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  • 51.
    Kaltenbrunner, Monica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Industrial economics. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science. Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Uppsala universitet, Uppsala, Sverige; Nursing Department, Medicine and Health College, Lishui University, China.
    Lean i primärvården - en bild av hur Lean tillämpas2018In: FALF KONFERENS 2018 Arbetet – problem eller potential för en hållbar livsmiljö?   10-12 juni 2018 Gävle: Program och abstracts / [ed] Per Lindberg, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2018, p. 112-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund

    Lean har sitt ursprung i bilindustrin och har spridits till andra sektorer såsom hälso-och sjukvård. Implementering av Lean syftar vanligtvis till att öka vårdkvaliten. Vid utvärderingar av Lean saknas ofta en beskrivning av vilka principer av Lean som implementeras och i vilken utsträckning. Föreliggande studie utgår från Likers beskrivning av Lean. Liker beskriver Lean i fyra övergripande grupper kallad 4P modellen; philosophy, processes, people and partners, och problem-solving (filosofi, processer, anställda och partners, och problemlösning), som består av ett antal principer. Att implementera alla principer och involvera alla medarbetare är ovanlig, vilket Liker menar är avgörande om organisationen ska nå de mål de satt med att införa Lean.

    Syfte

    Syftet med studien var att illustrera hur Lean praktiseras inom primärvården. 

    Metod

    Studien utgår från ett större forskningsprojekt där både privata och landstingsägda primärvårdsenheter deltog. All personal vid enheterna fick 2016 besvara en enkät om Lean-principer, svarsfrekvens 35% (298 medarbetare vid 45 enheter). Höga Lean skattningar indikerade hög mognad av Lean vilket innebar att medarbetarna var kunniga rörande den efterfrågade Lean-principen; låg mognad av Lean innebar att man helt saknade principen på sin arbetsplats eller hade implementerat den i liten utsträckning av ett fåtal medarbetare. Baserat på enkätsvaren valdes fyra enheter ut för observationer, två med hög mognad av Lean och två med låg mognad. Observationerna inkluderade intervjuer och fältanteckningar som illustrerade hur 4P-modellen praktiserades på enheterna. Hälso- och sjukvårdspersonal med olika professioner deltog (n=28).

    Resultat

    Rörande filosofi ansåg medarbetarna vid alla fyra enheter att den närmaste chefen, återkommande men i varierande utsträckning, kommunicerade gemensamma mål. Patienternas behov styrde planeringen av vården. Processer kunde innefatta att medarbetarna baserade sin planering av vården på statistik. För vissa patientgrupper eller symtom fanns generella ordinationer, d.v.s. utan kontakt med läkare, t.ex. på vilka prover som skulle tas. Rörande anställda och partners var det vanligt att arbeta i team både inom och utanför sin enhet. Men det framkom även att medarbetarna inte arbetade tillsammans fast de borde det. Problemlösning förekom men ofta ostrukturerat med brister på uppföljning. En enhet hade påbörjat utvecklande av problemlösning genom dagliga möten och strullistor att dokumentera problemen på.

    Konklusion

    Tillämpning av Lean varierar i stor utsträckning mellan vårdcentralerna. Ett par enheter hade implementerat Lean i större utsträckning och dessa enheter var mer strukturerade rörande t.ex. problemlösning och teamarbete.

     

  • 52.
    Kaltenbrunner, Monica
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational Health Science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Management, Industrial Design and Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Management. University of Gävle, Center for Logistics and Innovative Production.
    Engström, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Caring Sciences, Caring Science.
    Lean maturity and quality in primary care2019In: Journal of Health Organisation & Management, ISSN 1477-7266, E-ISSN 1758-7247, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 141-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to 1) describe Lean maturity in primary care using a questionnaire based on Liker’s description of Lean, complemented with observations, and 2) determine the extent to which Lean maturity is associated with quality of care measured as staff-rated satisfaction with care and adherence to national guidelines. High Lean maturity indicates adoption of all Lean principles throughout the organization and by all staff.

    Design/methodology/approach - Data were collected using a survey based on Liker’s four principles, divided into 16 items (n = 298 staff in 45 units). Complementary observations (n = 28 staff) were carried out at four units.

    Findings - Lean maturity varied both between and within units. The highest Lean maturity was found for ‘adhering to routines’ and the lowest for ‘having a change agent at the unit’. Lean maturity was positively associated with satisfaction with care and with adherence to national guidelines to improve healthcare quality. 

    Practical implications - Quality of primary care may benefit from increasing Lean maturity. When implementing Lean, managers could benefit from measuring and adopting Lean maturity repeatedly, addressing all Liker’s principles and using the results as guidance for further development.

    Originality/value - This is one of the first studies to evaluate Lean maturity in primary care, addressing all Liker’s principles from the perspective of quality of care. The results suggest that repeated actions based on evaluations of Lean maturity may help to improve quality of care.

  • 53.
    Knutsson, Anders
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Karlsson, Berndt H.
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Örnkloo, Katarina
    Department of Oncology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Landström, Ulf
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Department of Medicine, Nutrition, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Kåre
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Postprandial responses of glucose, insulin and triglycerides: Influence of the timing of meal intake during night work2002In: Nutrition and Health, ISSN 0260-1060, Vol. 16, p. 133-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was to study the postprandial responses of glucose, insulin and triglycerides to meal intake at different clock times during night work. Eleven night shift working nurses participated. Identical test meals were ingested at 19:30, 23:30 and 03:30, and contained 440 kcal/ 1860 kJ of energy (33 E% fat, 51 E% carbohydrate, 16 E% protein). The food intake was standardized three days before the first test meal. Blood samples were drawn just before the test meals were ingested and thereafter at 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240 minutes. The postprandial responses were estimated as the total area under the curve (AUC) and significance testing was done using repeated measures ANOVA. The highest insulin level was found after meal intake at 23:30, and the lowest after meal intake 03:30. The glucose response showed the same pattern. The insulin response to food intake in night working nurses is more pronounced in the night compared with morning and evening. The results would have implications for metabolic and cardiovascular disorders in night workers.

