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  • 51.
    Jansson, Agnes
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Kyrkogårdar och den hållbara utvecklingen med inrktning på Berthåga kyrkogård i Uppsala2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 52.
    Jansson, Helen
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Morgondagens stadsträd: Med Gävle som exempel2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Considering urban trees importance for humans in both environmental and health aspects, this study aimed to explore appropriate urban tree species and varieties with a focus on prevention for current and future epidemics. The basis for this study is Gävle. It is of interest to see what suited a little further north in Sweden, zone 4. This literature survey is based on scientific articles, other literary writings and conversations references with industry expertise and these issues have been the focus. * How does the city tree population looks in Gävle today? * How to choose the new urban trees based on current and future disease epidemics? * What park trees and street trees are suitable for planting in Gävle in order to increase diversity? Gävle has previously, like many other municipalities, planted trees prevailing on trends. This has resulted in an over-representation of the tree genera Tilia, Sorbus and Acer. Invasive disease similar to Ash dieback and Dutch elm disease can knock out large parts of the urban tree population caused by monoculture. Diversity is of great importance in this regard. City tree population should not exceed more than 10% of a species, 20% of a family or more than 30% of a family. It has been a two folded guidelines in the selection of urban trees:

    * Get a better understanding of the prevailing conditions in the urban environment and to enhance the experience on which species thrive in these conditions. * Expand the existing tree population by gathering more knowledge and dare to try new and / or untested species. Recommendations of street trees and park trees in both zone 3 and zone 4 are presented in the report. Interestingly, it emerged both species / varieties that occur in nurseries today but also tree species / varieties that have not yet been introduced.

  • 53.
    Jansson, Helen
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Odling i skolan: ett designförslag2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 54.
    Jansson, Katarina
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Hållbara växtbäddar för perenner i offentliga miljöer2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta arbete är att ta reda på vilka problem det finns i perennplanteringarna i offentliga miljöer samt hur man kan förebygga problemen och hur man bygger upp växtbäddar för perenner utifrån ett hållbarhetsperspektiv. Undersökningen genomfördes hösten 2011 och baserades på litteratur som böcker, artiklar, faktablad samt intervjuer. I undersökningen ingick fem angränsande kommuner till Gävle samt tre erkända trädgårdsmästare. Utgångspunkten för valet av trädgårdsmästarna var att de skulle ha erfarenhet av att skapa väl fungerande och hållbara exempel på offentliga perennplanteringar i Sverige.

    Det finns många olika orsaker till att perennrabatterna i våra offentliga miljöer inte ser så attraktiva ut. Oavsett orsak så kan man säga att grundproblemet är bristfällig kunskap och eventuellt brist i kommunikationsleden från ”idé till planta” när det gäller de offentliga planteringarna.

    Det är många delar som är viktiga i en växtbädd för att perenner, träd och buskar ska kunna etablera sig och utveckla sin prakt år efter år. En av dessa komponenter är en bra jord. Det är viktigt att man väljer en rotogräsfri jord utifrån växtvalet redan från början. Ett av problemen i kommunerna var att fel sorts jord hade använts från början. Trots att alla påstod att de använde sig enbart av rotogräsfri jord i dagsläget så hade de problem med ogräs. Två orsaker till detta kan vara att man väljer fel växter och att skötseln inte fungerar, vilket resulterar i att ogräset tar över.

    Den perfekta växtbädden, finns den? Eftersom det är naturen vi arbetar med är det svårt att uppnå det ultimata resultatet, men vi kan göra det bästa utifrån förutsättningarna som finns med alla de delar som ingår i en växtbädd.

     

  • 55.
    Jauregui Prada, Asier
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Preliminary design of an off-grid photovoltaic system for smallholder water pumping in Sub-Saharan Africa2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sub-Saharan Africa is the region in the world that suffers the most from poverty and its worst effects: hunger, lack of water and diseases. And the problem is not even decreasing: in the past years there has been a peak in undernourishment in the continent. Furthermore, according to ongoing research, the area is expected to be one of the most affected by climate change.

    A solution that tackles at the same time water scarcity, diseases, hunger and greenhouse gas emissions is urgent. Luckily, with the development in the past years of the solar photovoltaic and battery technologies, these solutions can now compete head-to-head with fossil-fuelled pumps. Indeed, the photovoltaic water pump (PVWP) is becoming the preferred solution for locals and NGOs, enabling a cheaper, less pollutant and more self-sustainable growth vector.

    In this thesis, a PVWP system is pre-designed. This means that the effect of the different variables over the system are studied, without aiming to design any specific system. However, the calculations are done with the climatic conditions of Fada N’gourma (Burkina Faso) as an example.

    To start, the importance of water for basic supply, sanitation and agriculture is researched through reviewing existing literature. The specific advantages of an advanced method of irrigation such as drip irrigation are also investigated.

    To continue, the analysis of the influence of each parameter intervening in the system is undertaken. First, a method to calculate the watering needs of the plants (through the concept of evapotranspiration), and simultaneously the passive self-regulation of PVWP systems for irrigation purposes is analysed. Second, the possibility to calculate faithfully the optimal angle with only climatic values and the size of the orchard is demonstrated. Third, a model to obtain the optimal diameter of the pipes through the optimisation of the cost is elaborated. The specific influence of the pump efficiency in this process is also explored. Fourth, an analysis on the effect in the system resilience to weather changes depending on the different starting dates for planting the crops is done.

    To finish, some considerations and a preliminary design are made. The option of implementing a storage system is discussed, with advantages of the batteries and the water tank. A quick economical evaluation done, leading to the conclusion that a PVWP system of the characteristics studied is viable under most of the circumstances.

  • 56.
    Ji, Huawei
    et al.
    School of Agriculture and Biology and Research Centre for Low-Carbon Agriculture, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Urban Forest Research Station, State Forestry Administration, Beijing, China.
    Wen, Jiahao
    School of Agriculture and Biology and Research Centre for Low-Carbon Agriculture, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Urban Forest Research Station, State Forestry Administration, Beijing, China.
    Du, Baoming
    School of Agriculture and Biology and Research Centre for Low-Carbon Agriculture, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (South), Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing, China.
    Sun, Ningxiao
    School of Agriculture and Biology and Research Centre for Low-Carbon Agriculture, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (South), Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing, China.
    Berg, Björn
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology. Department of Forest Ecology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Liu, Chunjiang
    School of Agriculture and Biology and Research Centre for Low-Carbon Agriculture, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Urban Forest Research Station, State Forestry Administration, Beijing, China.
    Comparison of the nutrient resorption stoichiometry of Quercus variabilis Blume growing in two sites contrasting in soil phosphorus content2018In: Annals of Forest Science, ISSN 1286-4560, E-ISSN 1297-966X, Vol. 75, no 2, article id 59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Key message: Foliar phosphorus (P) resorption inQuercus variabilisBlume was significantly lower at a P-rich than at a P-deficient site. Moreover, P resorption strongly decreased, and nitrogen:phosphorus and carbon:phosphorus resorption ratios increased with soil P content. This demonstrates a strong link between foliar P resorption and P content in soils, and emphasizes the importance of P resorption in leaves of trees growing in soils with contrasted P content. Context: Subtropical ecosystems are generally characterized by P-deficient soils. However, P-rich soils develop in phosphate rock areas. Aims: We compared the patterns of nutrient resorption, in terms of ecological stoichiometry, for two sites naturally varying in soil P content. Methods: The resorption efficiency (percentage of a nutrient recovered from senescing leaves) and proficiency (level to which nutrient concentration is reduced in senesced leaves) of 12 elements were determined in two oak (Q. variabilis) populations growing at a P-rich or a P-deficient site in subtropical China. Results: P resorption efficiency dominated the intraspecific variation in nutrient resorption between the two sites. Q. variabilis exhibited a low P resorption at the P-rich site and a high P resorption at the P-deficient site. Both P resorption efficiency and proficiency strongly decreased with soil P content only and were positively related to the N:P and C:P ratios in green and senesced leaves. Moreover, resorption efficiency ratios of both N:P and C:P were positively associated with soil P. Conclusion: These results revealed a strong link between P resorption and P stoichiometry in response to a P deficiency in the soil, and a single- and limiting-element control pattern of P resorption. Hence, these results provide new insights into the role of P resorption in plant adaptations to geologic variations of P in the subtropics.

  • 57.
    Johansson, Edit
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Odling av vedartade växter i kärvt klimat: En studie om zonkartans användning i Norr- och Västerbottens län2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The hardiness of a plant is often strongly associated with the recommendations on the climate zone map. However, it is not only the climate zone recommendation that determines whether a plant is cold hardy enough to survive and thrive at a certain location. 

    By sending a questionnaire to local growers in northernmost Sweden I wanted to investigate how the climate zone map is used and how well it works in the northern part of Sweden. Most growers were positive to the recommendations in the map. However, they pointed out that the climate zone map does not take into account the genetic heritage, the local microclimate and the requirements of the location on which the plant is supposed to grow, which are all very important. Growers mentioned that more information about how to create a good micro climate for a certain plant in a certain zone would be very useful.

    From the questionnaire I have put together a list of plants that growers in northern Sweden have grown outside the recommendation from the climate zone map. And by using information from the growers together with information from my literature study I have created a suggestion on an updated climate zone map to see if it is possible to raise knowledge and increase plant selection in northernmost Sweden.

  • 58.
    Jonsson, Caroline
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Ekologisk äppelodling i Norrland: Odlingsförutsättningar och sortval från zon 5 och norrut2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 59.
    Jonsson, Linda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Matematiska mönster i naturen och hur de kan göra bostadsgården mer hälsofrämjande: En teori av en trädgårdsmästare2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    My theory is that one of the explanations for the nature's positive impact on us is that nature is easy to read when we decode our surroundings. In nature there are mathematical patterns that recur and repeat themselves like the Fibonacci numbers, Golden Ratio, Phyllotaxis spiral and especially fractals. These patterns help us to record and take in information from what we see in our surroundings to understand it but also to determine if there is something scary or if we are in a safe place.

     

    In research where they investigated the subjects’ eye movements it was found that we automatically attach our gaze at pattern of the fractal dimension 1.3 – 1.5. Further experiments showed that the test subjects where the most relaxed when they saw pictures with a dimension value within that range. I found additional support for plant health effects in a report from an experiment in which test subjects touched different materials blindfolded. The research team wanted to measure both psychological and physical reactions. The test subjects were instructed to value their experiences based on 10 pairs of word opposites and additionally their oxygen saturation in the blood and the cerebral blood flow were monitored. The psychological part of the trail gave a neutral result, but the physical measurements indicated that the subjects were stressed by touching metal and were more relaxed when they touched living plant material (a fresh leaf). The conclusion was that physical contact with plant material can have a calming effect, even though the subject does not know it is plant material it touches.

