need to seek medical help in order to undergo treatment procedures of various kinds. Children's reaction to anxiety and fear are governed by age, understanding, imagination and perception of reality. Children therefore need to be prepared for unpleasant procedures that they will undergo, such as: painful examinations, venipuncture or injections. These procedures can create anxiety and fear in children.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the various non - pharmacological istraction methods and its effects on procedural pain in children. And to describe the study groups in the included articles.

    Method: A descriptive design was used to answer the literature studies experimental purpose and questioning. The study was based on thirteen scientific articles. The papers were searched in databases Cinahl and PubMed. The articles were published between the years 2006-2016.

    Result: The study demonstrates that non - pharmacological distraction methods for example: playing with soap bubbles, looking through a kaleidoscope, listen to music and use a “Buzzy” have had a soothing effect on children’s fear, anxiety and pain. The effects have been estimated using different scales by nurses, researchers and parents' observations. The children themselves have been estimating the effects of the non - pharmacological distraction methods.

    Conclusion: In the results of the present study, the authors concluded that non-pharmacological distraction methods can ease children's fear, anxiety or pain at different nursing actions. The authors have also come to the conclusion that the distraction methods investigated can be used in everyday work in pediatric care.

  • 100.
    Bertils, Petra
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Åhlén, Camilla
    University of Gävle, Department of Caring Sciences and Sociology.
    Mödrars upplevelse av amning efter hemgång från sjukhus2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att beskriva kvinnors upplevelser av amning och metoden som användes i litteraturstudien var deskriptiv. Upplevelserna i 17 studier kategoriserades i fem grupper; förutsättningar, motstridiga råd, svårigheter, positiva erfarenheter och samhällssyn. Att få motstridiga råd från sjukvården var den upplevelse som beskrevs oftast och de olika känslomässiga svårigheter kvinnorna upplevde i samband med amningen var en annan tydlig upplevelse. Kvinnorna upplevde också att de hade bristfällig kunskap om amning och dess fördelar. Amning sågs som något naturligt men förväntningarna stämde inte överens med upplevelsen. Kvinnorna använde sig av olika strategier för att lyckas med amningen och många ansåg att amning är viktigt för barnet och de trivdes med att amma. I Sverige och i Västvärlden vill man främja amning pga. dess hälsomässiga och känslomässiga betydelse för mamma och barn. Amning är dock ett sammansatt fenomen som kräver en helhetssyn och framtida forskning bör sträva efter att öka förståelsen för ammande kvinnors situation för att rätt bemöta dessa kvinnor i vården. Kvinnor behöver få ökad kunskap för att upplevelserna ska överensstämma med förväntningarna. Sjukvården bör ge enhetliga råd och adekvat stöd, och även skapa medvetenhet om hur attityder påverkar amningspraktiken.

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