  • 54.
    Landström, Ulf
    et al.
    Statshälsan/Prevab, National Institute for Working Life, Umeå.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå university, Mittuniversitetet, Department of Health Sciences, Sundsvall.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    National Institute for Public Health, Stockholm.
    Field studies on the effects of food content on wakefulness2000In: Nutrition and Health, ISSN 0260-1060, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 195-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The investigation included six drivers engaged in day driving and six drivers engaged in night driving. Changes in wakefulness were analysed by means of a questionnaire where the drivers were asked to rate their wakefulness on a 100 mm rating scale. Changes in wakefulness were analysed during intake of food with higher and lower contents of fat. The day-drivers had their intakes as breakfast and lunch, the night-drivers as dinner and between meals. No significant difference was observed between the two types of intake, meaning that the balance between fat, protein and carbohydrate does not effect the development of drowsiness

  • 55.
    Landström, Ulf
    et al.
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå, Sweden.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational Medicine, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    National Institute for Public Health, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stenudd, Anita
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå, Sweden.
    Onset of drowsiness and satiation after meals with different energy contents2001In: Nutrition and Health, ISSN 0260-1060, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 87-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The investigation consisted of a laboratory study with 10 healthy subjects who were both sleep and food deprived prior to each experimental condition. The aim of the study was to investigate the importance of energy content and the bulk of food on wakefulness and satiation. Each subject was tested in four conditions, each with equal food composition but different energy amounts: 100, 500 and 1000 kcal and 100 kcal with low bulk content. Recordings and ratings of wakefulness and satiations were carried out throughout the investigation, starting 30 minutes before and continuing until 90 minutes after intake of the food alternatives. No differences in wakefulness could be observed after the four food alternatives. However, subjects rated themselves as more satiated after the food alternatives with higher energy content and higher bulk

  • 56.
    Landström, Ulf
    et al.
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå, Sweden.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Deptartment of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    National Institute for Public Health, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Söderberg, Lena
    National Institute for Working Life, Umeå, Sweden.
    Laboratory studies of the effects of carbohydrate consumption on wakefulness2000In: Nutrition and Health, ISSN 0260-1060, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 213-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in wakefulness before and after exposure to carbohydrate intake were tested in 30 test persons. Changes in wakefulness were tested via EEG and subjective estimates. The intakes consisted of 400 ml glucose, 250 kcal (GI 100), 400 ml fructose, 209 kcal (GI 20), and 400 ml water. The study has indicated that intake of fructose, glucose and water had a similar stimulating effect on wakefulness in drowsy subjects immediately after intake. Our results also indicate that intake of fructose can lead to a delay in the development of drowsiness. Compared to water, a 20-30 minutes delay of the point in time when high-degree drowsiness developed, took place. There was no significant difference between glucose and water.

  • 57.
    Landström, Ulf
    et al.
    Statshälsan/Prevab, National Institute for Working Life.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    National Institute for Public Health, Stockholm.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå university.
    Fältstudier avseende kostinnehållets inverkan på vakenhet1997Report (Other academic)
  • 58.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Nutritionstorskning, Svensk Mjolk AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Biological rhythms, appetite and odd eating behaviour [Dygnsrytm, matlust och udda matvanor]2000In: Scandinavian Journal of Nutrition/Næringsforskning, ISSN 1102-6480, E-ISSN 1651-2359, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 118-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Not only what we eat, but also when we eat seems to be of importance for well-being, nutritional status, and health. The regulation of food intake (amounts) operates through feed backs from the periphery reporting to the central nervous system about the energy content of the body. Timing of eating is controlled by circadian rhythms in activity and sleep, internal rhythms being entrained by the external light-dark rhythm. Disturbed behavioural rhythms, e.g. shift work and travelling across time zones, interact strongly with internal physiology. Life-style in the 24-hour society makes people stay awake, eat and sleep at the wrong times with respect to human circadian rhythms in metabolism and performance.

  • 59.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Swedish Dairy Association (Svensk Mjolk), Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Medical Sciences, Nutrition Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Dietary assessment and validity: To measure what is meant to measure1998In: Scandinavian Journal of Nutrition/Næringsforskning, ISSN 1102-6480, E-ISSN 1651-2359, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 63-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nutritional assessment is the interpretation of information obtained from dietary, biochemical, anthropometric and clinical studies. In individuals, qualitative or quantitative food consumption data may be collected by food frequency questionnaires or interviews (retrospective methods), by use of food records (prospective methods); weighed food record, estimated food record or menu record, or by observations. Nutrient values derived from food composition data or direct chemical analysis represent the maximum available to the body and not the amount actually absorbed and utilized. The design of the study is crucial and the methods for carrying it out are aimed at minimizing bias to improve internal and external validity. This paper will focus on factors of importance to improve the internal validity of dietary assessment studies; selection of method; data collection, assessment of nutrient intakes from food consumption data and evaluation of data.

  • 60.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Swedish Dairy Association.
    En hungrig elev är en rastlös elev2002In: Vaar Foeda, ISSN 0042-2657, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 33-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 61.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Swedish Dairy Association.
    Geléhallon dyrare än morötter: prispolitik löser inte fetmaproblemet2003In: Vaar Foeda, ISSN 0042-2657, Vol. 55, no 5, p. 14-, article id 1Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 62.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Mejerierna Service AB.
    Goda matvanor1998In: Barn och ungdom med övervikt / [ed] Kathleen Gustafsson Lundmark, Gisela Dahlqvist, Ann-Charlotte Kihlstedt-Ödeen, Stockholm: Gothia Förlag AB , 1998, p. 15-27Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 63.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Swedish Dairy Association.
    Kan vi lita på alla larmrapporter?: minisymposium om epidemiologi och kostrekommendationer1998In: Vaar Foeda, ISSN 0042-2657, Vol. 50, no 7, p. 28-29Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 64.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    När på dygnet ska vi äta?1996In: Vaar Foeda, ISSN 0042-2657, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 3-7Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 65.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Swedish Dairy Association.
    Så tycker EU-konsumenten om mat, näring och hälsa1997In: Vaar Foeda, ISSN 0042-2657, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 28-29Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 66.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    Abrahamsson, Lillemor
    Department of Domestic Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Hambræus, Leif M.
    Department of Biosciences, Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institute.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health, Karolinska Institutet, Avdelningen för stressforskning, Karolinska institutet.
    Nutrition and 3-shift work: the 24-hour intake of energy and nutrients1994In: Ecology of Food and Nutrition, ISSN 0367-0244, E-ISSN 1543-5237, Vol. 32, no 3-4, p. 157-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food consumption was studied (repeated 24-hour recalls) during five days (four different work shifts and days off) in 16 healthy Swedish male papermill workers (rotating 3-shift). A comparison (energy, fourteen nutrients) between 24-hr periods showed a higher intake of energy and five nutrients during the 12 h work shift day compared to days off. The mean 24-hr energy-intake varied between 16,7 MJ (12 h work shift) and 13,3 MJ (days off). When only work hours were considered, the intake of energy and six nutrients were significantly higher during the morning-shift compared to the night-shift. There were no differences in the quality of the diet or the coffee consumption between 24-hr days or between 8-hr shifts. It was concluded that shift work affects 24 h nutrient intake to a very limited extent, although the distribution within 24 hours may vary.