     

    By bringing in these patterns to apartment house courtyards they would become more health promoting for the urban human. Since the herbal layer is underrepresented in these areas today, I have chosen to focus on perennials that would bring in the fractal and mathematical patterns in this environment.

  • 60.
    Järnevi, Sara
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Lyckad trädflytt: Förberedande åtgärder och efterskötsels inverkan på trädets etablering efter flytt2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report was to put together facts regarding how the measures before and after tree transplanting can affect the establishment of the tree. The report also dealt with the impact that root pruning might have on trees and how regeneration of roots can be promoted. The report answers questions concerning how tree transplanting affects a tree and how tree species, locality and previous measures can influence the effect of a tree transplanting. The reports also answers a question concerning which measures could be performed, before and after tree transplanting, to improve the tree’s establishment in it’s new locality. The last question that this report answers is what impact root pruning has on the tree and how regeneration of fine roots can be favoured. The report is written as a traditional academic report and is based on literature that was collected from scientific articles, books and encyclopedias. A tree loses a large amount, approximately 90 percent, of its root system during the tree transplanting. This causes stress symptoms in the tree. A tree, sown and grown in nature, that has never been root pruned will lose even larger amounts of its root system when it’s transplanted. It’s important to do investigations before tree transplanting. Investigations should be done before tree transplanting to determine what kind of tree, nursery-grown or grown in nature, and what species is about to be transplanted. Both of these aspects may have an influence on how successful the transplanting is. Root pruning can make the root system more compact which reduces root loss during transplanting. Root pruning also increases the amount of fine roots in the root ball which is beneficent during establishment and also reduces water stress. The high amount of root loss causes an imbalance between crown and roots. The crown is often reduced to correct this imbalance and in this report it was proven that a moderate crown reduction is beneficial for the tree. The tree must overcome the stress symptoms to be able to survive and to establish itself. Trees need good vitality to be able to regenerate roots, shoots and branches. Irrigation plays an important part in the establishment and the survival of the tree. Mulch can promote regeneration of fine roots and contribute to an improved establishment. The conclusion of the report is that both preparatory measures and after care has an impact on the establishment and on how successful the transplanting of a tree will be. A correctly executed root pruning and a moderate crown pruning (10 to 30 percentage of the crown) should be carried out. Trees should be transplanted during their dormant season and trees, that are going to be transplanted, should have high vitality. Regeneration of roots is promoted by having good soil moisture, warm soil, even watering and applying mulch.

  • 61.
    Klingberg, Tage
    University of Gävle, Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    A European view of forest issues for consideration2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Certification of forestry is a tool that may influence the image of forestry in the eyes of the consumers. Several certification schemes have been developed.

    The organization of family forest owners in Europe turned away from FSC, (the Forest Stewardship Council) and instead established the PEFC, the Pan-European Forest Certification to better accommodate the ownership pattern with many small holdings.

    So far certification has not, in a global perspective, managed to penetrate those parts of the world where abusive forest practices are most common and where vast forest areas are lost every year.

    Some problems in connection with certification are identified, e.g. increasing complexity of rules and the governance of the systems.

    To judge the potential for forest certification the attitudes of consumers to forestry and certification is discussed. Different scenarios of the role of certification are identified. The use of labelling as an extension of certification is mentioned.

    In the third world certification of forestry may play different roles as compared to in Europe or North America.

  • 62.
    Knez, Igor
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Butler, A.
    Faculty of Landscape and Society, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    Ode Sang, Å.
    Department of Landscape Architecture, Planning and Management, Alnarp, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Ångman, E.
    Department of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sarlöv-Herlin, I.
    Department of Landscape Architecture, Planning and Management, Alnarp, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Åkerskog, A.
    Fieldforest Research Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Before and after a natural disaster: disruption in emotion component of place-identity and wellbeing2018In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 55, p. 11-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to investigate relationships between emotion and cognition components of place-identity and wellbeing, before and after a natural disaster. A total of 656 respondents, living near the area of the largest forest and landscape fire in modern times in Sweden, participated in this study. Before the disaster, a positive association was found between place-identity and wellbeing, indicating that the stronger emotions participants evolved to the place, as well as remembered more and thought about the place, the stronger wellbeing they experienced at the site. After the disaster, the strength of this relationship decreased more than twice, accounted for by the weakening of the emotion-wellbeing link. Accordingly, participants almost lost their emotional bond to the area but maintained their memories and thoughts about the site intact and, by that, their positive wellbeing associations with the location. This indicates tentatively the phenomenon of post-traumatic growth, type of resilience involving operations of cognitive appraisal. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  • 63.
    Kronwall, Maria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Lekträdgård på förskolan: Ett designförslag utifrån Lek, Odla, Väx!2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 64.
    Krug, Madelene
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Ekologiskt hållbar parkförvaltning2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ekologisk hållbarhet handlar om att se till att ekosystemen fungerar och inte utarmas. Det är viktigt att sträva efter på alla plan i samhället, även genom ekologiskt hållbarskötsel inom parkförvaltning. Ekologiskt hållbar skötsel innebär att ha ett kretsloppstänkande. Att skapa förutsättningar för biologisk mångfald. Det innebär även att använda miljövänliga maskiner, produkter och arbetsmetoder. Det är bättre för arbetsmiljön och kostnadseffektivt på sikt. I tidigare studier har det framkommit att koloniträdgårdsamatörer ofta har större kunskaper om ekologiska funktioner och att det återfanns en högre biologisk mångfald i deras parker än hos park- och kyrkogårdsförvaltare.

    Syftet med denna studie är framför allt att försöka förstå vilken betydelse ekologisk hållbarhet har för förvaltningen av offentliga parker. Syftet är även att ta reda på hur ekologiskt hållbara skötselmetoder tillämpas i offentliga parker. Studien ska ta reda på vad företeelsen och begreppet innebär för parkförvaltare. Den ska också undersöka hur förvaltare sköter parker och om de har en ekologiskt hållbar skötselinriktning. Studien bygger på fyra intervjuer av parkförvaltare.

    Resultat visar att parkförvaltare ser positivt på att använda ekologiskt hållbara metoder. Det är av olika innebörd för förvaltarna beroende på kompetensnivå. Många av förvaltningarna har en ekologisk skötselinriktning eller tillämpar ekologiskt hållbara metoder på ett eller annat sätt. Resultat visar även att det främst är ekonomi och medarbetarnas kompetens som påverkar om förvaltningen har en ekologiskt hållbar skötselinriktning. Förhoppningsvis kan studien uppmuntra parkförvaltare att ta till fler ekologiskt hållbara skötselmetoder i deras parker - för en bättre arbetsmiljö och högre biologisk mångfald som en följd.

  • 65.
    Lange, Hanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Stockholms parker: ideal i olika epoker2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 66.
    Larsson, Philip
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Starka frukter: en beskrivning av odlingsfaktorernas påverkan på kapsaicinoiderna i chilipeppar2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 67.
    Leppänen, Jussi
    et al.
    Natural Reserch Institute Finland.
    Penttinen, Markku
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Uotila, Esa
    Natural Research Institute Finland.
    Viitala, Esa-Jussi
    Natural Research Institute Finland.
    Return on wood production by tree species2017In: IUFRO 125th Anniversary Congress 2017: Book of abstracts, Baden-Württemberg: Forstliche Versuchs- und Forshungsanstalt (FVA) , 2017, p. 81-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    What is the cost of producing cubic metre pine? What is the production function? These questions are challenges although cost accounting has been done for years However, the cost accounting is typically applied at the forest holding level. The life of an individual stand, for example, is too long to cope with. 

    In case, the national forest inventory as well as stumpage price and cost statistics are accurate, return on forest ownership by tree species provides a proxy for economic results and comparison. The solutions are extensions of the return on forest ownership results in production for ten years in the statistical service at Natural Resources Institute Finland. The key challenges are the splits of the growing stock e.g. Between non-industrial private forests and the others, between tree species as well as splits of the costs between tree species. A method to split the wood production costs is hard to find. As a proxy, the costs were split using timber sale earnings. 

    It turns out that the average returns 1983-2015 have 2.5% for pine, 3.1 for spruce and 2.6 for birch, spruce being the best choice. Surprisingly, with time period 1993-2015 the respective figures were 4.3%, 4.7% and 3.8% and with 1983-1993 negative because of the recession. The recent results of period 2003-2015 turn with 3.7%, 3.5% and 3.3% pine being the best choice. The standard deviations 10.6%, 10.1% and 10.0% hardly differ from each other. In all, spruce might be the best choice in case the sites suit for spruce. In all, the most dominating driver were price ups like in 2007 and lows in 1990s emphasising the well being of the forest industry.

  • 68.
    Lindgren, Jenny
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Ekologiska perenner - Lokalt och globalt: En Intervju- och Litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The customer demand for ecological products has increased in recent years, within the garden industry this mainly concerns herbs and other edible plants. The organic trend is increasing and more people are aware of the environment and want to take responsibility for it through their purchases for their garden as well.

    In this essay the aim is to investigate customer demand and the possibility of selling organic

    perennial plants in eight garden centres on the Åland islands and in Gävle/Sandviken. I include two garden centres with an organic profile to get a wider point of view. I investigate the global market for organic perennials and look further into existing certification standards on the Swedish market today.

    The methods I have been using are interviews and a literature study.

    The study shows that the experienced demand for organic perennials is small in both of my

    investigated groups. The biggest motivation for starting to sell organic perennials would be to find a supplier of these plants and that more customer would ask for them. The certification systems on the Swedish market today do not concern specifically organic perennials; there is a lack of rules of conduct. In USA the demand for organic perennials has increased in recent years. Several nurseries with an organic profile have opened and programs for guidance of organic growers have been founded. In Germany the production of organic perennials is small and organic certification is lacking. In both countries further research on the market for organic perennials is suggested.

  • 69.
    Litsmark, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Gräsmattans "vara eller icke vara": En undersökning av den traditionella gräsmattans moderna dilemma2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The traditional lawn is believed to be facing a dilemma. On one hand, it is valuable for people because of its esthetical and functional values. On the other hand, the lawn is perceived as a monoculture without biological diversity that hinders the domestic landscape’s flora and fauna. In this graduation-thesis, the private and public lawn’s dilemma of “to be or not to be”, is examined from these two different perspectives. The following questions were formulated to answer this: 1) How did the lawn come into existence and what values has it had for people throughout the years? 2) What esthetical and functional values do public and private lawns have for people today? 3) Is it possible to identify a tendency that the lawn is on its way out?

     

    A survey was used as the primary method to answer these questions, in addition to literature-studies. The survey was published between October 24 and 28, 2014, in the Facebook-group “KÖKSTRÄDGÅRDEN – Le Potager – The Kitchen Garden”. 158 respondents completed the entire survey.

     

    This study shows that the lawn’s historical values have foremost been to function as expressions of power, as areas for sports, playing and recreation and as an esthetical factor. These values remain important today but additionally a tendency of people valuing a well-kept and environmentally-friendly lawn can be identified. It was not possible to identify tendencies that the lawn is on its way out. It was, however, possible to conclude that a redefinition of the lawn is possibly about to begin.

  • 70.
    Liu, Meichen
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Xia, Xiaolin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    Using GIS-based Multi-criteria Analysis for holiday resort site selection in Weihai, China2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, GIS techniques have been widely used in every walk of life. Owing to the rapid urban growth, it is of importance to plan and develop the cities in a reasonable and scientific way. As a result, optimum sites of different constructions should be considered to make full use of land resources and optimize urban structure. Although the traditional field-survey method is important, GIS-based multi-criteria analysis (MCA) provides a more reasonable and scientific way in site selection issue. Weihai, our study area, is one of the fastest developing coastal cities in China. Owing to the rapid urban expansion, Weihai government municipality planned to develop the Poyu town into a new district with multifunctions. In consideration of its advantages in natural resources and geographic position, a holiday resort is proposed. In the aim of applying GIS-based MCA in site selection, this thesis would present an experiment to select the optimal site for a holiday resort with the help of GIS techniques. The data used in this project is a satellite image and digital elevation data of Poyu town. The satellite image has been digitized to obtain the current land use map, based on which constraint maps and factor maps have been made to make preparation of multi-criteria analysis. Finally, the multi-criteria analysis model has been made. The weights for multi-criteria analysis are obtained from the advice of experienced people in Weihai Planning Bureau and also earlier studies on the site selection. There are three sets of weights based on three themes that have been used in this project. The three themes which were fruit-picking theme, seascape and seafood theme as well as leisure and recreation theme were decided based on the results of the questionnaire. Through the discussions of the results, a final selected site for the holiday resort was determined. It includes the optimal site for the main part focusing on both fruit picking theme and leisure and recreation theme and also the optimal site for an accessory part focusing on seascape and seafood theme. The final section concludes the general project work, its perspectives and the function of GIS-based MCA in site selection.

  • 71.
    Lundin, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences. Dept. of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Size selection of fish in the trap fisheries of the Baltic and Bothnian Seas2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A sustainable fishery in the Baltic Sea requires fishing gear that fishes selectively and at the same time excludes raiding seals. A successful type of trap recently developed in response to the seal problem is the pontoon fish chamber, which significantly decreases damage to gear and catch losses caused by grey seals. However, a common problem with traps is the bycatch of juvenile and non-marketable fish which constitutes a threat to the sustainability of the fishery and a time-consuming problem for the fishers. This thesis deal with bycatch reduction of young herring, whitefish and perch in pontoon traps. Rigid grids and square mesh panels were installed in traps during commercial fishing operations and continuously monitored with underwater cameras. The selection efficiencies were calculated for different species and selection panel designs. The importance of abiotic and biotic factors for the selection efficiency, the diurnal activity levels of species, and the positions of escape through a selection panel were analysed. This thesis also addresses the survival changes of herring after being released from a trap and the potential size-structuring effects on the herring stock after a size-selective fishery. The results showed that several tonnes of young fish were able to escape through selection panels from the traps during a season. 70-80% of young herring and whitefish escaped through an encircling selection panel while 90-100% of young perch and roach escaped through a rigid grid. Both biotic and abiotic factors were influencing the selection efficiency of herring. The factors which had most effect were the quantity of fish in the trap, the season of the year, the time of day, and the presence of seals. The diurnal activities were significantly different between species. Herring and roach preferred to escape during night while perch escaped mostly during dusk and dawn. The passing through a rigid grid did not affect the short term mortality of young herring and the risk that extensive use of traps will induce selection for phenotypic changes in mature herring, leading to an evolutionary change on the Bothnian Sea herring population is low. The overall conclusion of this thesis is that bycatch can be reduced by equipping traps with selection panels. The appropriate design of the selection panel depends mainly on the behaviour and physiology of the fish. The survival changes of released fish seem high and the risk that extensive use of size-selective traps will induce evolutionary changes on the herring stock is low.

  • 72.
    Lundin, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Biology. Institutionen för vilt, fisk och miljö, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Size-selection of herring (Clupea harengus membras) in a sustainable fishery2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 73.
    Mjöfors, Kristina
    et al.
    Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Strömgren, Monika
    Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nohrstedt, Hans-Örjan
    Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Johansson, Maj-Britt
    University of Gävle, Vice-Chancellor's Office. Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gärdenäs, Annemieke I.
    Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Indications that Site Preparation increases Forest Ecosystem Carbon Stocks in the Long-Term2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 32, no 8, p. 717-725Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanical site preparation (MSP) causes a mixing disturbance of the soil, which may increase decomposition of soil organic matter and subsequent carbon (C) dioxide emissions to the atmosphere. MSP also promotes the establishment and growth of tree seedlings, and hence ecosystem C fixation. However, there are uncertainties regarding net effects of MSP on C stocks at the ecosystem scale. To assess decennial effects of MSP on ecosystem C stocks, C stocks in soil, ground vegetation and trees at three experimental forest sites with Pinus contorta, Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies in Sweden were sampled and measured ca. 25 years in a control and after three MSP treatments: disc trenching, mounding and ploughing. After 25 years, all of the MSP treatments resulted in larger ecosystem C stocks than the control treatment due to positive effects on the tree biomass C stock. The tree C stock was highest after ploughing, intermediate after mounding or disc trenching, and lowest in untreated control plots at all experimental sites. The MSP treatments did not affect the soil C stocks down to 30 cm. We recommend mounding or disc trenching to promote C sequestration as they disturb sites’ ecological, aesthetic and recreational values less than ploughing.

  • 74.
    Nisser Larsson, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Snabb etablering och snabb tillväxt hos träd, buskar och häckar2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 75.
    Niva, Sanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Parkers potential för gynnande av humlor i urbana miljöer2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is dealing with how existing parks in urban areas can fill a bigger role for bumblebees then they are today. My questions concern: lack of food for bumblebees in parks, lack of opportunities to find places to live and to hibernate and actions how to mitigate this. The results of this study show that existing parks can have a bigger positive impact on the biodiversity in urban areas. If bumblebees can’t find places to live or hibernate or find food, the risk is then that their populations will continue to decline which will have a strongly negative effect on us humans because we are depending on pollinators. With the right knowledge and measures we can make it easier for bumblebees to live in urban areas. To facilitate for biodiversity in the planning of parks means that we will create oases which both humans, birds and insects can benefit from.

  • 76.
    Norberg, Peter
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för inomhusmiljö.
    Produktion av RME i Hedesunda: En förstudie2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Möjligheterna att förlägga en mindre tillverkningsenhet för biodiesel eller rapsmetylester (RME) i Hedesunda har studerats. En länsöverskridande enkät har skickats till alla registrerade lantbruk som ligger inom 50 km från Hedesunda. Enkäten har pejlat vilka olika typer av produktionsinriktningar som bedrivs, vilka resurser som finns tillgängliga i form av maskiner, torkar och lagringsutrymmen, samt till sist även vilket intresse som finns för oljeväxtodling och förädling av frö till bl a RME. Av de ca 1 400 utskick som gjordes inkom ca 180 svar. Enkätsvaren visar att det finns ett tillräckligt intresse, att arealerna räcker till och även att de nödvändiga maskinella resurserna och lagringsmöjligheterna är på plats. Däremot är intresset förhållande lågt hos lantbrukarna för att själva medverka i förädlingen från frö till rapsolja och sedan till RME.

    För att se hur storleken på en eventuell anläggning kan påverka lönsamheten har tre olika koncept för RME-tillverkning jämförts. För att tillverka ca 1 000 m3 RME per år behövs odling på ca 1 500 ha i det aktuella området. Norrköpingsföretaget Ageratec tillverkar en i hög grad automatiserad processor som kan tillverka dessa kvantiteter per år. Ett mindre investeringstungt alternativ är en halvautomatisk processor från EuroFuelTech i Storbritannien vilken kan tillverka 400 liter på ca 1.5 timmar. Den kan förväntas producera ca 500 m3 per år. Till sist har ett mycket enkelt och manuellt alternativ valts som innebär att omförestringen görs vid rumstemperatur och med hjälp av billiga och lättillgängliga komponenter såsom tankar och pumpar. Detta alternativ kan med en förhållandevis liten arbetsinsats ge runt 250 mper år. Alla tre alternativen är lönsamma enligt den utgångskalkyl som gjorts enligt nettonuvärdesmetoden för rimliga ingångsvärden på olika parametrar såsom fröpris, oljehalter, priser på RME, frökaka och glycerol, etc. Det behövs dock inte så särskilt stora avvikelser för att lönsamheten ska försvinna. Den allra viktigaste faktorn är fröpriset som utgör ca 90 % av de totala kostnaderna för RME-tillverkningen. Försäljningspriset på både RME och frökaka är avgörande för lönsamheten.

    Även ett flertal faktorer i omvärlden påverkar lönsamheten för småskalig RME-produktion. Priset på vanlig diesel har i allmänhet varit lägre än RME-priset under flera år. Därtill kommer att skattesystemet medger återbetalning av större delen av koldioxidskatten för lantbrukare och andra yrkesmässiga bränsleanvändare. Det finns därför inget incitament att själva använda den RME som eventuellt produceras. För att det ska kännas angeläget att odla raps och tillverka RME krävs att bränslepriserna är mer likartade.

    En annan mycket viktig omständighet som bestämmer det pris som går att sätta på biodieseln är möjligheterna att få avsättning för frökakan och till ett pris som är rimligt. Om man inte kan finna en lösning på detta så går det knappast att få lönsamhet för småskalig RME-tillverkning för bränsleändamål. För andra produkter än bränsle, t ex lösningsmedel till färger och lacker, kan det finnas en gynnsammare prisbild för RME och andra metylestrar.