  • 67.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    et al.
    National Institute of Public Health.
    Andersson, Ingalena
    Obesity Unit and Health Behaviour Research, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Food-based classification of eating episodes (FBCE)1999In: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 53-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept for categorization of eating episodes in dietary surveys was originally developed in studies of shift workers to compare 'meal patterns' between night and day work shifts. The concept has been further improved through experience from applications in dietary surveys in other populations. In this paper, results from categorization of eating episodes in shift workers, elderly women and men during life transition periods, elderly female leg ulcer patients and obese men and their lean controls are shown and discussed. The categorization concept is based on seven food categories with food items of similar nutrient characteristics within each category. Each eating event is categorized as any of four types of 'meals' or four types of 'snacks' due to its combination of food categories. Thus, categorization is based on visible properties (food types) but at the same time reflecting invisible properties (nutrients). Criteria is also established to sub-categorize the 'meal' types as being either 'prepared' or 'quick-prepared' from a behavioural perspective. Use of a defined and reliable concept for categorization is necessary to study eating episodes in dietary surveys, their determinants and also consequences on health and performance. Nocturnal eating during the circadian nadir might affect nutritional status. Since increasingly western populations appear to be moving from regular and planned meals to more episodic eating 'around the clock', such analyses are of increasing interest in a bio-social perspective.

  • 68.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    Becker, Wulf
    National Food Administration, Uppsala.
    Hagman, Ulla
    Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    Matvanor före och efter beskattningen av lunchsubventionerna1994Report (Other academic)
  • 69.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    et al.
    Institutionen for Hushållsvetenskap, Uppsala Universitet.
    Fjellström, Christina
    Department of Home Economics, University of Uppsala, Institutionen for Hushållsvetenskap, Uppsala Universitet.
    Abrahamsson, Lillemor
    Department of Domestic Sciences, Uppsala University, Institutionen for Hushållsvetenskap, Uppsala Universitet.
    En spektralanalys av måltiden: kostsociologi - nytt ämne i Uppsala1994In: Scandinavian Journal of Nutrition/Næringsforskning, ISSN 1102-6480, E-ISSN 1651-2359, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 144-145Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 70.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    et al.
    National Institute of Public Health.
    Fjellström, Christina
    Department of Home Economics, University of Uppsala.
    Becker, Wulf
    National Food Administration, Uppsala.
    Giachetti, Ismène
    CNERNA, Paris, France.
    Schmitt, Anette
    Reinheim, Germany.
    Remaut-De Winter, A. M. E.
    University of Gent, Faculty of Agriculture and Applied Biological Science.
    Kearney, Mary J.
    Institute of European Food Studies, Trinity College, Dublin.
    Influences on food choice perceived to be important by nationally-representative samples of adults in the European Union1997In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 51, no Suppl. 2, p. S8-S15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The purpose of this baseline survey was to obtain comparable data on perceived influences on food choice from EU member countries as the starting point for EU healthy eating promotion campaigns and programmes. Design: A cross-sectional study in which quota-controlled, nationally-representative samples of approximately 1000 adults from each country completed a face-to-face interview-assisted questionnaire. Setting: The survey was conducted between October 1995 and February 1996 in the 15 member states of the European Union. Subjects: 14,331 subjects (aged 15 y upwards) completed the questionnaire. Data were weighted by population size for each country and by sex, age and regional distribution within each member state. Results: The five most important factors influencing consumers food choice were 'quality or freshness' (74%), 'price' (43%), 'taste' (38%), 'trying to eat healthy' (32%) and 'family preferences' (29%). Subjects in different categories (age, sex, education and employment status) selected different factors as having major influence on their food choice. Demographic factors seemed to have greater effects on perceived influences than culture (country): 'quality/freshness', 'price', 'trying to eat healthy', 'family preferences' seemed to be most important in women, 'taste' and 'habit' in males. Females and older and more educated subjects were more likely than other subjects to select 'trying to eat healthy' as having a major influence. 'Price' seemed most important in unemployed and retired subjects.

  • 71.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    Hambræus, Leif M.
    Department of Biosciences, Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institute.
    Nutritionella aspekter på skiftarbete: arbetstidens påverkan på individens näringsintag och måltidsordning : slutrapportering av projekt1993Report (Other academic)
  • 72.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    Hambræus, Leif M.
    Department of Biosciences, Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institute.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health, Karolinska Institutet, Avdelningen för stressforskning, Karolinska institutet.
    Nutrient intake in day workers and shift workers1994In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 332-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 24-h dietary intake, nutritional status parameters and psychosomatic factors of two-shift, three-shift and day workers were compared. Estimations of the dietary intake (across a work cycle) were made by use of a nutrient database. No significant differences were found between the groups for a large number of nutritional variables: intake of energy; intake and percentage of energy from protein, fat, total carbohydrates and sucrose; intake of coffee; and intake and density of vitamins and minerals. Only minor differences were found between the groups with regard to the quantitative intake of alcohol and calcium, and with regard to the quality of the diet (percentage of energy from alcohol, density of calcium). The groups differed significantly with respect to attitude towards work hours (three-shift workers being most negative in their attitude) and sleep disturbances (shift workers being most negative). The three-shift workers were more evening-oriented and they had higher concentrations of glucose in their blood. It was concluded that work hours not related to nutritional intake-at least not when total amounts across time are considered. It was also concluded that work hours were not related to Body Mass Index or blood lipids: triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol and HDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol

  • 73.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala, Karolinska Institute.
    Hambræus, Leif M.
    Department of Biosciences, Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health, Karolinska Institutet, Avdelningen för stressforskning, Karolinska institutet, National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health, Department of Stress Research, Karolinska Institute.
    Shift related dietary intake in day and shift workers1995In: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 253-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To study the impact of work hours on eating habits the dietary intake of 96 male industrial workers on day work and two- and three-shift work was investigated using repeated 24 h recall. The intake of energy, 14 nutrients, and coffee and tea was computed, using a nutrient data base, for 8 h work and shifts (day, morning, afternoon, night) and for the 24-h periods including these work shifts. No changes in intake of energy, nutrients and coffee/tea were observed between 8 h morning and afternoon shifts, but there was a reduction in intake during 8 h night shifts. Night shift work caused a redistribution of food and coffee intake, but not an overall 24 h reduction. On the whole, the energy-intake and the quality of food intake (percentages of energy from macronutrients and density of micronutrients) were not affected by shift work, although the intake of carbohydrates was lower in day- and three-shift workers during days off. The intake of alcohol was higher during days off in all groups. In summary, two- and three-shift work in this study affected the circadian distribution of food intakes and coffee consumption, but not the overall 24-h consumption.

  • 74.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    et al.
    Svensk mjölk.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Friskis & svettis.
    Kosten, kroppen, klockan: att äta, sova och arbeta på udda tider2006Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 75.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health, Karolinska Institutet, Avdelningen för stressforskning, Karolinska institutet, Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    Hagman, Ulla
    Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    Bruce, Åke
    Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    Hambræus, Leif M.
    Department of Biosciences, Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    A new approach for evaluation of meal quality and meal patterns1993In: Journal of human nutrition and dietetics (Print), ISSN 0952-3871, E-ISSN 1365-277X, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 261-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An objective, nutritionally orientated classification system is necessary to evaluate the frequency, nutritional quality and temporal distribution of eating events in dietary surveys. In this paper a system to classify eating events qualitatively with regard to the types of food items consumed is described and demonstrated. It comprises eight food categories and criteria for their combination into four types of meals and three types of snacks of various nutrient composition. The food categories represent food items of animal and plant origin, and also food products containing sucrose and beverages containing alcohol or lacking energy and nutrients. Classification requires individual data collected by established food-record or recall methods. Data on consumed amounts is not required to classify qualitatively the eating events per se, but is required for quantitative calculations of their content, composition and relative contribution to total intakes. The application of the system to dietary data (80 repeated 24-h recalls, 517 eating events) of 16 male three-shift workers showed that classification of eating events was easy and largely unequivocal compared to traditional methods. Subsequent calculations showed expected differences between eating types with regard to content and relative quality. The meal-classification system might be used as a cost-effective method to evaluate the nutritional profile of meal patterns in surveys.

  • 76.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health, Karolinska Institutet, Avdelningen för stressforskning, Karolinska institutet.
    Hagman, Ulla
    Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    Bruce, Åke
    Department of Nutrition, University of Uppsala.
    Hambræus, Leif M.
    Department of Biosciences, Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institute.
    A new approach for evaluation of meal quality and meal patterns1997In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 65, no 4, p. 1360-1361Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 77.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    et al.
    National Food Administration, Nutrition Division, Uppsala.
    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
    National Institute for Psychosocial Factors and Health, Karolinska Institutet, Avdelningen för stressforskning, Karolinska institutet, National Food Administration, Nutrition Division, Uppsala.
    Hambræus, Leif M.
    Department of Biosciences, Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institute, National Food Administration, Nutrition Division, Uppsala.
    Nocturnal eating and serum cholesterol of three-shift workers1994In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 401-406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES - The goal of this study was to examine the effect of rotating three-shift work on the circadian distribution of dietary intake and to investigate the relationships between displaced eating and nutritional status variables [blood lipids, blood glucose, body mass index (BMI)]. METHODS - Dietary data were collected by 147 replicate 24-h dietary recalls from 22 male industrial workers in rotating three-shift work. The intakes of energy and nutrients were estimated by the use of a nutrient data base. The BMI was calculated, and blood glucose, serum triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were measured once. RESULTS - The dietary intakes of energy, protein, total fat, saturated fat, total carbohydrates, sucrose, and dietary fibre did not differ between 24-h periods but did differ between work shifts and were lowest during the night. Correlation analyses between dietary intakes and nutritional status parameters showed that those who redistributed their eating most to the night shift had higher levels of serum total cholesterol and LDL and a higher LDL:HDL ratio; 63% of the LDL cholesterol level was explained by carbohydrate intake during night shifts. In contrast, the total intake for whole 24-h periods or across entire shift cycles was not related to serum variables or BMI. CONCLUSIONS - Dietary intake is lower during night shifts (34-37% of 24-h intake of various nutrients) than during morning shifts (43-47%) and afternoon shifts (47-59%). The redistribution of food intake to the night may be associated with metabolic disturbances in lipid metabolism.

  • 78.
    Liljestrand, Caroline
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Organisatorisk och social arbetsmiljö i svenska utlandsskolan i Spanien: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om åtta grundskolelärares upplevelser2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate elementary school teachers' experiences of the organizational and social work environment in Swedish school in Spain. 

    Method: A qualitative approach with interview as a data collection method has been used. Data has been analyzed with qualitative content analysis.

    Results: The analysis resulted in five main areas that the teachers describe as important for how they experience the organizational and social work environment in Swedish school in Spain; Turnover of Students, Teachers and Management, Collaboration, Flexibility, Workload and the Importance of the premises. 

    Conclusion: Teachers in Swedish school in Spain generally find that they have free and flexible work, but at the same time they work a lot and are limited in the work of the time and resources available at the school. Furthermore, the study shows that teachers feel that social relations in the workplace are important as they can both enable and constrain good organizational and social work environment, and that social relations are affected by the turnover of people at school.