    Ett samarbete mellan Gefleortens Mejeriförening och de oljeväxtodlare som finns i samma geografiska område skulle kunna ge en bra grund för att få avsättning för såväl RME som frökaka. Detta har dock inte närmare utretts inom ramen för denna förstudie.

  • 77.
    Norberg, Peter
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment, Ämnesavdelningen för byggnadskvalitet.
    Slutrapport IndustriHampa-X2006Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Projektet IndustriHampa-X har syftat till att initiera odling och förädling av industrihampa i Gävleborgs län under 2005 och 2006. Projektet har utgjort ett första steg i en utveckling som på sikt syftar till att vända den negativa trenden inom lantbruket och bidra till en ökad optimism, en ökad självförsörjningsgrad av råvaror och energi samt en ökad lokal förädling av och avsättning för lantbrukets produkter. Hampan är endast en gröda bland många som bedöms få stor efterfrågan i framtiden och som bör ingå i växtföljden i framtidens jordbruk, antingen det är konventionellt eller ekologiskt.

    Under 2005 odlades hampa på totalt 58 ha i Gävleborgs län. Ca 12 ha har odlats med fröhampa medan resten har odlats med fiber-/energihampa. Under 2006 har totalt ca 43 ha odlats varav 16 ha med fröhampa.

    För odlingsåret 2005 samarbetade projektet med Råsjö torv/SÅBI. Genom detta samarbete kunde den ekonomiska risken för lantbrukarna minimeras och därmed ge dem en möjlighet att på ett smidigt sätt odla och på nära håll bekanta sig med hampan. Arrangemanget innebar även att lantbrukaren fick fritt utsäde, ett köpekontrakt för att kunna bli berättigad till gårdsstödet samt, inte minst, att få skörden bärgad.

    Skördearbetet blev starkt försenat på grund av den snörika och långa vintern, vilket gjorde att utfallet blev sämre än förväntat. På större arealer (> 3 ha) blev skörden ca 4 ton per ha, medan den på mindre fält kunde variera kraftigt, från 0.7 till 5.8 ton per ha. Förseningen av skörden gjorde även att det mesta av den odlade hamparealen tråkigt nog hamnade i träda under 2006.

    Skörd av fröhampa genomfördes enligt planerna i slutet av september 2005 och blev mycket lyckosam med mer än 1 ton torkade frön per ha. Försök med utfodring av bl a mjölkkor visar preliminärt att hampfrökakan mycket väl kan ersätta t ex sojamjöl som kraftfoder.

    Fiberberedningsförsök har genomförts eller är på väg att genomföras med stjälkar som skördats vid olika tidpunkter under hösten 2005. Avsikten har varit att visa om det finns möjligheter att förenkla skördearbetet och hanteringen av stjälkarna så att den traditionella rötningen på fälten kan undvikas och ersättas av ett optimalt val av skördetidpunkt samt införande av artificiell torkning.

    Hampan som energigröda har ännu inte utvärderats i stor skala med det skördade materialet som tagits on hand av Neova (f d Råsjö torv/SÅBI). Däremot har laboratorietester enligt gängse standarder på området genomförts. Dessa visar att hampan i allt väsentligt är ett mycket bra bränsle som i olika former och utföranden skulle kunna ingå i lokalproducerade bränslen lämpliga för allt från pelletpannor i villor till större system där typiskt ett närvärmeverk skulle kunna vara mottagare av bränslet i lämplig form.

    Projektet har även försökt att få ett grepp om vilka befintliga industrier som skulle kunna bli mottagare och förädlare av hampans olika råvaror men även av andra grödor som kan finna sig väl tillrätta i en växtföljd där hampan ingår. Den mest intressanta tillämpningen vore antagligen olika former av isolermaterial för byggindustrin. Odling av oljeväxter har även kommit i ropet på senare tid och är kanske främst relaterad till möjligheterna att ersätta fossilt dieselbränsle med rapsmetylester eller t o m ren rapsolja utan omförestring. Lämpliga siloanläggningar att utgå ifrån finns i både Österfärnebo och Kungsgården.

    Projektet har även inhämtat kunskaper och erfarenheter från andra projekt och verksamheter i Sverige och utomlands. Dessa kontakter är mycket värdefulla inför fortsättningen av de olika aktiviteter som planeras på hampområdet under kommande år.

    Glädjande nog har samhällsutvecklingen i stort vid upprepade tillfällen bara under det gångna året visat att de strävanden som projektet IndustriHampa-X ger uttryck för i allt väsentligt ligger rätt i tiden. Förhoppningen är därför att ett antal av länets nyckelaktörer inom energi, restproduktshantering, fiberindustri mm tillsammans med länets lantbrukare ska kunna finna hållbara lösningar på de utvecklingsmöjligheter som står till buds. Detta kommer med nödvändighet att handla om att verka för ökad småskalighet och ökad grad av lokal förädling och försäljning av lantbruksrelaterade produkter och tjänster till det omgivande samhället. Denna utveckling kommer även att understödjas av de skeenden som står för dörren med bl a höjda energipriser och minskande tillgång på fossila råvaror.

  • 78.
    Nordmark, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Förslag till tidstypisk efterbildning och restaurering av en trädgård i Söderhamn: Byggd på studier om egnahemträdgårdar och trädgårdsmästaren Rudolf Abelin2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose behind this thesis is to create a design proposal for how a present day garden created at the early 1900 can be recreated to its original design. In order to do so, the style of the garden specified to this era must be defined along with an inventory of the plants. The garden used for this specific assignment is located in Söderhamn and the property is called ‘Killingen’. The main house as well as the garden was created in the beginning of 1900. Killingen´s garden is classed as a ‘own-home garden’. These kinds of gardens were influenced by the ‘own-home movement’ which started in the 1900-century. The main purpose of this movement was to help low income families finding a better and own home with a garden. It was also there in aid of preventing the mass emigration around that period. Around this time, a very influential gardener, Rudolf Abelin, played a key role for the own-home garden’s development through his writing and widespread knowledge. For him the garden was part of the society development which also was affected and influenced by his ideas and involvement. The methods used in this thesis are mainly literature studies but also includes observations of current gardens and conversations with relevant people. Thanks to the current owner’s very ambitious and existing list of plants of the garden, it’s actually been possible to rely on literature in order to propose new plants as well as suggesting which plants were not part of the own-home movement and could therefore be removed as they are not part of the same style.

  • 79.
    Nyberg, Maria
    et al.
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle.
    Lennernäs, Maria
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle.
    Sepp, Hanna
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle.
    Sollerhed, Ann-Christine
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för lärande och miljö.
    Förskolebarns hälsa och välbefinnande: dialoger med föräldrar till förskolebarn, Kristianstad Kommun2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inledning

    I slutet av 2009 beslöt Barn- och Utbildningsförvaltningen i Kristianstad Kommun att tillsammans med Högskolan Kristianstad genomföra ett antal så kallade dialoger med föräldrar till förskolebarn i kommunen. Grunden till samarbetet byggde på kommunens intresse av att ta reda på vilka frågor föräldrar har kring barns hälsa och välbefinnande, samt att forskare från Högskolan Kristianstads besatt specifika kunskaper inom området. Initiativet grundade sig också i Livsmedelsverkets rekommendationer kring maten och måltiden i förskolan, vilka bland annat innebär att förskolorna rekommenderas att byta ut standardmjölk mot lättmjölk samt att använda lättmargarin med låg halt av mättat fett. Kommunens beslut att följa rekommendationerna har bidragit till upprördhet, irritation och oförståelse bland många föräldrar, vilken också avspeglats i media. Föräldrarnas reaktioner tillsammans med problem med övervikt och fetma hos barn i dagens samhälle, även i tidig ålder, var två viktiga anledningar till att beslutet togs att genomföra studien.

    Föräldradialogerna byggde på att föräldrarna samtalade och diskuterade utifrån frågor och problem som de själva formulerat och därmed fick de möjlighet att ge uttryck för egna funderingar och tankar. Målsättningen var att föräldrarna skulle få framföra sina frågor, synpunkter och önskemål kring små barns hälsa och välbefinnande både i förskolan och hemma, men också att intresserade föräldrar skulle få information och kunskap inom området.

    Dialogerna fokuserade på 3 huvudområden: Maten och måltiden, sömnen och dygnsrytmen, den fysiska aktiviteten. Dessa områden präglar vardagslivet och kräver rutiner och vanor för att fungera. De utgör en betydande del av förskolan men också hemmet, och i mötet mellan dessa två arenor blir rutiner, vanor och beteenden särskilt tydliga.

    Syftet med samarbetet var således att genomföra ett antal föräldradialoger med föräldrar till förskolebarn i Kristianstad kommun samt att forskare från Högskolan Kristianstad i samband med dessa också skulle hålla föredrag samt besvara föräldrarnas frågor kring de ovan nämnda temana. Det var viktigt att barnens hela livssituation skulle inbegripas, såväl på som utanför förskolan.

    Bakgrund

    Mat, måltider, sömn, återhämtning samt fysisk aktivitet är alla viktiga delar av våra <em>levnadsvanor</em>. Gynnsamma levnadsvanor stärker våra livsresurser och hjälper kroppen och hjärnan att komma till sin rätt. Under tillväxtåren har kroppen ökade behov och en ökad sårbarhet. För att fungera optimalt gynnas kroppen av förutsägbara och regelbundna måltider under dagtid. Likaså har sömnen, dess kvalitet, tidpunkt och längd stor betydelse för aptit, immunsystem och hälsa. Kroppen mår bra av en stabil dygnsrytm där vi växlar mellan aktivitet och vila, ätande och fasta, vakenhet och sömn. Daglig fysisk aktivitet och utevistelse i dagsljus har en stärkande effekt på kropp och hjärna.