  • 79.
    Lindahl Waldenström, Simon
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Ledarskap, kreativitet och mental hälsa: Förändringsorienterat ledarskap och självskattad kreativitet ur ett arbetshälsovetenskapligt perspektiv2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lindahl Waldenström, Simon (2016). Leadership, creativity and mental health. Change oriented leadership and opportunity for creativity from an occupational health science perspective. Project work in Health at work 15 credits, University of Gävle.

    Background: Mental illness topped the list of factors causing sick leave in Sweden in 2015 and is together with the opportunity for creativity highly affected by the type of leadership an employee is exposed to. Since creativity and change-oriented leadership already are recognized factors affecting organizations’ financial success this study will highlight their role from an occupational health perspective.

    Objective: The purpose of the study is to examine how change-oriented leadership and creativity is associated with mental health of employees.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted within an organization (N=147) to identify type of leadership, mental health and creativity. Three well-established methods were used; Change-, production, and employee -oriented leadership, The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Epstein Creativity Competencies Inventory.

    Results and Conclusion: The results indicated an association between change-oriented leadership and anxiety, where lack of change-oriented leadership increased risk of anxiety among employees. Furthermore, the results indicated that the opportunity for creativity play a crucial role in the association between change-oriented leadership and anxiety, thus indicating change -oriented leadership and creativity as important factors for mental health in organizational contexts.

  • 80.
    Ljung, Lena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Flexion i nacken vid sittande och stående datorarbete, en jämförande studie2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Neck pain is frequent during computer work. Standing during computer work has been shown to have a beneficial effect on neck pain. Flexion of the neck may cause an increased load on the neck. The aim of this study was to compare flexion of the neck while sitting and standing during computer work for people who perform computer work during most of the day in their regular work.

    Ten individuals, eight women and two men, working in an occupational health service participated in the study. They worked with computer work in customer service, healthcare advice or sickness and recovery service (a service where employers get service to carry out sickness and recovery notifications, statistics of sick leaves, and counseling services to persons on sick leave).

    Neck flexion was measured on two occasions, during two hours per person each time, sitting and standing for one hour each. The measurement was made with triaxial accelerometers placed on the forehead, on Thoracic segment I, and on the outside of the thigh to verify the positions. The relative angle between Thoracic segment I and the forehead formed the flexion angle. No 0-position was used in the calculations.

    Results: The comparison of neck flexion between sitting and standing computer work, in this study, did not show any difference between the two positions (averaged neck flexion, sitting 29.2°,  standing 28.1°, p:0.35).

    The result supports the need for more research to examine the load of the neck during standing and sitting computer work examining more variables than neck flexion, for example, if muscular activity in the neck differs between the two positions during arm work.

  • 81.
    Löwden, Arne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stress Research Institute.
    Moreno, Claudia Roberta
    School of Public Health, University of São Paulo.
    Holmbäck, Ulf C.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Kristianstad University College.
    Tucker, Philip T.
    Department of Psychology, Swansea University.
    Eating and shift work: Effects on habits, metabolism, and performance2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 150-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Compared to individuals who work during the day, shift workers are at higher risk of a range of metabolic disorders and diseases (eg, obesity, cardiovascular disease, peptic ulcers, gastrointestinal problems, failure to control blood sugar levels, and metabolic syndrome). At least some of these complaints may be linked to the quality of the diet and irregular timing of eating, however other factors that affect metabolism are likely to play a part, including psychosocial stress, disrupted circadian rhythms, sleep debt, physical inactivity, and insufficient time for rest and revitalization. In this overview, we examine studies on food and nutrition among shift workers [ie, dietary assessment (designs, methods, variables) and the factors that might influence eating habits and metabolic parameters]. The discussion focuses on the quality of existing dietary assessment data, nutritional status parameters (particularly in obesity), the effect of circadian disruptions, and the possible implications for performance at work. We conclude with some dietary guidelines as a basis for managing the nutrition of shift workers.

  • 82.
    Martinsson, My
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Skillnad i arbetstillfredsställelse mellan män och kvinnor inom en könsblandad organisation2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine if there is a difference in job satisfaction between men and women in a mixed-gender organization. This by comparing men’s and women's job satisfaction based on the work as whole, work tasks and division of labor. Previous research differs in this question, when there is not enough clear relationships that strengthen this and varying results have been demonstrated. Through a crosssectional design, based on a survey, employees in two identical supermarkets were included in the study. Three Mann-Whitney U-tests were then carried out to answer the study questions. The results indicate that there is no significant difference in job satisfaction between men and women. Likewise, there is also no marked differences between men and women in the examined variables, age, length of employment, work environment, motivation and work commitment, which is assumed to be a possible explanation to why gender differences in job satisfaction has not been found. As a result of the low sample in the study the results and conclusions that are presented are not reliable. This study can therefore be seen as a preliminary study for future research that intends to examine gender differences in job satisfaction.

  • 83.
    Morian, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Arbetsmiljö- och hälsoarbete i små svenska Norrlandsföretag: En komparativ intervjustudie2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den svenska regeringens intentioner är att arbetsmiljön skall vara utvecklande och bidra till god hälsa. Arbetsmiljön som framgångsfaktor och konkurrensmedel skall lyftas fram. Studier visar att små företag ofta har sämre kunskapsmässiga resurser att hantera arbetsmiljöproblem och har ett informellt och mindre organiserat arbets-miljö arbete. Målstyrning och uppföljning brister ofta. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka de små företagens arbetsmiljö- och hälsoarbete och att identifiera incitament som hade betydelse för företagens inriktning i sitt arbetsmiljö- och hälsoarbete. Studien vill också utforska likheter och skillnader i företagens incitament utifrån två komparativa perspektiv: Främjande och förebyggande respektive efterhjälpande och rehabiliterande arbetsmiljö- och hälsoåtgärder. Sex företag med totalt sju respondenter deltog i denna intervjustudie med en komparativ och abduktiv design. Ämnet belystes både med fokuserade och semistrukturerade intervjufrågor som därefter analyserades med en hermeneutisk grund och en tematisk innehållsanalys utifrån Niofältstabellen. Det var inga större skillnader mellan de komparativa grupperna i studien. Resultatet visade att ett ekonomiskt perspektiv var det viktigaste incitamentet för alla företag att arbeta med arbetsmiljö- och hälsa. Visionerna kring en god arbetsmiljö och synen på medarbetarna som en tillgång i företaget var likvärdigt för alla företag. De små företagen fokuserar sina insatser mot den psykosociala arbetsmiljön. Ledningens tillgänglighet och närhet i det lilla företaget och medarbetarnas trivsel, gemenskap och delaktighet på arbetsplatsen var de viktigaste angivna faktorerna för att skapa en god arbetsmiljö och hälsa i de små företagen. Arbetstagarnas perspektiv skulle vara en intressant forskningsutveckling.

  • 84.
    Mustonen Ljung, Marie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Maten på jobbet: arbetsmåltider och uppfattningar om arbetsmåltider hos personal i roterande 3-skift vid en processindustri2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today´s society, we are active day and nights, both in leisure time and at work. This means that employees must be available at work 24-hours a day which inflict high strain on their circadian rhythms. The irregular working hours can affect negatively on the employee’s physical and mental health. Companies can, together with local unions, negotiate away the statutory dinner break and replace it with meal break, which means that it is included in working hours and should be used as time permits. The purpose of this study was to identify the perceptions of workers in rotating 3-shift, in a process industry, when and where their meal breaks take place and what they ate. 15 shift workers have during 6 shifts each, photo-documented what their meal breaks consisted of. Consumption of foods and beverages were categorized by Food-Based Classification of Eating Episodes. The photographs showed that the number of eating occasions was lower during the night shift in comparison to other shifts. Shift workers were interviewed and their statements underwent a phenomenographical analysis which revealed that their perception of the meal break is a social event as well that strengthens the group community. When the workers were having a meal, it is mostly occurred at the dinner table. The shift workers replaced each other so each one had the possibility to take a meal break. Regarding snack intakes, it could occur at their workplace and if something happened in the process, they could immediately return to work. Further studies are needed to verify the perceptions of other working groups.

  • 85.
    Myrén, Maja
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Implementering av fysisk aktivitet på arbetstid – en okontrollerad interventionsstudie inom vårdsektorn2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes a model for implementation of worksite physical activity. The aim was to investigate the applicability of the model by measuring participation in worksite physical activity and to investigate factors perceived as limiting and facilitating participation. Voluntary worksite physical activity was introduced for eight weeks for all employees at a hospital clinic (n=58). Data collection was done through questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. All employees except one participated in the study, and 50 % of the participants took part in the physical activity intervention. The most common perceived facilitating factor was having the attitude that physical activity is important for health. The most common perceived limiting factor was that the physical activity did not correspond to the work situation. The results are congruent with previous theories and research that highlights the importance of adapting intervention approach for the specific workplace and taking into account the importance of knowledge and attitudes towards physical activity when planning an intervention. Certain aspects of these results indicate that mandatory worksite physical activity or physical activity at any time during the workday could be successful for participation. 

  • 86.
    Narvén, Nina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences.
    Pettersson, Jonas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Culture Studies, Religious Studies and Educational Sciences.
    En narrativ studie om människors livsstilsförändringar tolkade mot motivationsteorier.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En livsstilsförändrings motivationsprocess ser olika ut för människor beroende på deras förändring, mål och motiv. Syftet med undersökningen var att belysa livsstilsförändringar genom att tolka människors livsberättelser mot motivationsteorier. Undersökningen genomfördes med en narrativ metod där människors livsberättelser tolkades mot motivationsteorier.  Tre motivationsteorier, Maslows behovstrappa, Självbestämmandeteorin och Transteoretiska modellen tillämpades parallellt för att åskådliggöra förändringsprocessen. I resultatet framkom att tillämpning av flera motivationsteorier gav bredare förståelse för förändringsprocessen då det visade sig att teorierna kunde användas som kompletterande verktyg eller för att framhäva olika händelser under en process.  

  • 87.
    Neely, Gregory
    et al.
    Umeå university, National Institute for Working Life.
    Landström, Ulf
    Statshälsan/Prevab, Department of Work and the Physical Environment, National Institute for Working Life.
    Byström, Marianne
    Department of Work and the Physical Environment, National Institute for Working Life.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Swedish Dairy Association.
    Missing a Meal: Effects on Alertness during Sedentary Work2004In: Nutrition and Health, ISSN 0260-1060, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 37-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the acute effects of missing a meal on alertness. The participants were ten university students between 20–29 years old, five females and five males. Participants were chosen on the basis of their good sleep and eating practices. Measurements were collected during an eight hour period starting at 8.00 AM on four separate days. During the test period, participants carried out their normal study activities while on separate days receiving either just breakfast, just lunch, both lunch and breakfast, or no meal at all. During the test period, EEG was monitored continuously while subjective ratings of performance and tiredness were collected every half-hour. The results showed that while there were neither physiological nor subjective indications of tiredness which could be attributed to meal consumption, subjective feelings of lack of energy and motivation was significantly more pronounced at the end of the workday when missing a meal or two.

  • 88.
    Niaifar, Alexander
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    En kvalitativ intervjustudie med fokus på motivationsfaktorer vid bibehållandet av en viktnedgång2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka vilka faktorer som motiverar några kvinnor att bibehålla en hälsosammare livsstil efter tidigare misslyckade försök.

    Metod: Genom en kvalitativ studie med semistrukturerade intervjuer.

    Resultat: För kvinnorna var stödet en av två av de viktigaste faktorerna till att bibehålla sin vikt efter en viktnedgång. Den andra faktorn är att ändra sitt tankesätt kring vilka val man gör, vid träningen, men framförallt efter träningen.

    Slutsats: Det behövs flera ställen med ett koncept likt detta träningscenter. Det finns allt för många ”vanliga” gym men bara ett fåtal organisationer som inriktar sig specifikt på viktnedgång och bibehållandet av det. Men för dem som vill ha hjälp och behöver stöd till att vara fysiskt aktiv så är det nog svårare att få det stödet på vanliga gym. Därför är det, precis som deltagarna i denna studie tar upp, viktigt att ett träningscenter finns för den delen av befolkningen som behöver det där lilla extra, som kan betyda som oerhört mycket.