    Redan som barn socialiseras vi in i vissa vanor och beteende när det gäller maten, sömnen eller den fysiska aktiviteten. Det är viktigt att barnet tidigt etablerar hälsosamma matvanor och får möjlighet till ett balanserat ätande. Såväl undernäring (för lite energi och/eller näring) som övernäring (för mycket energi, övervikt och fetma) och felnäring (fetma i kombination med brist på livsnödvändiga näringsämnen) förekommer hos barn, och här har både förskola, skola och föräldrar ett ansvar. Utöver maten och måltiden är sömnen nödvändig för psykisk och fysisk överlevnad och välmåga. När vi sover får kroppen möjlighet att växa, reparera organ och vävnader och att underhålla immunsystemet. Barn behöver mycket sömn, från 1416 timmar som spädbarn till cirka 9 timmar som tonåring. Sömnstörningar är dessvärre vanligt, även hos barn, och forskning har visat sig finns samband mellan sömnbrist och fetma. Vidare rör sig barn generellt för lite, vilket inte bara är ett problem när de är små, utan också när de blir äldre. Antalet överviktiga förväntas att öka dramatiskt eftersom unga fysiskt inaktiva riskerar att bli fysiskt inaktiva som vuxna. En fysiskt aktiv livsstil är förenad med minskad risk att utveckla sjukdomstillstånd som hjärt-kärlsjukdomar, typ 2-diabetes, fetma, osteoporos, cancer, demens, depression med mera. Fysisk aktivitet stärker sömnen och gynnar mental prestationsförmåga Fysisk aktivitet har även visat sig ha positiva effekter på den mentala hälsan samt på möjligheten att hantera stress. Studier har också visat på kopplingar mellan fysisk kapacitet och betyg i skolan. Trots den fysiska aktivitetens positiva effekter, har utrymmet för denna minskat i skolan.

    Det finns ett antal nationella och internationella policydokument och handlingsplaner med syfte att motverka fetma, stimulera till bättre matvanor och en ökad fysisk aktivitet. Däremot saknas än så länge rekommendationer för sömnens och dygnsrytmens betydelse trots att forskningen inom området är övertygande. Nordiska Ministerrådet har bland annat utarbetat en nordisk handlingsplan för hälsa, mat och fysisk aktivitet. I överensstämmelse med EU Kommissionen framhåller Nordiska Ministerrådet att barn och ungdomar ska prioriteras i det hälsofrämjande arbetet, vilket bland annat innebär att det ska finnas tillgång till hälsofrämjande mat under skoldagen samt att ett ökat intag av frukt och grönt i skolan förordas. Vidare lyfts betydelsen av att fysisk aktivitet integreras i vardagliga inomhus- och utomhusaktiviteter. Betydelsen av att främja goda kostvanor och fysisk aktivitet återfinns också i regeringens proposition för en förnyad folkhälsopolitik samt i Livsmedelsverkets och Folkhälsoinstitutets handlingsplan för goda matvanor och fysisk aktivitet. De nordiska och svenska näringsrekommendationerna (NNR och SNR) bidrar med råd och rekommendationer för en näringsmässigt riktig kost för olika åldersgrupper, samt innehåller rekommendationer för fysisk aktivitet.

    Metod och tillvägagångssätt

    Under mars 2010 genomfördes totalt 4 föräldradialoger på olika skolor i Kristianstad Kommun. Inbjudan till dialogerna gick ut till föräldrar till förskolebarn i åldrarna 6 månader till 6 år, bland annat genom att lappar delades ut där intresse kunde anmälas. Föräldradialogen som metod bygger på aktivt deltagande från medverkande personer och på deras egna frågor, funderingar och erfarenheter. Totalt medverkade 86 föräldrar under dessa 4 träffar, varav 70 var kvinnor och 16 män. Föräldradialogerna varade i cirka två och en halv timme per tillfälle. Efter en kortare inledning och introduktion av syfte och tillvägagångssätt delades föräldrarna upp i mindre grupper för diskussion. Medverkande i grupperna var därutöver en moderator (en rektor från skolområdet) som ledde diskussionen, samt en forskare från högskolan som observatör i varje grupp. Anteckningar gjordes från diskussionerna, vilka tillsammans med de frågor som föräldrarna själv antecknat på post-it lappar, utgjorde materialet för analysen och det empiriska underlaget. Resultatet av föräldradialogerna tillsammans med en kunskapsbakgrund kring betydelsen av och rekommendationer kring maten, sömnen och den fysiska aktiviteten, utgör merparten av materialet i rapporten.

    Resultat

    Resultatet av studien visade att föräldrarna hade många frågor och funderingar kring de områden som studien fokuserade på. De flesta frågor handlade om maten och måltiden, om tidpunkter för ätande och om hälsosam mat för barn. Många gånger var det detaljfrågor, till exempel funderingar kring fetthalt i specifika livsmedel, och sällan sattes problematiken i ett övergripande sammanhang där matvanor, levnadsvanor, sömn och fysisk aktivitet integrerades. Flera föräldrar gav uttryck för upplevelsen att vi alltmer gått ifrån ”den naturliga maten”. När det erbjuds lättmjölk istället för standardmjölk ses det av många som ett hot mot det naturliga och därmed det upplevt hälsosamma. Att manipulera med barns hälsa känns obekvämt och man vill gärna att barnen ska serveras den mat ”som man brukar göra”. Förändringar av detta slag ses till stor del som ett hot.</p><p>Frågorna gav också uttryck för en känsla av bristande insikt i vad som serverades på förskolan och vilken mat som barnet egentligen fick i sig. Man undrade vad det är som styr de olika val som kommunen och förskolan gör kring till exempel inköp av mat. Kopplat till uppfattningar om ”den naturliga matens förträfflighet” fanns också funderingar kring beslut bakom var maten ska tillagas. Att maten lagas lokalt, gärna på plats på förskolan, och att det används så mycket råvaror som möjligt istället för halv- och helfabrikat, lyftes fram som eftersträvansvärt.

    Föräldrarnas frågor präglades också av undringar kring hur de ska göra om barnet inte äter. Det handlade om specifika livsmedel, men också om måltidstillfällen. Hur man som förälder ska få barnet att äta vissa grönsaker, att inta frukost under tidig morgon eller att inte ”småäta” var exempel på sådana frågor. Det eftersträvades också tips på mellanmål, och hur man på bästa sätt skulle kunna fördela dagens måltider över dygnet, när förskolans och hemmets tider ska anpassas till varandra. Betydelsen av miljön för måltiderna diskuterades också och på vilket sätt en stökig miljö kunde bidra till att barnen inte åt ordentligt.

    Frågorna om sömnen kretsade till stor del kring hur mycket barn i en viss ålder ska sova, samt vikten av när sömnen inträder. Betydelsen av en regelbunden dygnsrytm över veckans alla dagar diskuterades också. Föräldrarna efterfrågade dessutom tips på hur man kan hantera sömnproblem och insomningssvårigheter hos barn i olika åldrar.

    Att barn måste röra sig är sällan en nyhet, men flera frågor handlade om hur mycket barn i en viss ålder måste röra sig och om barn utifrån detta får tillräckligt med fysisk aktivitet i sin vardag. Funderingar kring mängden utevistelse i förskolan diskuterades också som en viktig del i att främja fysisk aktivitet. Om barnet kan ha för många aktiviteter, var en annan fundering, och om risken finns att man som förälder överstimulerar genom att uppmana till för mycket rörelse.

    Ansvaret för barnens hälsa och välbefinnande fördelas mellan föräldrar, förskola och kanske mellan familjer som barnen bor växelvis i. Detta ställer krav på ett logistikarbete och en insikt och öppenhet mellan de olika arenor som barn befinner sig på i sin vardag. Här finns utmaningar men också möjligheter när det gäller att förbättra förutsättningarna för barns hälsa.

  • 80.
    Näslund, Ann-Marie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development.
    Alléer2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Allén förklaras som en väg eller gata med planterade träd på båda sidor, vanligen i enkla rader men även flerdubbla led. Allén är en anläggning som innehåller minst 7 träd.

    • •Alléerna anlades förr ofta för att genom hamling ge bonden djurfoder och bränsle
    • •Alléerna anlades för att hindra jordflykt på skånska slätten.
    • •Alléerna anlades för att ge en park eller ett slott en gedigen och praktfull utsmyckning som i sin tur visade makt och rikedom på 1600-1700-talet.
    • •Alléerna anlades för att rama in vägen och ge resande en linje att hålla sig till vid dålig sikt men också att ge skugga och återhämtning för resande. Det kunde vara i en hälsopark på 1800-talet eller då man färdades på landsvägen med häst och vagn.
    • •Alléerna anlades som en tydlig in/utfartslinje till en stad.

     

    Det har tydligt framkommit i litteraturen att allén delas upp i landsvägsalléer och parkalléer. Landsvägsallén har oftast inte träd med sammanvuxna kronor. De kantar istället in en väg på båda sidor eller ena sidan. Landsvägsallén kom till i ett syfte att markera vägen vid dålig sikt samt binda jorden kring öppna odlingsytor. Landsvägsalléerna bestod ofta av olika trädslag. Och det togs hänsyn till hur väl det gick att plantera på den platsen. Bönderna använde landsvägsalléns grenar till djurfoder och bränsle.

    Parkalléerna är de som i första hand blev ett blickfång, en estetisk del i parken som från början manifesterade makt och rikedom. Allén skulle vara enhetlig och formklippt. Trädens kronor skulle vara sammanvuxna och helst vara i samma höjd och det innebar att samma trädslag helst användes i parkalléerna.

    Alléer finns att se i hela Sverige, både i stadsmiljö och på landsbygd samt vid stora gods, gårdar och slott. Nutida alléer vårdas i samarbete med länsstyrelse och vägverk samt genom stiftelser och projekt. Bevarande sker med bestämmelser och lagar som grund.

    Uppdragsforskning och kunskapsbyggnad runt vård och bevarande av dagens parkalléer finns för slotts- och parkförvaltare i form av vårdprogram som SLU har tagit fram.

    Alléns namn kommer från det franska språket och allén som idé anlände till Sverige genom renässansen intåg till Europa.

  • 81.
    Olsson, Susanne
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences.
    Vad bör den perfekta trädboken innehålla?2009Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    En studie i vilken information om träd lättillgänglig trädgårdslitteratur innehållar och vad "den perfeka trädboken" skulle kunna kompletteras med.

  • 82.
    Oostra, Swantje
    et al.
    epartment of Landscape Planning, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Majdi, Hooshang
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Olsson, Mats
    Department of Forest Soils, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Impact of tree species on soil carbon stocks and soil acidity in southern Sweden2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 364-371Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of tree species on soil carbon stocks and acidity in southern Sweden was studied in a non-replicated plantation with monocultures of 67-year-old ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.), beech ( Fagus silvatica L.), elm (Ulmus glabra Huds.), hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.), Norway spruce ( Picea abies L.) and oak ( Quercus robur L.). The site was characterized by a cambisol on glacial till. Volume-determined soil samples were taken from the O-horizon and mineral soil layers to 20 cm. Soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), pH (H2O), cation-exchange capacity and base saturation at pH 7 and exchangeable calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium ions were analysed in the soil fraction < 2 mm. Root biomass (< 5 mm in diameter) and its proportion in the forest floor and mineral soil varied between tree species. There was a vertical gradient under all species, with the highest concentrations of SOC, TN and base cations in the O-horizon and the lowest in the 10 - 20 cm layer. The tree species differed with respect to SOC, TN and soil acidity in the O-horizon and mineral soil. For SOC and TN, the range in the O-horizon was spruce > hornbeam > oak > beech > ash > elm. The pH in the O-horizon ranged in the order elm > ash > hornbeam > beech > oak > spruce. In the mineral soil, SOC and TN ranged in the order elm > oak > ash = hornbeam > spruce > beech, i.e. partly reversed, and pH ranged in the same order as for the O-horizon. It is suggested that spruce is the best option for fertile sites in southern Sweden if the aim is a high carbon sequestration rate, whereas elm, ash and hornbeam are the best solutions if the aim is a low soil acidification rate.

  • 83.
    Ortega-García, José Antonio
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS.
    Forest stand delineation through remote sensing and Object-Based Image Analysis2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Forest stand delineation is an essential task of forest management planning which can be time consuming and exposed to subjectivity. The increasing availability of LiDAR data and multispectral imagery offers an opportunity to improve stand delineation by means of remotely-sensed data. Under these premises, ASTER imagery and low-density LiDAR data have been used to automatically delineate forest stands in several forests of Navarra (Spain) through Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA). Canopy cover, mean height and the canopy model have been extracted from LiDAR data and, along with VNIR ASTER bands, introduced in OBIA for forest segmentation. The outcome of segmentation has been contrasted, on the one hand, assessing segments’ inner heterogeneity. On the other, OBIA’s segments and existing stand delineations have been compared with a new method of geometrical fitting which has been ad hoc designed for this study. Results suggest that low-density LiDAR and multispectral data, along with OBIA, are a powerful tool for stand delineation. Multispectral images have a limited predicting utility for species differentiation and, in practical terms, they help to discriminate between broad-leaved, conifer and mixed stands. The performance of ASTER data, though, could be improved with higher spatial resolution VNIR imagery, specifically sub-metric VNIR orthophotos. LiDAR data, in contrast, offers a great potential for forest structure depiction. This perspective is connected with the increasingly higher resolution datasets which are to be provided by public institutions and the rapid development of drone technology. Complexity of OBIA may limit the use of this technique for small consulting firms but it is an advisable instrument for companies and institutions involved in major forestry projects.

  • 84.
    Penttinen, Markku Juhani
    et al.
    Finnish Forest Research Institute.
    Lausti, Antrei
    Handelshögskolan i Helsingfors (Helsinki School of Economics).
    Kasanen, Eero
    Handelshögskolan i Helsingfors (Helsinki School of Economics).
    Puttonen, Vesa
    Handelshögskolan i Helsingfors (Helsinki School of Economics).
    Risks and return in forest investments in Finland1996In: The Finnish Journal of Business Economics, ISSN 0024-3469, E-ISSN 2242-4296, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 111-124Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 85.
    Penttinen, Markku
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    Sekot, Walter
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Business and Economic Studies, Business administration.
    The International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) as implemented into the forestry accounting2016In: Advances and Challenges in Managerial Economics and Accounting: Proceedings, Wien: International Union of Forest Research Organizations , 2016, p. 91-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest industries, which have shares, bonds etc. on the public market place, use the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), and for the accounting of the growing stock of their forests International Accounting Standard (IAS) 41 Agriculture (EU 2009, Herbohn & Herbohn 2006). The market based fair value (FV) is the starting point of the IFRS and IAS 41. The FV uses ‘the expected net cash flows discounted at a current market-determined pre-tax rate’ if market-determined prices are not available (EU 2009, Herbohn 2009). The FV recognises the changes both in stumpage prices and the growing stock, the last of which are based on the forest management plans (FMP). The FMP relies on and benefits from the long traditions of forest inventories, growth modelling, determining optimal rotation, silvicultural recommendations etc. as well as FMP software using simulation and optimisation etc., all of which have been developed long before fair value accounting (FVA). The final felling happens in the North, say, after 80 years, which implies a certain ambiguity of the stumpage prices and discount rates.

    The paper summarizes work on this issue, preliminary ending with questionnaire-based interviews addressing IFRS-practices of Scandinavian forest companies. First, different forestry accounting traditions have been reviewed (Hogg & Jöbstl 2008, Sekot 2007). Second, theoretical bases and consequences of the FVA have been discussed (Argiles et al. 2011). Third, the pros and cons of IAS 41 as documented in the scientific literature have beenanalysed (Ayanto 2011, Elad & Herbohn 2011). Fourth, the development of stumpage prices has been studied and summarised in the first interview question. Fifth, forest regeneration and other costs have been discussed as well as addressed by questions no. two and three. Sixth, the use of this input information and the FMP are analysed and formulated as the fourth question (Penttinen & Rantala 2008, Penttinen et al. 2004). Seventh, the discount rate dilemma has been analysed and is reflected in terms of a question (Eckel et al. 2003). Even market risk and bare land accounting were inquired as well. Eight, the disclosure of the growing stock has been studied and addressed. Ninth, all closing of the books of the Scandinavian forest industries using IAS 41 have been analysed, covering the periods from 2009 to 2015 (Tornator 2016).

    The results document the use of discount rates from 5.5% to 7.5%. It is common practice to report the FV sensitivity with respect to the discount rate, stumpage price and silvicultural cost changes. The prices used are primarily medium term averages of several years, which have even been reviewed by the management and in some cases also by external experts. The typical forecasting period is ten years, and a simple price change percentageis applied thereafter, if any. Some companies estimate discount rates using weighted average cost of capital (WACC) in which the cost of equity capital is based on the capital asset pricing model (CAPM). Also in this context, external experts have been involved in some cases. Risk free interest rate is typically derived from a Euro rate. The interest requirement of the equity capital is updated semi-annually and that of the debts quarterly. Young stands are valued at cost. According to the interviews, the application of IFRS is a quite big but not an impossible burden. However, a comparison between different entities is difficult, because the standard does not provide any exact guidelines. The findings of the closing of the books and interviews are finally summarised and discussed

  • 86.
    Persson, Anette
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    När trädens rotsystem får bestämma: En intervjustudie med en grupp yrkesverksamma inom anläggning av hållbara gröna miljöer.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    This pilot study examines the knowledge about tree root systems amongst five tree

    planting professionals. The aim is to find out the professionals’ collective knowledge of

    the nature of root systems of various trees used in green areas. Furthermore; to explore

    how the professionals adapt landscaped green areas to the tree root properties in a

    sustainable manner. Questions: Which tree species have special root properties to

    consider and how do the professionals utilize this knowledge? And: How do the

    professionals in general adjust planting according to the root systems of trees in areas to

    create sustainable green environments?

    Interviews with the professionals were performed. Four of the five interviewees

    expressed that they had no root systems in mind when they chose trees to an area.

    However they considered properties such as wet soil, clay soil, sandy soil and the urban

    environment when they decided on the trees for an area. The interviewees discussed 22

    different trees and their root systems and what kind of adaptations in landscaping they

    would make for the special root features to create sustainable tree plantings. As a result

    of the information a list was compiled and the collective knowledge of landscaping

    amongst the professionals was gathered into themes. These themes were then divided in

    to four headings: nutrition, root ball, design and soil conditions. In addition, all of the

    interviewees agreed that the most important thing for tree planting is to select the right

    tree species for the right soil.

  • 87.
    Persson Gärdegård, Karl
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Undersökning av några svenska päronsorters känslighet mot päronpest2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora, is a serious disease, which attacks plants within the family of Rosaceae. This bacterial disease causes major problems in the cultivation of pears (Pyrus communis) around the world. The occurrence of the disease is still geographically limited to certain areas in Sweden and neighbouring countries. However, increasing temperatures due to climate change and the relative unawareness of the public, augment the risk of its spread. Within the EU, there are no approved antibiotics for use in pear orchards. Within the species of P. communis, cultivars vary in their susceptibility to fire blight. Many scientists believe that new, resistant cultivars and rootstocks are important tools to enable pome fruit cultivation in the future.In this study,the susceptibility of some Swedish pear heirloom cultivars to E. amylovora was investigated by using immature pear fruit. The bacteria were introduced into immature pear fruit by using defined concentrations of inoculum. The fruit were incubated at 25°C, and disease severity was recorded over time. Disease was measured and recorded as the extent of lateral lesion size on the surfaces of the pear fruit. No definite differences in disease development were recorded across the concentrations tested. The cultivars were compared to one another, and ranked according to susceptibility. The most susceptible to the least susceptible were: `Sollerö´ > `Unknown Gävle´ = `Esperens herre´ = `Aspa´ > `Höstbergamott´ > `Göteborgs Diamant´ > `Conference´ = `Lilla dalpilen´ = `Carola´ > `Alexander Lukas´ = `Blodpäron´ = `Bonne Louise´. The results could have become clearer if immature fruit of younger physiological age had been used. Nevertheless, the ranking of some cultivars agrees with the published results of others.

  • 88.
    Pilqvist, Elin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Tillträde till paradiset: Ett undersökande arbete om entréavgifter i parker2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsens syfte är att ta reda på vad besöksparkers ledningar har för åsikter om- och vilka argument som ligger bakom valet av fri eller avgiftsbelagd entré. Samt hur personalen och parken påverkas av valet. Denna studie visar att parkernas skäl till att ha fri entré är för några ideologiska, ett annat svar är att parken är skattefinansierad och därför ska alla ha tillgång till parken. Parker med entréavgift anger att skälen är ekonomiska men några av dem poängterar också att den ska vara låg för att så många som möjligt ska kunna besöka parken. För vissa parker är entréavgiftens främsta uppgift är att hålla oönskade besökare borta. En av de svarande anger att entréavgiften är en statusmarkering som visar att deras park är värd att betala för.En djupare studie görs på Trädgårdsföreningen i Göteborg, där entréavgiften tagits bort år 2012. Studien är gjord genom korrespondens med personal på Trädgårdsföreningen, politiker och genomgång av protokoll från bl.a. nämndmöten. Entréavgiften togs bort med argumentet att parken ska vara mer tillgänglig för besökare, Göteborgare så väl som turister. Oppositionen i staden ville att avgiften skulle vara kvar då den bidrar till ekonomin och håller nere slitage och oönskade besök i parken.I en enkätundersökning riktad till personalen i parken visas deras syn och åsikter på hur parken påverkats, detta år jämfört med tidigare. Alla är överens om att parken har påverkats, dock inte mycket. Resultatet visade att parkens fysiska miljö påverkats lite, främst genom att nya genvägar och gångstråk över gräsmattor hade bildats. Personalens arbetsuppgifter har inte alls eller påverkats lite av att avgiften tagits bort. Personalens argument för entréavgift är att den hindrar oönskade besök, bidrar till ekonomin, och håller nere slitaget i parken. Arbetet innefattar även en kritisk analys av enkäter och en marknadsundersökning som gjorts av Trädgårdsföreningen i Göteborg. I arbetet diskuteras även ökat besöksantal som mål, parkers hållbarhet och andra problem som kan uppstå vid val av entréavgift.