  • 89.
    Norrgård, Amanda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Obalans mellan ansträngning-och belöning, en riskfaktor för nedsatt psykiskt välbefinnande?: En kvantitativt studie bland kommunanställda2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to investigate whether the association between psychological well-being and the effort-reward imbalance differ in gender among employees in the child- and education council in a municipality.

    Method: A total of 153 respondents participated, whereof 123 were women and 30 were men. The method that was used in this study was a quantitative method with a cross-sectional design. The data was collected through an electronic questionnaire. The data was analyzed by several logistic regression analyzes.

    Results: The results from the logistic regression analysis, which included both genders, indicated a positive statistically significant association between the sumindex for balance and psychological well-being (p=,006, OR=4,539). The result from the logistic regression analysis, which included only women, indicated a positive statistically significant association between the sumindex for balance and psychological well-being (p=,025, OR=3,685). Men had no statistical significant association with any variable.

    Conclusion: The study showed that the odds of have impaired psychological well-being increase when respondents report more imbalance between effort and reward, explicitly more effort for each reward. Furthermore, the study has not been able to determine gender differences regarding the association between psychological well-being and the effort- reward imbalance.

  • 90.
    Outinen, Martin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Chefsroll, en genusrelaterad föreställning?: En studie om kvinnor på mellanchefsnivås uppfattningar av sin chefsroll i en mansdominerad bransch2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate and describe the perceptions women has of being in middle management position in male-dominated industries. Five qualitative semi-structured interviews have been conducted, and the empirical material analyzed from a phenomenographic perspective. The analyzed data resulted in four categories; Job satisfaction is strengthened by the feeling of security, the Organization task-orientation has a negative impact on the leadership, Traditional notions of masculinity and femininity requires adaptation, Good leadership requires some special features. Conclusion show that women in middle management-positions perceived to have strong support in their management role in the male-dominated industries, however, there are indications that these industries also require a certain type of leadership behavior. Women consider themselves even perceive a shift in the focus of what should be prioritized depending on which department they are in. Male-dominated departments often leads to down prioritizing relationship-oriented tasks, as the women think is an essential part of leadership

  • 91.
    Pedersen, Malin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Första linjen-chefers upplevelser av att arbeta emot sexuella trakasserier ifrån patienter på sjukhus: En kvalitativ studie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine first line managers experiences of working against sexual harassment from patients against clinicians in hospitals. The study was qualitative using mixed methods gathering data. The study was conducted in two substudies. The first by mapping out policys on sexual harassment from patients within a specific region, then analysed by using the policy analysis method What’s the problem represented to be? The second substudy was carried out by conducting interviews with ten first line managers in a hospital, and analysed by a qualitative content analysis. The results show that the analysed policy does not include sexual harassment to a great extent, and presents patients distrust to a workgroup characterized by diversity as a problem. First line managers experience some saturation in how much they can prevent sexual harassment from patients, and feel that most incidents are handled by the clinicians themselves. First line managers experience the policy as some what “black and white” but at the same time a good basic support tool, and therefore the managers experiences of preventing and handling sexual harassment from patients could give a more nuanced picture of the phenomenon. 

  • 92.
    Persson, Lina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Hälsa, välbefinnande och förutsättningar för informellt lärande: En enkätstudie om kvinnor och mäns upplevelser av aktivitetsbaserade kontor2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is important how office environments get designed so they can promote conditions for learning, well-being and health in the workplace. The purpose of an activity-based office (ABW) is to give the employees a possibility to choose the workplace best suited for the task at hand, implying that no one has their own private office to go to. Although this office environment gets increasingly popular, there is a lack of research demonstrating the effects of ABW:s on communication, collegial support, health and wellbeing, especially from a learning perspective. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in how satisfied women and men are in an ABW with the conditions for informal learning, such as work-related information exchange, cooperation and social support and test whether it is a relation between informal learning at work and self-rated wellbeing and health. A questionnaire was sent out to 174 employees working at the Swedish Transport Administration and the response rate was 53 %. The analyses showed that there is no significant difference between men and women in how satisfied they are with the conditions for informal learning in the ABW, overall both genders gave high ratings on satisfaction. A significant relationship was found between informal learning and well-being but not between informal learning and health. Further research is needed to investigate whether informal learning actually takes place in the activity-based office, using a bigger sample and variety of ABW:s, to clear out if the relation between informal learning and well-being is causal.

  • 93.
    Persson, Lina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Variation i arbetet: växlingar mellan fysiska och mentala arbetsuppgifter: Företag A2017Report (Other academic)
  • 94.
    Persson, Lina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Variation i arbetet: växlingar mellan fysiska och mentala arbetsuppgifter: Företag B2017Report (Other academic)
  • 95.
    Persson, Lina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Variation i arbetet: växlingar mellan fysiska och mentala arbetsuppgifter: Företag C2017Report (Other academic)
  • 96.
    Persson, Lina
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Variation i arbetet: växlingar mellan fysiska och mentala arbetsuppgifter: Företag D2017Report (Other academic)
  • 97.
    Petterson, Ann
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Gabrielsson, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Äldre individers upplevelse av livskvalitet2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Inom äldreomsorgen ses ibland de äldre sitta ensamma tomt stirrandes. Funderingar kan uppstå om den äldre individen känner livskvalitet. Forskning visar att vad som ger livskvalitet är individuellt, det är därför viktigt att ta hänsyn till individens uppfattning om vad som ger livskvalitet.  Denna kvalitativa studies syfte var att beskriva hur äldre personer som bor i särskilt boende upplever sin livskvalitet. Resultatet bygger på tolv semistrukturerade intervjuer analyserade enligt Granheim & Lundmans metod. Till intervjuerna användes en semistrukturerad frågeguide med 8 öppna frågor.   Ett strategiskt urval användes för studien där inklusionskriterierna var att informanterna skulle vara över 80 år, svensktalande, boende på ett servicehus i Mellansverige som drivs i kommunal regi. Informanterna skulle även vara orienterade till tid, rum och tidigare yrkeserfarenhet var oviktig. Resultat visar att relationen till personalen är betydelsefull för informanterna, men att de ibland upplever sig vara beroende av dem och detta upplevs som negativt. Aktiviteter som ordnas på boendet uppskattas och valmöjligheten att delta eller inte samt kunna påverka utbudet av aktiviteterna upplevs som viktigt. Besvärande fysiska åkommor kan ibland begränsa informanternas deltagande i aktiviteterna, vilket upplevs negativt då aktiviteten ger de äldre individerna glädje och gemenskap. Fysisk träning är viktig, detta gör att de mår bra och känner sig mer självständiga. Besök av familj och vänner uppskattas och ger den äldre glädje, dock finns individer på det särskilda boendet som upplever ensamhet. Även lugna stunder i ensamhet uppskattas då de äldre ibland minns tillbaka i livet.