  • 89.
    Puglisi, Ivana
    et al.
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Catania, Catania, Italy; Dipartimento di Agraria, Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Feo di Vito, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    De Patrizio, Alessandro
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Schena, Leonardo
    Dipartimento di Agraria, Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Feo di Vito, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Jung, Thomas
    Phytophthora Research Center Mendel University, Brno, Czech Republic; Phytophthora Research and Consultancy, Nußdorf, Germany .
    Evoli, Maria
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Pane, Antonella
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Van Hoa, Nguyen
    Southern Horticultural Research Institute, My Tho, Tien Giang, Vietnam.
    Van Tri, Mai
    Southern Horticultural Research Institute, My Tho, Tien Giang, Vietnam.
    Wright, Sandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology.
    Ramstedt, Mauritz
    Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Swedish Agricultural University (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Olsson, Christer
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Faedda, Roberto
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Magnano di San Lio, Gaetano
    Dipartimento di Agraria, Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Feo di Vito, Reggio Calabria, Italy.
    Cacciola, Santa Olga
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Two previously unknown Phytophthora species associated with brown rot of Pomelo (Citrus grandis) fruits in Vietnam2017In: PLoS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 2, article id e0172085Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two distinct Phytophthora taxa were found to be associated with brown rot of pomelo (Citrus grandis), a new disease of this ancestral Citrus species, in the Vinh Long province, Mekong River Delta area, southern Vietnam. On the basis of morphological characters and using the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of the rDNA and the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) as barcode genes, one of the two taxa was provisionally named as Phytophthora sp. prodigiosa, being closely related to but distinct from P. insolita, a species in Phytophthora Clade 9, while the other one, was closely related to but distinct from the Clade 2 species P. meadii and was informally designated as Phytophthora sp. mekongensis. Isolates of P. sp. prodigiosa and P. sp. mekongensis were also obtained from necrotic fibrous roots of Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana) rootstocks grafted with 'King' mandarin (Citrus nobilis) and from trees of pomelo, respectively, in other provinces of the Mekong River Delta, indicating a widespread occurrence of both Phytophthora species in this citrus-growing area. Koch's postulates were fulfilled via pathogenicity tests on fruits of various Citrus species, including pomelo, grapefruit (Citrus x paradisi), sweet orange (Citrus x sinensis) and bergamot (Citrus x bergamia) as well as on the rootstock of 2-year-old trees of pomelo and sweet orange on 'Carrizo' citrange (C. sinensis 'Washington Navel' x Poncirus trifoliata). This is the first report of a Phytophthora species from Clade 2 other than P. citricola and P. citrophthora as causal agent of fruit brown rot of Citrus worldwide and the first report of P. insolita complex in Vietnam. Results indicate that likely Vietnam is still an unexplored reservoir of Phytophthora diversity.

  • 90.
    Rekestad, Emilia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Kolinlagring: Hur kan målet om 4‰ praktiseras inom småskaligt ekologiskt jordbruk i Sverige?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis examines the potential for sequestration of Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) in Sweden based on small-scale agriculture and horticulture. The essay is written from a perspective where climate change has reached a level where it is no longer enough to limit emissions, the earth must in addition serve as a sink for carbon dioxide and thus long-term storage of carbon (IPCC 2014). The initiative of 4 per mille (4 ‰ initiative, 4p1000.org) was initiated during the COP21 climate summit in Paris, which was seen as a step to move to concrete action in the context of agriculture in collaboration with civil society. The initiative is based on the knowledge that terrestrial systems hold far more carbon than the atmosphere, and that plants potential to facilitate carbon sequestration in soil is an underutilized potential in mitigating climate change. An additional and long term carbon storage of 0,04%  annually of the already existing SOC would not only drastically mitigate climate change, but also contribute to increased food security and adaptation to climate change as an increase in SOC means an increase of Soil Organic Matter (SOM), soil health, fertility and resilience.

    Literature studies support an analysis of carbon sequestration as a concept, and serves as a base from which questions related to carbon sequestration in Swedish farmland are formulated. The potential for carbon sequestration in Sweden is examined from the perspective of the 4 ‰ initiative, with a review of methods advocated within the initiative; eg.  cover crops, mulch, no-till/low-till, polyculture, intercropping, crop rotation and succession, agroforestry systems and perennial crops, buffer zones, organic residue amendments and optimized grazing. Relevant methods and concepts such as biochar, conservation agriculture, regenerative agriculture and holistic management are also described. This is complemented with descriptions of four practical examples of horticulture and farming in Sweden in order to anchor the theory into practice. All practitioners have been selected on the basis that they have a conscious desire to promote carbon sequestration in soil. Rather than describing these practitioners solely from the perspective of carbon sequestration, a broader view is presented mirroring the need to address carbon farming from an angle of holistic context and agroecology.

    With the support of scientific references and qualitative interviews, the study highlights the importance of; multifunctional approaches; established root biomass and ground coverage; increased net primary production (NPP) through plant available nitrogen; the potential of biochar as well as mycorrhiza for long term carbon sequestration. The study also highlights the great need for research in Swedish contexts in bringing clarity to questions around soil saturation of SOC in cases when rare methods such as agroforestry are used. Finally, the need for a more radical change within agricultural practices is highlighted as well as the need of support to practitioners who want to explore new regenerative ways of managing soils which promote carbon sequestration, food sovereignty and climate resilience.

  • 91.
    Rutanen, Mira
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Fältdiagnostik - ett verktyg för hållbar odling: Resultat och tillämpning av fältdiagnostiska metoder i planeringsstadiet av en ny trädgårdsblåbärsodling2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This work examines the field diagnostic methods and usability of its results into the planning stage of a new blueberry cultivation. The aim is to determine what information can be obtained from a soil analysis, a penetrometer investigation and a soil profile description as well as the recommendations from these studies that further can be traced back to the planning of a new blueberry cultivation. Examples and case studies used a piece of farmland in Ockelbo, where sample measurements took place.

    The results show that field investigations in combination with a soil analysis done in the laboratory is a good tool to investigate the key elements of soil. The soil analysis shows how the nutrient content looks in the soil as well as any nutrient deficiencies or nutrient surpluses available. The penetrometer investigation informs about probable soil compaction, which represent potential barriers to root growth, which can be a crucial factor for successful cultivation. Soil description shows how the soil is built physically providing an understanding of how it works, which in turn guides the grower to select the correct farming methods. The results also show that soil analyses such Spurway and ammonium lactate method is useful in the planning stage of new cultivations in aim to investigate the nutritional balance of the cultivation soil in order to be able to plan and adapt future nutrition and also to prevent nutrient leakage.

  • 92.
    Rydeberg, Mikaela
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Småbarns skapande i utomhusmiljöer med inspiration av hösten2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 93.
    Shen, Lin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    GIS-based Multi-criteria Analysis for Aquaculture Site Selection2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The pearl oyster Pinctada martensii or Pinctada fucata is the oyster for produce the South China Sea Pearl, and the production of pearl oyster Pinctada martensii plays a key role for the economic and social welfare of the coastal areas. To guarantee both rich and sustainability of providing pearl oyster productions, addressing the suitable areas for aquaculture is a very important consideration in any aquaculture activities. Relatively rarely, in the case of site selection research, the researchers use GIS analysis to identify suitable sites in fishery industry in China. Therefore, I decided to help the local government to search suitable sites form the view of GIS context. This study was conducted to find the optimal sites for suspended culture of pearl oyster Pinctada martensii using GIS-based multi-criteria analysis. The original idea came from the research of Radiarta and his colleagues in 2008 in Japan. Most of the parameters in the GIS model were extracted from remote sensing data (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and Landsat 7). Eleven thematic layers were arranged into three sub-models, namely: biophysical model, social-economic model and constraint model. The biophysical model includes sea surface temperature, chlorophyll-α concentration, suspended sediment concentration and bathymetry. The criteria in the social-economic model are distance to cities and towns and distance to piers. The constraint model was used to exclude the places from the research area where the natural conditions cannot be fulfilled for the development of pearl oyster aquaculture; it contains river mouth, tourism area, harbor, salt fields / shrimp ponds, and non-related water area. Finally those GIS sub-models were used to address the optimal sites for pearl oyster Pinctada martensii culture by using weighted linear combination evaluation. In the final result, suitability levels were arranged from 1 (least suitable) to 8 (most suitable), and about 2.4% of the total potential area had the higher levels (level 6 and 7). These areas were considered to be the places that have the most suitable conditions for pearl oyster Pinctada martensii for costal water of Yingpan.

  • 94.
    Shoshtari, Salahaldin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management.
    DETERMINATION OF FREE STAND-ALONE PHOTOVOLTAIC POTENTIAL IN GERMANY BY GIS-BASED SITE RANKING2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to find potential areas suitable for energy production using renewable sources. For this aim, accurate assessments are necessary. The assessments include geographical suitability, closeness of infrastructure and observing local and regional framework concerning the use of renewable sources together with environmental protection. In addition, economical factor is considered in such an assessment. In this study, the Photovoltaic (PV) production potential for Germany is considered. An accurate and complete data set is necessary in order to achieve reliable results. In addition, a powerful database management and strong analysis tools are required. Geographical Information System (GIS) is a tool for finding suitable sites for the photovoltaic production.Using GIS, energy generation planners are able to visualize solar densities throughout the considered area. In addition, they can find the optimal and most economical sites by the combination of solar potential with the information about land. In this study, data sources consist of meteorological and geographical conditions. Furthermore, all analyses have been performed using Arc GIS Desktop. This study demonstrates the possible places for photovoltaic plants and indicates suitable candidates according to weights and factors in multi criteria analysis. The solar radiation data is from year 1995 to 2005. Land cover data is according to Corine 2000 and the more detailed Raumordnungskataster (Rok) for Weser-Ems. Numerical results are reliable from a comparison point of view. This study demonstrates the sensitivity of the defined criteria with respect to electricity production. In particular, this study is useful to see the capabilities of GIS for site selection regarding photovoltaic plants.The purpose of this study is to find potential areas suitable for energy production using renewable sources. For this aim, accurate assessments are necessary. The assessments include geographical suitability, closeness of infrastructure and observing local and regional framework concerning the use of renewable sources together with environmental protection. In addition, economical factor is considered in such an assessment. In this study, the Photovoltaic (PV) production potential for Germany is considered. An accurate and complete data set is necessary in order to achieve reliable results. In addition, a powerful database management and strong analysis tools are required. Geographical Information System (GIS) is a tool for finding suitable sites for the photovoltaic production.Using GIS, energy generation planners are able to visualize solar densities throughout the considered area. In addition, they can find the optimal and most economical sites by the combination of solar potential with the information about land. In this study, data sources consist of meteorological and geographical conditions. Furthermore, all analyses have been performed using Arc GIS Desktop. This study demonstrates the possible places for photovoltaic plants and indicates suitable candidates according to weights and factors in multi criteria analysis. The solar radiation data is from year 1995 to 2005. Land cover data is according to Corine 2000 and the more detailed Raumordnungskataster (Rok) for Weser-Ems. Numerical results are reliable from a comparison point of view. This study demonstrates the sensitivity of the defined criteria with respect to electricity production. In particular, this study is useful to see the capabilities of GIS for site selection regarding photovoltaic plants.

  • 95.
    Stenvi, Linus
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    Plugg för brevinkast2008Student paper second term, 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish authority Post och telestyrelsen PTS has made a recommendation that all letterboxes on doors should be replaced by postboxes from the first of January 2011. This recommendation is going

    to make the letterboxes on the doors unnecessary. Some people want to replace the letterbox on their door so that they will have more silent and safe environment in their home.

    With this project, the goal was to find at least one good solution for this problem; a solution wich would cost less money than to change the whole door to a safety door.

    Some different methods have been used to find ides and a lot of alternatives have came up. The most suitable solution was chosen with the help of some methods. This solution was tested if it would work in reality.

  • 96. Strokirch, Svante von
    et al.
    Wallström, Kerstin
    University of Gävle, Department of Mathematics, Natural and Computer Sciences, Ämnesavdelningen för naturvetenskap.
    Botanisk mångfald i Lövstabukten2008In: Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-646X, Vol. 102, no 3-4, p. 135-146Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The bay of Lövstabukten is located in northern Uppland, E Sweden. Land uplift is c. 6 mm per year and strongly influences the landscape, giving rise to expanding seashores and the gradual transformation of shallow water bodies into lakes. The various habitats that are formed give rise to a diversified flora. The vegetation is also favoured by the calcareous moraine. We describe the plant communities on the shores and on soft bottoms in the bay. Several notable species have been found of which 13 are redlisted. It is notable that all 9 charophytes that have been found in the Bothnian Sea are present in Lövstabukten. We conclude that because of its high natural values, the Lövstabukten area must be protected.

  • 97.
    Sundin, Anton
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Från mästare till kommunalarbetare: En undersökning om trädgårdsmästaryrkets status- och kompetensförändring under perioden 1920-19552014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study of literature from the period 1920-1955 has shown that the profession of gardeners in Sweden went through several structural changes in the early and midst 20th century. The gardeners knowledge, which used to cover the whole horticultural spectra, was due to that no longer appreciated or useful. Prior the 1920’s the gardeners, especially the skilled craftsmen working for the upper-classes, were the ones who led progression in the horticultural field forward and their qualifications were many and diverse. Due to many factors, such as low economic and social status, functionalistic style and the fact that the branch were rationalized and modernized in general, lead up to a point where the gardener of old no longer fitted in, in the much more globalized and modern world of the 1950’s. 

  • 98.
    Svensson, Marie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Kollektiva odlingar i en föränderlig värld. Varför odlar vi tillsammans?- en studie av det kollektiva landsbygdsexemplet; Tillsammansodlingen i Bottna2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete analyserar och exemplifierar initiativ för att skapa hållbara kollektiva odlingar på landsbygd. Arbetet undersöker hållbarhetsbegreppet och fördjupar sig i frågan om vad hållbara jordbruks- och livsmedelssystem kan vara. Främst studeras alternativa kollektiva odlingsmodeller som strävar efter att sammanföra konsument och producent, framförallt via CSA-kooperativ, Community-Supported-Agriculture. Även begreppet Civic Agriculture, CA, uppmärksammas då det beskriver ett odlingsengagemang som går bortom de enskilda kooperativen. CA innebär ett förhållningssätt och agerande som verkar för lokalt hållbara livsmedels- och jordbrukssystem, och som utgår från den lokala platsens behov och förutsättningar med hänsyn till dess ekologiska- och socioekonomiska kontext där den passiva konsumenten istället blir en aktiv ”matmedborgare”.

    I arbetet framkommer det att långsiktigt hållbarhetsarbete behöver få utgå från varje enskild människas situation, och baseras på lust. För att människor ska förändra sin livsstil så behöver omställningsarbetet ta sin utgångspunkt i det ”sinnliga och det synliga.” Relationer behöver skapas mellan människor och deras omgivning för att en fördjupad miljöförståelse ska uppstå.

    Hållbar utveckling handlar om faktisk omställning utifrån konkreta platser, i människors vardag, i deras lokala boendeområden. Samhällsplaneringen kan antingen underlätta eller motverka de lokala miljöinitiativ som kommer från medborgarna själva. I arbetet argumenteras det för att Planeraren bör ta sin utgångspunkt från periferins perspektiv för att lokalområdet ska stärkas utifrån de livsformer som existerar inom den aktuella landsbygden.

    Det platsspecifika exemplet utgår från den nystartade kollektivodlingen, Tillsammansodlingen i den bohuslänska kulturbygden Bottna. Syftet med medlemmarnas delaktighet visar sig vara ett engagemang för en hållbar omställning av lokalområdet genom att tillsammans odla bygdens mark och stärka den sociala samverkan på landsbygden.

    Sammanfattningsvis går det att säga att den kollektiva Tillsammansodlingen ingår i en global framväxande ”ny generations” odlingsrörelse som ifrågasätter långa livsmedelskedjor och uttrycker kritik mot bristen på kontakt med grödornas ursprung. Istället strävar de nya odlingsrörelserna efter bättre produktionsvillkor, ett vidare miljöengagemang, och sammanförande av producent och konsument där ekologisk och social hållbarhet utvecklas utifrån sina unika lokalområden.

  • 99.
    Tavakoli, Saman
    University of Gävle, Department of Technology and Built Environment.
    Construction of a solid 3D model of geology in Sardinia using GIS methods2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    3D visualization of geological structures is a very efficient way to create a good understanding of geological features. It is not only an illustrative way for common people, but also a comprehensive method to interpret results of the work. Geologists, geophysics engineers and GIS experts sometimes need to visualize an area to accomplish their researches. It can show how sample data are distributed over the area and therefore they can be applied as suitable approach to validate the result. Among different 3D modeling methods, some are expensive or complicated. Therefore, such a methodology enabling easy and cheap creation of a 3D construction is highly demanded.

    However, several obstacles have been faced during the process of constructing a 3D model of geology. The main debate over suitable interpolation methods is the fact that 3D modelers may face discrepancies leading to different results even when they are working with the same set of data. Furthermore, most often part of data can be source of errors, themselves. Hence, it is extremely important to decide whether to omit those data or adopt another strategy. However, even after considering all these points, still the work may not be accurate enough to be used for scientific researches if the interpretation of work is not done precisely. This research sought to explain an approach for 3D modeling of Sedini platform in Sardinia, Italy. GIS was used as a flexible software together with Surfer and Voxler. Data manipulation, geodatabase creation and interpolation test all have been done with aid of GIS. A variety of interpolation methods available in Surfer were used to opt suitable method together with Arc view.

    A solid 3D model is created in Voxler environment. In Voxler, in contrary to many other 3D types of software there are four components needed to construct 3D. C value as 4th component except for XYZ coordinates was used to differentiate special features in platform and do gridding based on chosen value. With the aid of C value, one can mark layer of interest to identify it from other layers.

    The final result shows a 3D solid model of the Sedini platform including both surfaces and subsurfaces. An Isosurface with its unique value (Isovalue) can mark layer of interest and make it easy to interpret the results. However, the errors in some parts of model are also noticeable. Since data acquisition was done for studying geology and mineralogy characteristics of the area, there is less number of data points collected per volume according to the main goals of the initial project. Moreover, in some parts of geological border lines, the density of sample points is not high enough to estimate accurate location of lines.

    The study result can be applicable in a broad range of geological studies. Resource evaluation, geomorphology, structural geology and GIS are only a few examples of its application. The results of the study can be compared to the results of similar works where different softwares have been used so as to comprehend pros and cons of each as well as appropriate application of each software for a special task.

     

     

    Keywords: GIS, Image Interpretation, Geodatabase, Geology, Interpolation, 3D Modeling

     

     

     

  • 100.
    Wallby, Kajsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Trädgårdsterapi inom kriminalvården: en möjlighet för Sverige?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the possible design of a horticultural therapy program in Swedish correctional treatment facilities. In the USA the use of horticultural therapy in offender rehabilitation is much more frequent compared with Sweden. The aim of these programs typically contains education for inmates. Research has been made indicating that these programs can have positive effects on psychosocial behavior and on vulnerability to substance abuse among incarcerated offenders. In this study the examples of these programs was categorized and analyzed from three perspectives; Vocational, social and therapeutic horticultural programs. This information, combined with knowledge on the Swedish correctional treatment system, their clients, and information on therapeutic horticulture used in the rehabilitation garden at Alnarp in Sweden, was the information used when discussing a possible design of a horticultural therapy program in Swedish prisons and jails. The gathered information resulted in a hypothetical theory concluding that instead of having separate activities for work, education and substance abuse treatment, horticultural therapy can combine these three components and meet many of the needs that inmates have.

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