    Nyckelord: livskvalitet, särskild boendeform, äldre, kvalitativ studie

  • 98.
    Rashid, Mamunur
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Heiden, Marina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Nilsson, Annika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Caring science.
    Predictors of work ability among women on long-term sick leave due to musculoskeletal pain2017In: NES2017 conference proceedings / [ed] Anna-Lisa Osvalder, Mikael Blomé and Hajnalka Bodnar, 2017, p. 140-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Musculoskeletal pain is one of the leading causes of sick leave (SL), especially among women in Sweden and in other western countries. It is, therefore, important to know which health- and work-related factors are associated with work ability (WA) among women with long-term musculoskeletal pain.

         Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine whether there is any association between self-efficacy, anxiety, depression, sense of coherence, job strain, support at work, pain intensity, physical activity, beliefs to be back at the same work, coping strategies, and WA.

         Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on women with long-term pain who were on SL. Inclusion criteria: (i) age 18-65 years, (ii) SL: ≥ 1 months, (iii) SL: ≥ 50%, (iv) pain in neck, shoulder or back (≥ 3 months), and (v) understanding Swedish. Exclusion criteria: (i) rheumatoid arthritis, (ii) multiple sclerosis, (iii) stroke, (iv) cancer, (v) Parkinson, (vi) bipolar disease, (vii) schizophrenia, (viii) pregnancy. In spring 2016, self-administered questionnaires were sent out to 600 women who were receiving time-loss benefits according to the Swedish Social Insurance registers. Out of these, a total of 208 participants responded and were included in the analysis. For assessing the predictors and the outcome, seven instruments were used: General Self-Efficacy, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire, Sense of Coherence, Multidimensional Pain Inventory, Coping Strategy Questionnaire and Work Ability Index. Two of the predictors, physical activity and beliefs to be back at the same work, were measured by single questions. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to detect which of the factors were associated with WA.

         Results: Women who more strongly believed that they would return to the same work within 6 months had higher WA (β= 0.39, p < .001), whereas women with higher pain intensity (β= -0.28, p < .001) and higher job strain (β= -0.12, p < .05) had lower WA. The results did not change when age, cohabitant, economic situation and social support were controlled for in the analysis. The regression model was significant (p < .0001), and its adjusted R- square was 48%.

         Discussion and practical implications: Women’s positive beliefs are associated with higher WA in accordance with previous studies. Our study also found that pain intensity and high job strain are associated with reduced WA. The results suggest that health care providers and employers should take women’s beliefs to be back at the same work into account for supporting them to return to work. Furthermore, the focus of rehabilitation program should be on women suffering from high pain intensity to increase WA.

         Conclusion: This study showed that beliefs to be back at the same work, pain intensity and job strain might be predictors of WA. Further studies are needed to identify if these predictors are also important for WA among women with long-term pain who are at work.

     

    Key words: Factors, ability to work, sickness absence, women and pain

  • 99.
    Richardsson, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Första linjens chefers upplevelser av krav och kontroll i den privata psykiatri-, och missbruksvården.: En intervjustudie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Examine and describe first line managers’ perceptions of demand and control within the private psychiatric, and treatment care.

    Background: First line managers’ (FLM) work in health care contains high demands and limited control space. It is claimed through leadership research that leaders can adapt the amount of support and control to a given work situation. Other leadership studies claims that a certain work situation, context, can affect the leadership performance. Due to the demand, control, support model, work situations containing high demands and limited control space effects the individuals’ experience of work in a negative way that can affect health and wellbeing.

    Method: Ten first line managers’ from the private psychiatric and treatment care were interviewed. The interview material was analyzed and presented through a phenomenographic analysis.

    Result: FMLs’ experiences of demand and control were a result of manager role’s responsibilities, context and opportunity to exercise leadership. FMLs’ opportunity to exercise leadership was in turn a result of surrounding context.

    Conclusion: Adding context to the existing demand, control and support model can develop an understanding of managers' work environment, opportunity to exercise leadership and ability to support subordinate employees.

  • 100.
    Rismalm, Marie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Hinder och möjligheter i arbetet med att främja arbetslösas hälsa och stödjandet på vägen till ett arbete2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Rismalm, M. (2015). Obstacles and opportunities in efforts to promote the health of the unemployed and supporting on the way to work. Bachelor thesis in Public Health science. Department of work- and public health science. The academy of health and working life. University of Gävle, Sweden.

     

    Purpose: The purpose was to study the potential obstacles and opportunities in the work of promoting health among unemployed and support them to a job. The research questions were: How is health promoted practically in supporting unemployed, what are the obstacles and opportunities do the project staff encounter, how is the project organized and what future visions do the project staff have regarding the project.

    Method: The method used was a qualitative interview study with a semi-structured form for the interview questions. The studied project was in the middle of Sweden. Based on a convenience selection, four managers was selected from the project and was interviewed. Results: The study showed that potential obstacles regarding the job was, according to the respondents, language barriers, competence weighed against job market and the lack of health among the unemployed. In the result there were also opportunities that the respondents work with physical activity was used as a natural work in promoting health among unemployed. Conclusion: Physical activity and education in language was considered important in the work of promoting health among unemployed. This provided a greater possibility to enter the job market.

    Keywords: Obstacles, Opportunities, Unemployment, Projects, Health promotion.

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